Wild Cultures

A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures

How do chimpanzees say, 'I want to have sex with you?' By clipping a leaf or knocking on a tree trunk? How do they eat live aggressive ants? By using a short stick with one hand or long stick with both? Ivorian and Tanzanian chimpanzees answer these questions differently, as would humans from France and China if asked how they eat rice. Christophe Boesch takes readers into the lives of chimpanzees from different African regions, highlighting the debate about culture. His ethnography reveals how simple techniques have evolved into complex ones, how teaching styles differ, how material culture widens access to new food sources and how youngsters learn culture. This journey reveals many parallels between humans and chimpanzees and points to striking differences. Written in a vivid and accessible style, Wild Cultures places the reader in social and ecological contexts that shed light on our twin cultures.


 Reviews:

"We have long been searching for the key to answering the question: "What makes us human?" In this fascinating and engaging book, Boesch asks if the answer is 'Culture'. He takes us along on his journey, sharing his discoveries of the amazing abilities of wild chimpanzees, for example in collaborating in hunting monkeys and in communicating symbolically with natural gestures. Chapter to chapter, weaving together methods and findings from anthropology, comparative biology, ecology, comparative psychology, and evolution, Boesch synthesizes current knowledge of the psychology of wild and captive chimpanzees with current knowledge of the psychology of humans from diverse cultures. We arrive at a compelling new understanding of the diversity and influence of 'wild cultures'. With this book, Boesch has provided my developmental comparative psychology students, laypeople, and chimpanzee enthusiasts with greater insight into what makes us human, and what makes chimpanzees uniquely themselves."
Professor Kim A. Bard, Director of the Centre for Comparative and Evolutionary Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, UK

"A sustained and compelling argument for the ethnography of animal societies. With simple logic, decades of ethological data, and many well-chosen examples, Boesch masterfully skewers numerous recent claims of human uniqueness by "hardcore experimental psychologists": contrary to theoretical fashions, chimpanzees cooperate, display altruistic behaviour, invent symbols, and adhere to cultural conventions; none of these are uniquely human characteristics. Better than any other single source, Boesch analyses the deep causes of apparently divergent findings from the laboratory and the wild--nobody interested in comparative cognition should ignore this book. This is a frank, balanced evaluation of studies with apes, both in the wild and in captivity. Theoretical dogmas are shattered against the rocks of his decades of systematic data on wild chimpanzees from across the African continent. Should be required reading for every philosopher and experimental psychologist, and will enrich anybody interested in culture, cognition, and chimpanzees."
David A. Leavens, PhD, University of Sussex

"It is hard to imagine a better guide to chimpanzee culture than Christophe Boesch, who for decades has followed these apes in the tropical forest. The author lays out the culture question in all of its richness without any of the anthropocentrism usually surrounding this issue. The result is a highly satisfactory first-hand account of how wild chimpanzees shape their own environment and society."
Frans de Waal, author of "The Age of Empathy"

"This work serves as a comprehensive chimpanzee ethnography that focuses on the increasing diversity of cultural behaviors observed and reported among chimpanzee populations; these, in turn, then become the basis for comparison with, and evaluation of, human culture. This well-written, well-documented book is a significant contribution to evolutionary anthropology. Highly recommended."
R.A. Delgado Jr., University of Southern California for Choice Magazine

'Remarkable findings …' Times Literary Supplement

'This work serves as a comprehensive chimpanzee ethnography that focuses on the increasing diversity of cultural behaviors observed and reported among chimpanzee populations; these, in turn, then become the basis for comparison with, and evaluation of, human culture. This well-written, well-documented book is a significant contribution to evolutionary anthropology. Highly recommended.' R. A. Delgado, Jr, Choice

Reference Type: notes

1952

Reference Type: notes

1999

Reference Type: reference-list

Alexander, R.1974The evolution of social behaviorAnnual Review of Ecology and Systematics5325
Allen, C.2004Is anyone a cognitive ethologist?Biology and Philosophy19587
Allen, C.Bekoff, M.2007Animal minds, cognitive ethology, and ethicsThe Journal of Ethics11299
Allen, C.Hauser, M.1991Concept attribution in nonhuman animals: theoretical and methodological problems in ascribing complex mental processesPhilosophy of Science58221
Altmann, S.Altmann, J.1970Baboon ecology: African field researchChicago, ILUniversity of Chicago Press
Alvard, M.2003The adaptive nature of cultureEvolutionary Anthropology12136
Ambrose, S.2001Paleolithic technology and human evolutionScience2911748
Ambrose, S.2010Coevolution of composite-tool technology, constructive memory and languageCurrent Anthropology51135
Anderson, J.2011A primatological perspective on deathAmerican Journal of Primatology73410
Anderson, J.Gillies, A.Lock, L.2010Pan thanatologyCurrent Biology20R349
Arnett, J.2008The neglected 85%: why American psychology needs to become less AmericanAmerican Psychologist63602
Assersohn, C.Whiten, A.Kiwede, Z.Tinka, J.Karamagi, J.2004Use of leaves to inspect ectoparasites in wild chimpanzees: a third cultural variant?Primates45255
Astington, J.Baird, J.2004Why language matters for theory of mindInternational Society for the Study of Behavioural Development Newsletter457
Atkinson, Q.2011Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from AfricaScience332346
Atran, S.Medin, D.Ross, N.2005The cultural mind: environmental decision making and cultural modeling within and across populationsPsychological Review112744
Aunger, R.1994Are food avoidances maladaptive in the Ituri forest of Zaire?Journal of Anthropology Resources50277
Aunger, R.1996Acculturalization and the persistence of indigenous food avoidances in the Ituri forest, ZaireHuman Organization55206
Aureli, F.Schaffner, C.Boesch, C.2008Fission–fusion dynamics: new research frameworksCurrent Anthropology49627
Avis, J.Harris, P.1991Belief-desire reasoning among Baka Children: evidence for a universal conception of mindChild Development62460
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.Ijzendoorn, M.Juffer, F.2008Earlier is better: a meta-analysis of 70 years of intervention improving cognitive development in institutionalized childrenMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development73279
Bania, A.Harris, S.Kinsley, H.Boysen, S.2009Constructive and deconstructive tool modification by chimpanzees ()Animal Cognition1285
Bard, K.Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.Tomonaga, M.2005Group differences in the mutual gaze of chimpanzees ()Developmental Psychology41616
Bard, K.Brent, L.Lester, B.Worobey, J.Suomi, S.2011Neurobehavioral integrity of chimpanzee newborns: comparisons across groups and across species reveal gene–environment interaction effectsInfant and Child Development2047
Barnard, A.2000History and theory in anthropologyCambridgeCambridge University Press
Barnard, A.2011Social anthropology and human originsCambridgeCambridge University Press
Baron-Cohen, S.1999The descent of mindCorballis, M.Lea, S.OxfordOxford University Press
Barret, C.Behne, T.2005Children’s understanding of death as the cessation of agency: a test using sleep versus deathCognition9693
Barrett, L.Henzi, P.Rendall, D.2007Social brains, simple minds: does social complexity really require cognitive complexityPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society362561
Barth, J.Reaux, J.Povinelli, D.2005Chimpanzees’ () use of gaze cues in object-choice tasks: different methods yield different resultsAnimal Cognition884
Bates, L.Byrne, R.2010Imitation: what animal imitation tells use about animal cognitionCognitive Sciences1685
Baumard, N.2010Has punishment played a role in the evolution of cooperation? A critical reviewMind and Society9171
Beaune, S.2004The invention of technology: prehistory and cognitionCurrent Anthropology45139
Bekoff, M.2004Wild justice and fair play: cooperation, forgiveness, and morality in animalsBiology and Philosophy19489
Bekoff, M.Townsend, S. E.Jamieson, D.1994Beyond monkey minds: towards a richer cognitive ethologyBehavioral and Brain Sciences17571
Berry, J.Poortinga, Y.Segall, M.Dasen, P.2002Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applicationsCambridgeCambridge University Press
Biro, D.Inoue-Nakamura, N.Tonooka, R.2003Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees: evidence from field experimentsAnimal Cognition6213
Biro, D.Humle, T.Koops, K.2010Chimpanzee mothers at Bossou, Guinea, carry the mummified remains of their dead infantsCurrent Biology20352
Boesch, C.1991Teaching in wild chimpanzeesAnimal Behaviour41530
Boesch, C.1991Symbolic communication in wild chimpanzees?Human Evolution681
Boesch, C.1991The effect of leopard predation on grouping patterns in forest chimpanzeesBehaviour117220
Boesch, C.1992New elements of a theory of mind in wild chimpanzeesBehavioral and Brain Sciences15149
Boesch, C.1993Tools, language and intelligence: Evolutionary implicationsGibson, K.Ingold, T.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Boesch, C.1993Toward a new image of culture in chimpanzeesBehavioral and Brain Sciences16514
Boesch, C.1994Chimpanzees–red colobus: a predator–prey systemAnimal Behaviour471135
Boesch, C.1994Cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzeesAnimal Behaviour48653
Boesch, C.1995Innovation in wild chimpanzeesInternational Journal of Primatology161
Boesch, C.1996Reaching into thoughtRusson, A.Bard, K.Parker S.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Boesch, C.2002Cooperative hunting roles among Taï chimpanzeesHuman Nature1327
Boesch, C.2003Is culture a golden barrier between human and chimpanzee?Evolutionary Anthropology1226
Boesch, C.2007What makes us human ()? The challenge of cognitive cross-species comparisonJournal of Comparative Psychology121227
Boesch, C.2008Imaginative scrub-jays, causal rooks, and a liberal application of Occam’s aftershaveBehavioral and Brain Sciences31134
Boesch, C.2009Comparative social cognitionAnnual Review of Psychology6087
Boesch, C.2009The real chimpanzees: Sex strategies in the forestCambridgeCambridge University Press
Boesch, C.2012Tool use in animals: Cognition and ecologySanz, C.Call, J.Boesch, C.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Boesch, C.2012The Oxford handbook of culture and psychologyNew York, NYOxford University Press
Boesch, C.Boesch, H.1981Sex differences in the use of natural hammers by wild chimpanzees: a preliminary reportJournal of Human Evolution10585
Boesch, C.Boesch, H.1983Optimization of nut-cracking with natural hammers by wild chimpanzeesBehaviour83265
Boesch, C.Boesch, H.1984Mental map in wild chimpanzees: an analysis of hammer transports for nut crackingPrimates25160
Boesch, C.Boesch, H.1984Possible causes of sex differences in the use of natural hammers by wild chimpanzeesJournal of Human Evolution13415
Boesch, C.Boesch, H.1989Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Taï National ParkAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology78547
Boesch, C.Boesch, H.1990Tool use and tool making in wild chimpanzeesFolia Primatologica5486
Boesch, C.Boesch-Achermann, H.2000The chimpanzees of the Taï Forest: Behavioural ecology and evolutionOxfordOxford University Press
Boesch, C.Tomasello, M.1998Chimpanzee and human culturesCurrent Anthropology39591
Boesch, C.Marchesi, P.Marchesi, N.Fruth, B.Joulian, F.1994Is nut cracking in wild chimpanzees a cultural behaviour?Journal of Human Evolution26325
Boesch, C.Uehara, S.Ihobe, H.2002Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobosBoesch, C.Hohmann, G.Marchant, L.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Boesch, C.Crockford, C.Herbinger, I.2008Intergroup conflicts among chimpanzees in Taï National Park: lethal violence and the female perspectiveAmerican Journal of Primatology701
Boesch, C.Head, J.Robbins, M.2009Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, GabonJournal of Human Evolution56560
Boesch, C.Bolé, C.Eckhardt, N.Boesch, H.2010Altruism in chimpanzees: the case of adoptionPLoS One58901
Boesch, E.1991Symbolic action theory and cultural psychologyBerlin/New YorkSpringer
Boesch, E.2003Why does Sally never call Bobby “I”?Culture and Psychology9287
Boesch-Achermann, H.Boesch, C.1994Hominization in the rainforest: the chimpanzee’s piece of the puzzleEvolutionary Anthropology39
Bogart, S.Pruetz, J.2008Ecological context of savanna chimpanzee () termite fishing at Fongoli, SenegalAmerican Journal of Primatology70605
Bogart, S.Pruetz, J.2011Insectivory of savanna chimpanzees () at Fongoli, SenegalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology14511
Bonner, J.1980The evolution of culture in animalsPrinceton, NJPrinceton University Press
Bowles, S.Gintis, H.2002Nature415125
Boyd, R.2006The puzzle of human socialityScience3141555
Boyd, R.Richerson, P.1985Culture and the evolutionary processChicago, ILThe University of Chicago Press
Boyd, R.Richerson, P.1996Evolution of social behaviour patterns in primates and manRunciman, W.Maynard-Smith, J.Dunbar, R.LondonBritish Academy
Bradsley, N.2008Dictator game giving: altruism or artifact?Experimental Economy11122
Bratman, M.1992Shared cooperative activityThe Philosophical Review101327
Bratman, M.2009Modest sociality and the distinctiveness of intentionPhilosophical Studies144149
Brauer, J.Call, J.Tomasello, M.2007Chimpanzees really know what others can see in a competitive situationAnimal Cognition10439
Brent, L.Bloomsmith, M.Fisher, S.1995Factors determining tool-using ability in two captive chimpanzee () coloniesPrimates36265
Brill, B.Roux, V.2003Comments to Stout, D. 2003. Skill and cognition in stone tool production: an ethnographic case study from Irian JayaCurrent Anthropology43715
Broesch, T.Callaghan, T.Henrich, J.Murphy, C.Rochat, P.2011Cultural variations in children’s mirror self-recognitionJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology421019
Brown, P.Levinson, S.2000Culture, thought and developmentNucci, L.Saxe, G.Turiel, E.167New York, NYErlbaum
Brunet, M.Beauvilain, A.Coppens, Y.1995The first australopithecine 2500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad)Nature378273
Buchsbaum, D.Gopnik, A.Griffiths, T.Shafto, P.2011Children’s imitation of causal action sequences is influenced by statistical and pedagogical evidenceCognition120331
Buffon, G.1762Natural history: The history of man and quadrupedsParisImprimerie Royale
Bugnyar, T.Heinrich, B.2005Ravens, , differentiate between knowledgeable and ignorant competitorsProceedings of the Royal Society, Series B2721641
Bugnyar, T.Heinrich, B.2006Pilfering ravens, , adjust their behaviour to social context and identity of competitorsAnimal Cognition9369
Bugnyar, T.Kotrschal, K.2002Observational learning and the raiding of food caches in ravens, : is it “tactical” deception?Animal Behaviour64185
Bugnyar, T.Schwab, C.Schloegl, C.Kotrschal, K.Heinrich, B.2007Ravens judge competitors through experience with play cachingCurrent Biology171804
Bulloch, M.Boysen, S.Furlong, E.2008Visual attention and its relation to knowledge states in chimpanzees, Animal Behaviour761147
Busse, C.1977Chimpanzee predation as a possible factor in the evolution of red colobus monkey social organizationEvolution31907
Busse, C.1978Do chimpanzees hunt cooperatively?American Naturalist112767
Butterfill, S.2012Joint action and developmentPhilosophical Quarterly6223
Byrne, R.2007Culture in great apes: using intricate complexity in feeding skills to trace the evolutionary origin of human technical prowessPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society362:577
Byrne, R.Russon, A.1998Learning by imitation: a hierarchical approachBehavioral and Brain Sciences21667
Caldwell, C.Whiten, A.2002Evolutionary perspectives on imitation: is a comparative psychology of social learning possible?Animal Cognition5193
Call, J.2009Contrasting the social cognition of humans and nonhuman apes: the shared intentionality hypothesisTrends in Cognitive Science1368
Call, J.Tomasello, M.2008Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years laterTrends in Cognitive Sciences12187
Call, J.Hare, B.Tomasello, M.1998Chimpanzee gaze following in an object choice taskAnimal Cognition189
Call, J.Carpenter, M.Tomasello, M.2005Copying results and copying actions in the process of social learning: chimpanzees () and human children ()Animal Cognition8151
Callaghan, T.Rochat, P.Lillard, A.2005Synchrony in the onset of mental-state reasoningPsychological Science16378
Campbell, G.Kuehl, H.N’Goran, P.Boesch, C.2008Alarming decline of West African chimpanzees in Côte d’IvoireCurrent Biology18903
Campbell, G.Kuehl, H.Diarrassouba, A.N’Goran, P.Boesch, C.2011Long-term research sites as refugia for threatened and over-harvested speciesBiology Letters7723
Canale, G.Guidorizzi, C.Kierulff, M.Gatto, C.2009First record of tool use by wild populations of the Yellow-Breasted Capuchin moneys () and new records for the bearded capuchin ()American Journal of Primatology71366
Caro, T.Hauser, M.1992Is there teaching in nonhuman animals?Quaterly Review of Biology67151
Carpendale, J.Lewis, C.2004Constructing an understanding of mind: the development of children’s social understanding within social interactionBehavioral and Brain Sciences2779
Carpenter, M.2009Just how joint is joint action in infancy?Topics in Cognitive Science1380
Carruthers, P.Smith, P.1996Theories of theories of mindCambridgeCambridge University Press
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.Feldman, M.W.1981Cultural transmission and evolution: A quantitative approachPrinceton, NJPrinceton University Press
Cavalli-Sforza, L.Feldman, M.Chen, K.Dornbusch, S.1982Theory and observation in cultural transmissionScience21819
Chalmeau, R.1994Do chimpanzees cooperate in a learning task?Primates35385
Chalmeau, R.Gallo, A.1996Cooperation in primates: critical analysis of behavioural criteriaBehavioural Processes35101
Cheney, D.Seyfarth, R.1990How monkeys see the world: Inside the mind of another speciesChicago, ILChicago University Press
Cheney, D.Seyfarth, R.2007Baboon metaphysics: The evolution of a social mindChicago, IL:The University of Chicago Press
Clark, M.2002In search of human natureLondonRoutledge
Collard, I.Foley, R.2004Latitudinal patterns and environmental determinants of recent human cultural diversity: do humans follow biogeographical rules?Evolutionary Ecology Research4371
Collins, A.McGrew, W.1987Termite fauna related to differences in tool-use between groups of chimpanzees ()Primates28457
Coppens Y.1983Le singe, l’Afrique et l’HommeParisFayard
Corp, N.Byrne, R.2002The ontogeny of manual skill in wild chimpanzees: evidence from feeding on the fruit of Behaviour139137
Corp, N.Hayaki, H.Matsusaka, T.2009Prevalence of muzzle-rubbing and hand-rubbing behavior in wild chimpanzees in Mahale Mountains National Park, TanzaniaPrimates50184
Correla, S.Dickinson, A.Clayton, N.2007Western scrub-jays anticipate future needs independently of their current motivational stateCurrent Biology17856
Corriveau, K.Harris, P.2009Choosing your informant: weighing familiarity and recent accuracyDevelopmental Science12426
Crawford, M. P.1937The cooperative solving of problems by young chimpanzeesComparative Psychology Monographs141
Cronk, L.Chagnon, N.Irons, W.2000Adaptation and human behavior: An anthropological perspectiveNew York, NYAldine De Gruyter
Csibra, G.2007Teachers in the wildTrends in Cognitive Sciences1195
Csibra, G.Gergely, G.2009Natural pedagogyTrends in Cognitive Sciences13148
Csibra, G.Gergely, G.2011Natural pedagogy as evolutionary adaptationPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B3661149
Cutting, A.Dunn, J.1999Theory of mind, emotion understanding, language and family background: individual differences and interrelationsChild Development70853
Dally, J.Emery, N.Clayton, N.2006Food-caching scrub-jays keep track of who was watching whenScience3121662
Dana, J.Cain, D.Dawes, R.2006What you don’t know won’t hurt me: costly (but quiet) exit in dictator gamesOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes100193
Dart, R.1925, the man-ape of South AfricaNature115195
Dasen, P. R.1982Regressions in mental development: Basic phenomena and theoriesBever, T.Hillsdale, NJLawrence Erlbaum Associates
Dasen, P. R.Inhelder, B.Lavallée, M.Reitschitzki, J.1978La naissance de l’intelligence chez Penfant Baoule de Côte d’lvoireBerneHans Huber
Davenport, R.Rogers, C.1970The chimpanzeeBaltimore, MDUniversity Park Press
Davenport, R.Rogers, C.Rumbaugh, D.1973Long-term cognitive deficits in chimpanzees associated with early impoverished rearingDevelopmental Psychology9343
Deblauwe, I.Guislan, P.Dupain, J.van Elsacker, L.2006Use of a tool-set by to obtain termites () in the periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Southeast CameroonAmerican Journal of Primatology681191
de León, L.1994Exploration in the acquisition of geocentric location by Tzotzil childrenLinguistics32857
Douglas-Hamilton, I.DouglasHamilton, O.1975Life among the elephantsNew York, NYWythan Publications Ltd
Draper, P.1976Kalahari hunter–gatherers: Studies of the !Kung San and their neighborsLee, R.B.DeVore, I.Cambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Duffy, K.1984The children of the forest: Africa’s Mbuti pygmiesProspect Heights, NY:Waveland Press
Durham, W.1991Coevolution: Genes, culture and human diversityStanford, CAStanford University Press
Durham, W.2001Effects of experience and social context on prospective caching strategies by scrub jaysNature414443
Fashing, P.Nguyen, N.Barry, T.2011Death among Geladas (): a broader perspective on mummified infants and primate thanatologyAmerican Journal of Primatology73405
Fay, M.Carroll, R.1994Chimpanzee tool use for honey and termite extraction in Central AfricaAmerican Journal of Primatology34309
Fehr, E.Fischbacher, U.2003The nature of human altruismNature425785
Fehr, E.Gächter, S.2002Altruistic punishment in humansNature415137
Fitch, T.Huber, L.Bugnyar, T.2010Social cognition and the evolution of language: constructing cognitive phylogeniesNeuron65795
Ford, J.1962A quantitative method for deriving cultural chronologyPan American UnionTechnical Bulletin
Fragaszy, D.2003Making space for traditionsEvolutionary Anthropology1261
Fragaszy, D.Kennedy, E.Murnane, A.2009Navigating two-dimensional mazes: chimpanzees () and capuchins ( sp.) profit from experience differentlyAnimal Cognition12491
Franks, N.Richardson, T.2006Teaching in tandem-running antsNature439153
Frith, C.2007Making up the mind: How the brain creates our mental worldOxfordBlackwell Publishing
Furlong, E.Boose, K.Boysen, S.2008Raking it in: the impact of enculturation on chimpanzee tool useAnimal Cognition1183
Gächter, S.Herrmann, B.Thöni, C.2010Culture and cooperationPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society3652651
Galat-Luong, A.Galat, G.2000Chimpanzees and baboons drink filtrated waterFolia Primatologica71258
Galef, B.1988Social learning: Psychological and biological perspectives(Zentall, T.R.Galef, B.G.Hillsdale, NJLawrence Erlbaum
Galef, B.1992The question of animal cultureHuman Nature3157
Galef, B.2004Approaches to the study of traditional behaviors of free-living animalsLearning and Behavior3253
Gardner, B.Gardner, R.1989Prelinguistic development of children and chimpanzeesHuman Evolution4433
Gardner, R.2005Animal cognition meets evo-devoBehavior and Brain Sciences28699
Gardner, R.2008Comparative intelligence and intelligent comparisonsBehavior and Brain Sciences31135
Gardner, R.Gardner, B.1969Teaching sign language to a chimpanzeeScience165664
Gergely, G.Bekkering, H.Kiraly, I.2002Rational imitation in preverbal infantsNature415755
Gibson, R.M.Hoglund, J1992Copying and sexual selectionTrends in Ecology and Evolution7229
Gilby, I.2006Meat sharing among the Gombe chimpanzees: harassment and reciprocal exchangeAnimal Behaviour71953
Gilby, I.Wrangham, R.2007Risk-prone hunting by chimpanzees () increases during periods of high diet qualityBehavior Ecology and Sociobiology611771
Gilby, I.Thompson, E.Ruane, J.Wrangham, R.2010No evidence of short-term exchange of meat for sex among chimpanzeesJournal of Human Evolution5944
Gintis, H.Bowles, S.Boyd, R.Fehr, E.2003Explaining altruistic behavior in humansEvolution and Human Behavior24153
Gomes, C.Boesch, C.2009Wild chimpanzees exchange meat for sex on a long-term basisPLoS One4e5116
Gomes, C.Boesch, C.2011Reciprocity and trades in wild West African chimpanzeesBehavioral Ecology and Sociobiology652183
Goodall, J.1963Feeding behaviour of wild chimpanzees: a preliminary reportSymposium of the Zoological Society, London1039
Goodall, J.1964Tool-using and aimed throwing in a community of free-living chimpanzeesNature2011264
Goodall, J.1968Behaviour of free-living chimpanzees of the Gombe Stream areaAnimal Behaviour Monograph1163
Goodall, J.1986The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behaviorCambridgeThe Belknap Press of Havard University Press
Goodrich, G.Allen, C.2007Conditioned anti-anthropomorphismComparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews2147
Gopnik, A.Meltzoff, A.1994Self-awareness in animals and humansParker, S.Mitchell, R.Boccia, M.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Greenfield, P.2009Linking social change and developmental change: shifting pathways of human developmentDevelopmental Psychology45401
Greenfield, P.Maynard, A.Childs, C.2003Historical change, cultural learning, and cognitive representation in Zinacantec Maya childrenCognitive Development18455
Greenfield, P.Keller, H.Fuligni, A.Maynard, A.2003Cultural pathways through universal developmentAnnual Review of Psychology54461
Gruber, T.Muller, M.Strimling, P.Wrangham, R.Zuberbuehler, K.2009Wild chimpanzees rely on cultural knowledge to solve an experimental honey acquisition taskCurrent Biology191
Guala, F.2005The methodology of experimental economicsCambridgeCambridge University Press
Guala, F.2012Reciprocity: weak or strong? What punishment experiments do (and do not) demonstrateBehavioral and Brain Sciences351
Hala, S.Chandler, M.1996The role of strategic planning in accessing false-belief understandingChild Development672948
Hanus, D.Call, J.2008Chimpanzees infer the location of a reward on the basis of the effect of its weightCurrent Biology18R370
Hare, B.Call, J.Agnetta, B.Tomasello, M.2000Chimpanzees know what conspecific do and do not seeAnimal Behaviour59771
Hare, B.Call, J.Tomasello, M.2001Do chimpanzees know what conspecifics know?Animal Behaviour61139
Hare, B.Brown, M.Williamson, C.Tomasello, M.2002The domestication of social cognition in dogsScience2981634
Hare, B.Call, J.Tomasello, M.2006Chimpanzees deceive a human competitor by hidingCognition101495
Harlow, H.Harlow, M.1962Social deprivation in monkeysScientific American207136
Harris, P.Corriveau, K.2011Young children’s selective trust in informantsPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B3661179
Harrison, G. W.List, J. A.2004Field experimentsJournal of Economic Literature421009
Hart, D.Karmel, M.1996Reaching into thought: The minds of the great apesRusson, A.Bard, K.Parker, S.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Hart, D.Sussman, R.2005Man the hunted. Primates, predators and human evolutionNew York, NYWestview Press
Hatley, T.Kappelman, J.1980Bears, pigs, and Plio-Pleistocene hominids: a case for the exploitation of belowground food resourcesHuman Ecology8371
Haun, D.Rapold, C.Call, J.Janzen, G.Levinson, S.2006Evolutionary psychology of spatial representations in the HominidaeCurrent Biology161736
Hauser, M.2000Wild minds: What animals really thinkNew York, NYHenry Holt
Hauser, M.2006Moral minds: The nature of right and wrongNew York, NYHarperCollins
Hauser, M.2009The possibility of impossible culturesNature460190
Hawkes, K.Paine, R.2006The evolution of human life historySanta Fe, NMSchool of American Research Press
Henrich, J.Boyd, R.Bowles, S.2001In search of : behavioural experiments in 15 small-scale societiesAmerican Economics Review9173
Henrich, J.Ensminger, J.Boyd, R.2005“Economic man” in cross-cultural perspective: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societiesBehavioral and Brain Sciences28795
Henrich, J.McElreath, R.Barr, A.2006Costly punishment across human societiesScience3121767
Henrich, J.Ensminger, J.McElreath, R.2010Markets, religion, community size and the evolution of fairness and punishmentScience3271480
Henrich, J.Heine, S.Norenzayan, A.2010The weirdest people in the world?Behavioral and Brain Sciences3361
Hernandez-Aguilar, A.Moore, J.Pickering, T.2007Savanna chimpanzees use tools to harvest the underground storage organs of plantsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences10419210
Herrmann, E.Call, J.Hernandez-Lloreda, M.Hare, B.Tomasello, M.2007Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesisScience3171360
Herrmann, E.Wobber, V.Call, J.2008Great Apes’ (, , , ) understanding of tool functional properties after limited experienceJournal of Comparative Psychology122220
Hewlett, B.Cavalli-Sforza, L.1986Cultural transmission among Aka pygmiesAmerican Anthropologist88922
Hewlett, B.Fouts, H.Boyette A.Hewlett, B.2011Social learning among Congo Basin hunter–gatherersPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B3661168
Heyes, C.1993Imitation, culture and cognitionAnimal Behavior46999
Heyes, C.1998Theory of mind in nonhuman primatesBehavior and Brain Sciences21101
Hicks, T.2010A chimpanzee mega-culture? Exploring behavioral continuity in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii across northern DR CongoFaculteit der NatuurwetenschappenUniversity of Amsterdam
Hicks, T.Fouts, R.Fouts, D.2005Chimpanzees () tool use in the Ngotto Forest, Central African RepublicAmerican Journal of Primatology65221
Hill, K.Hawkes, K.1983Adaptive responses of native Amazonians(Hames, R.Vickers, W.New York, NYAcademic Press
Hill, K.Hurtado, M.1996Ache life history: The ecology and demography of a foraging peopleNew York, NYWalter de Gruyter
Hohmann, G.Fruth, B.2003Culture in Bonobos? Between-species and within-species variation in behaviorCurrent Anthropology44563
Holas, B.1980Traditions KrouParisFerdinand Nathan
Homes, H.Black, C.Miller, S.1996A cross-task comparison of false belief understanding in a Head Start populationJournal of Experimental Child Psychology63263
Hopper, L.2010Ghost experiments and the dissection of social learning in humans and animalsBiological Reviews85685
Hopper, L.Spiteri, A.Lambeth, S.2007Experimental studies of traditions and underlying transmission processes in chimpanzeesAnimal Behaviour731021
Hopper, L.Lambeth, S.Schapiro, S.Whiten, A.2008Observational learning in chimpanzees and children studied through “ghost” conditionsProceedings of the Royal Society, Series B275835
Hoppitt, W.Brown, G.Kendal, R.2008Lessons from animal teachingTrends in Ecology and Evolution23486
Horner, V.Whiten, A.2005Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees () and children ()Animal Cognition8164
Horner, V.Whiten, A.2007Learning from others’ mistakes? Limits on understanding a trap-tube task by young chimpanzees () and children ()Journal of Comparative Psychology12112
Horner, V.Whiten, A.Flynn, E.de Waal, F.2006Faithful replication of foraging techniques along cultural transmission chains by chimpanzees and childrenProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences10313878
Horner, V.Proctor, D.Whiten, A.Bonnie, K.de Waal, F.2010Prestige affects cultural learning in chimpanzeesPLoS ONE5e10625
Horner, V.Carter, D.Suchak, M.de Waal, F.2011Spontaneaous prosocial choice by chimpanzeesPNAS10813847
Horowitz, A.2003Do humans ape? Or do apes human? Imitation and intention in humans () and other animalsJournal of Comparative Psychology117325
Hosaka, K.MatsumotoOda, A.Huffman, M. A.Kawanaka, K.2000Reactions to dead bodies of conspecifics by wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, TanzaniaPrimate Research161
Howe, N.Rinaldi, C.Jennings, M.Petrakos, H.2002“No! the lambs can stay out because they got cozies”: constructive and destructive sibling conflict, pretend play and social understandingChild Development731460
Hrdy, S.2009Mothers and others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understandingCambridge, MAThe Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
Huber, L.Range, F.Voelkl, B.2009The evolution of imitation: what do the capacities of non-human animals tell us about the mechanisms of imitation?Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society3642299
Huffman, M.1996Social learning in animals: The roots of cultureHeyes, C.Galef, B.Orlando, FLAcademic Press
Humle, T.Matsuzawa, T.2002Ant-dipping among the chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, and some comparisons with other sitesAmerican Journal of Primatology58133
Hunt, G.1996Manufacture and use of hook-tools by New Caledonian crowsNature379249
Hunt, G.Gray, R.2003Diversification and cumulative evolution in New Caledonian crow tool manufactureProceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B270867
Hunt, K.Cleminson, A.Latham, J.Weiss, R.Grimmond, S.1999A partly habituated community of dry-habitat chimpanzees in the Semliki Valley Wildlife Reserve, UgandaAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement28157
Imanishi, K.1952ManImanishi, K.Mainichi-Shinbunsha
Inoue, S.Matsuzawa, T.2007Working memory of numerals in chimpanzeesCurrent Biology17R1004
Inoue-Nakamura, N.Matsuzawa, T.1997Development of stone tool use by wild chimpanzees ()Journal of Comparative Psychology111159
Iovita, R.McPherron, S.2011The handaxe reloaded: a morphometric reassessment of Acheuliand and Middle Paleolithic handaxesJournal of Human Evolution6161
Isaac, G.1978The food-sharing sharing behavior of protohuman hominidsScientific American23890
Jaeggi, S.Buschkuehl, M.Jonides, J.Perrig, W.2008Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memoryProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA1056829
Jensen, K.Call, J.Tomasello, M.2007Chimpanzees are vengeful but not spitefulProceedings of the National Academy of Science10413046
Johanson, D.Edey, M.1981Lucy: The beginnings of humankindNew York, NYSimon and Schuster
Jordan, P.Shennan, S.2003Cultural transmission, language, and basketry traditions amongst the California IndiansJournal of Anthropological Archaeology2242
Kaminski, J.Call, J.Tomasello, M.2004Body orientation and face orientation: two factors controlling apes’ begging behavior from humansAnimal Cognition7216
Karin-D’Arcy, M.Povinelli, D.2002Do chimpanzees know what each other see? A closer lookInternational Journal of Comparative Psychology1521
Kawai, M.1965Newly acquired precultural behavior of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys on Koshima isletPrimates61
Kawamura, S.1959The process of sub-culture propagation among Japanese macaquesPrimates243
Kawamura, S.1965Monkeys and apes – Sociological studiesKawamura, S.Itani, J.TokyoChuokoronsha
Keeley, B.2004Anthropomorphism, primatomorphism, mammalomorphism: understanding cross-species comparisonsBiology and Philosophy19521
Keller, H.Lohaus, A.Kuensemueller, P.2004The bio-culture of parenting: evidence from five cultural communitiesParenting: Science and Practice425
Keller, H.Yovsi, R.Borke, J.2004Developmental consequences of early parenting experiences: self-recognition and self-regulation in three cultural communitiesChild Development751745
Keller, H.Joscha Kärtner, J.Borke, J.Yovsi, R.Kleis, A.2005Parenting styles and the development of the categorical self: a longitudinal study on mirror self-recognition in Cameroonian Nso and German familiesInternational Journal of Behavioral Development29496
Kenward, B.Weir, A.Rutz, C.Kacelnik, A.2005Tool manufacture by naive juvenile crowsNature433:121
Knight, N.Sousa, P.Barrett, J.Atran, S.2004Children’s attribution of belief to humans and God: cross-cultural evidenceCognitive Science28117
Koehler, W.1959The mentality of apesNew York, NYVintage Books
Köndgen, S.Kühl, H.N’Goran, P.2008Pandemic human viruses cause decline of endangered great apesCurrent Biology18260
Kooriyama, T.2009The death of a newborn chimpanzee at Mahale: reactions of its mother and other individuals to the bodyPan Africa News16
Kroeber, A.Kluckhohn, C.1952Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitionsNew York, NYRandom House
Kubinyi, E.Viranyi, Z.Miklosi, A.2007Comparative social cognition: from wolf and dog to humansComparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews226
Kummer, H.1971Primate societiesChicago, ILAldine
Kuper, A.1999Culture: The anthropologist’s accountCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Kutsukake, N.Matsusaka, T.2002Incident of intense aggression by chimpanzees against an infant from another group of Mahale Mountains National Park, TanzaniaAmerican Journal of Primatology58175
Laland, K.Hoppitt, W.2003Do animals have culture?Evolutionary Anthropology12150
Laland, K.Janik, V.2006The animal cultures debateTrends in Ecology and Evolution21542
Langergraber, K.Boesch, C.Inoue, E.2011Genetic and “cultural” similarity in wild chimpanzeesProceedings of the Royal Society278408
Lanjouw, A.2002Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobosBoesch, C.Hohmann G.Marchant, L.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Leakey, L. S. B.1961The progress and evolution of man in AfricaLondonOxford University Press
Leakey, R.1980The making of mankindLondonBook Club Associates
Leakey, R.Lewin, R.1977OriginsLondonMcDonald and Jones
Leavens, D.Bard, K.2011Environmental influences on joint attention in great apes: implications for human cognitionJournal of Cognitive Education and Psychology109
Leavens, D.Hopkins, W.Bard, K.2005Understanding the point of chimpanzee pointing: epigenesis and ecological validityCurrent Directions in Psychological Science14185
Leavens, D.Bard, K.Hopkins, W.2010BIZARRE chimpanzees do not represent “The Chimpanzee”. Commentary on target article by Heinrich, Heine & Norensayan, “The weirdest people in the worldBehavioral and Brain Sciences33100
Lee, P.Moura2005Response to terrestriality and tool use by Visalberghi 2005Science308:951
Lee, R. B.DeVore, I.1968Man the hunterChicago, ILAldine-Atherton
Leendertz, F.Ellerbock, H.Boesch, C.2004Anthrax kills wild chimpanzees in a tropical rainforestNature430451
Lefebvre, L.Nicolakakis, N.Boire, B.2002Tools and brains in birdsBehaviour139939
Lefebvre, L.Reader, S. M.Sol, D.2004Brains, innovations and evolution in birds and primatesBrain and Behavioral Evolution63233
Leslie, A.Friedman, O.German, T.2004Core mechanisms in “theory of mind”Trends in Cognitive Science8528
Levitt, S.List, J.2007What do laboratory experiments measuring social preferences reveal about the real world?Journal of Economic Perspectives21153
Levitt, S.List, J.2008evolvesScience319909
Limongelli, L.Visalberghi, E.Boysen, S.1995Comprehension of cause–effect relationships in a tool-using task by common chimpanzees ()Journal of Comparative Psychology10918
List, J.2006The behavioralist meets the market: measuring social preferences and reputation effects in actual transactionsJournal of Political Economy1141
Liszkowski, U.Schafer, M.Carpenter, M.Tomasello, M.2009Prelinguistic infants, but not chimpanzees, communicate about absent entitiesPsychological Science20654
Lonsdorf, E.2005Sex differences in the development of termite-fishing skills in the wild chimpanzees, , of Gombe National Park, TanzaniaAnimal Behaviour70673
Lonsdorf, E.2006What is the role of mothers in the acquisition of termite-fishing behaviors in wild chimpanzees ()?Animal Cognition936
Lonsdorf, E.Pusey, A.Eberly, L.2004Sex differences in learning in chimpanzeesNature428715
Lorenz, K.1961King Solomon’s ringLondonMethuen
Lovejoy, C.O.1981The origin of manScience211341
Lumsden, C.Wilson, E.1981Genes, mind and cultureCambridge, MAWorld Scientific
Luncz, L.Mundry, R.Boesch, C.2012Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee () communitiesCurrent Biology
Lycett, S.Collard, M.McGrew, W.2007Phylogenetic analyses of behavior support existence of culture among wild chimpanzeesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA10417588
Lycett, S.Collard, M.McGrew, W.2010Are behavioral differences among wild chimpanzee communities genetic or cultural? An assessment using tool-use data and phylogenetic methodsAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology142461
Lyn, H.Russell, J.Hopkins, W.2010The impact of environment on the comprehension of declarative communication in apesPsychological Science21360
Lyons, D.Young, A.Keil, F.2007The hidden structure of overimitationProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA10419751
Lyons, D.Damrosch, D.Lin, J.Macris, D.Keil, F.2011The scope and limits of overimitation in the transmission of artifact culturePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B3661158
Majid, A.Bowerman, M.Kita, S.Haun, D.Levinson, S.2004Can language restructure cognition? The case for spaceTrends in Cognitive Sciences8108
Maki, S.Fritz, J.England, N.1993An assessment of early differential rearing conditions on later behavioral development in captive chimpanzeesInfant Behavior and Development16373
Marlowe, F.2010The Hadza hunter-gatherers of TanzaniaBerkeley, CAUniversity of California Press
Marlowe, F.Berbesque, J.Barr, A.2008More “altruistic” punishment in larger societiesProceedings of the Royal Society275587
Marlowe, F.Berbesque, C.Barrett, C.2011The spiteful origins of human cooperationProceedings of the Royal Society, Series B2782159
Martin-Ordas, G.Call, J.2009Assessing generalization within and between trap tasks in the great apesInternational Journal of Comparative Psychology2243
Maslin, M.Trauth, M.2009The first humans – Origin and early evolution of the genusGrine, F.Fleagle, J.Leakey, R.New York, NYSpringer
Matsumoto-Oda, A.Tomonaga, M.2005“Intentional” control of sound production found in leaf-clipping display of Mahale chimpanzeesJournal of Ethology23109
Matsuzawa, T.2001Primate origins of human cognition and behaviorTokyoSpringer-Verlag
Matsuzawa, T.2006Cognitive development in chimpanzeesMatsuzawa, T.Tomonaga, M.Tanaka, M.TokyoSpringer Verlag
Matsuzawa, T.2007Comparative cognitive developmentDevelopmental Science1097
Matsuzawa, T.Biro, D.Humle, T.2001Primate origins of human cognition and behaviorMatsuzawa, T.TokyoSpringer-Verlag
Maynard, A.Greenfield, P.2003Implicit cognitive development in cultural tools and children: lessons from Maya MexicoCognitive Development18489
Maynard-Smith, J.Szathmary, E.1995The major transitions in evolutionOxfordFreeman
McBrearty, S.Brooks, A.2000The revolution that wasn’t: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behaviorJournal of Human Evolution29453
McCall, R. B.2011Research, practice and policy perspectives on issues of children without permanent parental careMonographs of the Society for Research in Child Development76223
McGrew, W.1987Tools to get food: the subsistants of Tasmanian aboriginees and Tanzanian chimpanzees comparedJournal of Anthropological Research43247
McGrew, W.1992Chimpanzee material culture: Implications for human evolutionCambridgeCambridge University Press
McGrew, W.2004The cultured chimpanzee: Reflections on cultural primatologyCambridgeCambridge University Press
McGrew, W.Turin, C.Baldwin, P.1979Chimpanzees, tools and termites: cross-cultural comparisons of Senegal, Tanzania, and Rio MuniMan14185
McGuigan, N.Whiten, A.Flynn, E.Horner, V.2007Imitation of causally opaque versus causally transparent tool use by 3- and 5-year-old childrenCognitive Development22353
Mech, D. L.1970The wolfNew York, NYNatural History Press
Medin, D.Atran, S.2004The native mind: biological categorization and reasoning in development and across culturesPsychological Review111960
Mellars, P.Stringer, C.1989The human revolution: Behavioural and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humansEdinburghEdinburgh University Press
Meltzoff, A.1995Understanding the intentions of others: re-enactment of intended acts by 18-month-old childrenDevelopmental Psychology31838
Meltzoff, A.1996Social learning in animals: The roots of cultureGalef, B.Heyes, C.New York, NYAcademic Press
Menzel, E.Davenport, R.Rogers, C.1970The development of tool use in wild-born and restriction-reared chimpanzeesFolia Primatologica12:
Mercader, J.Panger, M.Boesch, C.2002Excavation of a chimpanzee stone tool site in the African rainforestScience2961452
Mercader, J.Barton, H.Gillespie, J.20074,300-year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA1043043
Medin, D.Atran, S.2004The native mind: Biological categorization and reasoning in development and across culturesPsychological Review111960
Melis, A.Hare, B.Tomasello, M.2006Engineering cooperation in chimpanzees: tolerance constraints on cooperationAnimal Behaviour72275
Mills, M. G. L.1990Kalahari hyenas: The comparative behavioural ecology of two speciesLondonChapman and Hall
Mishra, R.Dasen, P.Niraula, S.2003Ecology, language and performance on spatial cognitive tasksInternational Journal of Psychology38366
Mitani, J.2009Cooperation and competition in chimpanzees: current understanding and future challengesEvolutionary Anthropology18215
Mitani, J.Watts, D.1999Demographic influences on the hunting behavior of chimpanzeesAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology109439
Mitani, J.Watts, D.2001Why do chimpanzees hunt and share meat?Animal Behaviour611
Mitani, J.Watts, D.2005Correlates of territorial boundary patrol behaviour in wild chimpanzeesAnimal Behaviour701079
Mitani, J.Watts, D.Muller, M.2002Recent development in the study of wild chimpanzee behaviourEvolutionary Anthropology119
Mithen, S.1996The prehistory of the mindLondonThames and Hudson
Möbius, Y.Boesch, C.Koops, K.Matsuzawa, T.Humle, T.2008Cultural differences in army ant predation by West African chimpanzees? A comparative study of microecological variablesAnimal Behaviour7637
Moll, H.Tomasello, M.2007Cooperation and human cognition: the Vygotskian intelligence hypothesisPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B362639
Morgan, B.Abwe, E.2006Chimpanzees use stone hammers in CameroonCurrent Biology16R632
Morris, D.1967The naked apeNew York, NYRandom House
Morris, M.Peng, K.1994Culture and cause: American and Chinese attributions for social and physical eventsJournal of Personality and Social Psychology67949
Moss, C.1988Elephant memories: Thirteen years in the life of an elephant familyNew York, NYWilliam Morrow
Moura, A. C. de A.Lee, P. C.2004Capuchin stone tool use in Caatinga dry forestScience3061909
Mulcahy, N.Call, J.2006How great apes perform on a modified trap-tube taskAnimal Cognition9193
Murdock, G.1940The cross-cultured surveyAmerican Sociological Review5361
Nagell, K.Olguin, K.Tomasello, M.1993Processes of social learning in the tool use of chimpanzees and human childrenJournal of Comparative Psychology107174
Nakamichi, M.Koyama, N.Jolly, A.1996Maternal responses to dead and dying infants in wild troops of ring-tailed lemurs at the Berenty Reserve, MadagascarInternational Journal of Primatology17505
Nakamura, M.Nishida, T.2006Subtle behavioral variation in wild chimpanzees, with special reference to Imanishi’s concept of kaluchuaPrimates4735
Nakamura, M.McGrew, W.Marchant, L.Nishida, T.2000Social scratch: another custom in wild chimpanzees?Primates41237
Nelson, C.Zeanah, C.Fox, N.2007Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: the Bucharest early intervention projectScience3181937
Nishida, T.1968The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali MountainsPrimates9167
Nishida, T.1987Primate societiesSmuts, S.S.Cheney, D.L.Seyfarth, R.M.Wrangham, R.W.Strusaker, T.T.Chicago, ILUniversity of Chicago Press
Nishida, T.1990The chimpanzees of the Mahale mountains: Sexual and life history strategiesTokyoUniversity of Tokyo Press
Nishida, T.Hiraiwa, M.1982Natural history of a tool-using behaviour by wild chimpanzees in feeding upon wood-boring antsJournal of Human Evolution1173
Nishida, T.Uehara, U.1980Chimpanzees, tools and termites: another example from TanzaniaCurrent Anthropology21671
Nishida, T.Uehara, S.Nyondo, R.1983Predatory behavior among wild chimpanzees of the Mahale MountainsPrimates201
Nishida, T.Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M.Hasegawa, T.Takahata, Y.1985Group extinction and female transfer in wild chimpanzees in the Mahale National Park, TanzaniaZeitschrift für Tierpsychologie67284
Nishida, T.Hasegawa, T.Hayaki, H.Takahata, Y.Uehara, S.1992Topics in primatology: vol. 1. Human originsNishida, T.McGrew, W. C.Marler, P.Pickford, M.de Waal, F.BaselKarger AG
Nishida, T.Matsusaka, T.McGrew, W.2009Emergence, propagation or disappearance of novel behavioral patterns in the habituated chimpanzees of Mahale: a reviewPrimates5023
Noad, M.Cato, D.Bryden, M.Jenner, M.Jenner, C.2000Cultural revolution in whale songsNature408537
Normand, E.Boesch, C.2009Sophisticated Euclidian maps in forest chimpanzeesAnimal Behaviour771195
Normand, E.Ban, S.Boesch, C.2009Forest chimpanzees () remember the location of numerous fruit treesAnimal Cognition12797
Normand, E.Caillaud, D.Ban, S.Boesch, C.Fruiting tree diversity selects for long-lasting memory in forest chimpanzeesProceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B
Nowak, S.Sigmund, K.1992Tit for tat in heterogeneous populationsNature355250
O’Brien, M. J.Darwent, J.Lyman, L.2001Cladistics is useful for reconstructing archaeological phylogenies: Paleoindian points from the Southeastern United StatesJournal of Archaeological Science281115
O’Brien, M.Lyman, L.Mesoudi, A.Van Pool, T.2010Cultural traits as units of analysisPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society3653797
Oswalt, W.1976An anthropological analysis of food-getting technologyNew York, NY:John Wiley and Sons
Over, H.Carpenter, M.2009Priming third-party ostracism increases affiliative imitation in childrenDevelopmental Science12F1
Packer, C.Scheel, D.Pusey, A. E.1990Why lions form groups: food is not enoughAmerican Naturalist1361
Paradise, R.Rogoff, B.2009Side by side: learning by observing and pitching inEthos37102
Passingham, R.1982The human primateLondonFreeman
Patterson, N.Richter, D.Gnerre, S.Lander, E.Reich, D.2006Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzeesNature4411103
Payne, K.Payne, R.1985Large-scale changes over 19 years in songs of humpback whales in BermudaZeitschrift für Tierpsychologie6889
Pears, K.Moses, L.2003Demographics, parenting and theory of mind in preschool childrenSocial Development121
Penn, D.Povinelli, D.2007On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a “theory of mind”Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B362731
Penn, D.Holyoak, K.Povinelli, D.2008Darwin’s mistake: explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman mindsBehavioral and Brain Sciences31109
Perner, J.Ruffman, T.Leekam, S.1994Theory of mind is contagious: you catch it from your sibsChild Development651128
Perry, S.Manson, J.2003Traditions in monkeysEvolutionary Anthropology1271
Piaget, J.1935La Naissance de l’Intelligence chez l’EnfantNeuchâtelDelachaux et Niestlé
Piaget, J.1945La Formation du Symbole chez l’EnfantNeuchâtelDelachaux et Niestlé
Piaget, JInhelder, B.1947La Représentation de l’Espace chez l’EnfantParisPresses Universitaires de France
Plummer, T.Ditchfield, P.Bishop, L.2009Oldest evidence of toolmaking hominins in a grassland-dominated ecosystemPLoS One4e7199
Poole, J.1996Coming of age with elephants: A memoirNew York, NYHyperion
Potts, R.1984Home bases and early hominidsAmerican Scientific72338
Povinelli, D.1996Theories of theories of mindCarruthers, P.Smith, P.293CambridgeCambridge University Press
Povinelli, D.1999Developing theories of intention: Social understanding and selfcontrolZelazo, P.D.Astington, J.W.Olson, D.R.Mahwah, NJLawrence Erlbaum Associates
Povinelli, D.2000Folk physics for apes: The chimpanzee’s theory of how the world worksOxfordOxford University Press
Povinelli, D.Eddy, T.1996What young chimpanzees know about seeingMonograph of the Society for Research in Child Development611
Povinelli, D. J.O’Neill, D. K.2000Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental cognitive neuroscienceBaron-Cohen, S.Tager-Flusberg, H.Cohen, D. J.OxfordOxford University Press
Povinelli, D.Vonk, J.2003Chimpanzee minds: suspiciously human?Trends in Cognitive Sciences7157
Povinelli, D.Nelson, K.Boysen, S.1990Inferences about guessing and knowing by chimpanzees ()Journal of Comparative Psychology104203
Povinelli, D.Gallup, G.Eddy, T.1997Chimpanzees recognize themselves in mirrorsAnimal Behaviour531083
Power, M.1991The egalitarians: Human and chimpanzeeCambridgeCambridge University Press
Premack, D.2007Human and animal cognition: continuity and discontinuityProceedings of the National Association of Sciences, USA10413861
Premack, D.Woodruff, G.1978Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?Behavioral and Brain Sciences4515
Pruetz, J.2007Evidence of cave use by savanna chimpanzees () at Fongoli, Senegal: implications for thermoregulatory behaviorPrimates48316
Pruetz, J.Bertolani, P.2007Savanna chimpanzees, , hunt with toolsCurrent Biology171
Quiatt, D.Reynolds, V.Stokes, E.2002Snare injuries to chimpanzees () at 10 study sites in east and west AfricaAfrican Journal of Ecology40303
Raby, C.Alexis, D.Dickinson, A.Clayton, N.2007Planning for the future by western scrub-jaysNature445919
Radford, A.Ridley, A.2006Recruitment calling: a novel form of extended parental care in an altricial speciesCurrent Biology161700
Range, F.Varanyi, Z.Huber, L.2007Selective imitation in domestic dogsCurrent Biology17866
Rendell, L.Whitehead, H.2001Culture in whales and dolphinsBehavioral and Brain Sciences24309
Rendell, L.Fogarty, L.Hoppitt, W.2011Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategiesTrends in Cognitive Sciences1568
Reaux, J.Povinelli, D2000Folk physics for apes: The chimpanzee’s theory of how the world worksPovinelli, D.109OxfordOxford University Press
Rogoff, B.1990Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social contextNew York, NYOxford University Press
Rogoff, B.2003The cultural nature of human developmentNew York, NYOxford University Press
Rogoff, B.Paradise, R.Arauz, R.Correa-Chavez, M.Angelillo, C.2003Firsthand learning through intent participationAnnual Review of Psychology54175
Ruffman, T.Perner, J.Naito, M.Parkin, L.Clements, W.1998Older (but not younger) siblings facilitate false belief understandingDevelopmental Psychology34161
Rumbaugh, D.Washburn, D.King, J.2008Why some apes imitate and/or emulate observed behavior and others do not: fact, theory and implication for our kindJournal of Cognitive Education and Psychology7101
Sahlins, M.1976The use and abuse of biology: An anthropological critique of sociobiologyLondonTavistock Publications
Santos, L.Miller, C.Hauser, M.2003Representing tools: how two non-human primate species distinguish between the functionally relevant and irrelevant features of a toolAnimal Cognition6269
Sanz, C.Morgan, D.2007Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of CongoJournal of Human Evolution52420
Sanz, C.Morgan, D.2009Flexible and persistent tool-using strategies in honey-gathering by wild chimpanzeesInternational Journal of Primatology30411
Sanz, C.Morgan, D.Gulick, S.2004New insights into chimpanzees, tools, and termites from the Congo BasinAmerican Naturalist164567
Sanz, C.Call, J.Morgan, D.2009Design complexity in termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees ()Biology Letters5293
Sapolsky, R.2006Social cultures among nonhuman primatesCurrent Anthropology47641
Saxe, G.Moylan, T.1982The development of measurements operations among the Oksapmin of Papua New GuineaChild Development531242
Schaik, van C.P.Knott, C.2001Geographic variation in tool use on Neesia fruits in OrangutansAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology114331
Schaik, van C. P.Ancrenaz, M.Brogen, G.2003Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material cultureScience299102
Schaller, G. B.1972The Serengeti lionChicago, ILUniversity of Chicago Press
Schloegl, C.Kotrschal, K.Bugnyar, T.2008Do common ravens () rely on human or conspecific gaze cues to detect hidden food?Animal Cognition11231
Schwartz, A.1975La Vie Quotidienne Dans Un Village GuéréAbidjanINADES
Segall, M.Dasen, P.Berry, J.Poortinga, Y.1999Human behavior in global perspective: An introduction to cross-cultural psychologyNew York, NYPergamon Press
Shennan, S.2000Population, culture history and the dynamics of culture changeCurrent Anthropology41811
Shettleworth, S.1998Cognition, evolution and behaviourNew York, NY:Oxford University Press
Silberberg, A.Kearns, D.2009Memory for the order of briefly presented numerals in humans as a function of practiceAnimal Cognition12405
Silk, J.Brosnan, S.Vonk, J.Henrich, J.Povinelli, D.Richardson, A.2005Chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group membersNature4371357
Silva, F.Silva, K.2006Humans’ folk physics is not enough to explain variations in their tool-using behaviorPsychonomic Bulletin and Review13689
Silva, F.Page, D.Silva, K.2005Methodological–conceptual problems in the study of chimpanzees’ folk physics: how studies with adult humans can helpLearning and Behavior3347
Slaughter, V.Griffiths, M.2007Death understanding and fear of death in young childrenClinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry12525
Slaughter, V.Lyons, M.2003Learning about life and death in early childhoodCognitive Psychology461
Smith, P.Silberberg, A.2010Rational maximizing by humans ) in an ultimate gameAnimal Cognition13671
Speece, M.Brent, S.1984Children’s understanding of death: a review of three components of a death conceptChild Development551671
Stanford, C.1998Chimpanzee and red colobus: The ecology of predator and preyCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Stanford, C.Wallis, J.Matama, H.Goodall, J.1994Patterns of predation by chimpanzees on red colobus monkeys in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, 1982–1991American Journal of Physical Anthropology94213
Stanford, C.Wallis, J.Mpongo, E.Goodall, J.1994Hunting decisions in wild chimpanzeesBehaviour1311
Sternberg, R.2008Increasing fluid intelligence is possible after allProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA1056791
Stout, D.2003Skill and cognition in stone tool production: an ethnographic case study from Irian JayaCurrent Anthropology43693
Sugiyama, Y.1981Observations on the population dynamics and behavior of wild chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea, 1979–1980Primates22435
Sugiyama, Y.1984Population dynamics of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea, between 1976 and 1983Primates25391
Sugiyama, Y.1994Tool use by wild chimpanzeesScience367327
Sugiyama, Y.Koman, J.1979Tool-using and -making behavior in wild chimpanzees at Bossou, GuineaPrimates20513
Tanon, F.1994A cultural view on planning: The case of weaving in Ivory CoastTilburg, the Netherlands:Tilburg University Press
Tebbich, S.Seed, A.Emery, N.Clayton, N.2007Non tool-using rooks, , solve the trap-tube problemAnimal Cognition10225
Tehrani, J.Collard, M.2002Investigating cultural evolution through biological phylogenetic analyses of Turkmen textilesJournal of Anthropological Archaeology21443
Teleki, G.1973The predatory behavior of wild chimpanzeesBrunswickBucknell University Press
Teleki, G.1973Group response to the accidental death of a chimpanzee in Gombe National Park, TanzaniaFolia Primatologica2081
Tempelmann, S.Kaminski, J.Liebal, K.2011Focus on the essential: all great apes know when others are being attentiveAnimal Cognition14433
Tennie, C.Call, J.Tomasello, M.2006Push or pull: imitation vs. emulation in great apes and human childrenEthology1121159
Tennie, C.Call, J.Tomasello, M.2009Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culturePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society3642405
Teschke, I.Tebbich, S.2011Physical cognition and tool-use: performance of Darwin’s finches in the two-trap tube taskAnimal Cognition14555
Thomas, E.Murphy, M.Pitt, R.Rivers, A.Leavens, D.2008Understanding of visual attention by adult humans (): a partial replication of Povinelli, Bierschwale and Cech (1999)Journal of Comparative Psychology122428
Thornton, A.McAuliffe, K.2006Teaching in wild meerkatsScience313227
Thornton, A.Raihani, N.2008The evolution of teachingAnimal Behaviour751823
Tomasello, M.1990Comparative developmental psychology of language and intelligence in primatesParker, S.Gibson, K.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Tomasello, M.1999The cultural origins of human cognitionCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Tomasello, M.2009Why we co-operateCambridge, MAMIT Press
Tomasello, M.Call, J.1997Primate cognitionNew York, NY:Oxford University Press
Tomasello, M.Call, J.2004The role of humans in the cognitive development of apes revisitedAnimal Cognition7213
Tomasello M.Davis-Dasilva M.Camak L.Bard K.1987Observational learning of tool-use by young chimpanzeesJournal of Human Evolution2175
Tomasello, M.SavageRumbaugh, S.Kruger, A1993Imitative learning of actions on objects by children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzeesChild Development641688
Tomasello, M.Call, J.Hare, B.1998Five primate species follow the gaze of conspecificsAnimal Behaviour551063
Tomasello, M.Carpenter, M.Call, J.Behne, T.Moll, H.2005Understanding and sharing intentions: the origins of cultural cognitionBehavioral and Brain Sciences28675
Topál, J.Gergely, G.Erdohegyi, A.Csibra, G.Miklosi, A.2009Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves and human infantsScience3251269
Tranquilli, S.Anedi-Lartey, M.Amsini, F.2011Lack of conservation effort rapidly increases African great ape extinction riskConservation Letters51
Tsukahara, T.1993Lions eat chimpanzees: the first evidence of predation by lions on wild chimpanzeesAmerican Journal of Primatology291
Turnbull, C.1961The forest peopleLondonJonathan Cape
Tuttle, R.2001On culture and traditional chimpanzeesCurrent Anthroplogy42407
Udell, M.Dorey, N.Wynne, C.2008Wolves outperform dogs in following human social cuesAnimal Behaviour761767
Uehara, S.1982Seasonal changes in the techniques employed by wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, to feed on termitesFolia Primatologica3744
Ueno, A.Matsuzawa, T.2004Food transfer between chimpanzee mothers and their infantsPrimates45231
van Ijzendoorn, M. H.Bard, K. A.Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.Ivan, K.2009Enhancement of attachment and cognitive development of young nursery-reared chimpanzees in responsive versus standard careDevelopmental Psychobiology51173
Vinden, P.1996Junin Quechua children’s understanding of mindChild Development671707
Vinden, P.1999Children’s understanding of mind and emotion: a multi-culture studyCognition and Emotion1319
Visalberghi, E.Fragaszy, D.1990“Language” and intelligence in monkeys and apes: Comparative developmental perspectivesParker, S.Gibson, K.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Visalberghi, E.Limongelli, L.1994Lack of comprehension of cause–effect relations in tool-using capuchin monkeys ()Journal of Comparative Psychology10815
Visalberghi, E.Trinca, L.1989Tool use in capuchin monkeys: distinguishing between performing and understandingPrimates30511
Visalberghi, E.Fragaszy, D.Ottoni, E.2007Characteristics of hammer stones and anvils used by wild bearded capuchin monkeys () to crack open palm nutsAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology132426
Visalberghi, E.Addessi, E.Truppa, V.2009Selection of effective stone tools by wild bearded capuchin monkeysCurrent Biology19213
Vlamings, P.Hare, B.Call, J.2010Reaching around barriers: the performance of the great apes and 3–5-year-old childrenAnimal Cognition13273
Voelkl, B.Huber, L.2000True imitation in marmosetsAnimal Behaviour60195
Vonk, J.Brosnan, S.Silk, J.Henrich, J.Richardson, A.Lambeth, S.2008Chimpanzees do not take advantage of very low cost opportunities to deliver food to unrealted group membersAnimal Behaviour751757
Waal, de F.1996Good natured: The origins of right and wrong in humans and other animalsCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Waal, de F.2001The ape and the sushi master: Cultural reflections of a primatologistNew York, NYBasic Books
Waal, de F.2009The age of empathy: Nature’s lessons for a kinder societyNew York, NYHarmony
Waal, de F.Bonnie, K.2009The question of animal cultureLaland, K.Galef, GCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Waal, de F.Ferrari, P.2010Towards a bottom-up perspective on animal and human cognitionTrends in Cognitive Sciences14201
Waal, de F.Boesch, C.Horner, V.Whiten, A.2008Comparing social skills of children and apesScience319569
Warneken, F.Tomasello, M.2006Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzeesScience3111301
Warren, Y.Williamson, E.2004Transport of dead infant mountain gorillas by mothers and unrelated femalesZoo Biology23375
Wassmann, J.Dasen, P.1998Balinese spatial orientation: some empirical evidence of moderate linguistic relativityJournal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S.)4
Watts, D.2008Tool use by chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, UgandaInternational Journal of Primatology2983
Watts, D.Mitani, J.2000Hunting behavior of chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, UgandaInternational Journal of Primatology231
Watts, D.Mitani, J.2002Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobosBoesch, C.Hohmann, G.Marchant, L.CambridgeCambridge University Press
Watts, D.Muller, M.Amsler, S.Mbabazi, G.Mitani, J.2006Lethal intergroup aggression by chimpanzees in the Kibale National Park, UgandaAmerican Journal of Primatology68161
Wellman, H.Cross, D.Watson, J.2001Meta-analysis of theory of mind development: the truth about false-beliefChild Development72655
Whitehead, H.1998Cultural selection and genetic diversity in matrilineal whalesScience2821708
Whiten, A.1989Transmission mechanisms in primate cultural evolutionTREE461
Whiten, A.Custance, D.1996Social learning in animals: The roots of culture(Heyes, C.Galef, B. JrNew York, NY:Academic Press
Whiten, A.Ham, R.1992On the nature and evolution of imitation in the animal kingdom: reappraisal of a century of researchAdvance in the Study of Behavior21239
Whiten, A.Schaik, van C.2007The evolution of animal “cultures” and social intelligencePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society362603
Whiten, A.Custance, D.Gomez, J.Texidor, P.Bard, K.1996Imitative learning of artificial fruit processing in children () and chimpanzees ()Journal of Comparative Psychology1103
Whiten, A.Goodall, J.McGrew, W.1999Cultures in chimpanzeesNature399682
Whiten, A.Horner, V.Marshall-Pescini, S.2003Cultural panthropologyEvolutionary Anthropology1292
Whiten, A.Horner, V.Litchfield, C.Marshall-Pescini, S2004How do apes ape?Learning and Hormones3236
Whiten, A.Horner, V.de Waal, F.2005Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzeesNature437737
Whiten, A.Spiteri, A.Horner, V.2007Transmission of multiple traditions within and between chimpanzee groupsCurrent Biology171038
Whiten, A.McGuigan, N.Marshall-Pescini, S.Hopper, L.2009Emulation, imitation, over-imitation and the scope of culture for child and chimpanzeePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society3642417
Williams, J.Oehlert, G.Carlis, J.Pusey, A.2004Why do male chimpanzees defend a group range?Animal Behaviour68523
Wilson, E. O.1975SociobiologyCambridge, MAHarvard University Press
Wimmer, H.Hogrefe, G.Perner, J.1988Children’s understanding of informational access as source of knowledgeChild Development59386
Wolpert, L.2007What makes us human?Pasternak, C.OxfordOneworld Publications
Wood, D.Bruner, J. S.Ross, G.1976The role of tutoring in problem solvingJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry1789
Wrangham, R.1975The behavioural ecology of chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream National ParkCambridge University
Wrangham, R.2006Chimpanzees: the culture-zone concept becomes untidyCurrent Biology16R634
Wrangham, R.Wilson, M.Muller, M.2006Comparative rates of violence in chimpanzees and humansPrimates4714
Wynne, C.2007What are animals? Why anthropomorphism is still not a scientific approach to behaviorComparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews2125
Zamma, K.2002Leaf-grooming by a wild chimpanzee in MahalePrimates4387
Zentall, T.1996Social learning in animals: The roots of cultureHeyes, C.Galef, B.San Diego, CA:Academic Press
Zuckerman, S.1981The social life of monkeys and apesLondonRoutledge & Kegan Paul