Alagappa, Muthia . 2004. Civil Society and Political Change in Asia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Almond, Gabriel , and Sidney Verba . 1965. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Baum, Richard , and Alexei Shevchenko . 1999. “The ‘State of the State.” In The Paradox of China's Post-Mao Reforms, eds. Merle Goldman and Roderick MacFarquhar (pp. 333–362). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Beja, Jean-Philippe . 2006. “The Changing Aspects of Civil Society in China.” Social Research 73(1): 53–74.
Bermeo, Nancy , and Philip Nord . 2000. Civil Society Before Democracy: Lessons from Nineteenth-Century Europe. Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield.
Bernstein, Mary . 1997. “Celebration and Suppression: The Strategic Uses of Identity by the Lesbian and Gay Movement.” American Journal of Sociology 103(3): 531–65.
Bernstein, Thomas and Xiaobo Lu . 2003. Taxation without Representation in Contemporary Rural China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bian, Yanjie . 1997. “Bringing Strong Ties Back In: Indirect ties, Network Bridges, and Job Searches in China.” American Sociological Review 62: 366–385.
Breton, Albert , and Raymond Breton . 1969. “An Economic Theory of Social Movements.” Papers and Proceedings of the Eighty-first Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association 59(2): 198–205.
Burns, John . 1989. The Chinese Communist Party's Nomenklatura System. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Button, James W , Barbara A. Rienzo , and Kenneth D. Wald . 1997. Private Lives, Public Conflicts: Battles Over Gay Rights in American Communities. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
Cai, Yongshun . 2008. “Local Governments and the Suppression of Popular Resistance in China.” The China Quarterly 193: 24–42.
Calhoun, Craig . 1993. “‘New Social Movements’ of the Early Nineteenth Century.” Social Science History 17(3): 385–427.
Carlisle, Juliet , and Eric Smith . 2005. “Postmaterialism vs. Egalitarianism as Predictors of Energy-Related Attitudes.” Environmental Politics 14(4): 527–40.
Castle, Terry . 1995. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Colombia University Press.
Chamberlain, Heath . 1993. “On the Search for Civil Society in China.” Modern China 19(2): 199–215.
Chan, Kam Wing . 2009. “The Chinese Hukou System at 50.” Eurasian Geography and Economics 50(2): 197–221.
Chen, Jie . 2005. “NGO Community in China: Expanding Linkages with Transnational Civil Society.” Asia Research Centre Working Paper 128, Murdoch University, Australia
Clarke, Gerard . 1998. The Politics of NGOs in South-East Asia: Participation and Protest in the Philippines. New York: Routledge.
Cohen, Jean L. , and Andrew Arato . 1992. Civil Society and Political Theory. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Cohen, Jean L. 1985. “Strategy or Identity: New Theoretical Paradigms and Contemporary Social Movements” Social Research 52: 663–716.
Cohen, Jon. . 2004b. “Poised for Takeoff?” Science 304(4, June): 1430–2.
Cohen, Jon. 2004a. “A New Treatment Campaign, But with Limited Weapons” Science 304(4, June): 1433–4.
Cook, Colleen , Fred Heath , and Russel L . Thompson . 2000. “A Meta-Analysis of Response Rates in Web- or Internet-based Surveys.” Educational and Psychological Measurement 60(6): 821–36.
Cooper, Caroline M. 2006. “‘This Is Our Way In’: The Civil Society of Environmental NGOs in South-West China” Government and Opposition 41(1): 109–36.
Crozier, Michel . 1964. The Bureaucratic Phenomenon. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
D’Emilio, John . 1983. “Capitalism and Gay Identity.” In Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, eds. Ann Snitow , Christine Stansell , and Sharon Thompson (pp. 100–113). New York: Monthly Review Press.
Dalton, Russell J . 1994. The Green Rainbow: Environmental Groups in Western Europe. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Darnovsky, Marcy , Barbara Epstein , and Richard Flacks . 1995. Cultural Politics and Social Movements. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Davis, Sara M. 2005. “Restrictions on AIDS Activists in China.” Human Rights Watch 17(5): 1–57.
Dawson, Jane . 1995. “Anti-Nuclear Activism in the USSR and its Successor States: A Surrogate for Nationalism?” Environmental Politics 4(3, Autumn): 441–66.
Diamond, Larry . 1994. “Toward Democratic Consolidation.” Journal of Democracy 5(3, July): 4–17.
Dickson, Bruce J. . 2008. Wealth into Power: The Communist Party's Embrace of China's Private Sector. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dickson, Bruce J. 2003. Red Capitalists in China: The Chinese Communist Party, Private Entrepreneurs, and Political Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ding, Yijiang . 2001. Chinese Democracy after Tiananmen. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dobson, Andrew . 1994. Green Political Thought. New York: Routledge.
Drucker, Peter . 1996. “‘In the Topics There Is No Sin’: Sexuality and Gay-Lesbian Movements in the Third World.” New Left Review 218: 75–102.
Eckstein, Harry . 1975. “Case Study and Theory in Political Science.” In Handbook of Political Science, eds. Fred I. Greenstein and Nelso W. Polsby (pp. 79–137). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Economy, Elizabeth . 2004. The River Runs Black: The Environmental Challenge to China's Future. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Eder, Klaus . 1985. “The ‘New Social Movements’: Moral Crusades, Political Pressure Groups, or Social Movements?” Social Research 52: 867–90.
Edin, Maria . 2003a. “State Capacity and Local Agent Control in China: CCP Cadre Management from a Township Perspective.” The China Quarterly 173: 35–52.
Edin, Maria . 2003b. “Remaking the Communist Party-State: The Cadre Responsibility System at the Local Level in China.” China: An International Journal 1(1): 1–15.
Elvin, Mark . 2004. The Retreat of Elephants: An Environmental History of China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ewoh, Andrew I. E. , and Rollins, Melissa . 2011. “The Role of Environmental NGOs in Chinese Public Policy.” Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective. 6(1): 45–60.
Fan, Maureen . 2007. “Chinese Provincial Governments Hampering National Policies on HIV/AIDS” Washington Post, September 19.
Foley, Michael W. , and Bob Edwards . 1996. “The Paradox of Civil Society.” Journal of Democracy 7(3): 38–52.
Freeman, Jo. 1979. “Resource Mobilization and Strategy.” In The Dynamics of Social Movements, eds. Mayer N. Zald and John D. McCarthy (pp. 167–89). Cambridge, MA: Winthrop.
Frohlich, Norman , Joe A. Oppenheimer , and Oran R. Young . 1971. Political Leadership and Collective Goods. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fukuyama, Francis . 1999. The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. New York: Free Press.
Gallagher, Mary E. 2004. “China: The Limits of Civil Society in a Late Leninist State.” In Civil Society and Political Change in Asia, ed. Muthia Alagappa . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gamson, Joshua . 1995. “Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma.” Social Problems 42(3): 390–407.
Gamson, William . 1998. “Social Movements and Cultural Change.” In From Contention to Democracy, eds. Marco Giugni , Doug McAdam , and Charles Tilly (pp. 57–80). Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield.
Gamson, William A. , and Meyer, David S. 1996. “Framing Political Opportunity.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, eds. Doug McAdam , John D. McCarthy , and Mayer Zald (pp. 275–90). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gellner, Ernest . 1984. Conditions of Liberty: Civil Society and its Rivals. London: Penguin.
Gerlach, Luther , and Virginia Hine . 1970. People, Power, Change. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
Gerring, John . 2001. Social Science Methodology: A Criterial Framework. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gerring, John . 2004. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good For?” American Political Science Review 98(2, May): 341–54.
Gershman, Carl , and Michael Allen . 2006. “New Threats to Freedom: The Assault on Democracy Assistance.” Journal of Democracy 17(2): 36–51.
Giang, Le Minh . 2004. “The Irony of Agency in Space: Displacement and Vulnerability in Two Highways in Viet Nam.” UNDP South East Asia HIV and Development Programme.
Gill, Bates . 2002. “China's HIV/AIDS Crisis: Implications for Human Rights, the Rule of Law and US-China Relations.” Testimony before the U.S. Congressional Executive Commission on China, September 9, Washington, DC.
Goldstone, Jack . 1980. “The Weakness of Organization: A New Look at Gamson's The Strategy of Social Protest.” American Journal of Sociology 85: 1017–42.
Goldstone, Jack . 1998. “Social Movements or Revolutions? On the Evolution and Outcome of Collective Action.” In From Contention to Democracy, eds. Marco Giugni et al. (pp. 125–48). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Goodin, Robert . 1992. Green Political Theory. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.
Goodman, Peter . 2005. “Hospitals in China Find Profit in AIDS.” Washington Post, November 8.
Goodwin, Jeff and James M. Jasper . 1999. “Caught in a Winding, Snarling Wine: The Structural Bias of Political Process Theory.” Sociological Forum 14(1): 27–54.
Gramsci, Antonio . 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. New York: International Publishers.
Granovetter, Mark . 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78(6): 1360–80.
Granovetter, Mark . 1983. “The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network Theory Revisited.” Sociological Theory 1: 201–33.
Granovetter, Mark . 1985. “Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness.” American Journal of Sociology 91(3): 481–510.
Granovetter, Mark . 2005. “The Impact of Social Structure on Economic Outcomes.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 19(1): 33–50.
Gray, Michael L. 1999. “Creating Civil Society? The Emergence of NGOs in Vietnam.” Development and Change 30: 693–713.
Hardin, Garret . 1968. “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Science 162: 1243–8.
Hassid, Jonathan . 2008. “Controlling the Chinese Media: An Uncertain Business.” Asian Survey. 48(3, May/June): 414–30.
Hassler, Bjorn . 2006. “Post-materialistic Environmental Attitudes.” Working paper. Sodertorns Hogskola, University College, Sweden.
He, Baogang . 2003. “The Theory and Practice of Chinese Organizations.” Japanese Journal of Political Science 4(2): 293–314.
He, Xiao Ping . 2001. “Chinese Queer (Tongzhi) Women Organizing in the 1990s.” In Chinese Women Organizing, eds. Ping Chun Hsiung , Maria Jaschok , and Cecilia Milwertz (pp. 41–60). New York: Berg.
Heng, Han , and Kang Xiaoguang . 2008. “Graduated Controls: The State-Society Relationship in Contemporary China.” Modern China 34(1): 97–120.
Heng, Han , and Kang Xiaoguang . 2011a. “Same-Sex Marriage in China? The Strategic Promulgation of a Progressive Policy and Its Impact on LGBT Activism.” Review of International Studies 37: 1313–33.
Heng, Han , and Kang Xiaoguang . 2011b. “The Political Economy of Social Organization Registration in China,” The China Quarterly 208: 970–89.
Heng, Han , and Kang Xiaoguang . 2012. “Development and Division: The Effect of Transnational Linkages and Local Politics on LGBT Activism in China,” Journal of Contemporary China, 21(77): 845–62.
Hildebrandt, Timothy , and Jennifer L. Turner . 2009. “Green Activism? Reassessing the Role of Environmental NGOs in China” In State and Society Responses to Social Welfare Needs in China, eds. Jonathan Schwartz and Shawn Shieh (pp. 89–110). New York: Routledge.
Hildebrandt, Timothy . 2009. “Strange Bedfellows: The Chinese Environmental Movement and the State.” Working paper. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations and States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ho, Peter , and Richard L. Edmonds . 2008. China's Embedded Activism: Opportunities and Constrains of a Social Movement. New York: Routledge.
Ho, Peter . 2001. “Greening Without Conflict? Environmentalism, NGOs and Civil Society in China.” Development and Change 32: 893–921.
Ho, Peter . 2006. “From Developmental to Environmental Policies: Trajectories for Greening in China.” In China's Limits to Growth: Greening State and Society, eds. Peter Ho and Eduard Vermeer (pp. 1–26). New York: Blackwell.
Hoffer, Eric . 1967. The Temper of Our Time. New York: Harper and Row.
Hoffer, Eric 1966. The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements. New York: Harper and Row.
Howell, Jude . 1995. “Prospects for NGOs in China.” Development in Practice 5(1): 5–15.
Hsu, Lee-Nah . 2004. “Development, Spatial Mobility and HIV/AIDS.” UNDP South East Asia HIV and Development Programme.
Huang, Yuasheng . 1996. “Central-local Relations in China During the Reform Era: The Economic and Institutional Dimensions.” World Development 24(4): 655–72.
Hurst, William , and Kevin O’Brien . 2002. “China's Contentious Petitioners.” The China Quarterly 170 (June): 357–9.
Jalali, Rita . 2008. “International Funding of NGOs in India: Bringing the State Back In.” Voluntas 19: 161–88.
Jenkins, Craig , and Charles Perrow . 1977. “Insurgency of the Powerless.” American Sociological Review 42: 249–68.
Jenkins, Craig . 1983. “Resource Mobilization Theory and the Study of Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 9: 527–53.
Jing, Jun . 2003. “Environmental Protests in Rural China.” In Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance, eds. Elizabeth Perry and Mark Selden (pp. 143–60). London: Routledge.
Jolly, Susie . 2000. “‘Queering Development’: Exploring the Links Between Same-Sex Sexualities, Gender and Development.” Gender and Development 8(1): 78–88.
Jowitt, Ken . 1992. New World Disorder: The Leninist Extinction. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kahneman, Daniel , and Amos Tversky . 1979. “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk.” Econometrica 47(2): 263–91.
Kaufman, Joan , and Jun Jing . 2002. “China and AIDS – the Time to Act is Now.” Science 296(5577): 2339–40.
Kaufman, Joan . 2009. “The Role of NGOs in China's AIDS Crisis.” In State and Society Responses to Social Welfare Needs in China, eds. Jonathan Schwartz and Shawn Shieh (pp. 156–74). New York: Routledge.
Kaur, Susan . 2006. “The Third Sector: The Law in China and Non-Profit Organizations.” International Journal of Civil Society 4: 47–72.
Keane, John . 1998. Civil Society: Old Images, New Visions. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Keck, Margaret , and Kathryn Sikkink . 1998. Activists Beyond Borders. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kelliher, Daniel . 1992. Peasant Power in China. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Keohane, Robert O. 2002. Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World. New York: Routledge.
King, Gary , Michael Tomz , and Jason Wittenberg . 2000. “Making the Most of Statistical Analyses: Improving Interpretation and Presentation.” American Journal of Political Science 44(2): 341–55.
King, Gary , Robert Keohane , and Sidney Verba . 1994. Designing Social Inquiry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kingdon, John . 1984. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
Krippner, Geta . 2001. “The Elusive Market: Embeddedness and the Paradigm of Economic Sociology.” Theory and Society 30: 775–810.
Krosnick, Jon A. 1999. “Survey Research.” Annual Review of Psychology 50: 537–67.
Kuhn, Berthold . 2006. “Government-NGO Cooperation in the People's Republic of China: Experiences from Yunnan Province.” International Journal of Civil Society Law 4(6): 62–72.
Kulis, Marzena et al. 2004. “Truck Drivers and Casual Sex: An Inquiry into the Potential Spread of HIV/AIDS in the Baltic Region.” World Bank Working Paper 37. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Ladd, Everett C. 1999. The Ladd Report. New York: Free Press.
Larana, Enrique , Hank Johnston , and Joseph R. Gusfield . 1994. New Social Movements: From Ideology to Identity. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Lee, Ching Kwan , and Yuan Shen . 2008. “The Anti-Solidarity Machine: Labor NGOs in China.” Paper presented at The Changing Faces of Chinese Labor and Employment conference, Cornell School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Ithaca, NY, September.
Levy, Yoram . 2004. “The End of Environmentalism (As We Know It).” In Liberal Democracy and Environmentalism: The End of Environmentalism? eds. Marcel Wissenburg and Yoram Levy (pp. 48–59). New York: Routledge.
Li, Cheng . 2004. “Political Localism Versus Institutional Restraints: Elite Recruitment in the Jiang Era.” In Holding China Together, eds. Barry Naughton and Dali Yang (pp. 29–69). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Li, Hongbin , and Li-An Zhou . 2005. “Political Turnover and Economic Performance: The Incentive Role of Personnel Control in China.” Journal of Public Economics 89: 1743–62.
Li, Lianjiang . 2004. “Political Trust in Rural China.” Modern China 30(2): 228–58.
Li, Lianjiang . 2008. “Political Trust and Petitioning in the Chinese Countryside.” Comparative Politics 40(2): 209–26.
Liu, Alan L. 1996. Mass Politics in the People's Republic: State and Society in Contemporary China. Bounder, CO: Westview.
Lo, C. W.-H. , and S. Y. Tang . 2006. “Institutional Reforms, Economic Changes and Local Environmental Managements in China: The Case of Guangdong Province.” Environmental Politics 15(2): 190–211.
Lorenz, Andreas . 2006. “China's Brutal Crackdown on Dissidents” Spiegel. Accessible at: .
Lu, Hongyan . 2003. “Bamboo Sprouts After The Rain: The History of University Student Environmental Associations in China.” China Environment Series 6: 55–66.
Lu, Lin , Manhong Jia , Yanling Ma , Li Yang , Zhiwei Chen , David D . Ho , Yan Jiang , and Linqi Zhang . 2008. “The Changing Face of HIV in China.” Nature 455(2): 609–11.
Ma, Qiushi . 2002. “The Governance of NGOs in China Since 1978: How Much Autonomy?” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 31(3): 305–28.
Ma, Qiushi . 2005. “Chambers of Commerce in Wenzhou: A Bottom-Up NGO Development Pattern.” Paper presented at Association of Asian Studies Conference, April 2005, Chicago, IL.
Ma, Xiaoying , and Leonard Ortolona . 2000. Environmental Regulation in China: Institutions, Enforcement and Compliance. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.
Madsen, Richard . 1993. “The Public Sphere, Civil Society and Moral Community.” Modern China 19(2): 183–98.
Mair, Johanna , and Ignasi Marti . 2006. “Social Entrepreneur Research: A Source of Explanation, Prediction, and Delight.” Journal of World Business 41: 36–44.
Manion, Melanie . 2004. Corruption by Design: Building Clean Government in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Matthews, Jessica . 1989. “Redefining Security.” Foreign Affairs Spring: 162–77.
McAdam, Doug , John McCarthy , and Mayer Zald . 1988. “Social Movements.” In Handbook of Sociology, ed. Neil Smelser (pp. 695–737) Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
McAdam, Doug , John McCarthy , and Mayer Zald . 1996. “Introduction: Opportunities, Mobilizing structures, and Framing processes – Toward a Synthetic, Comparative Perspective on Social Movements.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, eds. Doug McAdam et al. (pp. 1–22). New York: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, Doug . 1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McAdam, Doug . 1996a. “Conceptual Origins, Current Problems, Future Directions.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, eds. Doug McAdam et al. (pp. 23–40). New York: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, Doug . 1996b. “The Framing Function of Movement Tactics.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, eds. Doug McAdam et al. (pp. 338–56). New York: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, Doug . 1998. “The Future of Social Movements.” In From Contention to Democracy, eds. Marco Giugni et al. (pp. 229–46). Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.
McCarthy, John , and Mayer Zald . 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements.” American Journal of Sociology 82: 1212–41.
Melucci, Alberto . 1980. “The New Social Movements: A Theoretical Approach.” Social Science Information 19(2): 199–226.
Mercer, Claire . 2002. “NGOs, Civil Society and Democratization.” Progress in Development Studies 2(1): 5–22.
Mertha, Andrew . 2008. China's Water Warriors: Civic Action and Policy Change. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Meyer, David S. , and Suzanne Staggenborg . 1996. “Movements, Countermovements, and Structure of Political Opportunity.” American Journal of Sociology 101(6): 1628–60.
Michels, Robert . 1954. Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy. New York: Simon and Shuster.
Ministry of Health (MOH) PRC . 2006. “2005 Update on the HIV/AIDS Epidemic Response in China.” Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization, Beijing.
Molina, Oscar and Martin Rhodes . 2002. “Corporatism: The Past, Present, and Future of the Concept.” Annual Review of Political Science 5: 305–31.
Montinola, Gabriella , Yingyi Qian , and Barry Weingast . 1996. “Federalism, Chinese Style: The Political Basis for Economic Success.” World Politics 48(1): 50–81.
Morris, Aldon . 1981. “Black Southern Student Sit-In Movement: An Analysis of Internal Organization.” American Sociological Review 46(6): 744–67.
Mort, Gillian S. , Jay Weerawardena , and Kashnoia Carnegie . 2003. “Social Entrepreneurship: Towards Conceptualisation.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 81(1): 76–89.
Morton, Katherine . 2005. “The Emergence of NGOs in China and their Transnational Linkages: Implications for Domestic Reform.” Australian Journal of International Affairs 59(4): 519–32.
Nevitt, Christopher . 1996. “Private Business Associations in China: Evidence of Civil Society or Local State Power?” The China Journal 36: 25–43.
Niebuhr, Reinhold . 1944. The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness. New York: C. Scribner's Sons.
Oberschall, Anthony . 1973. Social Conflict and Social Movements. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Oberschall, Anthony . 1978. “Theories of Social Conflict.” Annual Review of Sociology 4: 291–315.
Offe, C. 1985. “New Social Movements: Challenging the Boundaries of Institutional Politics.” Social Research 52(4): 817–68.
Ogden, Suzanne . 2002. Inkings of Democracy in China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Oi, Jean . 1985. “Communism and Clientalism: Rural Politics in China.” World Politics 32(2): 238–66.
Oi, Jean . 1992. “Fiscal Reform and the Economic Foundations of Local State Corporatism in China.” World Politics 45: 99–124.
Oliver, Pamela E , and Gerald Marwell . 1992. “Mobilizing Technologies for Collective Action.” In Frontiers of Social Movement Theory, eds. Aldon Morris and Carol Mueller (pp. 251–72). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Olson, Mancur . 1965. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ottaway, Marina , and Thomas Carothers . 2000. Funding Virtue: Civil Society Aid and Democracy Promotion. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for Peace.
Paehlke, Robert . 1996. “Environmental Challenges to Democratic Practice.” In Democracy and the Environment: Problems and Prospects, eds. William M. Lafferty and James Meadowcraft (pp. 349–54). Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar.
Pakulski, Jan , and Stephen Crook . 1998. “The End of Green Cultural Revolution.” In Ebbing of the Green Tide, eds. Jan Pakulski and Stephen Crook (pp. 1–20). Hobart: School of Sociology and Social Work, University of Tasmania.
Payne, Leigh A. 2000. Uncivil Movements: The Armed Right Wing and Democracy in Latin America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Pearson, Margaret . 1997. China's New Business Elite: The Political Consequences of Economic Reform. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Pei, Minxin 2006. China's Trapped Transition: The Limits of Developmental Autocracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pekkanen, Robert . 2000. “Japan's New Politics: The Case of the NPO Law.” Journal of Japanese Studies 26(1): 111–48.
Peredo, Ana Maria , and Murdith McLean . 2006. “Social Entrepreneurship: A Critical Review of the Concept.” Journal of World Business 41: 56–65.
Peritore, N. Patrick . 1999. Third World Environmentalism: Case Studies from the Global South. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Perry, Elizabeth . 1994. “Trends in the Study of Chinese Politics: State-Society Relations.” The China Quarterly 139: 699–703.
Peters, Robert . 2002. “China, Democracy and the Internet.” In Information Technology and World Politics, ed. Michael Mazarr (pp. 101–14). New York: Palgrave.
Polanyi, Karl . 1944. The Great Transformation: Economic and Political Origins of Our Time. New York: Rinehart.
Princen, Thomas , and Matthias Finger . 1994. Environmental NGOs in World Politics: Linking the Local and the Global. New York: Routledge.
Putnam, Robert 1993. Making Democracy Work. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rimmerman, Craig A. 2002. From Identity to Politics: The Lesbian and Gay Movements in the United States. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Ronfeldt, D. , J. Arquilla , G. E. Fuller , and M. Fuller . 1998. The Zapatista Social Netwar in Mexico. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
Rootes, Christopher . 2004. “Environmental Movements.” In Snow, D.A. , Soule, A. and Kriesi. H. eds, Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, Oxford: Blackwell: 608–40.
Ru, Jiang , and Leonard Ortolano . 2004. “State Control and Environmental NGOs in China.” Paper presented at the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Los Angeles, CA, November.
Ru, Jiang , and Leonard Ortolano . 2009. “Development of Citizen-Organized Environmental NGOs in China.” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 20(2): 141–68.
Ruan, Fangfu . 1991. Sex in China: Studies in Sexology in Chinese Culture. New York: Plenum.
Rucht, Dieter . 1996. “The Impact of National Contexts on Social Movement Structures: a Cross-Movement and Cross-National Perspective.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, eds. McAdam et al. (pp. 185–204). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich . 2003. “Can One or a Few Cases Yield Theoretical Gains?” In Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, eds. James Mahoney and Dietrich Ruemeyer . New York: Cambridge University Press.
Saich, Tony . 2000. “Negotiating the State: The Development of Social Organizations in China.” The China Quarterly 161: 124–41.
Saich, Tony . 2007. “Citizen's Perceptions of Governance in Rural and Urban China.” Journal of Chinese Political Science 12(1): 1–28.
Salisbury, Robert H . 1969. “An Exchange Theory of Interest Groups.” Midwest Journal of Political Science 13: 1–32.
Sartori, Giovanni . 1991. “Comparing and Miscomparing.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 3(3): 243–57.
Schmitter, Phillippe . 1974. “Still the Century of Corporatism?” Review of Politics 36: 85–131.
Schwartz, Jonathan . 2004. “Environmental NGOs in China: Roles and Limits” Pacific Affairs 77(1): 28–49.
Scott, James . 1999. Seeing Like a State. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Seeman, Melvin . 1966. “Alienation, Membership and Political Knowledge.” Public Opinion Quarterly 30: 353–67.
Seidman, Steven . 1993. “Identity and Politics in a ‘Postmodern’ Gay Culture: Some Historical and Conceptual Notes.” In Fear of a Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory, ed. Michael Warner (pp. 105–42). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Sell, Susan , and Aseem Prakash . 2004. “Using Ideas Strategically: The Contest Between Business and NGO Networks in Intellectual Property Rights.” International Studies Quarterly 48: 143–75.
Sewell, William . 1980. Work and Revolution in France. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shane, Scott , Edwin A. Locke , and Christopher J. Collins . 2003. “Entrepreneurial Motivation.” Human Resource Management Review 13(2): 257–79.
Shapiro, Judith . 2001. Mao's War Against Nature. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shieh, Shawn , and Jonathan Schwartz . 2009. State-Society Negotiations. New York: Routledge.
Silliman, G. Sidney , and Lela G. Noble . 1998. NGOs, Civil Society, and the Philippine State. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Skocpol, Theda , and Morris P. Fiorina . 1999. Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Snow, David , and Robert Benford . 1986. “Frame Alignments Process, Mircomobilization, and Movement Participation.” American Sociological Review 51: 464–81.
Snow, David , and Robert Benford . 1988. “Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization.” International Social Movement Research 1: 197–217.
Spires, Anthony . 2011. “Contingent Symbiosis and Civil Society in an Authoritarian State: Understanding the Survival of China's Grassroots NGOs.” American Journal of Sociology 117(1): 1–45.
Stepan, Alfred . 1990. “On the Tasks of a Democratic Opposition.” Journal of Democracy 1(2): 41–49.
Stern, David , Michael S. Common , and Edward B. Barbier . 1996. “Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation: The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainable Development.” World Development 24(7): 1151–60.
Sun, Yan . 2004. Corruption and Market in Contemporary China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Talshir, Gayil . 2004. “The Role of Environmentalism: From Silent Spring to The Silent Revolution.” In Liberal Democracy and Environmentalism: The End of Environmentalism?, eds. Marcel Wissenburg and Yoram Levy (pp. 10–32). New York: Routledge.
Tang, Shui Yan , and Xueyong Zhan . 2008. “Civic Environmental NGOs, Civil Society, and Democratisation in China.” Journal of Development Studies 44(3): 425–48.
Tang, Shui Yan , Carlso W. H. Lo , Kai Chee Cheung , and Jack M. K. Lo . 1997. “Institutional Constraints on Environmental Management in Urban China: Environmental Impact Assessments in Guangzhou and Shanghai.” The China Quarterly 152: 863–74.
Tarrow, Sidney . 1996. “States and Opportunities: The Political Structuring of Social Movements.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, eds. Dough McAdam et al. (pp. 41–61). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tarrow, Sidney . 1998. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Teets, Jessica C. 2009. “Post-Earthquake Relief and Reconstruction Efforts: The Emergence of Civil Society in China?” The China Quarterly 198: 330–47.
Thompson, Drew , and Xiaoqing Lu. 2006. “China's Evolving Civil Society: From Environment to Health.” China Environment Series 8: 27–40.
Tilly, Charles . 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Torgerson, Douglas . 1999. The Promise of Green Politics: Environmentalism and the Public Sphere. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Tsai, Kellee S. . 2007. Capitalism Without Democracy: The Private Sector in Contemporary China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Tsai, Kellee S. . 2008. “Chinese Associations, Civil Society, and State Corporatism: Disputed Terrain.” in Associations and the Chinese State: Contested Spaces, ed. Jonathan Unger . New York: Sharpe.
Tsai, Kellee S. 2002. Back-alley Banking: Private Entrepreneurs in China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Unger, Jonathan , and Anita Chan . 1995. “China, Corporatism, and the East Asian Model.” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 33: 29–53.
Uzzi, Brian . 1996. “The Sources and Consequences of Embeddedness for the Economic Performance of Organizations: The Network Effect.” American Sociological Review 61(4): 674–98.
Waddock, Sandra , and James E. Post . 1991. “Social Entrepreneurs and Catalytic Change.” Public Administration Review 51(5): 393–401.
Wang, S , and Sun B . 2002. “中国民间组织发展概况” (“Introduction to the Development of Civil Organizations”) In 中国公民社会的兴起与治理的变迁 (The Emergence of Civil Society and its Significance to Governance in Reform China), eds. K. Yu et al. (pp. 10–30). Beijing: Social Science Documents Press.
Wapner, Paul . 1995. “Politics Beyond the State: Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics,” World Politics 47(3): 311–40.
Watts, Jonathan . 2006. “AIDS in China: New Legislation, Old Doubts.” The Lancet 367: 803–4.
Watts, Jonathan . 2009. “China's Green Champion Sidelined.” Guardian, March 12.
Weber, Max . 1978. Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wedeman, Andrew . 2003. From Mao to Markets: Rent Seeking, Local Protectionism, and Marketization in China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weinstein, Jeremy M. 2005. “Resources and the Information Problem in Rebel Recruiting.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49(4): 598–624.
White, Gordon. 1993. Riding the Tiger: The Politics of Economic Reform in Post-Mao China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
White, Lynn T. 1998. Unstately Power. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Whiting , Susan . 2001. Power and Wealth in Rural China: The Political Economy of Institutional Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Whiting, Susan . 2004. “The Cadre Evaluation System at the Grass Roots: The Paradox of Party Rule.” In Holding China Together, eds. Barry Naughton and Dali Yang (pp. 101–19). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Williamson, Oliver . 1975. Markets and Hierarchies. New York: Free Press.
Wu, Fengshi . 2004. “Environmental GONGO Autonomy: Unintended Consequences of State Strategies in China.” Journal of the Good Society 12(1): 35–45.
Wu, Fengshi . 2011. “Strategic State Engagement in Transnational Activism: AIDS Prevention in China.” Journal of Contemporary China 20(71): 621–37.
Wu, Zunyou , Kenming Rou , and Haixia Cai . 2004. “The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in China: History, Current Strategies and Future Challenges.” AIDS Education and Prevention 16(Supp. A): 7–17.
Wu, Zunyou , Sheena G. Sullivan , Yu Wang , Mary Jane Rotherman-Borus , and Roger Detels . 2007. “Evolution of China's Response to HIV/AIDS.” The Lancet 369: 679–90.
Xie, Lei . 2009. Environmental Activism in China. New York: Routledge.
Yang, Dali . 2004. “Economic Transformation and State Rebuilding in China.” In Holding China Together, eds. Barry Naughton and Dali Yang (pp. 120–48). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Yang, Guobin . 2005. “Environmental NGOs and Institutional Dynamics in China.” The China Quarterly 181: 46–66.
Yardley, Jim . 2007. “China Covers Up Detention of AIDS Doctor” New York Times, February 15.
Zald, Mayer N. 1996. “Culture, Ideology and Strategic Framing.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, eds. Doug McAdam et al. (pp. 261–74) New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zhang, Beichuan , and Quansheng Chu . 2005. “MSM and HIV/AIDS in China.” Cell Research 15(11–12): 858–64.
Zhang, Xiaoquan . 2004. “The Gathering Storm: AIDS Policy in China.” Journal of International Development 16: 1155–68.
Zhou, M and John R. Logan . 2002. “Market Transition and the Commodification of Housing in Urban China.” In The New Chinese City ed. John R. Logan , (pp. 400–21). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Zhou, Xueguang . 1993. “Unorganized Interests and Collective Action in Communist China.” American Sociological Review 58: 54–73.
Zhou, Yongming . 1999. Anti-Drug Crusades in Twentieth-Century China: Nationalism, History, and State Building. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.