Archaic Style in English Literature, 1590–1674


Archaic Style in English Literature, 1590–1674

Ranging from the works of Shakespeare, Spenser, Jonson and Milton to those of Robert Southwell and Anna Trapnel, this groundbreaking study explores the conscious use of archaic style by the poets and dramatists between 1590 and 1674. It focuses on the wide-ranging, complex and self-conscious uses of archaic linguistic and poetic style, analysing the uses to which writers put literary style in order to re-embody and reshape the past. Munro brings together scholarly conversations on temporality, memory and historiography, on the relationships between medieval and early modern literary cultures, on the workings of dramatic and poetic style, and on national history and identity. Neither pure anachronism nor pure nostalgia, the attempts of writers to reconstruct outmoded styles within their own works reveal a largely untold story about the workings of literary influence and tradition, the interactions between past and present, and the uncertain contours of English nationhood.

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Kenneth Borris , Allegory and Epic in English Renaissance Literature: Heroic Form in Sidney, Spenser, and Milton (Cambridge University Press, 2000)
Kenneth Sisam , ‘The Authenticity of Certain Texts in Lambard’s Archaionomia 1568’, in Studies in the History of Old English Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953), 232–58
Kevin Pask , The Emergence of the English Author: Scripting the Life of the Poet in Early Modern England (Cambridge University Press, 1996), 9–52
Kevin Sharpe , ‘“An image doting rabble”: The Failure of Republican Culture in England’, in Kevin Sharpe and Steven N. Zwicker (eds.), Refiguring Revolutions: Aesthetics and Politics from the English Revolution to the Romantic Revolution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 25–56 (47–8)
King , The Psalmes of David, from the New Translation of the Bible Turned into Meter (London, 1651), A2v, A3r
King Richard . See The True Tragedie of Richard the Third (London, 1594), H1v.
Krishan Kumar , The Making of English National Identity (Cambridge University Press, 2003)
L. A. Beaurline , in The Dramatic Works in the Beaumont and Fletcher Canon, gen. ed. Fredson Bowers , vol. 3 (Cambridge University Press, 1976), Prologue.
Lanfranco Caretti (ed.), Orlando furioso (Milan and Naples: Riccardo Ricciardi, 1954), 7.73.1–5.
Lanfranco Caretti (ed.), Torquato Tasso: Gerusalemme liberata (Turin: Einaudi, 1971), 12.18
Lars Engle , Shakespearean Pragmatism: Market of his Time (University of Chicago Press, 1993), 135–7
Laura Lunger Knoppers , Constructing Cromwell: Ceremony, Portrait, and Print, 1645–1661 (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 69–106.
Lawrence Ryan , ‘Chaucer’s Criseyde in Neo-Latin Dress’, English Literary Renaissance 17 (1987), 288–302
Leah Marcus , The Politics of Mirth: Jonson, Herrick, Milton, Marvell, and the Defense of Old Holiday Pastimes (University of Chicago Press, 1986)
Lee Bliss (ed.), Coriolanus (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 1–5
Leeds Barroll , Anna of Denmark, Queen of England: A Cultural Biography (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 139–42
Leicester Bradner , ‘The Authorship of Spenser Redivivus’, Review of English Studies 14 (1938), 323–6
Liah Greenfeld , Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992)
Linda Charnes , Hamlet’s Heirs: Shakespeare and the Politics of a New Millennium (London: Routledge, 2006)
Linda Hutcheon , A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms (London: Methuen, 1985), 6.
Lisa Sampson , Pastoral Drama in Early Modern Italy: The Making of a New Genre (London: Legenda, 2006)
Llwyd , Gweithiau Morgan Llwyd o Wynedd, ed. Thomas E. Ellis , vol. 1 (Bangor: Jarvis and Foster / London, J. M. Dent, 1889), 52–4
Lucas , ‘From Politics to Practicalities: Printing Anglo-Saxon in the Context of Seventeenth-Century Scholarship’, The Library, 7th series, 4.1 (March 2003), 28–48 (41)
Lucy Munro , ‘A Neglected Allusion to Pericles and Hengist King of Kent in Performance’, Notes & Queries ns 51 (2004), 307–10
Lucy Munro , Children of the Queen’s Revels: A Jacobean Theatre Repertory (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 172–3.
Lukas Erne , Beyond the Spanish Tragedy: A Study of the Works of Thomas Kyd (Manchester University Press, 2001), 146–50
Luke Shepherd , Pathose, or an Inward Passion of the Pope for the Losse of hys Daughter the Masse (London, 1548), B5r–v
M. H. Abrams , ‘Apocalypse: Theme and Variations’, in C. A. Patrides and Joseph Wittreich (eds.), The Apocalypse in English Renaissance Thought and Literature (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984), 342–68 (343)
M. P. Tilley , A Dictionary of the Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1950), C934
MacDonald P. Jackson , ‘Deciphering a Date and Determining a Date: Anthony Munday’s John a Kent and John a Cumber and the Original Version of Sir Thomas More’, Early Modern Literary Studies 15.3 (2011), 1–24
Madeleine Doran , ‘The Language of Hamlet’, Huntington Library Quarterly 27 (1963–4), 259–78 (260).
Madeleine Forey , ‘“Bless thee Bottom, bless thee! Thou art translated!”: Ovid, Golding, and A Midsummer Night’s Dream’, Modern Language Review 93 (1998), 321–9.
Madhavi Menon , Unhistorical Shakespeare: Queer Theory in Shakespearean Literature and Film (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)
Maggie Kilgour , ‘Comus’s Wood of Allusion’, University of Toronto Quarterly 61 (1992), 316–33
Maley , ‘Spenser’s Irish English: Language and Identity in Early Modern Ireland’, Studies in Philology 91 (1994), 417–31
Manfred Görlach , Introduction to Early Modern English (Cambridge University Press, 1991), 25–7, 139–45
Manfred Görlach , Introduction to Early Modern English (Cambridge University Press, 1991), 25;
Marco Ariani (ed.), Il teatro italiano II: La tragedia del Cinquecentro (Turin: Einaudi, 1977), Chorus II, 36–42
Marcus Nevitt , Women and the Pamphlet Culture of Revolutionary England, 1640–1660 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), esp. 1–19
Margaret Doody , The Daring Muse: Augustan Poetry Reconsidered (Cambridge University Press, 1985), 63–5
Margaret Doody , The Daring Muse: Augustan Poetry Reconsidered (Cambridge University Press, 1985), 64.
Margaret Rose , ‘Extraordinary Pasts: Steampunk as a Mode of Historical Representation’, Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts 20 (2009), 319–33 (322)
Margaret Rose , Parody: Ancient, Modern, and Post-Modern (Cambridge University Press, 1993), 90.
Margaret Tudeau-Clayton , Jonson, Shakespeare and Early Modern Virgil (Cambridge University Press, 1998), 40–1, 179–80
Margreta de Grazia , ‘Hamlet’ without Hamlet (Cambridge University Press, 2007), 7, 9.
Margreta de Grazia , ‘Words as Things’, Shakespeare Studies 28 (2000), 231–5.
Maria Megro , ‘Spiritual Autobiography and Radical Sectarian Women’s Discourse: Anna Trapnel and the Bad Girls of the English Revolution’, Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 34 (2004), 405–37
Marie H. Loughlin , Hymeneutics: Interpreting Virginity on the Early Modern Stage (Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1997), esp. 53–73
Marie-Louise Coolahan , ‘Identity Politics and Nuns’ Writing’, Women’s Writing 14 (2007), 306–20
Marjorie Garber , ‘Shakespeare’s Laundry List’, in Profiling Shakespeare (London: Routledge, 2008), 195–215
Marston , Antonio’s Revenge, ed. G. K. Hunter (London: Edward Arnold, 1965), 1.1.17–20.
Martin Butler (ed.), Cymbeline (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 3–6
Mary Ellen Lamb , The Popular Culture of Shakespeare, Spenser and Jonson (London: Routledge, 2006), 214–28.
Mary Floyd-Wilson , English Ethnicity and Race in Early Modern Drama (Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Matthew Parker , ‘Præfatio ad Lectorum’, in John Asser , Ælfredi regis res gestæ (London, 1574)
Matthew Parker , The Whole Psalter Translated into English Metre (London, 1567), B3v
Matthew Prineas , ‘The Discourse of Love and the Rhetoric of Apocalypse in Anna Trapnel’s Folio Songs’, Comitatus 28 (1997), 90–110 (93)
Matthew Steggle , ‘The Knave in Grain Puts Holland’s Leaguer on Stage’, Notes & Queries, ns 51 (2004), 355–6.
Matti Rissanen , ‘Syntax’, in Roger Lass (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language: 1476–1776 (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 187–331
Matti Rissanen , ‘Syntax’, in Roger Lass (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language: 1476–1776 (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 187–331 (224, 276)
Maurice Hunt , ‘Fourteeners in Shakespeare’s Cymbeline’, Notes & Queries, ns 47 (2000), 458–61
Megan L. Cook , ‘Making and Managing the Past: Lexical Commentary in Spenser’s Shepheardes Calender (1579) and Chaucer’s Works (1598–1602)’, Spenser Studies 26 (2011), 179–222
Megan Matchinske , ‘Holy Hatred: Formations of the Gendered Subject in English Apocalyptic Writing, 1625–1651’, English Literary History 60 (1993), 349–77
Melchiori , ‘The Contexualization of Source Materials: The Play within the Play in “Sir Thomas More”’, Le forme del teatro 3 (Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1984), 59–94
Melinda Gough , ‘“Her filthy feature open showne” in Ariosto, Spenser, and Much Ado About Nothing’, Studies in English Literature 39 (1999), 41–67 (47)
Michael Alexander , Medievalism: The Middle Ages in Modern England (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007)
Michael Corsten , ‘The Time of Generations’, Time and Society 8 (1999), 249–72
Michael Dobson , The Making of the National Poet: Shakespeare, Adaptation and Authorship, 1660–1769 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992)
Michael Mendle , Henry Parker and the English Civil War: The Political Thought of the Public’s ‘Privado’ (Cambridge University Press, 1995), 120–2.
Michael Murphy , ‘Scholars at Play: A Short History of Composing in Old English’, Old English Newsletter 15.2 (1982), 26–36
Michael Murphy , ‘Scholars at Play: A Short History of Composing in Old English’, Old English Newsletter 15.2 (1982), 26–36
Michael Murphy in ‘Anglo-Saxon at Tavistock Abbey’, Duquesne Review 11 (1966), 119–24 (122)
Michael O’Connell , ‘Continuities Between “Medieval” and “Early Modern” Drama’, in Michael Hattaway (ed.), A New Companion to English Renaissance Literature and Culture, 2 vols. (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2010), 2: 60–9
Michael Redmond , ‘“My Lord, I fear, has forgot Britain”: Rome, Italy, and the (Re)construction of British National Identity’, Shakespeare Yearbook 10 (1999), 297–316
Michael Rothberg , Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization (Stanford University Press, 2009), 35–6
Michael Silk , ‘LSJ and the Problem of Poetic Archaism: From Meanings to Iconyms’, Classical Quarterly, ns 33 (1983), 303–30 (303)
Michael Wilding , ‘The Last of the Epics: The Rejection of the Heroic in Paradise Lost and Hudibras’, in Harold Love (ed.), Restoration Literature: Critical Approaches (London: Methuen, 1972), 91–120
Michel Serres and Bruno Latour , Conversations on Science, Culture, and Time, trans. Roxanne Lapidus (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995), 60.
Michelle O’Callaghan , The ‘Shepheards Nation’: Jacobean Spenserians and Early Stuart Political Culture (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000), 88–91.
Miles Coverdale ’s translation, Biblia: The Byble, that is, the Holy Scrypture of the Olde and New Testament, Faithfully Translated in to Englyshe (London, 1535)
Milton , The History of Britain, That Part Especially Now Call’d England (London, 1670), 178
Milton , The History of Britain, That Part Especially Now Call’d England (London, 1670), 225.
Morgan Llwyd , An Honest Discourse Between Three Neighbours, Touching the Present Government in These Three Nations: Viz. Between Goodman Past, Goodman Present, & Goodman Future (London, 1655), 2
Murphy and Barrett , ‘Abraham Wheelock’; J. C. T. Oates, Cambridge University Library: A History: From the Beginnings to the Copyright Act of Queen Anne (Cambridge University Press, 1986), 173–92
Murphy and Edward Barrett , ‘Abraham Wheelock, Arabist and Saxonist’, Biography 8 (1985), 163–85
N. W. Bawcutt (ed.), The Control and Censorship of Caroline Drama: The Records of Sir Henry Herbert, Master of the Revels 1623–73 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 173
N. W. Bawcutt , The Control and Censorship of Caroline Drama: The Records of Sir Henry Herbert, Master of the Revels 1623–73 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 186
Nancy Cotton Pearse , John Fletcher’s Chastity Plays: Mirrors of Modesty (Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1973)
Nancy Lindheim , ‘Pastoral and Masque at Ludlow’, University of Toronto Quarterly 67 (1998), 639–68
Nancy Pollard Brown (ed.), Robert Southwell, S.J., Two Letters and Short Rules of a Good Life (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press for the Folger Shakespeare Library, 1973), 81
Nancy Pollard Brown , ‘Southwell, Robert [St Robert Southwell] (1561–1595)’, ODNB: (accessed 19 February 2012)
Neil Forsyth , The Satanic Epic (Princeton University Press, 2002)
Neil Gilroy-Scott , ‘John Gower’s Reputation: Literary Allusions from the Early Fifteenth Century to the Time of Pericles’, The Yearbook of English Studies 1 (1971), 30–47
Nicholas Udall , Floures for Latine Spekynge Selected and Gathered Oute of Terence (London, 1534), K7v
Nicholas von Maltzahn , ‘Milton: Nation and Reception’, in David Loewenstein and Paul Stevens (eds.), Early Modern Nationalism and Milton’s England (Toronto University Press, 2008), 402–42
Nicholas von Maltzahn , Milton’s History of Britain: Republican Historiography in the English Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 22–47, 168–74
Nigel Smith , Literature and Revolution in England, 1640–1660 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994), 268–75
Noel Osselton , ‘Archaism’, in The Spenser Encyclopedia, gen. ed. A. C. Hamilton (London: Routledge, 1990), 52–3.
Noel Osselton , ‘Archaism’, in The Spenser Encyclopedia, gen. ed. A. C. Hamilton (Toronto University Press, 1990), 52–3
Norbrook , ‘Lucy Hutchinson and Order and Disorder: The Manuscript Evidence’, English Manuscript Studies 9 (2000), 257–91 (274–6)
Norman Davis et al., A Chaucer Glossary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979), 81
O. B. Hardison Jr , ‘Blank Verse before Milton’, Studies in Philology 81 (1984), 253–74.
O. B. Hardison Jr , Prosody and Purpose in the English Renaissance (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), 206–10
O. B. Hardison Jr , Prosody and Purpose in the English Renaissance (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), 254.
Olav Hackstein , ‘The Greek of Epic’, and Michael Silk, ‘The Language of Greek Lyric Poetry’ in Egbert J. Bakker (ed.), A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language (Oxford: Blackwell, 2010), 401–23, 424–40.
Olav Hackstein , ‘The Greek of Epic’, in Egbert J. Bakker (ed.), A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language (Oxford: Blackwell, 2010), 424–40 (435), 401–23
Olav Hackstein , Die Sprachform der homerischen Epen. Faktoren morphologischer Variabilität in literarischen Frühformen: Tradition, Sprachwandel, Sprachliche Anachronismen (Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2002).
Ornella Garraffo , ‘Il satiro nella pastorale ferrarese del Cinquecento’, Italianistica 14 (1985), 185–201.
Oxley , ‘“Simples are by Compounds Farre Exceld”: Southwell’s Longer Latin Poems and St. Peter’s Complaint’, Recusant History 17 (1985), 330–40
Pamela S. Hammons , Poetic Resistance: English Women Writers and the Early Modern Lyric (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), 58, 88–90
Parker developed the parallel between Charles and Rehoboam in The Contra-Replicant, His Complaint to his Majestie (London, 1643), 24–5
Patricia Palmer , Language and Conquest in Early Modern Ireland: English Renaissance Literature and Elizabethan Imperial Expansion (Cambridge University Press, 2001)
Patricia Parker and Geoffrey Hartman (eds.), Shakespeare and the Question of Theory (London: Methuen, 1985), 310–32 (316).
Patrick Collinson , ‘One of Us? William Camden and the Making of History’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 8 (1998), 139–63.
Patrick Hume , Annotations on Milton’s Paradise Lost (London, 1695), 17
Patrick J. Cook , Milton, Spenser and the Epic Tradition (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1996), 136.
Paul Whitfield White , ‘Interludes, Economics, and the Elizabethan Stage’, in Mike Pincombe and Cathy Shrank (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Tudor Literature, 1485–1603 (Oxford University Press, 2009), 555–70
Paula Blank , ‘The Dialect of The Shepheardes Calender’, Spenser Studies 10 (1989), 71–94
Paula Blank , Broken English: Dialects and Politics of Language in Renaissance English (London: Routledge, 1996), 100–4.
Paula Blank , Broken English: Dialects and Politics of Language in Renaissance English (London: Routledge, 1996), 101–2
Paula Blank , Broken English: Dialects and Politics of Language in Renaissance English (London: Routledge, 1996), 118;
Paula Glatzer , The Complaint of the Poet: The Parnassus Plays. A Critical Study of the Trilogy Performed at St. John’s College, Cambridge, 1598/99–1601/2 (Salzburg: Institut für Englische Sprache und Literatur, Universität Salzburg, 1977), 151.
Paulina Kewes (ed.), The Uses of History in Early Modern England (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library Press, 2006)
Peggy A. Knapp , Time-Bound Words: Semantic and Social Economies from Chaucer’s England to Shakespeare’s (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000), 8.
Penelope Freeman , Power and Passion in Shakespeare’s Pronouns: Interrogating ‘You’ and ‘Thou’ (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), 13–15
Peter Burke ’s four central works in this area: ‘The Sense of Historical Perspective in Renaissance Italy’, Journal of World History 11 (1968), 615–32
Peter DeSa Wiggins , ‘Spenser’s Use of Ariosto: Imitation and Allusion in Book 1 of The Faerie Queene’, Renaissance Quarterly 44 (1991), 257–79 (273).
Peter Happé (ed.), The Devil is an Ass (Manchester University Press, 1994), 59
Peter Happé (ed.), The Trial of Treasure (Manchester: Malone Society, 2010), esp. xviii–xxii.
Peter J. Lucas (ed.), Caedmonis monachi paraphrasis poetica (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000), xxvi–xxviii
Peter J. Lucas , ‘William Retchford, Pupil of Abraham Wheelock in Anglo-Saxon: “He Understands the Saxon as well as myself”’, Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 12 (2003), 335–61.
Peter Parolin , ‘Anachronistic Italy: Cultural Alliances and National Identity in Cymbeline’, Shakespeare Studies 30 (2002), 188–215
Peter V. Marinelli , ‘Ariosto, Lodovico’ and Charles Ross, ‘Boiardo, Matteo Maria’, in The Spenser Encyclopedia, gen. ed. A. C. Hamilton (University of Toronto Press, 1990), 56–7, 100–1.
Peter Walls , Music in the English Courtly Masque 1604–1640 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 289–303
Philemon Holland (trans.), The Roman Historie . . . Written First in Latine by Ammianus Marcellinus (London, 1609), a4v
Philip Edwards (ed.), Hamlet (Cambridge University Press, 1985), 10.
Philip Finkelpearl , ‘John Marston’s Histrio-Mastix as an Inns of Court Play: A Hypothesis’, Huntington Library Quarterly 29 (1966), 223–34
Philip G. West , Henry Vaughan’s Silex Scintillans: Scripture Uses (Oxford University Press, 2001), 153–8, 170–4, 181–6
Philip J. Finkelpearl , Court and Country Politics in the Plays of Beaumont and Fletcher (Princeton University Press, 1990), 101–14
Philip Schwyzer , Archaeologies of English Renaissance Literature (Oxford University Press, 2007)
Philip Sidney , An Apology for Poetry, ed. Geoffrey Shepherd , rev. R. W. Maslen (Manchester University Press, 2002), 110.
Philip Sidney , An Apology for Poetry, ed. Geoffrey Shepherd , rev. R. W. Maslen (Manchester University Press, 2002), 82.
Phyllis Mack , Visionary Women: Ecstatic Prophecy in Seventeenth-Century England (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992)
Phyllis Rackin , Stages of History: Shakespeare’s English Chronicles (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990
Powell , Tsofer Bepah, or The Bird in the Wing (London, 1661), sect. 2, 1–26 (H1r–I5v)
Quaker ’s ‘signal termes as thou and thee’ in John Deacon , An Exact History of the Life of James Naylor (London, 1657), 18
R. A. Foakes [and R. T. Rickert ] (eds.), Henslowe’s Diary, 2nd edn (Cambridge University Press, 2002), 86–7, 102
R. B. Parker (ed.), Coriolanus (Oxford University Press, 1994), 2–7
R. C. Bald (ed.), Hengist, King of Kent; or The Major of Queenborough (New York: Scribner’s, 1938), 127–36
R. D. Fulk , ‘Archaisms and Neologisms in the Language of Beowulf’, in Christopher M. Cain and Geoffrey Russom (eds.), Studies in the History of the English Language III: Managing Chaos: Strategies for Identifying Change in English (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2007), 267–87.
R. F. Wilson , ‘Golding’s Metamorphosis and Shakespeare’s Burlesque Method in A Midsummer Night’s Dream’, English Language Notes 7 (1969), 18–25
R. M. Cummings , Edmund Spenser: The Critical Heritage (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), 149
Ramie Targoff , Common Prayer: The Language of Public Devotion in Early Modern England (University of Chicago Press, 2001), 82–4
Ramona Wray , ‘“What Say You to [This] Book? . . . Is it Yours?”: Oral and Collaborative Narrative Trajectories in the Mediated Writings of Anna Trapnel’, Women’s Writing 16 (2009), 408–24
Raphael Lyne , ‘English Guarini: Recognition and Reception’, The Yearbook of English Studies 36 (2006), 90–102 (92–3)
Rastell , The Pastyme of People (London, 1530)
Raymond Garlick and Roland Mathias (eds.), Anglo-Welsh Poetry, 1480–1980 (Bridgend: Seren Books, 1984), 72
Renée R. Trilling , The Aesthetics of Nostalgia: Historical Representation in Old English Verse (University of Toronto Press, 2009), 5.
Ricardo Quinones , The Renaissance Discovery of Time (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972)
Richard A. McCabe , Spenser’s Monstrous Regiment: Elizabethan Ireland and the Poetics of Difference (Oxford University Press, 2002), 193–6
Richard Bauman and Charles L. Briggs , Voices of Modernity: Language Ideologies and the Politics of Inequality (Cambridge University Press, 2003), 74
Richard Baxter , An Accompt of all the Proceedings of the Commissioners . . . for the Review of the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1661), 6.
Richard Baxter , Reliquiæ Baxterianæ, or, Mr. Richard Baxters Narrative of the Most Memorable Passages of his Life and Times (London, 1696), 272, 314, 318
Richard Beadle , ‘The Virtuoso’s Troilus’, in Ruth Morse and Barry Windeatt (eds.), Chaucer Traditions: Studies in Honour of Derek Brewer (Cambridge University Press, 1990), 213–33
Richard Dutton , Mastering the Revels: The Regulation and Censorship of English Renaissance Drama (London: Macmillan, 1991), 81–6
Richard Dyer , Pastiche (London: Routledge, 2007)
Richard Dyer , Pastiche (London: Routledge, 2007), 69.
Richard Farnworth , The Pure Language of the Spirit of Truth . . . Or, Thee & Thou, in its Place, is the Proper Language to any Single Person Whatsoever (London, 1655)
Richard Flecknoe , Aenigmaticall Characters (London, 1658), 28
Richard Foster Jones , The Triumph of the English Language: A Survey of Opinions Concerning the Vernacular from the Introduction of Printing to the Restoration (London: Oxford University Press, 1953), esp. 68–141
Richard Goodridge , The Psalter, or, Psalms of David Paraphras’d in Verse Set to New Tunes (Oxford, 1684), a6v–a7r
Richard Hakluyt ’s The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation (London, 1599–1600)
Richard Helgerson , Forms of Nationhood: The Elizabethan Writing of England (University of Chicago Press, 1992)
Richard Helgerson , Forms of Nationhood: The Elizabethan Writing of England (University of Chicago Press, 1992), 25–40
Richard Hillman , ‘Shakespeare’s Gower and Gower’s Shakespeare: The Larger Debt of Pericles’, Shakespeare Quarterly 36 (1985), 427–37
Richard Huloet , Huloets Dictionarie Newly Corrected, Amended, Set in Order and Enlarged (London, 1572), N4v (from which the quotation comes)
Richard Stanihurst , The Historie of Irelande in The Firste Volume of the Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, ed. Raphael Holinshed (London, 1577), A3r
Richard Terdiman in Present Past: Modernity and the Memory Crisis (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993).
Richard Terry , Mock-Heroic from Butler to Cowper: An English Genre and Discourse (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), 38
Rivkah Zim , English Metrical Psalms: Poetry as Praise and Prayer, 1535–1601 (Cambridge University Press, 1987)
Robert A. Potter , The English Morality Play: Origins, History and Influence of a Dramatic Tradition (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975)
Robert Burton , The Anatomy of Melancholy (Oxford, 1621), 9.
Robert E. Stillman , Philip Sidney and the Poetics of Renaissance Cosmopolitanism (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), 113;
Robert Greene , Menaphon: Camillas Alarum to Slumbering Euphues (London, 1589), **3r.
Robert Henke , ‘Pastoral as Tragicomedic in Italian and Shakespearean Drama’, in Michele Marrapodi (ed.), The Italian World of English Renaissance Drama: Cultural Exchange and Intertextuality (Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1998), 282–301 (290).
Robert Miola , Shakespeare and Classical Tragedy: The Influence of Seneca (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992)
Robert Southwell , Collected Poems, ed. Peter Davidson and Anne Sweeney (Manchester: Carcanet, 2007), 45
Robert Weimann , Shakespeare and the Popular Tradition in the Theater: Studies in the Social Dimension of Dramatic Form and Function, ed. Robert Schwartz (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 98.
Robert Wilcher , The Writing of Royalism 1628–1660 (Cambridge University Press, 2001), 99–104.
Robin Flower , ‘Laurence Nowell and the Discovery of England in Tudor Times’, Proceedings of the British Academy 21 (1935), 47–73 (73 n. 6)
Roger Brown and Albert Gilman , ‘The Pronouns of Power and Solidarity’, in Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Style in Language (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1960), 253–76;
Roger Warren , Staging Shakespeare’s Late Plays (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), 78
Roland Barthes , Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography, trans. Richard Howard (London: Vintage, 2000), 26–7, 43.
Ronald Corthell , Frances E. Dolan , Christopher Highley and Arthur F. Marotti (eds.), Catholic Culture in Early Modern England (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007)
Ros King , who argues in Cymbeline: Constructions of Britain (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), 34–5
Roslyn Lander Knutson , Playing Companies and Commerce in Shakespeare’s Time (Cambridge University Press, 2001), 82–96.
Russ McDonald , Shakespeare’s Late Style (Cambridge University Press, 2006)
S. E. Sprott , John Milton: A Maske. The Earlier Versions (University of Toronto Press, 1973).
Sadia Abbas , ‘Polemic and Paradox in Robert Southwell’s Lyric Poems’, Criticism 45 (2003), 453–82 (457–8)
Samuel Butler , Hudibras, ed. John Wilders (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967), 1.1.15–16
Samuel Daniel , ‘Musophilus: Containing a Generall Defence of All Learning’, in The Poeticall Essayes of Sam. Danyel (London, 1599), B3r.
Samuel Daniel , ‘Sonnet L’, in Delia (London, 1592), H1v.
Samuel Wesley , ‘The Preface’, in The Life of our Blessed Lord & Saviour, Jesus Christ. An Heroic Poem (London, 1693), b1r.
Sander M. Goldberg , ‘Antiquity’s Antiquity’, in Wim Verbaal , Yanick Maes and Jan Papy (eds.), Latinitas Perennis, vol. 1, The Continuity of Latin Literature (Leiden: Brill, 2007), 17–29 (18)
Sanders , ‘Ecocritical Readings and the Seventeenth-Century Woodland: Milton’s Comus and the Forest of Dean’, English 50 (2001), 1–18
Sanders , ‘Jonson, The Sad Shepherd and the North Midlands’, Ben Jonson Journal 6 (1999), 49–68
Sandra A. Glass , ‘The Saxonists’ Influence on Seventeenth-Century English Literature’, in Carl T. Berkhout and Milton McC. Gatch (eds.), Anglo-Saxon Scholarship: The First Three Centuries (Boston, Mass.: G. K. Hall, 1982), 91–105 (99–101)
Sandra Clark , The Plays of Beaumont and Fletcher: Sexual Themes and Dramatic Representation (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994), 27–33.
Sarah A. Kelen , Langland’s Early Modern Identities (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), esp. 57–8
Sarah Poynting (ed.), The Shepherds’ Paradise (Oxford: Malone Society, 1997), xii.
Sasha Roberts argues in Reading Shakespeare’s Poems in Early Modern England (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003)
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