Bioarchaeological and Forensic Perspectives on Violence

How Violent Death is Interpreted from Skeletal Remains

Bioarchaeological and Forensic Perspectives on Violence

Every year, there are over 1.6 million violent deaths worldwide, making violence one of the leading public health issues of our time. And with the 20th century just behind us, it's hard to forget that 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly through conflict. This collection of engaging case studies on violence and violent deaths reveals how violence is reconstructed from skeletal and contextual information. By sharing the complex methodologies for gleaning scientific data from human remains and the context they are found in, and complementary perspectives for examining violence from both past and contemporary societies, bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology prove to be fundamentally inseparable. This book provides a model for training forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists, not just in the fundamentals of excavation and skeletal analysis, but in all subfields of anthropology, to broaden their theoretical and practical approach to dealing with everyday violence.

Abercrombie, T.A. (1998). Pathways of Memory and Power: Ethnography and History among an Andean People. Madison: University of Wisconsin.
Agarwal, S.C. & Glencross, B.A. (2011). Building a social bioarchaeology. In: Agarwal, S.C. & Glencross, B.A. (eds.) Social Bioarchaeology. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 1–11.
Agarwal, S.C. & Glencross, B.A. (eds.) (2011). Social Bioarchaeology. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.
Akins, N.J. (1986). A Biocultural Approach to Human Burials from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Reports of the Chaco Center, No. 9. Santa Fe: National Park Service.
Alberti, S.J.M.M., Bienkowski, P. & Chapman, M.J. (2009). Should we display the dead? Museum and Society, 7, 133–49.
Alderney Maritime Trust. (2012). An Elizabethan Shipwreck Off the Island of Alderney [Online]. Available: . [Accessed November 22, 2012.]
Allen, W., Merbs, C.F. & Birkby, W.H. (1985). Evidence for prehistoric scalping at Nuvakwewtaqa (Chavez Pass) and Grasshopper Ruin, Arizona. In: Merbs, C.F. & Miller, R.J. (eds.) Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest. Tempe: Arizona State University, 23–42.
Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. 1983. London: Verso.
Anderson, C.P. & Martin, D.L. (2012). Bioarchaeology and forensic case studies of sectarian violence, revolts, and small-scale warfare: reconstructing and explaining complex human behavior. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, S54, 361(Abstract).
Anderson, C.P., Martin, D.L. & Thompson, J.L. (2012). Indigenous violence in northern Mexico on the eve of contact. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2, 93–101.
Andrews, J.M. (2003). Central nervous system consequences of an unusual body disposal strategy: case report and brief experimental investigation. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 48, 1–5.
Andrushko, V. & Torres, V. (2011). Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 146, 361–72.
Andrushko, V. (2007). The bioarchaeology of Inca imperialism in the heartland: An analysis of prehistoric burials from the Cuzco region of Peru. University of California Santa Barbara: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Andrushko, V., Buzon, M., Gibaja, A., McEwan, G., Simonetti, A. & Creaser, R. (2011). Investigating a child sacrifice event from the Inca heartland. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, 323–33.
Arkush, E. N. (2009). Warfare, space and identity in the South-Central Andes: constraints and choices. In: Nielsen, A. & Walker, W. (eds.) Warfare in Cultural Context: Practice Agency, and the Archaeology of Conflict. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, Amerind Foundation Advanced Seminar Series, 190–217.
Arkush, E.N. & Stanish, C. (2005). Interpreting conflict in the ancient Andes. Current Anthropology, 46, 3–28.
Arkush, E.N. & Tung, T.A. (2013). Patterns of war in the Andes from the archaic to the late horizon: insights from settlement patterns and cranial trauma. Journal of Archaeological Research, .
Arkush, E.N. (2008). War, chronology, and causality in the Titicaca Basin. Latin American Antiquity, 19, 339–73.
Arriaga, P.J. (1968) [1621]. The Extirpation of Idolatry in Peru. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.
Arriaza, B.T., Oakland, A., Cassman, V. & Costa Junqueira, M.A. (1994). Ritualistic battles in a Tiwanaku colony [abstract]. Abstracts of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Anaheim, CA.
Asala, S.A. (2001). Sex determination from the head of the femur of South African whites and blacks. Forensic Science International, 117, 15–22.
Asala, S.A. (2002). The efficiency of the demarking point of the femoral head as a sex determining parameter. Forensic Science International, 127, 114–18.
Ascher, R. & Clune, F.J. (1960). Waterfall Cave, Southern Chihuahua, Mexico. American Antiquity, 26, 270–4.
Aufderheide, A.C. & Rodríguez-Martin, C. (1998). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aufderheide, A.C. & Rodríguez-Martin, C. (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology, Reprint edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
August, A. (1996). Overwriting Pinochet: undoing the culture of fear in Chile. Modern Language Quarterly, 57, 151–63.
Aukerman, M.J. (2002). Extraordinary evil, ordinary crime: a framework for understanding transitional justice. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 15, 1–50.
Avruch, K. & Vejarano, B. (2001). Truth and reconciliation commissions: a review essay and annotated bibliography. Social Justice: Anthropology, Peace, and Human Rights, 2, 47–108.
Avruch, K. (2010). Truth and reconciliation commissions: problems in transitional justice and the reconstruction of identity. Transcultural Psychiatry, 47, 33–49.
Baker, S.G. (1970). Fort King George archaeology, spring 1970. Unpublished manuscript. Onfile at the Fort King George Museum. Darien, GA.
Bales, K. (1999). Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, Revised Edition. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bamforth, D.B. (1994). Indigenous people, indigenous violence: precontact warfare on the North American great plains. Man, New Series, 29, 95–115.
Bandelier, A. F. A. (1910). The Islands of Titicaca and Koati. New York: The Hispanic Society of America.
Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Process. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Bannister, B., Robinson, W.J. & Warren, R.L. (1970). Tree-Ring Dates from New Mexico a, G-H. Shiprock–Zuni–Mt. Taylor Area. Tucson: Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, The University of Arizona.
Barcia, A. (1951) [1723]. Ensayo Cronologico Para La Historia General De La Florida (in English). Gainesville: University of Florida Press.
Barnes, F.C. (1989). Cartridges of the World. Northfield, IL: DBI Books, Inc.
Barnwell, J.W. (1926). Journal of Col. John Barnwell (Tuscarora) in the construction of the Fort on the Altamaha in 1721. The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 27, 189–203.
Barr, J. (2005). From captives to slaves: commodifying Indian women in the borderlands. The Journal of American History, 92, 19–46.
Barsalou, J. (2005). Trauma and transitional justice in divided societies. United States Institute of Peace, 1, 1–12.
Barth, F. (1969). Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference. New York: Waveland Press.
Bass, W.M. (2005). Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual, 5th edn. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society.
Bauer, B.S. & Kellett, L. C. (2010). Cultural transformations of the Chanka Homeland (Andahuaylas, Peru) during the late intermediate period (AD 1000–1400). Latin American Antiquity, 21, 87–111.
Bauer, B.S., Kellett, L.C. & Silva, M.A. (2010). The Chanka, Archaeological Research in Andahuaylas (Apurimac), Peru. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA.
Baustian, K.M., Harrod, R.P., Osterholtz, A.J. & Martin, D.L. (2012). Battered and abused: analysis of trauma at Grasshopper Pueblo (AD 1275–1400). International Journal of Paleopathology, 2, 102–11.
Bazarian, J.J. & Atabaki, S. (2001). Predicting postconcussion syndrome after minor traumatic brain injury. Academic Emergency Medicine, 8, 788–95.
Beals, R.L. (1933). The Acaxee: A Mountain Tribe of Durango and Sinaloa. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Beals, R.L. (1973). The Comparative Ethnology of Northern Mexico before 1750. New York: Cooper Square Publishers Inc.
Bell, D. S. (2003). Mythscapes: memory, mythology, and national identity. The British Journal of Sociology, 54, 63–81.
Bennett, W.C. & Zingg, R.M. (1976). The Tarahumara: An Indian Tribe of Northern Mexico. Glorietta: The Rio Grande Press, Inc.
Bennike, P. (1985). Palaeopathology of Danish Skeletons. A Comparative Study of Demography, Disease and Injury. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
Bennike, P. (2008). Trauma. In: Pinhasi, R. & Mays, S. (eds.) Advances in Human Palaeopathology, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 309–28.
Benson, E.P. & Cook, A.G. (eds.) (2001). Ritual Sacrifice in Ancient Peru. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Berenguer, J. & Dauelsberg, P. (1989). El norte grande en la órbita de Tiwanaku (400 a 1200 D.C.). In: Hidalgo, J., Schiappacasse, V., Niemeyer, H., Aldunate, C. & Solimano, I. (eds.) Culturas De Chile: Prehistoria Desde Sus Orígenes Hasta Los Albores De La Conquista. Santiago de Chile: Andrés Bello, 129–80.
Berner, M. (1988). Das Gräberfeld Von Franzhausen I: Metrische und demographische Analyse. Vienna: Unpublished doctoral thesis.
Berry, D.R. (1985). Dental pathology of Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. In: Merbs, C.F. & Miller, R.J. (eds.) Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest. Tempe: Arizona State University, 253–74.
Berryman, C. (2007). Captive sacrifice and trophy taking among the ancient Maya. In: Chacon, R.J. & Dye, D.H. (eds.) The Taking and Displaying of Human Body Parts as Trophies by Amerindians. New York: Springer US, 377–99.
Berryman, H.E. & Haun, S.J. (1996). Applying forensic techniques to interpret cranial fracture patterns in an archaeological specimen. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 6, 2–9.
Berryman, H.E. & Symes, S.A. (1998). Recognizing gunshot and blunt cranial trauma through fracture interpretation. In: Reichs, K.J. (ed.) Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd edn. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 333–52.
Berryman, H.E. & Symes, S.A. (1998). Recognizing gunshot and blunt cranial trauma through fracture interpretation. In: Reichs, K.J. (ed.) Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd edn. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 333–52.
Berryman, H.E., Shirley, N.R. & Lanfear, A.K. (2013). Low velocity trauma. In: Tersigni-Tarrant, M.T.A. & Shirley, N.R. (eds.) Forensic Anthropology: An Introduction. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 271–90.
Berryman, H.E., Smith, O.C. & Symes, S.A. (1995). Diameter of cranial gunshot wounds as a function of bullet caliber. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 40, 751–4.
Bevan, J. (1999). Diving bells through the centuries. South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society Journal, 29, 42–50.
Bharadwaj, A. (2012). Enculturating cells: the anthropology, substance, and science of stem cells. Annual Review of Anthropology, 41, 303–17.
Bhavnani, R. & Backer, D. (2000). Localized ethnic conflict and genocide: accounting for differences in Rwanda and Burundi. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44, 283–306.
Birkby, W.H. (1982). Biosocial interpretations from cranial non-metric traits of Grasshopper Pueblo skeletal remains. In: Longacre, W.A., Holbrook, S.J. & Graves, M.W. (eds.) Multidisciplinary Research at Grasshopper Pueblo Arizona. Tucson: Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 40, University of Arizona Press, 36–41.
Bishop, N.A. & Knüsel, C. (2005). A palaeodemographic investigation of warfare in prehistory. In: Parker Pearson, M. & Thorpe, I.J. (eds.) Warfare, Violence and Slavery in Prehistory: Proceedings of a Prehistoric Society Conference at Sheffield University. Oxford: Archaeopress, 201–16.
Black III, T.K. (1978). A new method for assessing the sex of fragmentary skeletal remains: femoral shaft circumference. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 48, 227–31.
Black, J.K. (2002). Exorcising the ghost of Pinochet. Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe/European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 73, 105–11.
Blackhawk, N. (2006). Violence over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Blackmer, J. & Marshall, S.C. (1999). A comparison of traumatic brain injury in the Saskatchewan native North American and non-native North American populations. Brain Injury, 13, 627–35.
Blakey, M.L. (2001). Bioarchaeology of the African diaspora in the Americas: its origin and scope. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 387–422.
Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. (1995). Multiple significance tests: the Bonferroni method. British Medical Journal, 310, 170.
Blau, S. & Skinner, M. (2005). The use of forensic archaeology in the investigation of human rights abuse: unearthing the past in East Timor. The International Journal of Human Rights, 9, 449–63.
Blom, D.E. (2005). Embodying borders: human body modification and diversity in Tiwanaku society. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 24, 1–24.
Blom, D.E. (2005). Embodying borders: human body modification and diversity in Tiwanaku Society. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 24, 1–24.
Borić, D. & Robb, J. (2008). Past Bodies. Body-Centred Research in Archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Bourgois, P. (2003). Crack and the political economy of social suffering. Addiction Research and Theory, 11, 31–7.
Bowe, J. (2008). Nobodies: Modern American Slave Labor and the Dark Side of the New Global Economy. New York: Random House.
Bravo, L. & Llagostera, A. (1986). Solcor 3: un aporte al conocimiento de la cultura San Pedro, Período 500 Al 900 D.C. Chungara, 16–17, 323–32.
Brink, O., Vesterby, A. & Jensen, J. (1998). Patterns of injuries due to interpersonal violence. Injury: International Journal of the Care of the Injured, 29, 705–9.
Brinker, U., Flohr, S., Piek, J. & Orschiedt, J. (2013). Violent death and injury in bronze age human remains from riverine contexts in the Tollense Valley, Germany: victims of a battle? In: Knüsel, C. & Smith, M. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict: Traumatized Bodies from Early Prehistory to the Present. London: Routledge.
Brison, S.J. (2002). Outliving Oneself: Trauma, Memory, and Personal Identity. Gender Struggles: Practical Approaches to Contemporary Feminism. Maryland: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 137–65.
Brody, R. (2008). Pinochet’s European Vacation. Human Rights Watch [Online]. Available: . [Accessed October 16, 2013.]
Brondolo, E., Wellington, R., Brady, N., Libby, D. & Brondolo, T.J. (2007). Mechanism and strategies for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder in forensic workers responding to mass fatality incidents. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 15, 78–88.
Brooks, J.F. (2002). Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture.
Brooks, M. & Rumsey, C. (2007). The Body in the Museum. Human Remains: Guide for Museums and Academic Institutions. New York: Altamira Press, 261–89.
Brooks, S. & Suchey, J. (1990). Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: a comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Human Evolution, 5, 227–38.
Brooks, S. & Suchey, J. (1990). Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: a comparison of the Acsadi-Nemskeri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Human Evolution, 5, 227–38.
Brooks, S.T. & Brooks, R. H. (n.d.) Unpublished Site Report.
Brooks, S.T. & Brooks, R.H. (1984). Problems of burial exhumation, historical and forensic aspects. In: Brathbun, T.A. & Buikstra, J.E. (eds.) Human Identification: Case Studies in Forensic Anthropology. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 64–86.
Brooks, S.T. & Brooks, R.H. (1990). Skeletal Remains from La Cueva De Dos Cuchillos, San Francisco De Borja, Chihuahua, Mexico. Para Conocer Al Hombre: Homenaje a Santiago Genovés a 33 Años Como Investigador En La Unam. Universidad National Autónoma de México, 261–71.
Brown, G.M., Windes, T.C. & McKenna, P.J. (2008). Animas anamnesis: Aztec Ruins or Anasazi Capital? In: Reed, P.F. (ed.) Chaco’s Northern Prodigies: Salmon, Aztec, and the Ascendancy of the Middle San Juan Region after AD 1100. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, 231–50.
Brown, J.A. (1971). The dimensions of status in the burials at Spiro. Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices. Society for American Archaeology Memoir, 25, 92–112.
Brubaker, R. & Laitin, D.D. (1998). Ethnic and nationalist violence. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 423–52.
Brues, A.M. (1992). Forensic diagnosis of race – general race vs. specific populations. Social Science and Medicine, 34, 125–8.
Buikstra, J.E. & Beck, L.A. (eds.) (2006). Bioarchaeology: The Contextual Analysis of Human Remains. Burlington: Academic Press.
Buikstra, J.E. & Gordon, C.C. (1980). Individuation in forensic science study: decapitation. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 25, 246–59.
Buikstra, J.E. & Mielke, J.H. (1985). Demography, diet, and health. In: Gilbert, R.I. & Mielke, J.H. (eds.) The Analysis of Prehistoric Diets. Orlando: Academic Press, 359–422.
Buikstra, J.E. & Mielke, J.H. (1985). Demography, diet, and health. In: Gilbert, R.I. & Mielke, J.H. (eds.) The Analysis of Prehistoric Diets. Orlando: Academic Press, 359–422.
Buikstra, J.E. & Ubelaker, D.H. (1994). Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains: Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archeological Survey.
Buikstra, J.E. & Ubelaker, D.H. (eds.) (1994). Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archeological Survey, Research Series, No. 44. A copy of Standards is required to fill out these forms accurately. It may be obtained from the Arkansas Archeological Survey, 2475 N. Hatch Ave., Fayetteville, AR 72704, .
Buikstra, J.E. & Ubelaker, D.H. (eds.) (1994). Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Research Series, No. 44.
Buikstra, J.E. & Ubelaker, D.H. (eds.) (1994). Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Research Series, No. 44.
Buikstra, J.E. & Ubelaker, D.H. (eds.) (1994). Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archeological Survey, Research Series, No. 44.
Buikstra, J.E. & Ubelaker, D.H. (eds.) (1994). Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archeological Survey, Research Series, No. 44.
Buikstra, J.E. & Ubelaker, D.H. (eds.) (1994). Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archeological Survey, Research Series, No. 44.
Buzon, M.R., Eng, J.T., Lambert, P.M. & Walker, P.L. (2005). Bioarchaeological methods. In: Maschner, H.A. & Chippendale, C.A. (eds.) Handbook of Archaeological Methods. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press, 871–918.
Cahill, D. (2010). Advanced Andeans and backward Europeans: structure and agency in the collapse of the Inca Empire. In: McAnany, P.A. & Yoffee, N. (eds.) Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerability, and the Aftermath of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 207–38.
Caldwell, J. (1943). Cultural relations of four Indian sites on the Georgia coast. University of Chicago: Unpublished MA thesis.
Caldwell, S.K. (1952). Field notes 1952 season. Unpublished records. On file at the Fort King George Museum. Darien, GA.
Caldwell, S.K. (1953). Excavations at a Spanish Mission site in Georgia. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter, 31–2.
Caldwell, S.K. (1954). A Spanish mission site near Darien. Early Georgia, 1, 13–17.
Caldwell, S.K. (1970). Editor’s note. Artifacts from the Sites of Three Nineteenth Century Houses and Ditches at Darien Bluff. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology Series Report Number 9.
Caldwell, S.K. (n.d.-a). Fort King George archaeological catalog, Caldwell 1952–1954. Unpublished records. On file at the Fort King George Museum. Darien, GA.
Caldwell, S.K. (n.d.-b). Preliminary report on Fort King George. Unpublished manuscript. On file at the Fort King George Museum. Darien, GA.
Caldwell, S.K. (n.d.-c). Tentative conclusions regarding Spanish mission and village on Darien Bluff. Unpublished manuscript. On file at the Fort King George Museum. Darien, GA.
Cameron, C.M. (2008). Invisible Citizens: Captives and Their Consequences. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.
Cameron, C.M. (2011). Captives and culture change. Current Anthropology, 52, 169–209.
Cameron, C.M. (2011). Captives and culture change: implications for archaeology. Current Anthropology, 52, 169–209.
Cameron, C.M. (in press). The effects of warfare and captive-taking on indigenous mortality in post-contact North America. In: Swedlund, A.C., Cameron, C.M. & Kelton, P.T. (eds.) Beyond Germs: The Impact of Colonialism on Indigenous Health in America. Dragoon: Amerind Foundation.
Capasso, L., Kennedy, K.A.R. & Wilczak, C.A. (1999). Atlas of Occupational Markers on Human Remains. Teramo: Edigrafital S.P.A.
Carlucci, D.E. (2008). Ballistics: Theory and Design of Guns and Ammunition. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group.
Caufeild, J., Singhal, A., Moulton, R., Brenneman, F., Redelmeier, D. & Baker, A.J. (2004). Trauma recidivism in a large urban Canadian population. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 57, 872–6.
Centers for Disease Control (2010). Traumatic Brain Injury in Prisons and Jails: An Unrecognized Problem. Atlanta: CDC.
Chagnon, N. (1992). Yanomamo. New York: Harcourt-Brace College Publishers.
Chase, D.Z. & Chase, A. (1996). Maya multiples: individuals, entries, and tombs in structure A34 of Caracol, Belize. Latin American Antiquity, 7, 61–79.
Chase-Dunn, C. & Taylor, P. (1994). Hegemony and social change. Mershon International Studies Review, 38, 361–6.
Cheek, C.D. & Spink, M.L. (1986). Excavaciones En El Groupo 3, Estructure 223(Operacion Vii). In: Sanders, W.T. (ed.) Excavaciones En El Area Urbana De Copán, Tomo 1. Tegucigalpa: Instituto Hondureno de Antropologia e Historia, 27–154.
Cherryson, A. (2010). In the pursuit of knowledge: dissection, post-mortem surgery and the retention of body parts in 18th- and 19th-century Britain. In: Rebay-Salisbury, K., Stig Sørensen, M.L. & Hughes, J. (eds.) Body Parts and Bodies Whole. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 135–48.
Cieza de León, P. (1998). The Discovery and Conquest of Peru. Chapel Hill: Duke University.
Cieza de Leon, P. (1984) [1553]. La Crónica Del Peru: Primera Parte. Lima: Fondo Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru.
Cieza De Leon, P. (1996) [1553]. La Crónica Del Perú. Madrid: Cornices de America.
Clark, G.A. (1967). A preliminary analysis of burial clusters at the Grasshopper Site, East-Central Arizona. University of Arizona: Unpublished MA thesis.
Coble, M.D., Loreille, O.M., Wadhams, M.J., Edson, S.M., Maynard, K., Meyer, C.E., Niederstätter, H., Berger, C., Berger, B., Falsetti, A.B., Gill, P., Parson, W. & Finelli, L.N. (2009). Mystery solved: the identification of the two missing Romanov children using DNA analysis. PLoS One, 4, e4838.
Cock, G. (1981). El ayllu en la sociedad Andina: alcances y perspectivas. Etnohistoria y Antropología Andina, 17, 231–53.
Cock, G.A. & Goycochea, C.E. (2004). Puruchuco y el cementerio Inca de la quebrada de huaquerones. In: Villacorta Ostolaza, L.F., Vetter Parodi, L. & Ausejo Castillo, C. (eds.) Puruchuco Y La Sociedad De Lima: Un Homenaje a Arturo Jiménez Borja. Lima: Concytec, 179–97.
Cock, G.A. (2006). Proyecto De Recuperación De Contextos Funerarios En El Cementerio 57as03 – Zona Arqueológica Puruchuco-Huaquerones. Lima: Instituto Nacional de Cultura.
Coe, J.I. (1982). External beveling of handgun wounds. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 3, 215–19.
Cohen, M.N. & Armelagos, G.J. (eds.) (1984). Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture. Orlando: Academic Press.
Cohen, R.A., Rosenbaum, A., Kane, R.L., Wamken, W.J. & Benjamin, S. (1999). Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence. Violence and Victims, 14, 397–411.
Collier, S. & Sater, W.F. (2004). A History of Chile, 1808–2002. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Coltrain, J.B., Janetski, J.C. & Carlyle, S.W. (2007). The stable- and radio-isotope chemistry of western basketmaker burials: implications for early Puebloan diets and origins. American Antiquity, 72, 301–21.
Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación. (2003). Informe Final [Online]. Available: . [Accessed September 28, 2013.]
Comisión Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliación (2004). Informe Rettig. Santiago: Ediciones del Ornitorrinco.
Conklin, W.J. & Conklin, B.M. (2007). An Aguada textile in an Atacamenian context. Andean Past, 8, 407–48.
Consejo de Monumentos Nacionales Ministerio de Educación Gobierno de Chile. (n.d.). Parque Por La Paz Villa Grimaldi [Online]. Available: . [Accessed September 28, 2013.]
Cook, A.G. (1992). The stone ancestors: idioms of imperial attire and rank among Huari figurines. Latin American Antiquity, 3, 341–64.
Cook, J. (1990). Fort King George. Step One to Statehood. Darien, GA: Darien News.
Corruccini, R.S., Handler, J.S., Mutaw, R.J. & Lange, F.W. (1982). Osteology of a slave burial population from Barbados, West Indies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 59, 443–59.
Costa Junqueira, M.A., Matheson, C., Iachetta, L., Llagostera, A. & Appenzeller, O. (2009). Ancient leishmaniasis in a highland desert of northern Chile. PLoS One, 4, e6983.
Costa Junqueira, M.A., Neves, W.A. & Hubbe, M. (2004). Influencia de Tiwanaku en la calidad de vida biológica de la población prehistórica de San Pedro de Atacama. Estudios Atacameños, 27, 103–16.
Costa, M.A., Neves, W., Barros, A.M. & Bartolomucci, R. (1998). Trauma y estrés en poblaciones prehistóricas de San Pedro de Atacama, Norte de Chile. Chungara, 30, 65–74.
Courtney, A. & Courtney, M. (2012). Physical Mechanisms of Soft Tissue Injury from Penetrating Ballistic Impact. Colorado Springs: Air Force Academy, Report No. A408075. Published by Storming Media.
Courtwright, D.T. (1998). Violent Land: Single Men and Social Disorder from the Frontier to the Inner City. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Covey, R.A. (2008). Multiregional perspectives on the archaeology of the Andes during the late intermediate period (C. A.D. 1000–1400). Journal of Archaeological Research, 16, 287–338.
Crist, T.A. (2006). The good, the bad, and the ugly: bioarchaeology and the modern gun culture debate. Historical Archaeology, 40, 109–30.
Crossland, Z. (2009). Of clues and signs: the dead body and its evidential traces. American Anthropologist, 111, 69–80.
Csordas, T. (1990). Embodiment as a paradigm for anthropology. Ethos, 18, 5–47.
Csordas, T. (1999). The body’s career in anthropology. In: Moore, H. (ed.) Anthropological Theory Today. Cambridge: Polity, 172–205.
Cucina, A. & Tiesler, V. (eds.) (2007). New Perspectives on Human Sacrifice and Ritual Body Treatments in Ancient Maya Society. New York: Springer.
Currey, J.D. (2002). Bones: Structure and Mechanics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
D’Altroy, T. (2002). The Incas. Malden: Blackwell.
Darling, A.J. (1998). Mass inhumation and the execution of witches in the American Southwest. American Anthropologist, New Series, 100, 732–52.
Darling, A.J. (1998). Mass inhumation and the execution of witches in the American Southwest. American Anthropologist, New Series, 100, 732–52.
De Anda Alanis, G. (2007). Sacrifice and ritual body mutilation in postclassical Maya society: taphonomy of the human remains from Chichén Itzá’s Cenote Sagrado. In: Tiesler, V. & Cucina, A. (eds.) New Perspectives on Human Sacrifice and Ritual Body Treatments in Ancient Maya Society. New York: Springer Press, 190–208.
De Betanzos, J. (2004) [1557]. Suma y Narración de los Incas. Lima: Polifemo.
de Oré, L.G. (1936). The Martyrs of Florida (1513–1616). New York: Joseph F. Wagner, Inc.
De Ribas, A.P. (1971) [1645]. Excerpts from the account of the triumphs of our holy faith among the most fierce and savage people of the New World. . . Vol. 3. In: Hedrick, B.C. Kelley, J.C. & Riley, C.L. (eds.) The North Mexican Frontier. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 154–68.
Del Busto Duthurburu, J.A. (1966). Francisco Pizarro. El Marques Gobernador. Madrid: Ediciones RIALP, S.A.
Del Busto Duthurburu, J.A. (1978). Peru Incaico. Lima: Libreria Studium.
Delabarde, T. & Ludes, B. (2010). Missing in Amazonian jungle: a case report of skeletal evidence for dismemberment. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55, 1105–10.
Delgado, J.P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Underwater and Maritime Archaeology. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dembo, A. & Imbelloni, J. (1938). Deformaciones intencionales del cuerpo humano de carácter étnico. Humanior. Buenos Aires, Sección A, Tomo, 3, 1–348.
Desinan, L. & Mazzolo, G.M. (2005). Gunshot fatalities: suicide, homicide or accident? A series of 48 cases. Forensic Science International, 147S, S37–40.
Di Nunno, N., Costantinides, F., Vacca, M. & Di Nunno, C. (2006). Dismemberment: a review of the literature and description of 3 cases. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 27, 307–12.
DiMaio, D. & DiMaio, V. (2001). Forensic Pathology, 2nd edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
DiMaio, D. & DiMaio, V. (2001). Forensic Pathology, 2nd edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
DiMaio, V.J.M. (1985). Gunshot Wounds: Practical Aspects of Firearms, Ballistics and Forensic Techniques. New York: Elsevier.
Dittrick, J. & Suchey, J.M. (1986). Sex determination of prehistoric central California skeletal remains using discriminant analysis of the femur and humerus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 70, 3–9.
Dogan, K.H., Demirci, S., Deniz, I. & Erkol, Z. (2010). Decapitation and dismemberment of the corpse: a matricide case. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55, 542–5.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge and Keegan Paul.
Druid, H. (1997). Site of entrance wound and direction of bullet path in firearm fatalities as indicators of homicide versus suicide. Forensic Science International, 88, 147–62.
Duncan, W.N. & Stojanowski, C.M. (2008). A case of squamosal craniosynostosis from the 16th century southeastern United States. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 18, 407–20.
Duncan, W.N. (2005). Understanding veneration and violation in the archaeological record. In: Rakita, G.F.M., Buikstra, J.E., Beck, L.A. & Williams, S.R. (eds.) Interacting with the Dead: Perspectives on Mortuary Archaeology for the New Millennium. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 207–27.
Durak, D., Fedakar, R. & Türkmen, N. (2006). A distance-range, suicidal shotgun wound of the back. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51, 131–3.
During, E. (1997). Specific skeletal injuries observed on the human skeletal remains from the Swedish seventeenth century man-of-war, Kronan. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 7, 591–4.
Eeckhout, P. & Owens, L.S. (2008). Human sacrifice at Pachacamac. Latin American Antiquity, 19, 375–98.
Einarsson, L. & Mörzer Bruyns, W.F.J. (2003). A cross-staff from the wreck of the Kronan (1676). The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 32, 53–60.
Einarsson, L. (1990). Kronan – underwater archaeological investigations of a 17th-century man-of-war. The nature, aims and development of a maritime cultural project. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration, 19, 219–97.
Einarsson, L. (2001). Kronan. Kalmar: Kalmar läns Museum.
Einarsson, L. (2006). Kronanprojektet, Rapport Om 2006 Års Marinarkeologiska Undersökningar Av Regalskeppet Kronan. Kalmar: Kalmar läns Museum.
Einarsson, L. (2013). Kronanprojektet, Rapport Om 2012 Års Marinarkeologiska Undersökningar Av Regalskeppet Kronan. Kalmar: Kalmar läns Museum.
Ellis, F.H. (1968). An interpretation of prehistoric death customs in terms of modern southwestern parallels. In: Schroede, A.H. (ed.) Collected Papers in Honor of Lyndon Lane Hargrave. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 57–75.
Elting, J.R. (1997). Swords Around a Throne: Napoleon’s Grande Armée. New York: Da Capo Press.
Ensalaco, M. (1994). Truth commissions for Chile and El Salvador: a report and assessment. Human Rights Quarterly, 16, 656.
Erickson, K.C. (2008). Yaqui Homeland and Homeplace: The Everyday Production of Ethnic Identity. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Escobar, C. (2005). The Status of Kiel Ranch: The City of North Las Vegas has Killed but Not yet Buried the Oldest Historic Site in the State. Las Vegas: PACC, October 2005, Preservation Association of Clark County.
Ezzo, J.A. (1992). Dietary change and variability at Grasshopper Pueblo. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 11, 219–89.
Ezzo, J.A., Jr. & Price, T.D. (2002). Migration, regional reorganization, and spatial group composition at Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 499–520.
Ezzo, J.A., Jr. (1991). Dietary change at Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona: the evidence from bone chemistry analysis. University of Wisconsin: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Ezzo, J.A., Jr. (1993). Human Adaptation at Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona: Social and Ecological Perspecives. Ann Arbor: Archaeological Series, No. 4, International Monographs in Prehistory.
Ezzo, J.A., Jr. (1994). Paleonutrition at Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. In: Sobolik, K.D. (ed.) The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans. Carbondale: Occasional Papers, No. 22, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, 265–79.
Fadala, S. (2005). Black Powder Handbook & Loading Manual, 2nd edn. Middletown: Lyman Books.
Farmer, P. (2004). An anthropology of structural violence. Current Anthropology, 45, 305–25.
Farmer, P., Nizeye, B., Stulac, S. & Ksehavjee, S. (2006). Structural violence and clinical medicine. PLoS Medicine, 3, 1686–91.
Fearon, J. D. & Laitin, D. D. (2003). Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war. American Political Science Review, 97, 75–90.
Fearon, J.D. & Laitin, D.D. (1996). Weak states, rough terrain, and large-scale ethnic violence since 1945. Paper presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.
Fine-Dare, K.S. & Durkee, B.N. (2011). Interpreting an absence: Esther’s legacy at Mesa Verde National Park. Journal of the West, 50, 43–50.
Fine-Dare, K.S. (2002). Grave Injustices: The American Indian Repatriation Movement and NAGPRA. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Fine-Dare, K.S. (2005). Anthropological suspicion, public interest and NAGPRA. Journal of Social Archaeology, 5, 171–92.
Fine-Dare, K.S. (2009). Bodies unburied, mummies displayed: mourning, museums, and identity politics in the Americas. In: Fine-Dare, K.S. & Rubenstein, S.L. (eds.) Border Crossings: Transnational Americanist Anthropology. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 67–118.
Fiorato, V., Boylston, A. & Knüsel, C. (eds.) (2007). Blood Red Roses: The Archaeology of a Mass Grave from the Battle of Towton AD 1461. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Fitzsimmons, J.L. (1998). Classic mortuary anniversaries at Piedrs Negras, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica, 9, 271–8.
Forbes, J.D. (1957). Historical survey of the Indians of Sonora, 1821–1910. Ethnohistory, 4, 335–68.
Foucault, M. (1973). The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. New York: Pantheon Books.
Francis, J.M. & Kole, K.M. (2011). Murder and Martyrdom in Spanish Florida. Don Juan and the Guale Uprising of 1597. New York: American Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers, Number 95.
Franklin, D. (2012). Human skeletal remains from a multiple burial associated with the mutiny of the Voc Retourschip Batavia, 1629. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 22, 740–8.
Frayer, D.W. (1997). Ofnet: evidence for a mesolithic massacre. In: Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 181–216.
Fullerton, C.S., Ursano, R.J. & Wang, L. (2004). Acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in disaster or rescue workers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1370–6.
Furgeson, T.A. (2008). Identification of multiple cranial traumas in a recently closed homicide investigation. Paper presented at the Mountain, Desert & Coastal Physical Anthropologists Annual Meeting, Echo Bay Resort, Nevada.
Furgeson, T.A., Gill, G.W. & Weathermon, R.L. (2009). Identification of multiple cranial traumas in a recently closed homicide investigation. Paper presented at American Academy of Forensic Sciences Annual Scientific Meeting, Denver, CO.
Gómez, D.E. (2009). Investigaciones en sitios de inhumación en Andahuaylas. Universidad Nacional San Cristóbal de Huamanga: Unpublished Lic. thesis.
Gómez-González, J. (2007). La Florida: Fray Alonso Gregorio de Escobedo, (Manuscrito del Siglo XVI, Conservado en la Biblioteca Nacional de España). . [Accessed September 25, 2013.]
Gaither, C. & Murphy, M.S. (2012). Consequences of conquest? Subadult trauma at Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39, 467–78.
Gaither, C., Kent, J., Sánchez, V.V. & Tham, T.R. (2008). Mortuary practices and human sacrifice in the middle Chao valley of Peru: their interpretation in the context of Andean mortuary patterning. Latin American Antiquity, 19, 107–21.
Galloway, A. (1999). Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
Galloway, A. (1999). The biomechanics of fracture production. In: Galloway, A. (ed.) Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 35–62.
Galloway, A. (1999). The biomechanics of fracture production. In: Galloway, A. (ed.) Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 35–62.
Galloway, A. (ed.) (1999). Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
Galloway, A. (ed.) (1999). Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
Galloway, A. (ed.) (1999). Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
Garcilaso de la Vega, I. (1966) [1609–1613]. Comentarios Reales: El Origen De Los Incas. Madrid: Bruguera.
Geiger, M. (1937). The Franciscan conquest of Florida (1573–1618). Catholic University of America: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Gilbert, R.I. & Mielke, J.H. (eds.) (1985). The Analysis of Prehistoric Diets. Orlando: Academic Press.
Gill, G.W. & Weathermon, R.L. (2003). Forensic Case Reports on File, Anthropology Department – Human Remains Repository. Laramie: University of Wyoming.
Glaesser, J., Neuner, F., Lütgehetmann, R., Schmidt, R. & Elbert, T. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury. BMC Psychiatry, 4, 1–6.
Glencross, B. & Sawchuk, L. (2003). The person-years construct: aging and the prevalence of health related phenomena from skeletal samples. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 13, 369–74.
Glencross, B. & Stuart-Macadam, P. (2000). Childhood trauma in the archaeological record. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 10, 198–209.
Goetting, A. (1988). Patterns of homicide among women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 3–19.
Goldstein, P. & Rivera, M. (2004). Arts of greater Tiwanaku: an expansive culture in historical context. In: Young-Sánchez, M. (ed.) Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inka. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 150–85.
Gonzales, T.A., Vance, M., Helpern, M. & Umberger, C.J. (1954). Legal Medicine: Pathology and Toxicology, 2nd edn. New York: Appleton, Century-Crofts, Inc.
Goodman, A.H. & Leatherman, T.L. (eds.) (1998). Building a New Biocultural Synthesis: Political-Economic Perspectives on Human Biology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Goodman, A.H. & Rose, J.C. (1991). Dental enamel hypoplasias as indicators of nutritional status. In: Kelley, M.A. & Larsen, C.S. (eds.) Advances in Dental Anthropology. New York: Wiley-Liss, 279–93.
Gould, R. (1999). Collective violence and group solidarity: evidence from a feuding society. American Sociological Review, 64, 356–80.
Grandin, G. (1985). Kronan Går Under. In: Axel, J.B. (ed.) Regalskeppet Kronan. Höganäs: Bra Böcker, 138–9.
Grandin, G. (2005). The instruction of great catastrophe: truth commissions, national history, and state formation in Argentina, Chile, and Guatemala. The American Historical Review, 110, 46–67.
Green, J.S. (1985). Ethnographic analysis of a 12th century female mummy from Chihuahua, Mexico. In: Tyson, R.A. & Elerick, D.V. (eds.) Two Mummies from Chihuahua, Mexico: A Multidisciplinary Study. San Diego: San Diego Museum Papers No. 19, San Diego Museum of Man, 121.
Grellner, W., Buhmann, D., Giese, A., Gehrke, G., Koops, E. & Püschel, K. (2004). Fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by crossbows. Forensic Science International, 142, 17–23.
Griffin, P.B. (1969). Late Mogollon readaptation in East-Central Arizona. University of Arizona: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Grine, F.E., Jungers, W.L., Tobias, P.V. & Pearson, O.M. (1995). Fossil Homo femur from Berg Aukas, Northern Namibia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 97, 151–85.
Guidotti-Hernández, N.M. (2011). Unspeakable Violence: Remapping U.S. and Mexican National Imaginaries. Durham: Duke University Press.
Guilmartin, J.F. (1991). The cutting edge: an analysis of the Spanish invasion and overthrow of the Inca Empire, 1532–1539. In: Andrien, K. & Adorno, R. (eds.) Transatlantic Encounters: Europeans and Andeans in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California, 40–69.
Gurdjian, E.S. & Webster, J.E. (1958). Head Injuries: Mechanisms, Diagnosis and Management. Boston: Little Brown and Co.
Gutiérrez, R.A. (1991). When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Putkonen, H., Lindberg, N., Holi, M., Rovamo, T. & Weizmann-Henelius, G. (2009a). Gender differences in Finnish homicide offence characteristics. Forensic Science International, 186, 75–80.
Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Weizmann-Henelius, G., Salenius, S., Lindberg, N. & Repo-Tiihonen, E. (2009b). Homicides with mutilation of the victim’s body. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54, 933–7.
Haag, L.C. (2005). Physical forms of contemporary small-arms propellants and their forensic value. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 26, 5–10.
Habig, M.A. (1944). The Franciscan provinces of Spanish North America. The Americas, 1, 88–96.
Haraway, D. (1991). Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge.
Harkins, C. (1990). On Franciscans, archaeology, and old missions. In: Thomas, D.H. (ed.) Columbian Consequences Volume 2. Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands East. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 459–74.
Harkins, C. (n.d.) The Five Franciscan Martyrs of Georgia, Postulator of the Cause. 1235 University Boulevard, Franciscan University of Steubenville. Manuscript on file with authors.
Harrison-Buck, E., McAnany, P.A. & Storey, R. (2007). Empowered and disempowered during the late to terminal classic transition: Maya burial and terminal rituals in the Sibun Valley, Belize. In: Tiesler, V. & Cucina, A. (eds.) New Perspectives on Human Sacrifice and Ritual Body Treatments in Ancient Maya Society. New York: Springer, 74–101.
Harrod, R.P. & Martin, D.L. (in press). Bioarchaeological case studies of slavery, captivity, and other forms of exploitation. In: Marshall, L.W. (ed.) The Archaeology of Slavery: A comparative Approach to Captivity and Coercion. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Harrod, R.P. & Martin, D.L. (in press). Bioarchaeological case studies of slavery, captivity, and other forms of exploitation. In: Marshall, L.W. (ed.) The Archaeology of Slavery: A Comparative Approach to Captivity and Coercion. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Harrod, R.P. (2013). Chronologies of pain and power: violence, inequality, and social control among ancestral pueblo populations (AD 850–1300). University of Nevada, Las Vegas: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Harrod, R.P., Liénard, P. & Martin, D.L. (2012). Deciphering violence: the potential of modern ethnography to aid in the interpretation of archaeological populations. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 63–80.
Harrod, R.P., Thompson, J.L. & Martin, D.L. (2013). Hard labor and hostile encounters: what human remains reveal about institutional violence and Chinese immigrants living in Carlin, Nevada (1885–1923). Historical Archaeology, 46, 85–111.
Haury, E.W. (1958). Evidence at Point of Pines for a prehistoric migration from Northern Arizona. In: Thompson, R.H. (ed.) Migrations in New World Culture History. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1–8.
Hedges, B.E., Dimsdale, J.E., Hoyt, D.B., Berry, C. & Leitz, K. (1995). Characteristics of repeat trauma patients, San Diego County. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 1008–10.
Hejna, P., Šafr, M. & Zátopková, L. (2012). The ability to act – multiple suicidal gunshot wounds. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 19, 1–6.
Hemming, J. (1970). The Conquest of the Incas. London: Macmillan.
Hertz, R. (1960) [1907]. Death and the Right Hand. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
Hillson, S. (1996). Dental Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hillson, S.W. (1996). Dental Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hillson, S.W. (1996). Dental Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Himmerich, Y. & Valencia, R. (1998). The 1536 siege of Cuzco: an analysis of Inca and Spanish warfare. Colonial Latin American Historical Review, 7, 387–418.
Hinkes, M.J. (1983). Skeletal evidence of Stress in subadults: trying to come of age at Grasshopper Pueblo. Tucson: University of Arizona: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Hinton, A. (ed.) (2002). The Annihilation of Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hirth, K.G. (1989). Militarism and social organization at Xochicalco, Morelos. In: Diehl, R.A. & Berlo, J.C. (eds.) Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 69–82.
Hite, K. & Collins, C. (2009). Memorial fragments, monumental silences and reawakenings in 21st-century Chile. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 38, 379–400.
Hofbauer, M., Kdolsky, R., Figl, M., Grünauer, J., Aldrian, S., Ostermann, R.C. & Vècsei, V. (2010). Predictive factors influencing the outcome after gunshot injuries to the head – a retrospective cohort study. Journal of Trauma, 69, 770–5.
Hollerman, J.J., Fackler, M., Coldwell, D.M. & Ben-Menachem, Y. (1990). Gunshot wounds: 1. Bullets, ballistics, and mechanisms of injury. American Journal of Roentgenology, 155, 685–90.
Hoppa, R.D. (2002). Paleodemography: looking back and thinking ahead. In: Hoppa, R.D. & Vaupel, J.W. (eds.) Paleodemography: Age Distribution from Skeletal Samples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 9–28.
Horowitz, D.L. (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hoshower, L.M., Buikstra, J.E., Goldstein, P.S. & Webster, A.D. (1995). Artificial cranial deformation at the Omo M10 site: a Tiwanaku complex from the Moquegua Valley, Peru. Latin American Antiquity, 6, 145–64.
Hostnig, R., Palomino, P.D. & Decoster, J.J. (2007) [1612]. Proceso De Composición Y Titulación De Tierras En Apurimac. Cuzco: Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas y Asesoramiento.
Hrdlička, A. (1904). Notes on the Indians of Sonora, Mexico. American Anthropologist, 6, 51–89.
Hrdlička, A. (n.d.). Personal Journal. Unpublished.
Hu-DeHart, E. (1974). Development and rural rebellion: pacification of the Yaquis in the late Porfiriato. The Hispanic American Historical Review, 54, 72–93.
Hu-DeHart, E. (1984). Yaqui Resistance and Survival: The Struggle for Land and Autonomy 1821–1910. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Hubbe, M., Oviedo, M. & Torres-Rouff, C. (2011). Estado de conservación y contextualización cronológica de la colección osteológica “Gustavo Le Paige.” Estudios Atacameños, 41, 29–44.
Hubert, H. & Mauss, M. (1964). Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function. London: Cohen & West.
Hulse, F.S. (n.d.) Certain Caucasian skeletal remains from the site at Ft. King George. Unpublished manuscript. On file at the Fort King George Museum. Darien, GA.
Humphrey, J.H. & Hutchinson, D.L. (2001). Macroscopic characteristics of hacking trauma. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46, 228–33.
Huss-Ashmore, R., Goodman, A.H. & Armelagos, G.J. (1982). Nutritional inference from paleopathology. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, 5, 395–474.
Hutchinson, D.L. (1996). Brief encounters: Tatham Mound and the evidence for Spanish and Native American confrontation. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 6, 51–65.
Hutchinson, D.L. (2009). Tatham Mound and the Bioarchaeology of European Contact: Depopulation in Central Gulf Coast Florida. Gainesville: University of Florida.
Hutchison, E. & Bleiker, R. (2008). Emotional reconciliation reconstituting identity and community after trauma. European Journal of Social Theory, 11, 385–403.
Hwang, S.W., Colantonio, A., Chiu, S., Tolomiczenko, G., Kiss, A., Cowan, L., Redelmeier, D.A. & Levinson, W. (2008). The effect of traumatic brain injury on the health of homeless people. Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), 179, 779–84.
Hyland, S. & Amado Gonzalez, D. (2010). Marriage and conflict among Chanka Kurakas, 1570–1775. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Midwest Andean Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory. Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne. February 21.
Hyma, B.A. & Rao, V.J. (1991). Evaluation and identification of dismembered human remains. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 12, 291–9.
Informe, Rettig, (1991). Informe de la Comisión Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliación.
Irwin-Williams, C. (ed.) (1972). The Structure of Chacoan Society in the Northern Southwest: Investigations at the Salmon Site-1972. Portales: Eastern New Mexico University Contributions in Anthropology 4(3).
Isbell, W.H. (1997). Mummies and Mortuary Monuments: A Postprocessual Prehistory of Central Andean Social Organization. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Itabashi, H., Andrews, J.M., Tomiyasu, U., Erlich, S.S. & Sathyavagiswaran, L. (2007). Forensic Neuropathology. New York: Elsevier, Academic Press.
Ivers, L.E. (1996). British occupation of the Altamaha. Drums Along the Altamaha, A Historic Symposium Held at Fort King George State Historic Site. November 10, 1996.
Jantzen, C., Jantzen, D. & Terberger, T. (2008). Der Fundplatz Weltzin, Lkr. Demmin – ein Zeugnis bronzezeitlicher Konflikte? In: Piek, J. & Terberger, T. (eds.) Traumatologische und pathologische Veränderungen an prähistorischen und historischen Skelettresten – Diagnose, Ursachen und Kontext: Interdisziplinärer Workshop in Rostock-Warnemünde, 17.-18. November 2006. Rahden, Westf: Leidorf, 89–98.
Jantzen, D., Brinker, U., Orschiedt, J., Heinemeier, J., Piek, J., Hauenstein, K., Krüger, J., Lidke, G., Lübke, H., Lampe, R., Lorenz, S., Schult, M. & Terberger, T. (2011). A Bronze Age battlefield? Weapons and trauma in the Tollense Valley, North-Eastern Germany. Antiquity, 85, 417–33.
Johnson, J.G. (1923). The Yamasee revolt of 1597 and the destruction of the Georgia missions. Georgia Historical Quarterly, 7, 44–53.
Johnson, R.E. (1983). An archaeological reconnaissance survey of the proposed Sawgrass Cove apartment complex, Darien Lower Bluff, Mcintosh County, Georgia. Unpublished report. On file at the Fort King George Museum. Darien, GA.
Johnston, F.E. (1962). Growth of long bones of infants and young children at Indian Knoll. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 20, 249–53.
Jones, G.D. (1978). The ethnohistory of the Guale coast through 1684. In: Thomas, D.H., Jones, G.D., Durham, R.S. & Larsen, C.S. (eds.) The Anthropology of St. Catherines Island. 1. Natural and Cultural History. Anthropological Papers 55, pt 2. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 178–210.
Joseph, J.W., Hamby, T.M. & Long, C.S. (2004). Historical Archaeology in Georgia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology Series Report Number 39.
Joyce, R.A. (2005). Archaeology of the body. Annual Review of Anthropology, 34, 139–58.
Judd, M.A. (2002). Ancient injury recidivism: an example from the Kerma Period of Ancient Nubia. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 12, 89–106.
Judd, M.A. (2002). Ancient injury recidivism: an example from the Kerma Period of Ancient Nubia. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 12, 89–106.
Julien, C. (2002) [1539]. Diego Maldonado y los Chancas. Revista Andina, 34, 183–97.
Jurik, N.C. & Winn, R. (1990). Gender and homicide: a comparison of men and women who kill. Violence and Victims, 5, 227–42.
Jurmain, R. (1999). Stories from the Skeleton: Behavioral Reconstruction in Osteoarchaeology. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers.
Kahana, T., Aleman, I., Botella, M.C., Novoselsky, Y., Volkov, N. & Hiss, J. (2010). Postmortem dismemberment in two Mediterranean countries. Journal of Forensic Identification, 60, 557–72.
Kakaliouras, A.M. (2008). Leaving few bones unturned: recent work on repatriation by osteologists. American Anthropologist, 110, 44–52.
Kakaliouras, A.M. (2012). An anthropology of repatriation: contemporary physical anthropological and Native American ontologies of practice. Current Anthropology, 53, S210–21.
Karger, B. & DuChesne, A. (1997). Who fired the gun? A causistic contribution to the differentiation between self-inflicted and non-self-inflicted gunshot wounds. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 110, 33–5.
Karger, B., Billeb, E., Koops, E. & Brinkmann, B. (2002). Autopsy features relevant for discrimination between suicidal and homicidal gunshot injuries. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 116, 273–8.
Karger, B., Rand, S.P. & Brinkmann, B. (2000). Criminal anticipation of DNA investigations resulting in mutilation of a corpse. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 113, 247–8.
Karlsson, T. (1998). Sharp force homicides in the Stockholm Area, 1983–1992. Forensic Science International, 94, 129–39.
Keeley, L.H. (1996). War before Civilization. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kellerman, A.L. & Mercy, J.A. (1992). Men, women, and murder: gender-specific differences in rates of fatal violence and victimization. The Journal of Trauma, 33, 1–5.
Kellett, L.C. (2010). Chanka settlement ecology: hilltop sites, land use and warfare in late prehispanic Andahuaylas, Peru. University of New Mexico: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Kelley, E.A. (1978). The temple of the skulls at Alta Vista, Chalchihuites. In: Riley, C.L. & Hedrick, B.C. (eds.) Across the Chichimec Sea. Carbondale: Papers in Honor of J. Charles Kelley: Southern Illinois University Press, 102–26.
Kelso, W.M. (1968). Excavations at the Fort King George Historical Site, Darien, Georgia. The 1967 Survey. Atlanta, GA: Georgia Historical Commission Archaeological Research Series Number 1.
Kennedy, J.G. (1996). Tarahumara of the Sierra Madre. Pacific Grove: Asilomar Press.
Kerley, E.R. (1973). Forensic anthropology. In: Wecht, C.H. (ed.) Legal Medicine Annual. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 161–98.
Kimmerle, E.H. & Baraybar, J.P. (eds.) (2008). Skeletal Trauma: Identification of Injuries Resulting from Human Remains Abuse and Armed Conflict. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Kimmerle, E.H. & Baraybar, J.P. (eds.) (2008). Skeletal Trauma: Identification of Injuries Resulting from Human Remains Abuse and Armed Conflict. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Kimmerle, E.H. & Baraybar, J.P. (eds.) (2008). Skeletal Trauma: Identification of Injuries Resulting from Human Remains Abuse and Armed Conflict. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Kimmerle, E.H. & Baraybar, J.P. (eds.) (2008). Skeletal Trauma: Identification of Injuries Resulting from Human Rights Abuses and Armed Conflict. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Kjellström, A. (2005). A sixteenth-century warrior grave from Uppsala, Sweden: the Battle of Good Friday. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 15, 23–50.
Klaus, H.D. & Tam, M.E. (2009). Surviving contact: biological transformation, burial, and ethnogenesis in the colonial Lambayeque Valley, North Coast of Peru. In: Knudson, K.J. & Stojanowski, C.M. (eds.) Bioarchaeology and Identity in the Americas. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 126–52.
Klaus, H.D. (2012). The bioarchaeology of structural violence: a theoretical model and a case study. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 29–62.
Klaus, H.D., Centurión, J. & Curo, M. (2010). Bioarchaeology of human sacrifice: an integrated study of health, identity, and ritual violence at Cerro Cerrillos, Peru. Antiquity, 84, 1102–22.
Knobloch, P.J. (2002). Who Was Who in the Middle Horizon Andean Prehistory [Online]. Available: . [Accessed September 10, 2012.]
Knudson, K.J. & Stojanowski, C.M. (eds.) (2009). Bioarchaeology and Identity in the Americas. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Kohler, T.A. & Turner, K.K. (2006). Raiding for women in the pre-hispanic northern Pueblo Southwest? Current Anthropology, 47, 1035–45.
Komar, D.A. & Buikstra, J. E. (2008). Forensic Anthropology: Contemporary Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Komar, D.A. & Buikstra, J.E. (2008). Forensic Anthropology: Contemporary Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Komar, D.A. & Buikstra, J.E. (2008). Forensic Anthropology: Contemporary Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Komar, D.A. & Buikstra, J.E. (2008). Forensic Anthropology: Contemporary Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Konopka, T., Bolechała, F. & Strona, M. (2006). An unusual case of corpse dismemberment. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 27, 163–5.
Konopka, T., Strona, M., Bolechała, F. & Kunz, J. (2007). Corpse dismemberment in the material collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Cracow, Poland. Legal Medicine, 9, 1–13.
Korbin, J. (2003). Children, childhoods, and violence. Annual Review of Anthropology, 32, 431–46.
Kornbluh, P. (2004). The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability. New York: The New Press.
Korres, D.S., Zoubos, A.B., Kavadias, K., Babis, G.C. & Balalis, K. (1994). The “tear drop” (or avulsed) fracture of the anterior inferior angle of the axis. European Spine Journal, 3, 151–4.
Koziol, K.M. (2012). Performances of imposed status: captivity at Cahokia. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 226–250.
Kriesberg, L. (1993). Intractable conflicts. Peace Review, 5, 417–21.
Kroman, A. (2007). Fracture biomechanics of the human skeleton. University of Tennessee: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Kroman, A.M. & Symes, S.A. (2012). Investigation of skeletal trauma. In: Digangi, E.A. & Moore, M.K. (eds.) Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology. Oxford: Academic Press, 219–40.
Kuckelman, K.A., Lightfoot, R.R. & Martin, D.L. (2002). The bioarchaeology and taphonomy of violence at Castle Rock and Sand Canyon Pueblos, Southwestern Colorado. American Antiquity, 67, 486–513.
Kuckelman, K.A., Lightfoot, R.R. & Martin, D.L. (2002). The bioarchaeology and taphonomy of violence at Castle Rock and Sand Canyon Pueblos, Southwestern Colorado. American Antiquity, 67, 486–513.
Kuhlman, T.L. (1988). Gallows humor for a scaffold setting: managing aggressive patients on a maximum-security forensic uni. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 39, 1085–90.
Kurin, D.S. (2012). The bioarchaeology of collapse: ethnogenesis and ethnocide in Post-Imperial Andahuaylas, Peru (AD 900–1200). Vanderbilt University: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Kury, G., Weiner, J. & Duval, J.V. (2000). Multiple self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head: report of a case and review of the literature. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 21, 32–5.
López, A. (1931). Relación Histórica de la Florida Escrita en el Siglo XVII. Volume 1. Madrid.
LaGarde, L.A. (1916). Gunshot Injuries: How They Are Inflicted; Their Complications and Treatment, 2nd edn. New York: William Wood and Co.
LaLone, D. (2000). Rise, fall and semiperipheral development in the Andean world system. Journal of World-Systems Research, 1, 67–98.
Lambert, P.M. (2002). The archaeology of war: a North American perspective. Journal of Archaeological Research, 10, 207–41.
Lanning, J.T. (1935). The Spanish Missions of Georgia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Larraín, J. (2006). Changes in Chilean identity: thirty years after the military coup. Nations and Nationalism, 12, 321–38.
Larsen, C.S. (1987). Bioarchaeological interpretations of subsistence economy and behavior from human skeletal remains. In: Schiffer, M.B. (ed.) Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 10. San Diego: Academic Press, 339–445.
Larsen, C.S. (1999). Bioarchaeology: Interpreting Behavior from the Human Skeleton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Larsen, C.S., Huynh, H.P. & McEwan, B.G. (1996). Death by gunshot: biocultural implications of trauma at Mission San Luis. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 6, 42–50.
Le Paige, G. (1964). Los cementerios de la época agroalfarera en San Pedro de Atacama. Anales de la Universidad del Norte, 3, 43–93.
LeBlanc, S.A. & Register, K.E. (2003). Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
LeBlanc, S.A. & Rice, G.E. (2001). Southwestern warfare: the value of case studies. In: Leblanc, S.A. & Rice, G.E. (eds.) Deadly Landscapes: Case Studies in Prehistoric Southwestern Warfare. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1–18.
LeBlanc, S.A. (1999). Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.
LeBlanc, S.A. (2006). Who made the Mimbres bowls? Implications of recognizing individual artists for craft specialization and social networks. In: Powell-Marti, V.S. & Gilman, P.A. (eds) Mimbres Society. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 109–50.
Lekson, S.H. (2007). Great house form. In: Lekson, S.H. (ed.) The Architecture of Chaco Canyon, New Mexcio. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, 7–44.
Leon-Carrion, J. & Ramos, F.J. (2003). Blows to the head during development can predispose to violent criminal behaviour: rehabilitation of consequences of head injury is a measure for crime prevention. Brain Injury, 17, 207–16.
Lessa, A. & Mendonça de Souza, S. (2006). Broken noses for the gods: ritual battles in the Atacama desert during the Tiwanaku period. Memorias del Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 101(suppl 2), 133–8.
Levin, J. & Fox, J.A. (2007). Normalcy in behavioral characteristics of the sadistic serial killer. In: Kocsis, R.N. (ed.) Serial Murder and the Psychology of Violent Crimes. Totowa: Humana Press Inc., 3–14.
Lewis, B. (1953). Comments on the Spanish Mission Site. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter, 3, 32–3.
Lewis, B. (1967). Fort King George. Georgia Magazine, October/November, 22–4.
Lewis, B. (2002). They Called Their Town Darien. Privately published by the Lower Altamaha Historical Society.
Lindkvist, T. & Sjöberg, M. (2010). Det Svenska Samhället 800–1720. Klerkernas Och Adelns Tid. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
Lister, R.H. (1958). Archaeological Excavations in the Northern Sierra Madre Occidental, Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico, with Reports by Paul C. Mangelsdorf and Kate Peck Kent. Boulder: University of Colorado Press.
Llagostera, A. & Costa Junqueira, M.A. (1990). Inventario Solcor 3, San Pedro De Atacama. Manuscript on File. Archives of the Museo Arqueologico R.P. Gustavo Le Paige, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile.
Llagostera, A. & Costa, M.A. (1999). Patrones de asentamiento en la época agroalfarera de San Pedro de Atacama (norte de Chile). Estudios Atacameños, 17, 175–206.
Llagostera, A. (1996). San Pedro de Atacama: nodo de complementariedad reticular. In: Revesz, B. (ed.) La Integración Surandina Cinco Siglos Después. Cusco: Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos Bartolomé de las Casas, 17–42.
Llagostera, A. (2004). Los Antiguos Habitantes Del Salar De Atacama: Prehistoria Atacameña. Santiago: Pehuén Editores.
Llagostera, A., Torres, C.M. & Costa Junqueira, M.A. (1988). El complejo psicotrópico en Solcor 3 (San Pedro De Atacama). Estudios Atacameños, 9, 61–98.
Lockhart, J. (1972). The Men of Cajamarca. Austin: University of Texas.
Lodén, M. 2008. Svärdshugg eller explosion? En osteogisk analys ay skelettelment med perimortala huggmärken från regalskeppet Kronan. Master Thesis, Stockholm University.
Lofaro, E.M., Kurin, D.S., Krigbaum, J. & Kamenov, G. (2011). Isotopic analysis of Chanka mobility in the central highlands of Peru (Ca. AD 1000–1450). University of Florida: Unpublished MA thesis.
Lorentz, K.O. (2008). From bodies to bones and back: theory and human bioarchaeology. In: Schutkowski, H. (ed.) Between Biology and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 273–303.
Lovejoy, C.O., Meindl, R.S., Pryzbeck, T.R. & Mensforth, R.P. (1985). Chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the ilium: a new method for the determination of adult skeletal age at death. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 68, 15–28.
Lovell, N.C. (1997). Trauma analysis in paleopathology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 40, 139–70.
Lovell, N.C. (1997). Trauma analysis in paleopathology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 40, 139–70.
Lovell, N.C. (1997). Trauma analysis in paleopathology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 40, 139–70.
Lovell, N.C. (1997). Trauma analysis in paleopathology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 40, 139–70.
Lovell, N.C. (1997). Trauma analysis in paleopathology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 40, 139–70.
Lovell, N.C. (2008). Analysis and interpretation of skeletal trauma. In: Katzenberg, M.A. & Saunders, S.R. (eds) Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, 2nd edn. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 341–86.
Lovell, N.C. (2008). Analysis and interpretation of skeletal trauma. In: Katzenberg, M.A. & Saunders, S.R. (eds.) Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, 2nd edn. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 341–86.
Lovell, N.C. (2008). Analysis and interpretation of skeletal trauma. In: Katzenberg, M.A. & Saunders, S.R. (eds.) Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, 2nd edn. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 341–86.
Loveman, B. (1986). Military dictatorship and political opposition in Chile, 1973–1986. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 28, 1–38.
Lowell, J.C. (2007). Women and men in warfare and migration: implications of gender imbalance in the Grasshopper Region of Arizona. American Antiquity, 72, 95–123.
Lozada, M.C. & Buikstra, J.E. (2002). El Senorio Chiribaya En La Costa Sur Del Peru. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peranos.
Lumholtz, C. (1902). Unknown Mexico: a Record of Five Years’ Exploration among the Tribes of the Western Sierra Madre; in the Tierra Caliente of Tepic and Jalisco; and among the Tarascos of Michoacan, Vol. 1. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons.
Magaña, R. (2011). Dead bodies. The deadly display of Mexican border politics. In: Masci-Alees, F.E. (ed.) A Companion to the Anthropology of the Body and Embodiment. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd., 157–71.
Mall, G., Graw, M., Gehring, K. & Hubig, M. (2000). Determination of sex from femora. Forensic Science International, 113, 315–21.
Mann, C.R. (1990). Black female homicide in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 176–201.
Mariotti, V., Facchini, F. & Belcastro, M.G. (2007). The study of entheses: proposal of a standardised scoring method for twenty-three entheses of the postcranial skeleton. Collegium Antropologicum, 31, 291–313.
Marmar, C.R., Metzler, T., Chemtob, C., Delucchi, K., Liberman, A., Fagan, J. et al. (2006) Impact of the World Trade Center Attacks on the New York City Police Department: A Prospective Study. New York Academy of Sciences Conference Psychobiology of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Decade of Progress. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
Marshall, M.P., Stein, J.R., Loose, R.W. & Novotny, J.E. (1979). Anasazi Communities of the San Juan Basin. Santa Fe: Public Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque; New Mexico Historic Preservation Bureau.
Martin, D.L. & Akins, N.J. (2001). Unequal treatment in life as in death: trauma and mortuary behavior at La Plata (AD 1000–1300). In: Mitchell, D.R. & Brunson-Hadley, J.L. (eds.) Ancient Burial Practices in the American Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 223–48.
Martin, D.L. & Cameron, C.M. (2012). Archaeological and bioarchaeological perspectives on captivity and slavery. Anthropology News, 53, 4–5.
Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) (1997). Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.
Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) (1997). Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.
Martin, D.L. & Harrod, R.P. (2012). Body parts and parts of bodies: traces of violence in past cultures, editorial. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2, 49–52.
Martin, D.L. & Stone, P.K. (2003). Reanalysis of Aztec Ruins and Pueblo Bonito Remains at the American Museum of Natural History [Unpublished Raw Data]. Las Vegas: Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada.
Martin, D.L. (1997). Violence against women in the La Plata River Valley (A.D. 1000–1300). In: Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 45–75.
Martin, D.L. (1997). Violence against women in the La Plata River Valley (A.D. 1000–1300). In: Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 45–75.
Martin, D.L. (2008a). Reanalysis of trauma in the La Plata Valley (900–1300): strategic social violence and the bioarchaeology of captivity. In: Stodder, A.L.W. (ed.) Reanalysis and Reinterpretation in Southwestern Bioarchaeology. Tempe: Arizona State University, Anthropological Research Papers, 167–84.
Martin, D.L. (2008b). Ripped flesh and torn souls: evidence for slavery in the prehistoric Southwest, AD 800–1500. In: Cameron, C.M. (ed.) Invisible Citizens: Captives and Their Consequences. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, 159–80.
Martin, D.L., Akins, N.J., Crenshaw, B.J. & Stone, P.K. (2008). Inscribed in the body, written on the bones: the consequences of social violence at La Plata. In: Nichols, D.L. & Crown, P.L. (eds.) Social Violence in the Prehispanic American Southwest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 98–122.
Martin, D.L., Akins, N.J., Crenshaw, B.J. & Stone, P.K. (2008). Inscribed on the body, written in the bones: the consequences of social violence at La Plata. In: Nichols, D.L. & Crown, P.L. (eds.) Social Violence in the Prehispanic American Southwest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 98–122.
Martin, D.L., Akins, N.J., Crenshaw, B.J. & Stone, P.K. (2008). Inscribed on the body, written in the bones: the consequences of social violence at La Plata. In: Nichols, D.L. & Crown, P.L. (eds.) Social Violence in the Prehispanic American Southwest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 98–122.
Martin, D.L., Akins, N.J., Goodman, A.H. & Swedlund, A.C. (2001). Harmony and Discord: Bioarchaeology of the La Plata Valley. Santa Fe: New Mexico Office of Archaeological Studies.
Martin, D.L., Goodman, A.H. & Armelagos, G.J. (1985). Skeletal pathologies as indicators of quality and quantity of diet. In: Gilbert, R.I. & Mielke, J.H. (eds.) The Analysis of Prehistoric Diets. Orlando: Academic Press, 227–79.
Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Fields, M. (2010). Beaten down and worked to the bone: bioarchaeological investigations of women and violence in the ancient Southwest. Landscapes of Violence, 1, Article 3.
Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Fields, M. (2010). Beaten down and worked to the bone: bioarchaeological investigations of women and violence in the Ancient Southwest. Landscapes of Violence, 1, Article 3.
Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (2012). Introduction: bioarchaeology and the study of violence. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1–10.
Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (2012b). Introduction: bioarchaeology and the study of violence. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1–10.
Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (2013). Bioarchaeology: An Integrated Approach to Working with Human Remains. New York: Springer.
Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) (2012a). The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Martin, P.T. (1988). Historic American Buildings Survey: Kiel Ranch, North Las Vegas, Nevada, HABS No. NV-19. San Francisco: National Park Service, Western Region.
Maschner, H.D. & Reedy-Maschner, K.L. (1998). Raid, retreat, defend (repeat): the archaeology and ethnohistory of warfare on the North Pacific Rim. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 17, 19–51.
Masson, M. & Mock, S. (2004). Ceramics and settlement patterns at terminal classic period lagoon sites in Northern Belize. In: Demarest, A.A., Rice, P.M. & Rice, D.S. (eds.) The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 367–401.
Mays, S. (1998). The Archaeology of Human Bones. London, New York: Routledge.
McAnany, P., Thomas, B., Morandi, S., Peterson, P.A. & Harrison, E. (2002). Praise the ahaw and pass the kakaw: Xibun Maya and the political economy of Cacao. In: Masson, M.A. & Friedel, D.A. (eds.) Ancient Maya Political Economies. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press, 123–39.
McClelland, J.A. (2003). Refining the resolution of biological distance studies based on the analysis of dental morphology: detecting subpopulations at Grasshopper Pueblo. University of Arizona: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
McHenry, H.M. (1992). Body size and proportions in early hominids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 87, 407–31.
McLaughlin, M. (1990). The woman warrior: gender, warfare and society in medieval Europe. Women’s Studies, 17, 193–200.
Meade, T.A. (2001). Holding the junta accountable: Chile’s ‘Sitios De Memoria’ and the history of torture, disappearance, and death. Radical History Review, 79, 123–39.
Meddings, D.R. & O’Conner, S.M. (1999). Circumstances around weapon injury in Cambodia after departure of a peacekeeping force: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 319, 412–15.
Meindl, R.S. & Lovejoy, C.O. (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: a revised method for the determination of skeletal age at death based on the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 68, 57–66.
Mendeloff, D. (2009). Trauma and vengeance: assessing the psychological and emotional effects of post-conflict justice. Human Rights Quarterly, 31, 592–623.
Mendolia, M., Moore, J. & Tesser, A. (1996). Dispositional and situational determinants of repression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 856–67.
Mendoza, R.G. (2007). The divine gourd tree: Tzompantli skull racks, decapitation rituals, and human trophies in Ancient Mesoamerica. In: Chacon, R.J. & Dye, D.H. (eds.) The Taking and Displaying of Human Body Parts as Trophies by Amerindians. New York: Springer, 400–43.
Menzel, D. (1968). La Cultura Huari. Lima: Compañía de Seguros y Reaseguros Peruano-Suiza.
Merbs, C.F. (1989). Trauma. In: Iscan, M.Y. & Kennedy, K.A.R. (eds.) Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton. New York: Alan R. Liss, 161–99.
Merbs, C.F. (1989). Trauma. In: Iscan, M.Y. & Kennedy, K.A.R. (eds.) Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton. New York: Alan R. Liss, 161–99.
Merrill, W.R. (1988). Rarámuri Souls: Knowledge and Social Process in Northern Mexico. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Meyers, A.D. & Carlson, D.L. (2002). Peonage, power relations, and the built environment at Hacienda Tabi, Yucatán, Mexico. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 6, 225–52.
Meyers, A.D., Harvey, A.S. & Levithol, S.A. (2008). Houselot refuse disposal and geochemistry at a late 19th century hacienda village in Yucatán, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology, 33, 371–88.
Milella, M., Mariotti, V. & Belcastro, M. (2011). You Can’t Tell a Book by Its Cover: The Effects of Age, Sex and Physical Activity on Theseal Changes in an Italian Contemporary Skeletal Collection. 80th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Minneapolis, MN.
Miller, N. (2006). The historiography of nationalism and national identity in Latin America. Nations and Nationalism, 12, 201–21.
Milner, G.R. & Boldsen, J.L. (2012). Humeral and femoral head diameters in recent white American skeletons. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57, 35–40.
Milner, G.R., Larsen, C.S., Hutchinson, D.L., Williamson, M.A. & Humpf, D.A. (2000). Conquistadors, excavators or rodents: what damaged the King Site skeletons? American Antiquity, 65, 355–63.
Mock, S.B. (1997). Monkey business at northern river lagoon: a coastal-inland interaction sphere in Northern Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica, 8, 165–83.
Moehring, E.P. & Green, M.S. (2005). Las Vegas: A Centennial History. Reno: University of Nevada Press.
Moisés, R., Kelley, J.H. & Holden, W.C. (1971). A Yaqui Life: The Personal Chronicle of a Yaqui Indian. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Molina, D.K. & DiMaio, V.J. (2008). Rifle wounds: a review of range and location as pertaining to manner of death. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 29, 201–5.
Molina, D.K., Wood, L.E. & DiMaio, V.J. (2007). Shotgun wounds: a review of range and location as pertaining to manner of death. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 28, 99–102.
Molina, H. (2000). Historic autonomies: Yaqui autonomy. In: Mayor, A. B. C. Y. (ed.) Indigenous Autonomy in Mexico. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, 98–116.
Montaner, L.B. (1988). Atentados a La Libertad De Información Ya Los Medios De Comunicación En Chile, 1973–1987. CENECA.
Moore, L.M. (2009). (Re)Covering the past, remembering trauma: the politics of commemoration at sites of atrocity. Journal of Public and International Affairs, 20, 47–64.
Morgan, M.E. (ed.) (2010). Pecos Pueblo Revisted: The Biological and Social Context. Cambridge: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Harvard University.
Moritz, A.R. (1954). The Pathology of Trauma. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.
Morris, E.H. (1924). Burials in the Aztec Ruin. New York: Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History.
Moser, C.M. (1973). Human Decapitation in Ancient Mesoamerica. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks.
Moshenska, G. (2009). Resonant materiality and violent remembering: archaeology, memory and bombing. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 15, 44–56.
Mullins, P. (2012). Fortaleza de Quirihuac: a Chimú Fortress in the Middle Moche Valley. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Unpublished Honors Thesis.
Murphy, M.S., Gaither, C., Goycochea, E., Verano, J.W. & Cock, G. (2010). Violence and weapon-related trauma at Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 142, 636–49.
Nado, K.L., Marsteller, S.M., King, L.M., Daverman, B.M., Torres Rouff, C. & Knudson, K.J. (2012). Examining local social identities through patterns of biological and cultural variation in the Solcor Ayllu, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. Chungara, 44, 239–55.
Nag, N.K. & Sinha, P. (1992). A note on assessability of firing distance from gunshot residues. Forensic Science International, 56, 1–17.
Nelson, B.A., Darling, J.A. & Kice, D.A. (1992). Mortuary practices and the social order at La Quemada, Zacatecas, Mexico. Latin American Antiquity, 3, 298–315.
Neugebauer, C., Neugebauer, J. & Gattringer, A. (1997). Franzhausen: Das frühbronzezeitliche Gräberfeld 1. Horn: Berger.
Neugebauer, J. (1994). Die frühe und beginnende mittlere Bronzezeit in Ostösterreich südlich der Donau. Zalai Múzeum, 5, 85–111.
Neves, W.A. & Costa Junqueira, M.A. (1998). Adult stature and standard of siving in the prehistoric Atacama Desert. Current Anthropology, 39, 278–81.
New York Times. (1902a). No War with Yaqui Indians, June 8.
New York Times. (1902b). Yaqui Indian Uprising, June 5.
New York Times. (1902c). Yaqui Indians on the Warpath, May 31.
Nielsen, A.E. & Walker, W.H. (2009). Warfare in Cultural Context: Practice, Agency, and the Archaeology of Violence. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Novak, S.A. & Kopp, D. (2003). To feed a tree in Zion: osteological analysis of the 185 Mountain Meadows Massacre. Historical Archaeology, 37, 85–108.
Novak, S.A. & Rodseth, A. (2006). Remembering Mountain Meadows: collective violence and the manipulation of social boundaries. Journal of Anthropological Research, 62, 1–25.
Novak, S.A. (2008). House of Mourning: A Biocultural History of the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.
Nunamaker, D.M. & Berg, P. (1985). Open fractures and gunshot injuries. In: Newton, C.D. & Nunamaker, D.M. (eds.) Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 481–97.
O’Brien, T.G. & Stanley, A.M. (2011). Boards and cords: discriminating types of artificial cranial deformation in prehispanic South Central Andean Populations. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 23, 459–70.
Ochatoma Paravicino, J.A. (2007). Alfareros Del Imperio Huari: Vida Cotidiana Y Areas De Actividad En Conchopata. Ayacucho, Peru: Universidad Nacional de San Cristobal de Huamanga Facultad de Ciencias Sociales.
Olsson, E.L. (1985). Kronans Änkor. In: Axel, J.B. (ed.) Regalskeppet Kronan. Höganäs: Bra Böcker, 166–7.
Omaechevarría, I. (1955). Martires franciscanos de Georgia: informes y relaciones sobre su muerte. Missionalia hispánica, XII. Madrid: Instituto Santo Toribio de Mogrovejo, 12–35, 291–370.
Ong, B.B. (1999). The pattern of homicidal slash/chop injuries: a 10 year retrospective study in University Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine, 6, 24–9.
Orlove, B. (1994). Sticks and stones: ritual battles and play in the southern Peruvian Andes. In: Poole, D. (ed.) Unruly Order: Violence, Power, and Cultural Identity in the High Provinces of Southern Peru. Boulder: Westview Press, 133–64.
Ormstad, K., Karlsson, T., Enkler, L., Law, B. & Rajs, J. (1986). Patterns in sharp force fatalities – a comprehensive forensic medical study. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 31, 529–42.
Ortner, D.J. (2003). Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, 2nd edn. London: Academic Press.
Ortner, D.J. (2003). Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains. London: Academic Press.
Ortner, D.J. (2008). Differential diagnosis of skeletal injuries. In: Kimmerle, E.H. & Baraybar, J.P. (eds.) Skeletal Trauma: Identification of Injuries Resulting from Human Remains Abuse and Armed Conflict. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 21–93.
Osterholtz, A.J. (2012). The social role of hobbling and torture: violence in the prehistoric Southwest. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2, 148–55.
Otis, G.A. (1870). The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion (1861–65). Part 1. Vol. II. Surgical History. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Ousley, S.D. & Jantz, R.L. (2005). Fordisc 3.0: Personal Computer Forensic Discriminant Functions. Knoxville: University of Tennessee.
Pérez, V.R. (2006). The politicization of the dead: an analysis of cutmark morphology and culturally modified human remains from La Plata and Peñasco Blanco (A.D. 900–1300). University of Massachusetts Amherst: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Pérez, V.R. (2012). The politicization of the dead: violence as performance, politics as usual. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 13–28.
Pérez, V.R. (2012). The politicization of the dead: violence as performance, politics as usual. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 13–28.
Pérez, V.R. (2012a). The politicization of the dead: violence as performance, politics as usual. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 13–28.
Pérez, V.R. (2012b). The taphonomy of violence: recognizing variation in disarticulated skeletal assemblages. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2, 156–65.
Pérez, V.R., Nelson, B.A. & Martin, D.L. (2008). Veneration or violence? A study of variations in patterns of human bone modification at La Quemada. In: Nichols, D.L. & Crown, P.L. (eds.) Social Violence in the Prehispanic American Southwest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 123–42.
Palkovich, A.M. (1987). Endemic disease patterns in paleopathology: porotic hyperostosis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 74, 527–37.
Passalacqua, N.V. & Fenton, T.W. (2012). Developments in skeletal trauma: blunt-force trauma. In: Dirkmaat, D.C. (ed.) A Companion to Forensic Anthropology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 400–12.
Pastron, A.G. & Clewlow Jr. C.W. (1974). The ethno-archaeology of an unusual Tarahumara burial cave. Man, 9, 308–11.
Patterson, O. (1982). Slavery and Social Death. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Peebles, G. (2010). The anthropology of credit and debt. Annual Review of Anthropology, 39, 225–40.
Pennington, C.W. (1963). The Tarahumar of Mexico: Their Environment and Material Culture. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Perdekamp, M.G., Kneubuehl, B.P., Ishikawa, T., Najdem, H., Kromeier, J., Pollak, S., & Thierauf, A. (2010). Secondary fractures in head wounds inflicted by captive bolt guns: autopsy findings and experimental simulation. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 124, 605–12.
Perry, E.M. (2004). Bioarchaeology of labor and gender in the prehispanic American Southwest. University of Arizona: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Perry, E.M. (2008). Gender, labor, and inequality at Grasshopper Pueblo. In: Stodder, A.L.W. (ed.) Reanalysis and Reinterpretation in Southwestern Bioarchaeology. Tempe: Arizona State University, Anthropological Research Papers, 151–66.
Peter-Röcher, H. (2006). Spuren der Gewalt – Identifikation und soziale Relevanz in diachroner Perspektive. Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns, 41, 163–74.
Peterson, B.L. (1991). External beveling of gunshot entrance wounds. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 36, 1592–5.
Phenice, T.W. (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 30, 297–301.
Phenice, T.W. (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 30, 297–301.
Pink, C. & Kurin, D.S. (2011). Beyond the grave: continuity among Chanka populations in Andahuaylas Province, Peru. Paper presented at the 76th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Sacramento, CA.
Pinter, S.A. (1985). Descriptions of two mummies from Chihuahua, Mexico. In: Tyson, R.A. & Elerick, D.V. (eds.) Two Mummies from Chihuahua, Mexico: A Multidisciplinary Study. San Diego: San Diego Museum Papers No. 19, San Diego Museum of Man, 13.
Pizarro, P. (1978). Relacion Del Descubrimiento Y Conquista Del Peru. Lima: Pontificia del Catolica del Peru.
Plutarch (1988). Demetrius and Antony, Pyrrhus and Caius Marius, 1st edn, Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Potter, J.M. & Chuipka, J.P. (2010). Perimortem mutilation of human remains in an early village in the American Southwest: a case for ethnic violence. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 29, 507–23.
Pou y Martí, J.M. (1927). Estado de la orden Franciscana y de sus misiones en América y extreme Oriente en el año de 1635 [Part 2]. Archivo Ibero-Americano, 28, 43–92.
Putkonen, H., Collander, J., Honkasalo, M.-L. & Lönnqvist, J. (2001). Personality disorders and psychoses form two distinct subgroups of homicide among female offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 12, 300–12.
Quatrehomme, G. (2007). A strange case of dismemberment. In: Brickley, M.B. & Ferllini, R. (eds.) Forensic Anthropology: Case Studies from Europe. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 99–119.
Ragsdale, B.D. (1984). Gunshot wounds: a historical perspective. Military Medicine, 149, 301–15.
Rajs, J., Lundström, M., Broberg, M., Lidberg, L. & Lindquist, O. (1998). Criminal mutilation of the human body in Sweden – a thirty-year medico-legal and forensic psychiatric study. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 43, 563–80.
Randall, B. (2009). Blood and tissue spatter associated with chainsaw dismemberment. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54, 1310–14.
Rankin-Hill, L.M., Blakey, M.L., Carrington, S.H.H. & Howson, J.E. (2000). Political economy of fertility and population growth among enslaved Africans in colonial New York. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 111, 259.
Rautman, A.E. & Fenton, T.W. (2005). A case of historic cannibalism in the American West: implications for southwestern archaeology. American Antiquity, 70, 321–41.
Rebay-Salisbury, K., Stig Sørensen, M.L. & Hughes, J. (2010). Body Parts and Bodies Whole. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Reconciliación, C.C.N.D.V.Y. & Berryman, P. (1993). Report of the Chilean National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, Center for Civil and Human Rights, Notre Dame Law School.
Rector, J. L. (2003). The History of Chile. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Reddy, K.S.N. (1973). Identification of dismembered parts: the medicolegal aspects of the Nagaraju case. Forensic Science, 2, 351–74.
Reichs, K.J. (1998). Postmortem dismemberment: recovery, analysis, and interpretation. In: Reichs, K.J. (ed.) Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd edn. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 353–88.
Reid, J.J. & Whittlesey, S. (1999). Grasshopper Pueblo: A Story of Archaeology and Ancient Life. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Reid, J.J. (1989). A Grasshopper perspective on the Mogollon of the Arizona Mountains. In: Cordell, L.S. & Gumerman, G.J. (eds.) Dynamics of Southwest Prehistory. Santa Fe: School of American Research, 65–97.
Reimers, E. (1999). Death and identity: graves and funerals as cultural communication. Mortality, 4, 147–66.
Restall, M. (2004). Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. NewYork: Oxford University Press.
Richardson, T. (1998). The ballistics of the sling. Royal Armouries Yearbook, 3, 44–9.
Riches, D. (1986). The phenomenon of violence. In: Riches, D. (ed.) The Anthropology of Violence. New York: Blackwell, 1–27.
Riggs, C.R. (2001). The Architecture of Grasshopper Pueblo: Dynamics of Form, Function, and Use of Space in a Prehistoric Community. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.
Ringle, W.M., Gallareta, T.N. & Bey, G. (1998). The return of Quetzalcoatl: evidence for the spread of a world religion during the epiclassic period. Ancient Mesoamerica, 9, 183–232.
Rivera, M. (2008). The archaeology of Northern Chile. In: Silverman, H. & Isbell, W. (eds.) Handbook of South American Archaeology. New York: Springer, 963–97.
Roberts, C.A. & Manchester, K. (2007). The Archaeology of Disease. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Rogde, S., Hougen, H.P. & Poulsen, K. (2000). Homicide by sharp force in two Scandinavian capitals. Forensic Science International, 109, 135–45.
Roksandic, M. (2002). Position of skeletal remains as a key to understanding mortuary behavior. In: Haglund, W.D. & Sorg, M.H. (eds.) Advances in Forensic Taphonomy. Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 99–117.
Ross, A.H. (1996). Caliber estimation from cranial entrance defect measurements. Forensic Science International, 41, 629–33.
Rostworowski, M. (1977). Etnia Y Sociedad. Costa Peruana Prehispánica. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
Rostworowski, M. (2002). Pachacamac. Obras Completas Ii. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
Rowe, J.H. (1945). Absolute chronology in the Andean area. American Antiquity, 10, 265–84.
Rowe, J.H. (1946). Inca culture at the time of the Spanish conquest. In: Steward, J. (ed.) Handbook of South American Indians. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, 183–330.
Rowe, J.H. (1957). The Incas under Spanish colonial institutions. Hispanic American Historical Review, 37, 155–99.
Ruby, R.H. & Brown, J.A. (1993). Indian Slavery in the Pacific Northwest. Spokane: The Arthur H. Clark Company.
Ruff, C.B. (2000). Body size, body shape, and long bone strength in modern humans. Journal of Human Evolution, 38, 269–90.
Ruff, C.B. (2008). Biomechanical analyses of archaeological human skeletons. In: Katzenberg, M.A. & Saunders, S. R. (eds.) Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, 2nd edn. Hoboken: Wiley-Liss, 183–206.
Salas, A.M. (1950). Las Armas De La Conquista. Buenos Aires: Emecé Editores.
Sandoval, E.Q. (2009). Yaqui history. Available: . [Accessed November 10, 2012.]
Sanford, V. (2004). Buried Secrets: Truth and Human Rights in Guatemala. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sauer, N.J. & Simson, L.R. (1984). Clarifying the role of forensic anthropologists in death investigations. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 29, 1–6.
Sauer, N.J. (1998). The timing of injuries and manner of death: distinguishing among antemortem, perimortem, and postmortem trauma. In: Reichs, K.J. (ed.) Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd edn. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 321–32.
Saukko, P.J. & Knight, B. (2004). Knight’s Forensic Pathology, 3rd edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Saunders, R. (2009). Stability and ubiquity: Irene, Altamaha, and San Marcos pottery in time and space. In: Deagan, K. & Thomas, D.H. (eds.) From Santa Elena to St. Augustine: Indigenous Ceramic Variability (A.D. 1400–1700): Proceedings of the Second Caldwell Conference. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History Number 90. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 83–111.
Schenker, N. & Gentleman, J.F. (2001). On judging the significance of differences by examining the overlap between confidence intervals. The American Statistician, 55, 182–6.
Scheper-Hughes, N. & Lock, M.M. (1987). The mindful body: a prolegomenon to future work in medical anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 1, 6–41.
Scheper-Hughes, N. & Lock, M.M. (1987). The mindful body: a prolegomenon to future work in medical anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 1, 6–41.
Scheper-Hughes, N. (1992). Death without Weeping: The Violence of Everday Life in Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Scheper-Hughes, N. (2002). Commodity fetishism in organs trafficking. In: Scheper-Hughes, N. & Wacquant, L. (eds.) Commodifying Bodies. Los Angeles: Sage, 31–62.
Scheuer, L. & Black, S.M. (2000). Developmental Juvenile Osteology. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.
Scheuer, L. & Black, S.M. (2000). Developmental Juvenile Osteology. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.
Schmitt, S. (2002). Mass graves and the collection of forensic evidence: genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. In: Haglund, W.D. & Sorg, M.H. (eds.) Advances in Forensic Taphonomy. Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 277–92.
Schröder, I.W. & Schmidt, B.E. (2001). Introduction: violent imaginaries and violent practices. In: Schmidt, B.E. & Schröder, I.W. (eds.) Anthropology of Violence and Conflict. London, New York: Routledge, 1–24.
Schultz, M., Timme, U. & Schmidt-Schultz, T.H. (2007). Infancy and childhood in the pre-Columbian North American Southwest–first results of the palaeopathological investigation of the skeletons from the Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 17, 369–79.
Scott, R.M. & Buckley, H.R. (2010). Biocultural interpretations of trauma in two prehistoric Pacific Island populations from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 142, 509–18.
Sebastian, L. (1992). The Chaco Anasazi: Sociopolitical Evolution in the Prehistoric Southwest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sekula-Perlman, A., Tobin, J.G., Pretzler, E., Ingle, J. & Callery, R. T. (1998). Three unusual cases of multiple suicidal gunshot wounds to the head. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 19, 23–9.
Sen, A. (2008). Violence in identity. In: Karawan, I.A., Mccormack, W. & Reynolds, S.E. (eds.) Values and Violence. New York: Springer Press, 3–14.
Servicio Medico Legal (2010). Memoria Programa De Derechos Humanos. Santiago: Servicio Medico Legal.
Shanks, C. & Tilley, M. (1982). Ideology, symbolic power, and ritual communication: a reinterpretation of neolithic mortuary practices. In: Hodder, I. (ed.) Symbolic and Structural Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 129–54.
Shapiro, R., Youngberg, A.S. & Rothman, S.L. (1973). The differential diagnosis of traumatic lesions of the occipito-atlanto-axial segment. Radiologic Clinics of North America, 11, 505–26.
Sharp, L. (1995). Organ transplantation as a transformative experience: anthropological insights into the restructuring of the self. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 9, 357–89.
Sharp, L. (2000). The commodification of the body and its parts. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, 287–328.
Shilling, C. (1993). The Body and Social Theory. London: Sage Publications.
Shimada, I., Shinoda, K., Farnum, J., Corruccini, R. & Watanabe, H. (2004). An integrated analysis of pre-hispanic mortuary practices: a middle Sican case study. Current Anthropology, 3, 369–402.
Shkrum, M. & Ramsay, D. (2007). Forensic Pathology of Trauma. New York: Humana Press.
Silverblatt, I. (1987). Moon, Sun, and Witches: Gender Ideologies and Class in Colonial Peru. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Skenbäck, U. (1985). Timmermän, Befäl Och Andra. In: Axel, J.B. (ed.) Regalskeppet Kronan. Höganäs: Bra Böcker, 82–3.
Sládek, V., Berner, M. & Sailer, R. (2006). Mobility in central European late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age: femoral cross-sectional geometry. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 130, 320–32.
Slaus, M., Novak, M., Vyroubal, V. & Bedic, Z. (2010). The harsh life on the 15th century Croatia-Ottoman empire military border: analyzing and identifying the reasons for the massacre in Cepin. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141, 358–72.
Smith, A.D. (1991). National Identity. Reno: University of Nevada Press.
Smith, B.H. (1991). Standards of human tooth formation and dental age assessment. In: Kelley, M.A. & Larsen, C.S. (eds.) Advances in Dental Anthropology. New York: Wiley-Liss, 143–68.
Smith, O.C., Berryman, H.E. & Lahren, C.H. (1987). Cranial fracture patterns and estimate of direction from low velocity gunshot wounds. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 32, 1416–21.
Snyder, C. (2008). Man pleads guilty to '98 murder. Wyoming Tribune-Eagle, January 9, 2008.
Sofaer, J.R. (2006). The Body as Material Culture: A Theoretical Osteoarchaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Solomon, Z., Berger, R. & Ginzburg, K. (2007). Resilience of Israeli body handlers: implications of repressive coping style. Traumatology, 13, 64–74.
Sorg, M.H., Haglund, W.D. & Wren, J.A. (2012). Current research in forensic taphonomy. In: Dirkmaat, D.C. (ed.) A Companion to Forensic Anthropology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 477–527.
Spalding, K. (1999). The crises and transformations of invaded societies: Andean Area (1500–1580). In: Salomon, F. & Schawrtz, S.B. (eds.) The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 904–72.
Sparks, G.G., Pellechia, M. & Irvine, C. (1999). The repressive coping style and fright reactions to mass media. Communication Research, 26, 176–92.
Spatola, B.S. (in press). Atypical gunshot and blunt force injuries: wounds along the biomechanical continuum. In: Passalacqua, N.V. & Rainwater, C.W. (eds.) Skeletal Trauma Analysis: Case Studies in Context. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Spencer, S.D. (2012). Detecting violence in the archaeological record: clarifying the timing of trauma and manner of death in cases of cranial blunt force trauma among pre-Columbian Amerindians of West-Central Illinois. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2, 112–22.
Spicer, E.H. (1962). Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533–1960. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Spicer, E.H. (1967). Pasqua: A Yaqui Village in Arizona. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Spicer, E.H. (1980). The Yaquis: A Cultural History. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Spielmann, K.A., Clark, T., Hawkey, D., Rainey, K. & Fish, S.K. (2009). “. . .Being weary, they had rebelled”: Pueblo subsistence and labor under Spanish Colonialism. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 28, 102–25.
Spitz, W. (1993). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigation, 3rd edn. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
Spitz, W.U. (1993). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigation. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Spooner, M.H. (2011). The General’s Slow Retreat: Chile after Pinochet. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Steckel, R.H. & Rose, J.C. (eds.) (2002). The Backbone of History: Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Steinen, K.T. (1985). Excavations at Fort King George 1984. Manuscript on file, Fort King George Museum.
Stern, J.M. (2004). Traumatic brain injury: an effect and cause of domestic violence and child abuse. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 4, 179–81.
Stewart, T.D. (1979). Essentials of Forensic Anthropology: Especially as Developed in the United States. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
Stodder, A. L. W. & Palkovich, A. M. (eds.) (2012). The Bioarchaeology of Individuals. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Stodder, A.L.W. & Martin, D.L. (1992). Native health and disease in the American southwest before and after Spanish contact. In: Verano, J.W. & Ubelaker, D.H. (eds.) Disease and Demography in the Americas. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 55–73.
Stodder, A.L.W. & Osterholtz, A.J. (2010). Analysis of the Phr: methods and data collection. In: Perry, E.M., Stodder, A.L.W. & Bollong, C.A. (eds.) Animas La Plata Project Volume Xv – Bioarchaeology. Phoenix: SWCA, 243–78.
Stodder, A.L.W. (1994). Bioarchaeological investigations of protohistoric Pueblo health and demography. In: Larsen, C.S. & Milner, G.R. (eds.) In the Wake of Contact: Biological Responses to Conquest. New York: Wiley-Liss, 97–107.
Stodder, A.L.W., Martin, D.L., Goodman, A.H. & Reff, D.T. (2002). Cultural longevity in the face of biological stress: the Anasazi of the American Southwest. In: Steckel, R.H. & Rose, J.C. (eds.) The Backbone of History: Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 481–505.
Stojanowski, C.M. & Duncan, W.N. (2008). Anthropological Contributions to the Cause of the Georgia Martyrs. Occasional Papers of the Georgia Southern Museum, number 3. Georgia Southern Museum.
Stojanowski, C.M. & Duncan, W.N. (2009). Historiography and forensic analysis of the Fort King George “skull”: craniometric assessment using the specific population approach. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 140, 275–89.
Stojanowski, C.M. & Duncan, W.N. (2010). Heredity and cranial morphology: a forensic case study from Spanish colonial Georgia. In: Bonogofsky, M. (ed.) The Bioarchaeology of the Human Head: Decapitation, Deformation, and Decoration. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 179–201.
Stojanowski, C.M. (2009). Bridging histories: the bioarchaeology of identity in postcontact Florida. In: Knudson, K.J. & Stojanowski, C.M. (eds.) Bioarchaeology and Identity in the Americas. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 59–81.
Stone, T. (2003). Social identity and ethnic interaction in the Western Pueblos of the American Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 10, 31–67.
Storey, R. (2005). Lifestyles (before and after death) of the rich and famous at Copán. In:Webster, D.L., Freter, A.C. & Gonlin, N. (eds.) Copán: The Rise and Fall of a Classic Maya Kingdom. Santa Fe: SAR Press, 315–43.
Strathern, M. (1988). The Gender of the Gift: Problems with Women and Problems with Society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sugiyama, S. (2005). Human Sacrifice, Militarism, and Rulership: Materialization of State Ideology at the Feathered Serpent Pyramid, Teotihuacan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sugiyama, S., Tatsumi, S., Noda, H., Yamaguchi, M., Furutani, A., Izumi, M., Wakatsuki, R., Yoshimura, M. et al. (1995). Investigation of dismembered corpses found during the past 10 years in Osaka. Hanzaigaku Zasshi, 61, 192–200.
SWGANTH. (2011). Trauma Analysis [Online]. Available: . [Accessed September 28, 2013.]
SWGANTH. (2011). Trauma Analysis [Online]. Available: . [Accessed September 28, 2013.]
Symes, S.A., Berryman, H.E. & Smith, O.C. (1998). Saw marks in bone: introduction and examination of residual kerf contour. In: Reichs, K.J. (ed.) Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd edn. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 389–409.
Symes, S.A., Chapman, E.N., Rainwater, C.W., Cabo, L.L. & Myster, S.M.T. (2010). Knife and Saw Toolmark Analysis in Bone: A Manual Designed for the Examination of Criminal Mutilation and Dismemberment [Online]. National Institute of Justice Technical Report. Available: .
Symes, S.A., L’abbé, E., Chapman, E., Wolff, I. & Dirkmaat, D. (2012). Interpreting traumatic injury to bone in medicolegal investigations. In: Dirkmaat, D. (ed.) A Companion to Forensic Anthropology. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 340–89.
Symes, S.A., Williams, J.A., Murray, E.A., Hoffman, J.M., Holland, T.D., Saul, J. M., Saul, F.P. & Pope, E.J. (2001). Taphonomic context of sharp-force trauma in suspected cases of human mutilation and dismemberment. In: Haglund, W.D. & Sorg, M. (eds.) Advances in Forensic Taphonomy: Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 403–34.
Tümer, A.R., Akçan, R., Karacaoğlu, E., Balseven-Odabaşi, A., Keten, A., Kanburoğlu, C., Unal, M. & Dinç, A.H. (2012). Postmortem burning of the corpses following homicide. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 19, 223–8.
Ta’ala, S.C., Berg, G.E. & Haden, K. (2006). Blunt force cranial trauma in the Cambodian killing fields. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51, 996–1001.
Tainter, J.A. (1988). The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tamblay, J. (2004). El cementerio larache, los metales y la estratificación social durante el horizonte Tiwanaku en San Pedro de Atacama. In: Rivera, M. & Kolata, A. (eds.) Tiwanaku: Aproximaciones a Sus Contextos Históricos Y Sociales. Santiago, Chile: Colección Estudios Regionales, 31–66.
Tarlow, S. (2008). The extraordinary history of Oliver Cromwell’s head. In: Borić, D. & Robb, J. (eds.) Past Bodies: Body-Centered Research in Archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow books, 69–78.
Taussig, M. (1999). Defacement: Public Secrecy and the Labor of the Negative. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Taylor, C.C. (2010). Rwandan genocide: toward an explanation in which history and culture matter. In: Mcanany, P.A. & Yoffee, N. (eds.) Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Aftermath of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 239–68.
Tegtmeyer, C.E. (2012). A comparative analysis of serrated and non-serrated sharp force trauma to bone. Texas State University-San Marcos: MA thesis.
The Brain Injury Association of Wyoming (2004). Study of undiagnosed brain injuries in Wyoming’s prison population. In: Force, A.T. (ed.). Casper: The Wyoming Department of Health Division Developmental Disabilities, 1–23.
Theidon, K. (2001). How we learned to kill our brother: memory, morality and reconciliation in Peru. In: Sanchez, G. & Lair, E. (eds.) Bulletin De L’institut Français Des Études Andines, No. 3 (29). Bogota: Colombia, 539–54.
Thomas, D.H. (1993). Historic Indian Period Archaeology of the Georgia Coastal Zone. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology Series Report No 13.
Thompson, D.D. (1982). Forensic anthropology. In: Spencer, F. (ed.) A History of American Physical Anthropology, 1930–1980. New York: Academic Press, 357–65.
Tokdemir, M., Kafadar, H., Turkoglu, A. & Bork, T. (2007). Forensic value of gunpowder tattooing in identification of multiple entrance wounds from one bullet. Legal Medicine (Tokyo, Japan), 9, 147–50.
Toll, H.W. (1993). Results of Resurvey and Evaluation of Archaeological Sites in the Dawson Arroyo Segment of the La Plata Highway Project. Archaeology Notes 67. Santa Fe: New Mexico Office of Archaeological Studies.
Toms, C., Rogers, C.B. & Sathyavagiswaran, L. (2008). Investigation of homicides interred in concrete – the Los Angeles experience. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53, 203–7.
Torquemada, J. (1944). Los Veinte y un Libros Rituales y Monarquia Indiana. Tomo III. Facsimilar reprint edition, Salvador Chavez Hayhoe.
Torres, C.M. & Conklin, W.J. (1995). Exploring the San Pedro de Atacama/Tiwanaku relationship. In: Dransart, P. (ed.) Andean Art: Visual Expression and Its Relation to Andean Beliefs and Values. Hampshire: Avebury, 78–108.
Torres-Rouff, C. & Costa Junqueira, M.A. (2006). Interpersonal violence in prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama, Chile: behavioral implications of environmental stress. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 130, 60–70.
Torres-Rouff, C. & Costa Junqueira, M.A. (2006). Interpersonal violence in prehistoric San Pedro De Atacama, Chile: behavioral implications of environmental stress. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 130, 60–70.
Torres-Rouff, C. & Costa Junqueira, M.A. (2006). Interpersonal violence in prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama, Chile: behavioral implications of environmental stress. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 130, 60–70.
Torres-Rouff, C. & Hubbe, M. (2013). The sequence of human occupation in the Atacama Oases, Chile: a radiocarbon chronology based on human skeletal remains. Latin American Antiquity, 24, 330–44.
Torres-Rouff, C. (2002). Cranial vault modification and ethnicity in middle horizon San Pedro De Atacama, North Chile. Current Anthropology, 43, 163–71.
Torres-Rouff, C. (2011). Hiding inequality beneath prosperity: patterns of cranial injury in middle period San Pedro de Atacama, northern Chile. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 146, 28–37.
Torres-Rouff, C., Knudson, K.J. & Stovel, E.M. Ms. Considering power and the display of exotica: Northern Chile’s Larache Cemetery and Tiwanaku. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology.
Townley, C.M. (1973). Helen J. Stewart: first lady of Las Vegas, Part I. Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, 16, 214–44.
Townley, C.M. (1974). Helen J. Stewart: first lady of Las Vegas, Part II. Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, 17, 2–32.
Toyne, J.M. (2009). Offering their hearts and their heads: a bioarchaeological analysis of ancient human sacrifice on the northern coast of Peru. Tulane University: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Toyne, J.M. (2011). Cut mark analysis and activity signature interpretations of pre-hispanic ritual violence in northern Peru. Latin American Antiquity, 22, 505–23.
Tremayne, V. (2009). Pistol crossbow injuries. Emergency Nurse, 17, 28–30.
Troncoso, F.D. (1977). Las Guerros Con Las Tribus Yaqui Y Mayo, Tomo Ii. Mexico: Instituto Nacional Indigenista.
Tuggle, H.D. & Reid, J.J. (2001). Conflict and defense in the Grasshopper region of East-Central Arizona. In: Leblanc, S.A. & Rice, G.E. (eds.) Deadly Landscapes: Case Studies in Prehistoric Southwestern Warfare. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 85–107.
Tung, T.A. & Knudson, K.J. (2010). Childhood lost: abductions, sacrifice, and trophy heads of children in the Wari Empire of the ancient Andes. Latin American Antiquity, 21, 44–66.
Tung, T.A. & Knudson, K.J. (2011). Identifying locals, migrants, and captives in the Wari heartland: a bioarchaeological and biogeochemical study of human remains from Conchopata, Peru. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 30, 247–61.
Tung, T.A. (2003). A bioarchaeological perspective on Wari imperialism in the Andes of Peru: a view from heartland and hinterland skeletal populations. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Tung, T.A. (2007). Trauma and violence in the Wari Empire of the Peruvian Andes: warfare, raids, and ritual fights. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 133, 941–56.
Tung, T.A. (2007). Trauma and violence in the Wari Empire of the Peruvian Andes: warfare, raids, and ritual fights. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 133, 941–56.
Tung, T.A. (2007a). Trauma and violence in the Wari Empire of the Peruvian Andes: warfare, raids, and ritual fights. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 133, 941–56.
Tung, T.A. (2007b). The village of Beringa at the periphery of the Wari empire: a site overview and new radiocarbon dates. Andean Past, 8, 253–86.
Tung, T.A. (2008). Dismembering bodies for display: a bioarchaeological study of trophy heads from the Wari site of Conchopata, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 136, 294–308.
Tung, T.A. (2008). Violence after imperial collapse: a study of cranial trauma among late intermediate period burials from the former Huari Capital, Ayacucho, Peru. Ñawpa Pacha, 29, 101–18.
Tung, T.A. (2008). Violence after imperial collapse: a study of cranial trauma among late intermediate period burials from the former Huari Capital, Ayacucho, Peru. Ñawpa Pacha, 29, 101–18.
Tung, T.A. (2012). Violence against women: differential treatment of local and foreign females in the heartland of the Wari Empire, Peru. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 180–98.
Tung, T.A. (2012). Violence against women: differential treatment of local and foreign females in the heartland of the Wari Empire, Peru. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 180–98.
Tung, T.A. (2012). Violence, Ritual, and the Wari Empire: A Social Bioarchaeology of Imperialism in the Ancient Andes. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Tung, T.A. (2012). Violence, Ritual, and the Wari Empire: A Social Bioarchaeology of Imperialism in the Ancient Andes. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Turner, C.G., II & Turner, J.A. (1999). Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.
Ubelaker, D.H. (1989). Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation. Washington: Taraxacum Press.
Ubelaker, D.H. (1996). The remains of Dr. Carl Austin Weiss: anthropological analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 41, 60–79.
Ubelaker, D.H. (1999). Aleš Hrdlicka’s role in the history of forensic anthropology. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44, 724–30.
Ubelaker, D.H. (1999). Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation, 3rd edn. New Brunswick, Aldine Transaction.
United Nations (2009). Progress for Children: A Report Card on Child Protection. New York: United Nations Publications.
United Nations General Assembly (1948). Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Adopted December 9.
Vagnerova, K., Koerner, I.P. & Hurn, P.D. (2008). Gender and the injured brain. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 107, 201–14.
Valech, (1992). Informe Sobre Calificación de Víctimas de Violaciones de Derechos Humanos y de la Violencia Política Elaborado por la Corporación Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación. (
Vega, J.J. (1980). Incas Contra Españoles. Lima: Pacific Press.
Verano, J. W. (1994). Características físicas y biología osteológica de Los Moche. In: Uceda, S. & Mujica, E. (eds.) Propuestas Y Perspectivas, Vol. 79. Lima: Travaux de l’Institut Frances d’Etudes Andines, 307–26.
Verano, J.W. (1986). A mass burial of mutilated individuals at Pacatnamu. In: Donnan, C.B. & Cock, G.A. (eds.) The Pacatnamu Papers, Volume 1. Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, University of California, 117–38.
Verano, J.W. (1986). A mass burial of mutilated individuals at Pacatnamu. In: Donnan, C.B. & Cock, G.A. (eds.) The Pacatnamu Papers, Volume 1. Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, University of California, 117–38.
Verano, J.W. (2001). War and death in the Moche World: osteological evidence and visual discourse. In: Pillsbury J. (ed.) Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru. New Haven: Yale University, 111–26.
Verano, J.W. (2007). Conflict and conquest in pre-hispanic Andean South America. In: Chacon, R.J. & Mendoza, R.G. (eds.) Latin American Indigenous Warfare and Ritual Violence. Tucson: University of Arizona, 105–15.
Verano, J.W. (2008). Communality and diversity in Moche human sacrifice. In: Bourget, S. & Jones, K.L. (eds.) The Art and Archaeology of the Moche: An Ancient Andean Society of the Peruvian North Coast. Austin: University of Texas Press, 195–213.
Verdery, K. (1999). The Political Lives of Dead Bodies: Reburial and Postsocialist Change. New York: Columbia University Press.
Vij, K., Garg, A., Sandhu, S.S., Langeh, S. & Bakshi, I. (2012). Medicolegal implications of defence wounds. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 12, 54–6.
Wahl, J. & König, H. (1987). Anthropologisch-traumatologische Untersuchung der menschlichen Skelettreste aus dem bandkeramischen Massengrab bei Talheim, Kreis Heilbronn. Fundberichte Baden-Württemberg, 12, 65–193.
Waldorf, L. (2006). Mass justice for mass atrocity: rethinking local justice as transitional justice. Temple Law Review, 79, 1.
Walker, C.M. (2006). The bioarchaeology of newly discovered burial caves in the Sierra Tarahumara. University of Oregon: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Walker, P.L. (1989). Cranial injuries as evidence of violence in prehistoric Southern California. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 80, 313–23.
Walker, P.L. (1997). Wife beating, boxing, and broken noses: skeletal evidence for the cultural patterning of violence. In: Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 145–80.
Walker, P.L. (1997). Wife beating, boxing, and broken noses: skeletal evidence for the cultural patterning of violence. In: Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 145–80.
Walker, P.L. (1997). Wife beating, boxing, and broken noses: skeletal evidence for the cultural patterning of violence. In: Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 145–80.
Walker, P.L. (1997). Wife beating, boxing, and broken noses: skeletal evidence for the cultural patterning of violence. In: Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 145–80.
Walker, P.L. (2001). A bioarchaeological perspective on the history of violence. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 573–96.
Walker, P.L. (2001). A bioarchaeological perspective on the history of violence. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 573–96.
Walker, P.L. (2001). A bioarchaeological perspective on the history of violence. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 573–96.
Walker, P.L. (2001). A bioarchaeological perspective on the history of violence. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 573–96.
Walker, P.L. (2001). A bioarchaeological perspective on the history of violence. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 573–96.
Walker, P.L., Bathurst, R.R., Richman, R., Gjerdrum, T. & Andrushko, V.A. (2009). The causes of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia: a reappraisal of the iron-deficiency-anemia hypothesis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139, 109–25.
Washburn, D.K. (2011). Pattern symmetries of the Chaco Phenomenon. American Antiquity, 76, 252–84.
Watanabe, K. & Tamura, M. (2001). Mutilation-murder cases in Japan. In: Farrington, D.P., Hollin, C.R. & McMurran, M. (eds.) Sex and Violence: The Psychology of Crime and Risk Assessment. New York: Psychology Press, 229–41.
Watkins, C.M. (1970). Artifacts from the Sites of Three Nineteenth Century Houses and Ditches at Darien Bluff, Georgia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Laboratory of Archaeology Series Report No. 9.
Watkins, J. (2004). Becoming American or becoming Indian? NAGPRA, Kennewick and cultural affiliation. Journal of Social Archaeology, 4, 60–80.
Watson, D.R. (2009). Iolo’s First Book of Crossbows, 2nd edn. Austin: Gwasg Caeseg Wen Press.
Watson, K. (2011). “Gallows Humor in Medicine.” Hastings Center Report, 41, 37–45.
Webster, D.L. (1998). Warfare and status rivalry: lowland Maya and Polynesian comparisons. In: Feinman, G. & Marcus, J. (eds.) Archaic States. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 311–51.
Webster, D.L. (ed.) (1989). The House of the Bacabs, Copán, Honduras. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology, No. 29, Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks.
Weinberger, D.A., Schwartz, G.E. & Davidson, R.J. (1979). Low-anxious, high-anxious and repressive coping styles: psychometric patterns and behavioral and physiological responses to stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 369–80.
Weiss, K.M. (1972). On the systematic bias in skeletal sexing. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 37, 239–49.
Weizmann-Henelius, G., Viemerö, V. & Eronen, M. (2003). The violent female perpetrator and her victim. Forensic Science International, 133, 197–203.
White, R. (1981). Outlaw gangs of the Middle Border: American social bandits. The Western Historical Quarterly, 12, 387–408.
White, T.D. (1992). Prehistoric Cannibalism at Mancos 5mtumr-2346. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
White, T.D., Black, M.T. & Folkens, P.A. (2012). Human Osteology, 3rd edn. San Diego: Academic Press.
White, T.D., Black, M.T. & Folkens, P.A. (2012). Human Osteology, 3rd edn. San Diego: Academic Press.
Whittlesey, S.M. & Reid, J.J. (2001). Mortuary ritual and organizational inferences at Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. In: Mitchell, D.R. & Brunson-Hadley, J.L. (eds.) Ancient Burial Practices in the American Southwest: Archaeology, Physical Anthropology, and Native American Perspectives. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 68–96.
Whittlesey, S.M. (1978). Status and death at Grasshopper Pueblo: experiments toward an archaeological theory of correlates. University of Arizona: Unpublished PhD dissertation.
Whittlesey, S.M. (2002). The cradle of death. In: Kamp, K.A. (ed.) Children in the Prehistoric Puebloan Southwest. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, 152–68.
Wilde, A. (2008). Avenues of memory: Santiago’s General Cemetery and Chile’s recent political history. A Contracorriente: Revista de Historia Social y Literatura en América Latina, 5, 134–69.
Wilkinson, R.G. (1997). Violence against women: raiding and abduction in prehistoric Michigan. In: Martin, D.L. & Frayer, D.W. (eds.) Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 21–44.
Willey, P. & Emerson, T.E. (1993). The osteology and archaeology of the Crow Creek massacre. Plains Anthropologist, 38, 227–69.
Williams, P. (2007). Memorial Museums: The Global Rush to Commemorate Atrocities. Oxford: Berg.
Williams, R.P. (2002). Rethinking disaster-induced collapse in the demise of the Andean Highland states: Wari and Tiwanaku. World Archaeology, 33, 361–74.
Williamson, M.A., Johnson, C.A., Symes, S.A. & Schultz, J.J. (2003). Interpersonal violence between 18th century native Americans and Europeans in Ohio. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 122, 113–22.
Wilson, M. & Daly, M. (1995). An evolutionary psychological perspective on male sexual proprietariness and violence against wives. Violence and Victims, 8, 271–94.
Wintjes, J. (2012). “Keep the Women out of the Camp!”: women and military institutions in the Classical World. In: Hacker, B.C. & Vining, M. (eds.) A Companion to Women’s Military History. Leiden, Boston: Brill, 17–60.
Worth, J.E. (1995). The Struggle for the Georgia Coast: An Eighteenth-Century Spanish Retrospective on Guale and Mocama. New York: American Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers, Number 75.
Worth, J.E. (2004a). Evidence for the Locations of Guale Missions in 1597 (with Notes on Possible Locations for Physical Remains of the Martyrs). Report submitted to Father Conrad Harkins, Vice Postulator for the Cause of the Georgia Martyrs. Manuscript in possession of the authors.
Worth, J.E. (2004b). Guale. Handbook of North American Indians. Volume. 14, Southeast. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 238–44.
Wurmann, A. (2003). ‘My father was also killed’. El Mercurio, Letter published 20 August.
Wyndham, M. & Read, P. (2010). From state terrorism to state errorism: post-Pinochet Chile’s long search for truth and justice. The Public Historian, 32, 31–44.
Wyse, A. (1982). The martyrs of Georgia: Fr. Pedro De Corpa, O.F.M. and his companions. In: Tylenda, J.N. (ed.) Portraits in American Sanctity. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 76–88.
Wyse, A. (1985). The five Franciscan martyrs of Georgia. Provincial Annals, 34, 30–7.
Yoffee, N. (2005). Myths of the Archaic State: Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States and Civilizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zalaquett, J. (1985). “From Dictatorship to Democracy.” New Republic, 16, 17–21.
Zalaquett, J. (1993). Introduction to the English Edition. Report of the Chilean National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation, 1.
Zietlow, C. & Hawley, D.A. (1993). Unexpectedly homicide: three intraoral gunshot wounds. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 14, 230–3.
Zingg, R.M. (1940). Report on Archaeology of Southern Chihuahua. Denver: Contributions of the University of Denver, Center of Latin American Studies, No 1.