Feminist Constitutionalism

Global Perspectives

  • Edited by Beverley Baines

    Edited by Daphne Barak-Erez

    Edited by Tsvi Kahana

  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

    Online Publication Date:June 2012

    Online ISBN:9780511980442

    Hardback ISBN:9780521761574

    Paperback ISBN:9780521137799

  • Book DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511980442

    Subjects: Jurisprudence

Constitutionalism affirms the idea that democracy should not lead to the violation of human rights or the oppression of minorities. This book aims to explore the relationship between constitutional law and feminism. The contributors offer a spectrum of approaches and the analysis is set across a wide range of topics, including both familiar ones like reproductive rights and marital status, and emerging issues such as a new societal approach to household labor and participation of women in constitutional discussions online. The book is divided into six parts: I) feminism as a challenge to constitutional theory; II) feminism and judging; III) feminism, democracy, and political participation; IV) the constitutionalism of reproductive rights; V) women's rights, multiculturalism, and diversity; and VI) women between secularism and religion.


 Reviews:

"Should a feminist constitutionalism exist, or a dialogue on constitutionalism that took feminist insights seriously, this book would be part of it. As things are, it calmly challenges limits and unsettles complacency by exceeding its own envelope, putting more solid ground under women’s feet as it expands law’s horizons."
- Catharine A. MacKinnon
From the foreword of Feminist Constitutionalism



"Feminist Constitutionalism offers a radically new perspective on the very foundations of our legal systems, going beyond ‘feminism and the law’ to assess the texts and traditions of the world’s constitutions through the lens of gender justice. This latest contribution to a burgeoning new field draws together leading legal scholars from around the world, lifting us out of our legal parochialism, and confronting the masculine practices and assumptions of constitutional law. It is sweeping in scope, and eclectic in the best sense of the word. How, the authors ask, can constitutionalism be reconfigured to serve the interests of gender equality? In answering this question, this volume opens a window on a landscape that has long been overlooked. Every reader – whether feminist or not – will learn much from this book’s engagement with the radical idea that constitutions are not gender-neutral."
Helen Irving
Professor of Law, The University of Sydney



"If dignity, liberty and equality shall make sense in our complicated worlds, and if democracy shall work in multilevel constellations of constitutional law, then this book is an important contribution towards it. A feminist intervention that deserves the name, diverse, transnational, and with a grip on the hard cases, this work proves to be a very inspiring read."


- Susanne Baer
Richterin des Bundesverfassungsgerichts, Professorin für Öffentliches Recht und Geschlechterstudien an der, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin & James W Cook Professor, University of Michigan Law School



Reference Type: notes

Catharine A. MacKinnon 2006
Kathleen M. Sullivan's Constitutionalizing Women's Equality 90 2002

Reference Type: notes

Ernest A. Young Constitutive and Entrenchment Functions of Constitutions: A Research Agenda 10 2007
Sylvia Law Rethinking Sex and the Constitution 132 1984
Martha L. Minow Foreword: The Supreme Court, 1986 Term – Justice Engendered 110 10 1987
Frances E. Olsen The Family and the Market 96 1983
Ruth Gavison Feminism and the Public/Private Distinction 45 1992
Catharine A. MacKinnon 1987
1993
2003

Reference Type: notes

Jennifer Nedelsky Reconceiving Rights and Constitutionalism 7 J. Hum. Rts 2008
2011
Pat Mainardi 1970
www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/89-503-x2005001-eng.pdf 2004
Statistics Canada 2001
Joseph P. Ornato 2009
Thomas Concannon 2009
Bernadine P. Healy Listening to America's Women 4 1995
Regina Vidaver Women Subjects in NIH-Funded Clinical Research Literature: Lack of Progress inBoth Representation and Analysis by Sex 9 2009
Robyn Beaman Kevin Wheldall Coral Kemp Differential Teacher Attention to Boys and Girls in the Classroom 58 2006
Jane French Peter French Gender Imbalances in the Primary Classroom: An Interactional Account 26 1984
Myra Sadker David Sadker Sexism in the Classroom: From Grade School to Graduate School 67 1986
2004
2008
Fiona Kay Joan Brockman Barriers to Gender Equality in the Canadian Legal Establishment 8 2000
www.aals.org/statistics/2008dlt/gender.html 2001
Martha Ackelsberg Remembering the ‘Life’ in Academic Life: Finding a Balance between Work and Personal Responsibilities in the Academy: Report of the Committee on the Status of Women to the Profession, 2004 37 2004
Susan Kolker Finkel Steven G. Olswang Child Rearing as a Career Impediment to Women Assistant Professors 19 1996
Mary Ann Mason Marc Goulden Do Babies Matter: The Effect of Family Formation on the Life-Long Careers of Academic Men and Women 88 2002
Diane S. Young Ednita Wright Mothers Making Tenure 37 2001
Ronald Burke Women on Corporate Boards of Directors: A Needed Resource 16 909 1997
Robert Drago Final Report to the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation for the Faculty and Families Project 3 The Pennsylvania State University Work-Family Working Paper 2001
Allison Weir The Global Universal Caregiver: Imagining Women's Liberation in the New Millennium 12 2005
2004
2001
Nancy Fraser After the Family Wage: Gender Equity and the Welfare State 22 1994
1997
Janet Fast The time of our lives…, in 22 2001
1996
Elaine Tyler Max “Family Values”: The Uses and Abuses of American Family History 97 2005
2002
1999
Aysan Sev'er A Feminist Analysis of Flight of Abused Women, Plight of Canadian Shelters: Another Road to Homelessness 11 2002
Statistics Canada Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 4 2009
South Africa President of the Republic of South Africa and Another v. Hugo 1 1997
Madvahi Sunder Piercing the Veil 112 2003
2005
Katherine Marshall 2008
2009
Linda Haas C. Philip Hwang The Impact of Taking Parental Leave on Fathers’ Participation in Childcare and Relationships with Children: Lessons from Sweden 11 2008
1999
Jennifer Nedelsky Law's Relations: A Relational Theory of Self, Autonomy, and Law Oxford University Press 2011
2006
Rebecca Ray Who Cares? Assessing Generosity and Gender Equality in Parental Leave Policy Designs in 21 2010
Ariane Hegeswich Flexible Working Policies: A Comparative Review Equality and Human Rights Commission (U.K.), Institute for Women's Policy Research 2009 6
2009
Jennifer Nedelsky Embodied Diversity and the Challenges to Law 42 1997
2010
Johannes Brug Environmental Determinants of Healthy Eating: In Need of Theory and Evidence 67 2008
176 2000
Jennifer Nedelsky Dilemmas of Passion, Privilege, and Isolation, in 304 1999
Tami Friesen The Live-in Caregiver Program: Inequality under Canada's Immigration System 22 2003
Patricia Daenzer An Affair between Nations: International Relations and the Movement of Household Service Workers University of Toronto Press 1997
Caroline Sweetman 2008

Reference Type: notes

Mary Anne Case 2009
Mary Anne Case Feminist Fundamentalism on the Frontier between Government and Family Responsibility for Children 2009 381
Mary Anne Case What Feminists Have to Lose in Same-Sex Marriage Litigation 57 2010
725 1982
Mary Anne Case The Very Stereotype the Law Condemns’: Constitutional Sex Discrimination Law as a Quest for Perfect Proxies 85 2000
349 2006
2008
279 1979
Mary Anne Case Couples and Coupling in the Public Sphere: A Comment on the Legal History of Litigating for Lesbian and Gay Rights 79 1993
Mary Anne Case Marriage Licenses 89 2005
Sylvia Law 1988
677 1973
4 1970
Of Husband and Wife Wayne Morrison Cavendish Publishing Ltd 2001
Mary Anne Case Marriage Licenses 89 2005
Mary Anne Case Pets or Meat 80 1132 2005
141 1873
1975
14 1975
2003
1971
1967
1972
1972 71
688 1973
1979
1974
1993
1996
2003
2009
2008
1999
1914
1999
2006
2008
1989
Mary Anne Case Disaggregating Gender from Sex and Sexual Orientation: The Effeminate Man in the Law and Feminist Jurisprudence 105 1 1995
565 1996
2001
2001
359 2006
254 1999
1973
Michel Foucault Sexual Choice, Sexual Act: An Interview 58 1982

Reference Type: notes

Reva Siegel Dignity and the Politics of Protection: Abortion Restrictions Under Casey/Carhart 117 2008
833 1992
113 1973
Vicki C. Jackson Constitutional Dialogue and Human Dignity: States and Transnational Constitutional Discourse 65 2004
1997
Debora Diniz Selective Abortion in Brazil: The Anencephaly Case 7 2007
1992 218
2005
Rosalind Dixon Creating Dialogue about Socioeconomic Rights: Strong Form versus Weak Form Judicial Review Revisited 5 400 2007
2006
Martha C. Nussbaum Capabilities as Fundamental Entitlements: Sen and Social Justice 9 33 2003
Martha C. Nussbaum Constitutions and Capabilities: Supreme Court Foreword: “Perception” Against Lofty Formalism 121 2007
Martha C. Nussbaum 2011
Martha C. Nussbaum 351 2008
Reva Siegel Sex Equality Arguments for Reproductive Rights: Their Critical Basis and Evolving Constitutional Expression 56 2007
2009
2002
Rosalind Dixon Eric A. Posner The Limits of Constitutional Convergence 2010
2005
Wesley Hohfeld Some Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning 23 1913
Judith Jarvis Thomson A Defense of Abortion 1 56 1971
Cass R. Sunstein Neutrality in Constitutional Law (with Special References to Pornography, Abortion, and Surrogacy) 92 1992
Paul Freund Storms over the Supreme Court 69 1983
1997
Mary Anne Case Perfectionism and Fundamentalism in the Application of the German Abortion Laws Susan Williams 2009
2002
2009
Reva B. Siegel The New Politics of Abortion: An Equality Analysis of Woman-Protective Abortion Restrictions 2007 991
Heather D. Boonstra The Heart of the Matter: Public Funding of Abortion for Poor Women in the United States 10 2007
1977
2010
2009
Neda Vanovac 2009
Don MacPherson 2009
1999
2008
Kenneth L. Karst Supreme Court Foreword: Equal Citizenship Under the Fourteenth Amendment 91 1977
Ruth Bader Ginsburg Some Thoughts on Equality and Autonomy in Relation to Roe v. Wade 63 1985
1993
1996
2009

Reference Type: notes

Adam Winkler 2001
1971
Daphne Barak-Erez Can Equality Survive Exceptions? 107 2009
1982
Jayna Kothari Social Rights in India – Developments of the Last Decade 171 2007
Daphne Barak-Erez Aeyal M. Gross Social Citizenship: The Neglected Aspect of Israeli Constitutional Law 243 2007
Andrei Marmor Should We Value Legislative Integrity? 125 132 2006
1986
1992
Kimberlé Crenshaw Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics 139 1991
2008
Daphne Barak-Erez Ron Shapira The Delusion of Symmetric Rights 19 1998
2004
Katharine T. Bartlett Feminist Legal Methods 103 1990
1949
1992
Gerald L. Neuman Casey in the Mirror: Abortion, Abuse and the Right to Protection in the United States and Germany 43 1995
Diane Pearce The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work, and Welfare 11 1978
Emily M. Northrop The Feminization of Poverty: The Demographic Factor and the Composition of Economic Growth 24 1990
2008
Robyn I. Stone 1997
1994
Daphne Barak-Erez 2007
Sheilah L. Martin Some Constitutional Considerations on Sexual Violence Against Women 32 1994
Patricia A. Caine Feminism and the Limits of Equality 24 1990

Reference Type: notes

1993
2007
1948
Keith E. Sealing Blood Will Tell: Scientific Racism and the Legal Prohibitions Against Miscegenation 5 2000
1971
Michael S. Wald Adults’ Sexual Orientation and State Determinations Regarding Placement of Children 40 2006
Laura T. Kessler Transgressive Caregiving 33 2005
1979
Suzanne B. Goldberg Constitutional Tipping Points: Civil Rights, Social Change, and Fact-Based Adjudication 106 2006
Suzanne B. Goldberg On Making Anti-Essentialist and Social Constructionist Arguments in Court 81 2002
Katherine M. Franke The Central Mistake of Sex Discrimination Law: The Disaggregation of Sex from Gender 144 1995
Dan M. Kahan Commentary: The Theory of Value Dilemma: A Critique of the Economic Analysis of Criminal Law 1 2004
1986
2003
1996
Reva B. Siegel The Right's Reasons: Constitutional Conflict and the Spread of the Woman-Protective Antiabortion Argument 57 2008
Reva B. Siegel Dignity and the Politics of Protection: Abortion Restrictions Under Casey/Carhart 117 2008
Lynn D. Wardle The Potential Impact of Homosexual Parenting on Children 1997 833
Lynn D. Wardle Considering the Impact on Children and Society of “Lesbigay” Parenting 23 2004
2001
2004
2011
2007
2006
2006
2005
2010
Gregory M. Herek Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States: A Social Science Perspective 61 2006
2006
L. A. Kurdek Are Gay and Lesbian Cohabiting Couples Really Different from Heterosexual Married Couples? 66 2004
2002
Melanie A. Gold Children of Gay or Lesbian Parents 15 1994
2006
Richard A. Posner The Role of the Judge in the Twenty-First Century 86 2006
2008
Jonathan J. Koehler Daniel N. Shaviro Veridical Verdicts: Increasing Verdict Accuracy Through the Use of Overtly Probabilistic Evidence and Methods 75 1990
C. C. Guthrie J. J. Rachlinski A. J. Wistrich Blinking on the Bench: How Judges Decide Cases 93 2007
Cass R. Sunstein Hazardous Heuristics 70 2003
1996
2004
2003
R. G. Wright The Role of Intuition in Judicial Decisionmaking 42 2006
1990
Gail Heriot Way Beyond Candor 89 1991

Reference Type: notes

Silvia Gherardi Gendered Organizational Cultures: Narratives of Women Travellers in a Male World, 3 Gender, Work & Organization 187 1996
Rosemary Hunter Talking Up Equality: Women Barristers and the Denial of Discrimination 10 2002
Michael Pelly 2009
2001
Michael Pelly 2008
Margaret Thornton Otherness” on the Bench: How Merit is Gendered 29 2007
Erika Rackley Judicial Diversity, The Woman Judge, and Fairy Tale Endings 27 2007
2007
1996
1987
1991
Erika Rackley Detailing Judicial Difference 17 2009
2006
Jennifer Batrouney 2004
Rosemary Hunter 2003
1997
2002
Rosemary Hunter 2003
Carol Sanger Curriculum Vitae (Feminae): Biography and Early American Women Lawyers 46 1994
2009
2006
Philip Ruddock 2007
Transcript of Proceedings 1993
Yuko Narushima 2008
David Marr 2009
Transcript of Proceedings 1999
Transcript of Proceedings 2009
Nicola Berkovic Michael Pelly 2009

Reference Type: notes

1988
Kimberlé Crenshaw Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics 139 1989
1993
2003
Gwen Brodsky Shelagh Day Beyond the Social and Economic Rights Debate: Substantive Equality Speaks to Poverty 14 2002
Austin Sarat Thomas R. Kearns 1991
2006
1984
2002
2002
1999
2002
2005
1993
1995
2001
1988
2006
J. E. Mosher 2000
1988
1939
Janet Mosher 2007
2005
1997
2004
2002
2002
Martha Jackman 1988
Iris Marion Young 2005
Natasha Kim Tina Piper 2003
Wilson, J. 1988
Austin Sarat The Law is All Over: Power, Resistance, and the Legal Consciousness of the Welfare Poor 2 1990
Martha Jackman What's Wrong With Social and Economic Rights? 11 2000

Reference Type: notes

Holning Lau Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: American Law in Light of East Asian Developments 31 2008
Hilary Charlesworth Christine Chinkin Shelley Wright Feminist Approaches to International Law 85 1991
Christine Chinkin Shelley Wright Hilary Charlesworth 2005
Rachael Lorna Johnstone Feminist Influences on the United Nations Human Rights Treaty Bodies 28 2006
Carole J. Petersen 2001
Carole J. Petersen 2003
www.legco.gov.hk/yr06-07/english/bc/bc52/papers/bc52cb2-2232-1-e.pdf 2009
Carole J. Petersen 2004
2005
Puja Kapai The Hong Kong Equal Opportunities Commission: Calling for a New Avatar 39 2009
2007
1989
2005
2009
2009
2006
2006
2006
1985
1988
2007
2002
2001
1979
2001
Andrew Byrnes 1999
2009
2004
Diane Otto 2005
Carole J. Petersen 2007
Anthony Mason The Place of Comparative Law in Developing the Jurisprudence on the Rule of Law and Human Rights in Hong Kong 37 2007
Johannes M. M. Chan Hong Kong's Bill of Rights: Its Reception of and Contribution to International and Comparative Jurisprudence 47 1998
2006
Quinton Chan 1994
Christine Loh Kung-wai 2007
2008
Home Affairs Department and Immigration Department Statistics on New Arrivals from the Mainland 7 2009
2008
2005

Reference Type: notes

Jane Mansbridge Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes’ 61 1999
Eileen McDonagh It Takes a State: A Policy Feedback Model of Women's Political Representation 8 2010
Richard E. Matland Women's Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries 23 1998
2003
2001
Jeannie Suk The True Woman: Scenes from the Law of Self-Defense 31 2008
Max Weber 1946
1993
1776
Fionnuala Ni Aolain The Fractured Soul of the Dayton Peace Agreement: A Legal Analysis 19 1998
1913
Paula A. Monopoli Gender and Constitutional Design 115 2006
Jennifer L. Lawless Women, War, and Winning Elections: Gender Stereotyping in the Post-September 11th Era 57 2004
Martha McSally Women in Combat: Is the Current Policy Obsolete? 14 2007
Stephen Skowronek The Conservative Insurgency and Presidential Power: A Developmental Perspective on the Unitary Executive 122 2009
Matt Labash 2002
Marianne LaFrance The Schemas and Schemes in Sex Discrimination 65 1999
T. Eckes Explorations in Gender Cognition: Content and Structure of Female and Male Subtypes 12 1994
Virginia Valian 1998
A. H. Eagly Gender and the Effectiveness of Leaders: A Meta-analysis 117 1995
1996
J. Trempe Subordinate Satisfaction with Male and Female Managers: Role of Perceived Supervisory Influence 70 1985
Chris Nolan 2004
Alexander DeConde 2002
Drude Dahlerup 2002
Mona Lena Krook Reforming Representation: The Diffusion of Candidate Gender Quotas Worldwide 2 2006
Pär Zetterberg 2008
Darren Rosenblum Parity/Disparity: Electoral Gender Inequality on the Tightrope of Liberal Constitutional Traditions 39 2006
2007
2005

Reference Type: notes

Blanca Rodríguez-Ruiz Ruth Rubio-Marín The Gender of Representation: On Democracy, Equality, and Parity 6 2008
Anne Peters Stefan Suter Representation, Discrimination, and Democracy: A Legal Assessment of Gender Quotas in Politics Cambridge University Press 2009
2008
1988
Jean-Jacques Rousseau 2002
Joan Tronto Care as the Work of Citizens. A Modest Proposal Oxford University Press 2003
1997
Stockholm, Sweden www.quotaproject.org 2009
U.N. Security Council 2000

Reference Type: notes

Alicia L. Bannon Designing a Constitution-Drafting Process: Lessons from Kenya 116 2007
A. E. Dick Howard The Bridge at Jamestown: The Virginia Charter of 1606 and Constitutionalism in the Modern World 42 2007
Vijayashri Sripati Constitutionalism in India and South Africa: A Comparative Study from a Human Rights Perspective 16 2007
A. E. Dick Howard 1993
Kim Lane Scheppele Aspirational and Aversive Constitutionalism: The Case for Studying Cross-Constitutional Influence Through Negative Models 1 2003
Julius O. Ihonvbere How to Make an Undemocratic Constitution: The Nigerian Example 21 2000
Robert A. Goldwin Art Kaufman 1988
Holly Taylor The Constitutions of Afghanistan and Iraq: The Advancement of Women's Rights 13 2006
Laura Grenfell The Participation of Afghan Women in the Reconstruction Process 12 2004
Michael Schoiswohl Linking the International Legal Framework to Building the Formal Foundations of a “State at Risk”: Constitution-Making and International Law in Post-Conflict Afghanistan 39 2006
Nusrat Choudhury, Commentary Constrained Spaces for Islamic Feminism: Women's Rights and the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan 19 2007
Saïd Amir Arjomand Constitutional Developments in Afghanistan: A Comparative and Historical Perspective 53 2005
Martha I. Morgan Monica Maria Alzate Buitrago Constitution-Making in a Time of Cholera: Women and the 1991 Colombian Constitution 4 1992
James Thuo Gathii Popular Authorship and Constitution Making: Comparing and Contrasting the DRC and Kenya 49 2008
Athena D. Mutua Gender Equality and Women's Solidarity Across Religious, Ethnic, and Class Differences in the Kenyan Constitutional Review Process 13 2006
Martha I. Morgan Founding Mothers: Women's Voices and Stories in the 1987 Nicaraguan Constitution 70 1990
Jules Lobel The Meaning of Democracy: Representative and Participatory Democracy in the New Nicaraguan Constitution 49 1988
Christina Murray A Constitutional Beginning: Making South Africa's Final Constitution 23 2001
Angela M. Banks Challenging Political Boundaries in Post-Conflict States 29 2007
Laboni Amena Hoq The Women's Convention and Its Optional Protocol: Empowering Women to Claim Their Internationally Protected Rights 32 2001
Hilary Charlesworth Christine Chinkin Shelley Wright Feminist Approaches to International Law 85 1991
Hallie Ludsin Putting the Cart Before the Horse: The Palestinian Constitutional Drafting Process 10 2005
Penelope E. Andrews From Gender Apartheid to Non-Sexism: The Pursuit of Women's Rights in South Africa 26 2001
Adrien Katherine Wing Constitutionalism, Legal Reform, and the Economic Development of Palestinian Women 15 2006
Berta Esperanza Hernádez-Truyol Women's Rights as Human Rights – Rules, Realities and the Role of Culture: A Formula for Reform 21 1996
Stacy R. Sandusky Women's Political Participation in Developing and Democratizing Countries: Focus on Zimbabwe 5 1999
Jane S. Jaquette Women in Power: From Tokenism to Critical Mass 108 1997
Ruthann Robson 2008
Makau Mutua The Iraq Paradox: Minority and Group Rights in a Viable Constitution 54 2006
2004

Reference Type: notes

2001
2008
Sudan. Human Rights Council Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Situation of Human Rights in Colombia 54 2008
2008
2007
2005
Corporación Casa de la Mujer 2008
1994
Anne Revillard 2007
2006
2006
Amnesty International 2004
2006
Katherine O’Donovan 1989
2001
2001
Human Rights 1998
Jacques Chevallier 2007
Y. Mizumachi 2006
Catharine MacKinnon Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: Toward Feminist Jurisprudence 8 1983
Joan Williams 1999
Federico Guzmán Duque 2008
2002

Reference Type: notes

Frank Michelman 1996
Stephen Gardbaum 2001
2001
Robert C. Post The Supreme Court, 2002 Term – Forward: Fashioning the Legal Constitution: Culture, Courts, and Law 117 2003
Robert C. Post Reva B. Siegel Legislative Constitutionalism and Section Five Power: Policentric Interpretation of the Family and Medical Leave Act 112 2003
Larry D. Kramer 2004
Sanford Levinson 2006
2008
1982
Tsvi Kahana What Makes for a Good Use of the Notwithstanding Mechanism? 23 2004
Christine Bateup The Dialogic Promise: Assessing the Normative Potential of Theories of Constitutional Dialogue 71 2006
1984
Peter H. Russell Standing Up for Notwithstanding 29 1991
Larry D. Kramer Forward: We the Court 115 2001
Karen O’Connor Lee Epstein 1983
1994
F. L. Morton Avril Allen Feminists and the Courts: Measuring Success in Interest Group Litigation in Canada 34 2001
Diana Majury The Charter, Equality Rights, and Women: Equivocation and Celebration 40 2002
1978
Lois G. MacDonald Promoting Social Equality through the Legislative Override 4 1994
Wayne MacKay 2001
A. Wayne MacKay 1985
1989
Joel Bakan Constitutional Interpretation and Social Change: You Can't Always Get What You Want (Nor What You Need) 70 1991
1991
1991
Jane Schacter Digitally Democratizing Congress? Technology and Political Accountability 89 2009
Celia Milne Catching Up With…Dr. Henry Morgentaler: A Tale of Nine Lives 43 2007
Henry Jenkins 1999
2009
1997
Fereshteh Nouraie-Simone 2005
1985
Anita Harris Young Women, Late Modern Politics, and the Participatory Possibilities of Online Cultures 11 2008
Pete Cashmore http://mashable.com/2009/07/04/sarah-palin-facebook/ 2011
Jessica Vitak Paul Zube Andrew Smock Caleb T. Carr Nicole Ellison Cliff Lampe 2011
Barry Wellman Milena Gulia 1999
2008
2009
Barbara Page Women Writers and the Restive Text: Feminism, Experimental Writing, and Hypertext 6 1996
Beverly A. Lewin Yonatan Donner Communication in Internet Message Boards 18 2002
Eugene Volokh Cheap Speech and What It Will Do 104 1995
Cindy Royal Framing the Internet: A Comparison of Gendered Spaces 26 2008
Helen Aitkin Bridging the Mountainous Divide: A Case for ICTs for Mountain Women 22 2002
Debora Halbert Feminist Interpretations of Intellectual Property 14 2006
Julie Coiro Reading Comprehension on the Internet: Expanding Our Understanding of Reading Comprehension to Encompass New Literacies 56 2003

Reference Type: notes

Jennifer S. Hendricks Essentially a Mother 13 2007
Jennifer S. Hendricks Body and Soul: Pregnancy, Equality, and the Unitary Right to Abortion 45 2010
E. Gary Spitko The Constitutional Function of Biological Paternity: Evidence of the Biological Mother's Consent to the Biological Father's Co-Parenting of Her Child 48 2006
2001
Mary L. Shanley Unwed Fathers’ Rights, Adoption, and Sex Equality: Gender Neutrality and the Perpetuation of Patriarchy 95 1995
1991
1979
2005
Leslie Bender 2003
Mary Pat Byrn 2010
Katharine K. Baker Property Rules Meet Feminist Needs: Respecting Autonomy by Valuing Connection 59 1998
Judith Jarvitz Thomson A Defense of Abortion 1 1971
1996
Leslie Bender An Overview of Feminist Torts Scholarship 78 1993
Lawrence B. Finer Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives 37 2005
1992
Jack M. Balkin Abortion and Original Meaning 24 2007
Jennifer S. Hendricks Contingent Equal Protection: Reaching for Equality after 16 2010
Robin West 2005
Reva Siegel Reasoning from the Body: A Historical Perspective on Abortion Regulation and Questions of Equal Protection 44 1992
2003
1992
Ethan J. Leib A Man's Right to Choose: Men Deserve a Voice in the Abortion Decision 28 2005
Daniel Pollack Susan Mason Mandatory Visitation: In the Best Interest of the Child 42 2004
Barbara Bennett Woodhouse Talking About Children's Rights in Judicial Custody and Visitation Decision-Making 36 2002
Beth A. Burkstrand-Reid The Invisible Woman: Availability and Culpability in Reproductive Health Jurisprudence 81 2010
2006
1988

Reference Type: notes

Sara Rosenbaum Medicaid at Forty: Revisiting Structure and Meaning in a Post-Deficit Reduction Act Era 9 J. Health Care L. & Pol'y 2006
Susan Frelich Appleton Beyond the Limits of Reproductive Choice: The Contributions of the Abortion-Funding Cases to Fundamental-Rights Analysis and to the Welfare-Rights Thesis 81 Colum. L. Rev 721 1981
Seth F. Kreimer Allocational Sanctions: The Problem of Negative Rights in a Positive State 132 U. Pa. L. Rev 1984
1989
Cass R. Sunstein Why the Unconstitutional Conditions Doctrine Is an Anachronism (With Particular Reference to Religion, Speech, and Abortion) 70 B.U. L. Rev 597 1990
1991
Lynn A. Baker The Prices of Rights: Toward a Positive Theory of Unconstitutional Conditions 75 1190 1990
1997
Nicole Huberfeld Bizarre Love Triangle: The Spending Clause, Section 1983, and Medicaid Entitlements 42 428 2008
1976
1977
1980
Michael J. Perry Why the Supreme Court Was Plainly Wrong in the Hyde Amendment Case: A Brief Comment on 1113 1980
1991
1992
2007
1981
Kaiser Family Foundation Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access 1 2008
1977
Robin Fretwell Wilson The Limits of Conscience: Moral Clashes over Deeply Divisive Healthcare Procedures 34 49 2008
Mitchell N. Berman Getting off the Dole: Why the Court Should Abandon Its Spending Doctrine, and How a Too-Clever Congress Could Provoke It to Do So 459 464 2001
2006
Laurence H. Tribe The Abortion Funding Conundrum: Inalienable Rights, Affirmative Duties, and the Dilemma of Dependence 99 333 1985
Nicole Huberfeld Clear Notice for Conditions on Spending, Unclear Implications for States in Federal Healthcare Programs 86 488 2008
Kenneth Agran When Government Must Pay: Compensating Rights and the Constitution 22 2005
Guttmacher Institute 2010
2007
2002
Samuel R. Bagenstos Spending Clause Litigation in the Roberts Court 58 345 2008
2000
Erwin Chemerinsky Turning Sharply to the Right 10 423 2007
Daniel A. Farber Another View of the Quagmire: Unconstitutional Conditions and Contract Theory 33 913 2007
1987

Reference Type: notes

2004
Audrey Haroz South Africa's 1996 Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act: Expanding Choice and International Human Rights to Black South African Women 30 1997
Banwari Meel Ram P. Kaswa The Impact on the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1996 36 2009
Rachel Jewkes Prevalence of Morbidity Associated with Abortion before and after Legalization in South Africa 324 2002
Charles Ngwena The History and Transformation of Abortion Law in South Africa 30 35 1998
1938
Diane Cooper Ten Years of Democracy in South Africa: Documenting Transformation in Reproductive Health Policy and Status 12 2004
Jeremy Sarkin-Hughes A Perspective on Abortion Legislation in South Africa's Bill of Rights Era 56 1993
Sally Guttmacher Abortion Reform in South Africa: A Case Study of the 1996 Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act 24 1998
Catherine Albertyn 1999
Barbara Klugman Sanjani Jane Varkey 2001
Jeremy Sarkin Suggestions for a New Abortion Law 9 1996
1998
Bernard Dickens Rebecca Cook Development of Commonwealth Abortion Laws 28 1979
1999
Penelope Andrews 2001
Saras Jagwanth Christina Murray 2004
Kelly Blanchard Abortion Law in South Africa: Passage of a Progressive Law and Challenges for Implementation 139 2003
Jerome Singh South Africa a Decade after Apartheid: Realizing Health through Human Rights 12 2005
Barbara Brown Facing the Black Peril: The Politics of Population Control in South Africa 12 1987
Kieran McEvoy Rachel Rebouché 2007
Tracy Higgins Gender Equality and Customary Marriage: Bargaining in the Shadow of Post-Apartheid Legal Pluralism 30 2007
1998
Ruth Rubio-Marín Martha I. Morgan 2004
Charles Ngwena Accessing Abortion Services under the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act 25 2000
2008
Rebecca Cook Susannah Howard Accommodating Women's Differences under the Women's Anti-discrimination Convention 56 2007
1996
Rebecca Firestone Laura Reichenbach Mindy Jane Roseman 2009
Mindy Jane Roseman Laura Reichenbach 2009
2007
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