Child Language Acquisition

Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

Child Language Acquisition

Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction to the two major contrasting theoretical approaches: generativist and constructivist. For each debate, the predictions of the competing accounts are closely and even-handedly evaluated against the empirical data. The result is an evidence-based review of the central issues in language acquisition research that will constitute a valuable resource for students, teachers, course-builders and researchers alike.


 Reviews:

'The focus on theoretical debates, and inclusion of multiple methodologies, is welcome, valuable, and informative.' Letitia Naigles, University of Connecticut

'… an excellent first step towards opening a dialog and closing the gap between generative and constructivist approaches to language learning, allowing progress beyond the traditional nature-nurture dialectic in language science … Readers will see how theory-driven investigation in language acquisition can advance our understanding of the unique human capacity for language.' Jeffrey Lidz, University of Maryland

'… an unusual and very important book. The question of how children acquire their native language is of tremendous interest to scholars in a broad range of fields. Not surprisingly, it has also led to many lively disagreements. Ambridge and Lieven have chosen to focus on these theoretical debates. The coverage of issues is impressive, but even more impressive is the extraordinarily careful and detailed analyses of competing theories and of the empirical data. The authors' treatments are fair and even-handed … The result is an extremely valuable contribution to the literature, and one that significantly advances our understanding of the field.' Jeff Elman, University of California, San Diego

'An ambitious, comprehensive and remarkably up-to-date adventure in adjudicating between nativist and constructivist approaches to human language acquisition. There's still room left for disagreement, especially on matters of interpretation, but graduate students and newcomers to the field of language acquisition who want to know the lay of the land would do well to start here.' Gary Marcus, New York University and author of The Birth of the Mind and Kluge: The Haphazard Evolution of the Human Mind

Abbot-Smith, K. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2001). What preschool children do and do not do with ungrammatical word orders. Cognitive Development, 16(2): 679–92.
Abbot-Smith, K. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2004). Training 2;6-year-olds to produce the transitive construction: the role of frequency, semantic similarity and shared syntactic distribution. Developmental Science, 7(1): 48–55.
Abbot-Smith, K. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2008). Graded representations in the acquisition of English and German transitive constructions. Cognitive Development, 23(1): 48–66.
Aguado-Orea, J. J. (2004). The acquisition of morpho-syntax in Spanish: implications for current theories of development. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.
Akhtar, N. (1999). Acquiring basic word order: evidence for data-driven learning of syntactic structure. Journal of Child Language, 26: 339–56.
Akhtar, N. , Carpenter, M. and Tomasello, M. (1996). The role of discourse novelty in early word learning. Child Development, 67(2): 635–45.
Akhtar, N. and Montague, L. (1999). Early lexical acquisition: the role of cross-situational learning. First Language, 19: 347–58.
Akhtar, N. and Tomasello, M. (1996). Two-year-olds learn words for absent objects and actions. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14: 79–93.
Akhtar, N. and Tomasello, M. (1997). Young children's productivity with word order and verb morphology. Developmental Psychology, 33(6): 952–65.
Akhtar, N. and Tomasello, M. (2000). The social nature of words and word learning. In R. Golinkoff (ed.), Becoming a Word Learner: A Debate on Lexical Acquisition (pp. 115–30). Oxford University Press.
Albright, A. and Hayes, B. (2003). Rules vs analogy in English past tenses: a computational/experimental study. Cognition, 90: 119–61.
Aldridge, M. (1989). The Acquisition of INFL. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Alegre, M. and Gordon, P. (1999). Frequency effects and the representational status of regular inflections. Journal of Memory and Language, 40(1): 41–61.
Alishahi, A. and Stevenson, S. (2008). A computational model of early argument structure acquisition. Cognitive Science, 32(5): 789–834.
Allen, S. E. and Crago, M. B. (1996). Early passive acquisition in Inuktitut. Journal of Child Language, 23(1): 129–55.
Ambridge, B. (2007). Tapping into children's knowledge: The Totally Abstract Production Priming paradigm. Unpublished MS.
Ambridge, B. (2009a). ‘Retreat’ from argument-structure overgeneralization errors as a consequence of the acquisition of verb and construction semantics. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 2009, Denver, CO, USA.
Ambridge, B. (2009b). Review of Hirsh-Pasek, K. and Golinkoff, R. M. (2005). Action Meets Word: How Children Learn Verbs. Infant and Child Development, 18: 99–101.
Ambridge, B. (in press). Children's judgments of regular and irregular novel past tense forms: new data on the English past-tense debate. Developmental Psychology.
Ambridge, B. , Freudenthal, D. , Pine, J. M. , Mills, R. , Clark, V. and Rowland, C. F. (2009). Un-learning un-prefixation errors. Paper presented at the International Conference on Cognitive Modelling 2009, Manchester, UK.
Ambridge, B. , Pine, J. M. , Rowland, C. F. , Jones, R. L. and Clark, V. (2009). A semantics-based approach to the ‘No negative evidence’ problem. Cognitive Science, 33(7): 1301–16.
Ambridge, B. , Pine, J. M. , Rowland, C. F. and Clark, V. (2010a). Verb semantics and the retreat from overgeneralization errors. Unpublished MS.
Ambridge, B. , Pine, J. M. , Rowland, C. F. and Clark, V. (2010b). Restricting dative argument-structure overgeneralizations: a grammaticality-judgment study with adults and children. Unpublished MS.
Ambridge, B. , Pine, J. M. , Rowland, C. F. and Young, C. R. (2008). The effect of verb semantic class and verb frequency (entrenchment) on children's and adults' graded judgements of argument-structure overgeneralization errors. Cognition, 106(1): 87–129.
Ambridge, B. , Pine, J. M. and Rowland, C. F. (in press). Children use verb semantics to retreat from overgeneralization errors: a novel verb grammaticality judgment study. Cognitive Linguistics.
Ambridge, B. , Rowland, C. F. , Theakston, A. L. and Tomasello, M. (2006). Comparing different accounts of inversion errors in children's non-subject wh-questions: ‘What experimental data can tell us?’ Journal of Child Language, 33(3): 519–57.
Ambridge, B. , Rowland, C. F. and Pine, J. M. (2008). Is structure dependence an innate constraint? New experimental evidence from children's complex question production. Cognitive Science, 32(1): 222–55.
Ambridge, B. , Theakston, A. L. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Tomasello, M. (2006). The distributed learning effect for children's acquisition of an abstract syntactic construction. Cognitive Development, 21(2): 174–93.
Ambridge, B. and Goldberg, A. E. (2008). The island status of clausal complements: evidence in favor of an information structure explanation. Cognitive Linguistics, 19(3): 349–81.
Ambridge, B. and Pine, J. M. (2006). Testing the Agreement/Tense Omission Model using an elicited imitation paradigm. Journal of Child Language, 33(4): 879–98.
Ambridge, B. and Rowland, C. F. (2009). Predicting children's errors with negative questions: testing a schema-combination account. Cognitive Linguistics, 20(2): 225–66.
Arnon, I. (2010). Rethinking child difficulty: the effect of NP type on children's processing of relative clauses in Hebrew. Journal of Child Language, 37(1): 27–57.
Aslin, R. N. , Pisoni, D. B. , Hennessy, B. L. and Perey, A. V. (1981). Discrimination of voice onset time by human infants: new findings and implications for the effect of early experience. Child Development, 52: 1135–45.
Aslin, R. N. , Saffran, J. R. and Newport, E. L. (1998). Computation of conditional probability statistics by 8-month-old infants. Psychological Science, 9: 321–4.
Aslin, R. N. , Werker, J. F. and Morgan, J. L. (2002). Innate phonetic boundaries revisited (L). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 112: 1257–60.
Aslin, R. N. and Newport, E. L. (2009). What statistical learning can and can't tell us about language acquisition. In J. Colombo , P. McCardle and L. Freund (eds.), Infant Pathways to Language: Methods, Models and Research Disorders (pp. 169–94). New York: Psychology Press.
Aslin, R. N. and Pisoni, D. B. (1980). Some developmental processes in speech perception. Child Phonology, 2: 67–96.
Au, T. K. F. , Dapretto, M. and Song, Y. K. (1994). Input vs constraints – early word acquisition in Korean and English. Journal of Memory and Language, 33(5): 567–82.
Baker, C. L. (1979). Syntactic theory and the projection problem. Linguistic Enquiry, 10: 533–81.
Baker, M. (2001). The Atoms of Language. New York: Basic Books.
Balaban, M. T. and Waxman, S. R. (1997). Do words facilitate object categorization in 9-month-old infants? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 64(1): 3–26.
Baldwin, D. A. (1991). Infants' contribution to the achievement of joint reference. Child Development, 62(5): 875–90.
Baldwin, D. A. (1992). Clarifying the role of shape in children's taxonomic assumption. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 54(3): 392–416.
Baldwin, D. A. (1993a). Early referential understanding – infants ability to recognize referential acts for what they are. Developmental Psychology, 29(5): 832–43.
Baldwin, D. A. (1993b). Infants' ability to consult the speaker for clues to word reference. Journal of Child Language, 20(2): 395–418.
Baldwin, D. A. , Markman, E. M. , Bill, B. , Desjardins, R. N. , Irwin, J. M. and Tidball, G. (1996). Infants' reliance on a social criterion for establishing word–object relations. Child Development, 67(6): 3135–53.
Banks, M. S. , Aslin, R. N. and Letson, R. D. (1975). Sensitive period for the development of human binocular vision. Science, 190: 675–77.
Bannard, C. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2009). Modelling children's early grammatical knowledge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(41): 17284–9.
Bannard, C. and Lieven, E. (2009). Repetition and reuse in child language learning. In R. Corrigan , E. Moravcsik , H. Ouali and K. Wheatley (eds.), Formulaic language, vol. 2: Acquisition, Loss, Psychological Reality, Functional Explanations (pp. 299–318). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Bannard, C. and Matthews, D. (2008). Stored word sequences in language learning: the effect of familiarity on children's repetition of four-word combinations. Psychological Science, 19: 241–48.
Baron-Cohen, S. , Baldwin, D. A. and Crowson, M. (1997). Do children with autism use the speaker's direction of gaze strategy to crack the code of language? Child Development, 68(1): 48–57.
Barr, D. (2008). Analyzing ‘visual world’ eyetracking data using multilevel logistic regression. Journal of Memory and Language, 59(4): 457–74.
Bates, E. (1993). Modularity, Domain Specificity and the Development of Language. Technical Report 9305. Center for Research in Language, UCSD. [AEG]
Bates, E. (1994). Modularity, domain specificity and the development of language. Discussions in Neuroscience, 10(1/2): 136–49.
Bates, E. , Camaioni, L. and Volterra, V. (1975). The acquisition of performatives prior to speech. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 21: 205–24.
Bates, E. , Devescovi , A. and D'Amico , S. (1999). Processing complex sentences: a cross-linguistic study. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14(1): 69–123.
Bates, E. , MacWhinney, B. , Caselli, C. , Devescovi, A. , Natale, F. and Venza, V. (1984). A crosslinguistic study of the development of sentence interpretation strategies. Child Development, 55: 341–54.
Bates, E. and MacWhinney, B. (1979). A functionalist approach to the acquisition of grammar. In E. Ochs and B. Schieffelin (eds.), Developmental Pragmatics (pp. 167–209). New York: Academic Press.
Bates, E. and MacWhinney, B. (1987). Competition, variation and language learning. In B. MacWhinney (ed.), Mechanisms of Language Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bavin, E. L. and Growcott, C. (2000). Infants of 24–30 months understand verb frames. In S. Perkins and S. Howard (eds.), New Directions in Language Development and Disorders (pp. 169–77). New York: Kluwer.
Beckman, M. E. (1986). Stress and Non-Stress Accent (Netherlands Phonetic Archives no. 7). Dordrecht: Foris. (Second printing, 1992, by Walter de Gruyter.)
Behne, T. , Carpenter, M. , Call, J. and Tomasello, M. (2005). Unwilling versus unable: infants' understanding of intentional action. Developmental Psychology, 41(2): 328–37.
Behne, T. , Carpenter, M. and Tomasello, M. (2005). One-year-olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game. Developmental Science, 8: 492–9.
Behrend, D. A. (1990). The development of verb concepts: children's use of verbs to label familiar and novel events. Child Development, 61(3): 681–96.
Bellagamba, F. and Tomasello, M. (1999). Re-enacting intended acts: comparing 12- and 18-month-olds. Infant Behavior and Development, 22(2): 277–82.
Bencini, G. M. L. and Valian, V. V. (2008). Abstract sentence representations in 3 year-olds: evidence from language production and comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 59: 97–113.
Berent, I. , Pinker, S. and Shimron, J. (1999). Default nominal inflection in Hebrew: evidence for mental variables. Cognition, 72(1): 1–44.
Berko, J. (1958). The child's learning of English morphology. Word, 14: 150–77.
Berman, R. and Sagi, I. (1981). On word formation and word innovations in early age. Balshanut Ivrit Xofshit 18.
Bernstein Ratner, N . (1996). From ‘signal to syntax’: but what is the nature of the signal? In J. L. Morgan and K. Demuth (eds.), Signal to Syntax: Bootstrapping From Speech to Grammar in Early Acquisition (pp. 135–50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bernstein Ratner, N. (1984). Patterns of vowel modification in mother–child speech. Journal of Child Language, 11(3): 557–78.
Berwick, R. and Weinberg, A. (1984). The Grammatical Basis of Linguistic Performance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Best, C. T. , McRoberts, G. W. and Sithole, N. N. (1988). The phonological basis of perceptual loss for non-native contrasts: maintenance of discrimination among Zulu clicks by English-speaking adults and infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14: 345–60.
Bialystok, E. and Hakuta, K. (1999). Confounded age: linguistic and cognitive factors in age differences for second language acquisition. In D. Birdsong (ed.), Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis (pp. 161–81). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bickerton, D. (1981). Roots of Language. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
Bishop, D. V. M. (2000). Pragmatic language impairment: a correlate of SLI, a distinct subgroup, or part of the autistic continuum? In D. V. M. Bishop and L. B. Leonard (eds.), Speech and Language Impairments in Children: Causes, Characteristics, Intervention and Outcome (pp. 99–113). New York: Psychology Press.
Bishop, D. V. M. (2009). Genes, cognition and communication: insights from neurodevelopmental disorders. The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156: 1–18.
Bishop, D. V. M. , Adams, C. V. and Norbury, C. F. (2006). Distinct genetic influences on grammar and phonological short-term memory deficits: evidence from 6-year-old twins. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 5: 158–69.
Bishop, D. V. M. and Leonard, L. B. (eds.). (2000). Speech and Language Impairments in Children: Causes, Characteristics, Intervention and Outcome. New York: Psychology Press.
Blevins, J. (2004). Evolutionary Phonology. Cambridge University Press.
Bloom, L. (1973). One Word at a Time: the Use of Single Word Utterances Before Syntax. The Hague: Mouton.
Bloom, L. , Rispoli, M. , Gartner, B. and Hafitz, J. (1989). Acquisition of complementation. Journal of Child Language, 16(1): 101–20.
Bloom, L. , Tinker, E. and Margulis, C. (1993). The words children learn – evidence against a noun bias in early vocabularies. Cognitive Development, 8(4): 431–50.
Bloom, P. (1990). Subjectless sentences in child language. Linguistic Enquiry, 21: 491–504.
Bloom, P. (2000). How Children Learn the Meaning of Words. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bloom, P. (2004). Myths of word learning. In D. G Hall and S. R. Waxman (eds.), Weaving a Lexicon (pp. 205–24). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bloom, P. and Markson, L. (2001). Are there principles that apply only to the acquisition of words? A reply to Waxman and Booth. Cognition, 78: 89–90.
Bock, J. K. (1986). Syntactic persistence in language production. Cognitive Psychology, 18: 355–87.
Bod, R. (2009). From exemplar to grammar: a probabilistic analogy-based model of language learning. Cognitive Science, 33: 752–93.
Bol, G. W. (1995). Implicational scaling in child language acquisition: the order of production of Dutch verb constructions. In M. Verrips and F. Wijnen (eds.), Papers from the Dutch-German Colloquium on Language Acquisition. Amsterdam Series in Child Language Development, 3. Amsterdam: Institute for General Linguistics.
Booth, A. E. and Waxman, S. R. (2002). Word learning is ‘smart’: evidence that conceptual information affects preschoolers' extension of novel words. Cognition, 84(1): B11–22.
Borer, H. and Wexler, K. (1987). The maturation of syntax. In T. Roeper and E. Williams (eds.), Parameter Setting (pp. 123–72). Dordrecht: Reidel.
Borer, H. and Wexler, K. (1992). Bi-unique relations and the maturation of grammatical principles. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 10(2): 147–89.
Bornstein, M. H. (1987). Perceptual categories in vision and audition. In S. Harnad (ed.), Categorical Perception: The Groundwork of Cognition (pp. 287–300). Cambridge University Press.
Bortfeld, H. , Morgan, J. L. , Golinkoff, R. M. and Rathbun, K. (2005). Mommy and me – familiar names help launch babies into speech-stream segmentation. Psychological Science, 16: 298–304.
Boser, C. , Lust, B. , Santelmann, L. and Whitman, J. (1992). The syntax of CP and V2 in early child German (ECG): the strong continuity hypothesis. NELS 22: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society (pp. 51–66). Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Bowerman, M. (1973). Early Syntactic Development: A Cross-linguistic Study with Special Reference to Finnish. Cambridge University Press.
Bowerman, M. (1985). What shapes children's grammars? In D. I. Slobin (ed.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition, vol. 2: Theoretical Issues (pp. 1257–1319). London: Erlbaum.
Bowerman, M. (1988). The ‘no negative evidence’ problem: how do children avoid constructing an overly general grammar? In J. A. Hawkins (ed.), Explaining Language Universals (pp. 73–101). Oxford: Blackwell.
Bowerman, M. (1990). Mapping thematic roles onto syntactic functions: are children helped by innate linking rules? Linguistics, 28: 1251–89.
Bowerman, M. and Croft, W. (2007). The acquisition of the English causative alternation. In M. Bowerman and P. Brown (eds.), Crosslinguistic Perspectives on Argument Structure: Implications for Learnability. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Boyd, J. K. and Goldberg, A. E. (in press). Learning what not to say: the role of categorization and statistical pre-emption in the production of a-adjectives. Language.
Boysson-Bardies, B. , Vihman, M. M. , Roug-Hellichius, L. , Durand, C. , Landberg, I. and Arao, F. (1992). Material evidence of infant selection from the target language: a cross-linguistic study. In C. Ferguson , L. Menn and C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological Development: Models, Research, Implications. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Boysson-Bardies, B. and Vihman, M. (1991). Adaptation to language: evidence from babbling and first words in four languages. Language, 67(2): 297–319.
Braine, M. D. S. (1963). The ontogeny of English phrase structure. Language, 39: 1–14.
Braine, M. D. S. (1971). On two types of models of the internalization of grammars. In D. I. Slobin (ed.), The Ontogenesis of Grammar (pp. 153–86). New York: Academic Press.
Braine, M. D. S. (1976). Children's first word combinations. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 41(164): 1–104.
Braine, M. D. S. , Brody, R. E. , Brooks, P. J. , Sudhalter, V. , Ross, J. A. , Catalano, L. et al. (1990). Exploring language-acquisition in children with a miniature artificial language – effects of item and pattern frequency, arbitrary subclasses and correction. Journal of Memory and Language, 29(5): 591–610.
Braine, M. D. S. , Brody, R. E. , Fisch, S. M. , Weisberger, M. J. and Blum, M. (1990). Can children use a verb without exposure to its argument structure. Journal of Child Language, 17(2): 313–42.
Braine, M. D. S. and Brooks, P. J. (1995). Verb argument structure and the problem of avoiding an overgeneral grammar. In M. Tomasello and W. E. Merriman (eds.), Beyond Names for Things: Young Children's Acquisition of Verbs (pp. 352–76). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Braine, M. D.S. (1987). What is learned in acquiring word classes: a step toward an acquisition theory. In B. MacWhinney (ed.), Mechanisms of Language Acquisition (pp. 67–87). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Braine, M. D.S. (1992). What sort of innate structure is needed to ‘bootstrap’ into syntax? Cognition, 45(1): 77–100.
Brandt, S. , Kidd, E. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2009). The discourse bases of relativization: an investigation of young German and English-speaking children's comprehension of relative clauses. Cognitive Linguistics, 20(3): 539–70.
Brandt, S. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (in press). Development of word order in German complement-clause constructions: effects of input frequencies, lexical items and discourse function. Language.
Brent, M. R . (1999). An efficient, probabilistically sound algorithm for segmentation and word discovery. Machine Learning, 34: 71–105.
Brent, M. R. and Cartwright, T. A. (1996). Distributional regularity and phonotactics are useful for segmentation. Cognition, 61: 93–125.
Brent, M. R. and Siskind, J. M. (2001). The role of exposure to isolated words in early vocabulary development. Cognition, 81: 33–44.
Bromberg, H. S. and Wexler, K. (1995). Null subjects in child wh-questions. In C. T. Schütze, J. Ganger and K. Broihier (eds.), Papers in Language Processing and Acquisition (MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 26) (pp. 221–47). Cambridge, MA: MIT.
Brooks, P. J. , Tomasello, M. , Dodson, K. and Lewis, L. B. (1999). Young children's overgeneralizations with fixed transitivity verbs. Child Development, 70(6): 1325–37.
Brooks, P. J. , Xiangdong Jia , Braine, M. D. S. and Da Graca Dias, M. (1998). A cross-linguistic study of children's comprehension of universal quantifiers: a comparison of Mandarin Chinese, Portuguese and English. First Language, 18(52): 33–79.
Brooks, P. J. and Braine, M. D. (1996). What do children know about the universal quantifiers all and each? Cognition, 60(3): 235–68.
Brooks, P. J. and Sekerina, I. A. (2006). Shortcuts to quantifier interpretation in children and adults. Language Acquisition, 13(3): 177–206.
Brooks, P. J. and Tomasello, M. (1999a). Young children learn to produce passives with nonce verbs. Developmental Psychology, 35(1): 29–44.
Brooks, P. J. and Tomasello, M. (1999b). How children constrain their argument structure constructions. Language, 75(4): 720–38.
Brooks, P. J. and Zizak, O. (2002). Does pre-emption help children learn verb transitivity? Journal of Child Language, 29: 759–81.
Brooks, R. and Meltzoff, A. N. (2002). The importance of eyes: how infants interpret adult looking behavior. Developmental Psychology, 38: 958–66.
Brooks, R. and Meltzoff, A. N. (2005). The development of gaze following and its relation to language. Developmental Science, 8: 535–43.
Brown, P. (1998). Children's first verbs in Tzeltal: evidence for an early verb category. Linguistics, 36: 713–55.
Brown, R. (1973). A First Language: The Early Stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bruner, J. S. (1975). The ontogenesis of speech acts. Journal of Child Language, 2: 1–20.
Bruner, J. S. (1978). Berlyne Memorial Lecture: ‘Acquiring the uses of language’. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 32(4): 204–8.
Bucci, W. (1978). The interpretation of universal affirmative propositions: a developmental study. Cognition, 6: 55–77.
Bybee, J. (1995). Regular morphology and the lexicon. Language and Cognitive Processes, 10(5): 425–55.
Bybee, J. and Schiebmann, J. (1999). The effect of usage on degrees of constituency: the reduction of don't in English. Linguistics, 37: 575–96.
Bybee, J. L. and Moder, C. L. (1983). Morphological classes as natural categories. Language, 59: 251–70.
Bybee, J. L. and Slobin, D. I. (1982). Rules and schemas in the development and use of the English past tense. Language, 58(2): 265–89.
Cairns, H. , McDaniel, D. , Hsu, J. R. and Rapp, M. (1994). A longitudinal study of principles of control and coreference in child English. Language, 70: 260–88.
Cantrall, W. (1974). Viewpoint, Reflexives and the Nature of Noun Phrases. The Hague: Mouton.
Carey, S. and Bartlett, E. (1978). Acquiring a single new word. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development [Stanford University], 15: 17–29.
Carnie, A. (2006). Syntax: A Generative Introduction. New York: Blackwell.
Carpenter, M. , Akhtar, N. and Tomasello, M. (1998). Fourteen through 18-month-old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental actions. Infant Behavior and Development, 21(2): 315–30.
Carpenter, M. , Call, J. and Tomasello, M. (2002). Understanding ‘prior intentions’ enables two-year-olds to imitatively learn a complex task. Child Development, 73(5): 1431–41.
Carpenter, M. , Nagell, K. and Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63(4): i--vi, 1–143.
Cartwright, T. A. and Brent, M. R. (1997). Syntactic categorization in early language acquisition: formalizing the role of distributional analysis. Cognition, 63(2): 121–70.
Casenhiser, D. and Goldberg, A. E. (2005). Fast mapping between a phrasal form and meaning. Developmental Science, 8(6): 500–8.
Cassidy, K. W. and Kelly, M. H. (1991). Phonological information for grammatical category assignments. Journal of Memory and Language, 30(3): 348–69.
Cassidy, K. W. and Kelly, M. H. (2001). Children's use of phonology to infer grammatical class in vocabulary learning. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 8(3): 519–23.
Cazden, C. B. (1968). The acquisition of noun and verb inflections. Child Development, 39(2): 433–48.
Chan, A. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2009). Children's understanding of the agent--patient relations in the transitive construction: cross-linguistic comparisons between Cantonese, German and English. Cognitive Linguistics, 20(2): 267–300.
Chan, A. , Meints, K. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Tomasello, M. (2010). Young children's comprehension of English word order in act-out and intermodal preferential looking tasks. Cognitive Development, 25: 30–45.
Chang, F. , Dell, G. S. and Bock, K. (2006). Becoming syntactic. Psychological Review, 113(2): 234–72.
Chemla, E. , Mintz, T. H. , Bernal, S. and Christophe, A. (2009). Categorizing words using ‘frequent frames’: what cross-linguistic analyses reveal about distributional acquisition strategies. Developmental Science, 12(3): 396–406.
Chien, Y. and Wexler, K. (1990). Children's knowledge of locality conditions in binding as evidence for the modularity of syntax and pragmatics. Language Acquisition, 1: 225–95.
Childers, J. , B. and Tomasello, M. (2002). Two-year-olds learn novel nouns, verbs and conventional actions from massed or distributed exposures. Developmental Psychology, 38(6): 867–978.
Childers, J. B. , Vaughan, J. and Burquest, D. A. (2007). Joint attention and word learning in Ngas-speaking toddlers in Nigeria. Journal of Child Language, 34(2): 199–225.
Childers, J. B. and Tomasello, M. (2001). The role of pronouns in young children's acquisition of the English transitive construction. Developmental Psychology, 37(6): 739–48.
Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Chomsky, N. (1959). A review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Language, 35(1): 26–58.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1980). In M. Piatelli-Palmarini (ed.), Language and Learning: The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
Chomsky, N. (1982). Some Concepts and Consequences of Government and Binding Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1986). Barriers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1988). Language and Problems of Knowledge: The Managua Lectures. London: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1993). A minimalist program for linguistic theory. In K. Hale and S. J. Keyser (eds.), The View from Building 20 (pp. 1–52). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. and Halle, M. (1968). The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
Chouinard, M. M. and Clark, E. V. (2003). Adult reformulations of child errors as negative evidence. Journal of Child Language, 30(3): 637–69.
Christiansen, M . and Kirby, S . (eds.) (2003). Language Evolution. Oxford University Press.
Christiansen, M. H. and Monaghan, P. (2006). Discovering verbs through multiple-cue integration. In K. Hirsh-Pasek and R. Golinkoff (eds.), Action Meets Word: How Children Learn Verbs (pp. 544–64). Oxford University Press.
Christophe, A. , Guasti, T. , Nespor, M. , Dupoux, E. and Van Ooyen, B . (1997). Reflections on phonological bootstrapping: its role for lexical and syntactic acquisition. Language and Cognitive Processes, 12(5–6): 585–612.
Christophe, A. , Millotte, S. , Bernal, S. and Lidz, J. (2008). Bootstrapping lexical and syntactic acquisition. Language and Speech, 51: 61–75.
Christophe, A. , Nespor, M. , Guasti, M. T . and Van Ooyen, B. (2003). Prosodic structure and syntactic acquisition: the case of the head-direction parameter. Developmental Science, 6(2): 211–20.
Cimpian, A. and Markman, E. M. (2005). The absence of a shape bias in children's word learning. Developmental Psychology, 41(6): 1003–19.
Clahsen, H. (1986). Verb inflections in German child language, acquisition of agreement markings and the functions they encode. Linguistics, 24(1): 79–121.
Clahsen, H. (1991). Constraints on parameter setting: a grammatical analysis of some acquisition stages in German child language. Language Acquisition, 1: 361–91.
Clahsen, H. and Almazan, M. (1998). Syntax and morphology in Williams syndrome. Cognition, 68(3): 167–98.
Clahsen, H. and Muysken, P. (1996). How adult second language learning differs from child first language development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19(4): 721–3.
Clark, E. V . and Svaib, T. A . (1997). Speaker perspective and reference in young children. First Language, 17(51): 57–74.
Clark, E. V. (1973). What's in a word? On the child's acquisition of semantics in his first language. In T. E. Moore (ed.), Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language (pp. 65–110). New York: Academic Press.
Clark, E. V. (1978). Awareness of language: some evidence from what children say and do. In A. Sinclair , R. J. Jarvella and W. J. M. Levelt (eds.), The Child's Conception of Language (pp. 17–43). New York: Springer.
Clark, E. V. (1987). The principle of contrast: a constraint on language acquisition. In B. MacWhinney (ed.), Mechanisms of Language Acquisition (pp. 1–33). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Clark, E. V. (1988). On the logic of contrast. Journal of Child Language, 15(2): 317–35.
Clark, E. V. (1993). The Lexicon in Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
Clark, E. V. , Carpenter, K. L. and Deutsch, W. (1995). Reference states and reversals: undoing actions with verbs. Journal of Child Language, 22(3): 633–62.
Clark, E. V. and Clark, H. H. (1979). When nouns surface as verbs. Language, 55: 767–811.
Clark, E. V. and Grossman, J. B. (1998). Pragmatic directions and children's word learning. Journal of Child Language, 25(1): 1–18.
Clark, V. , Ambridge, B. , Pine, J. M. and Rowland, C. F. (2010). Locative overgeneralization errors: the effects of verb semantics and verb frequency. Unpublished MS.
Colledge, E. , Bishop, D. V. M. , Koeppen-Schomerus, G. , Price, T. , Happé, F. , Eley, T. , Dale, P. and Plomin, R. (2002). The structure of language abilities at 4 years: a twin study. Developmental Psychology, 38: 749–57.
Comrie, B. (1985). Reflections on subject and object control. Journal of Semantics, 4(1): 47–65.
Conti-Ramsden, G. , Botting, N. and Faragher, B. (2001). Psycholinguistic markers for specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42: 741–48.
Conwell, E. and Morgan, J. L. (2010). When parents verb nouns: resolving the ambicategory problem. Unpublished MS.
Cooper, W. and Paccia-Cooper, J. (1980). Syntax and Speech. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cooper, W. E. and Sorenson, J. M. (1977). Fundamental frequency contours at syntactic boundaries. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 62(3): 683–92.
Corrêa, L. M. (1982). Strategies in the acquisition of relative clauses. In J. Aitchison and N. Harvey (eds.), Working Papers of the London Psycholinguistic Research Group, 4: 37–49.
Correa, L. M. (1995). An alternative assessment of children's comprehension of relative clauses. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 24: 183–203.
Cottrell, G. W. and Plunkett, K. (1994). Acquiring the mapping from meanings to sounds. Connection Science, 6(4): 379–412.
Crain, S. (1991). Language acquisition in the absence of experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14: 597–650.
Crain, S. , McKee, C. and Emiliani, M. (1990). Visiting relatives in Italy. In L. Frazier and J. de Villiers (eds.), Language Processing and Language Acquisition (pp. 355–6). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Crain, S. , Thornton, R. , Boster, C. , Conway, L. , Lillo-Martin, D. and Woodams, E. (1996). Quantification without qualification. Language Acquisition, 5(2): 83–153.
Crain, S. and Fodor, J. D. (1993). Competence and performance. In E. Dromi (ed.), Language and Cognition: A Developmental Perspective. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Crain, S. and McKee, C. (1986). Acquisition of structural restrictions on anaphora. NELS 16: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society (pp. 94–110). Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Crain, S. and Nakayama, M. (1987). Structure dependence in grammar formation. Language, 63: 522–43.
Croft, W. (2000). Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow: Longman.
Croft, W. (2001). Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective. Oxford University Press.
Croft, W. and Cruse, A. (2004). Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, T. H. and House, A. (1988). Segmental duration in connected speech signals: current results. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 83: 1553–73.
Curtin, S. and Werker, J. F. (2007). The perceptual foundations of phonological development. In G. Gaskell (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics (pp. 579–99). Oxford University Press.
Curtiss, S. , Fromkin, V. , Krashen, S. , Rigler, D. and Rigler, M. (1974). The linguistic development of Genie. Language, 50(3): 528–54.
Cutler, A. and Carter, D. M. (1987). The predominance of strong initial syllables in the English vocabulary. Computer Speech and Language, 2: 133–42.
Dąbrowska, E. (2001). Learning a morphological system without a default: the Polish genitive. Journal of Child Language, 28: 545–74.
Dąbrowska, E. (2008). Questions with long-distance dependencies: a usage-based perspective. Cognitive Linguistics 19(3): 391–42.
Dąbrowska, E. , Rowland, C. and Theakston, A. (2009). The acquisition of questions with long-distance dependencies. Cognitive Linguistics, 20(3): 571–97.
Dąbrowska, E. and Lieven, E. (2005). Towards a lexically specific grammar of children's question constructions. Cognitive Linguistics, 16(3): 437–74.
Dąbrowska, E. and Street, J. (2006). Individual differences in language attainment: comprehension of passive sentences by native and non-native English speakers. Language Sciences, 28: 604–15.
Dąbrowska, E. and Szczerbiński, M. (2006). Polish children's productivity with case marking: the role of regularity, type frequency and phonological diversity. Journal of Child Language, 33(3): 559–97.
D'Entremont, B. , Hains, S. and Muir, D. (1997). A demonstration of gaze following in 3- to 6-month-olds. Infant Behavior and Development, 20: 569–72.
Dasinger, L. and Toupin, C. (1994). The development of relative clause functions in narratives. In A. Berman and D. I. Slobin (eds.), Relating Events in Narrative: A Crosslinguistic Developmental Study (pp. 457–514). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Davis, H. (2009). Cross-linguistic variation in anaphoric dependencies: evidence from the Pacific Northwest. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 27(1): 1–43.
de Boer, B . (2000). Self-organization in vowel systems. Journal of Phonetics, 28(4): 441–65.
de Cat, Cécile (2002). Apparent non-nominative subjects in L1 French. In J. Paradis and P. Prévost (eds.), The Acquisition of French in Different Contexts: Focus on Functional Categories (pp. 53–88). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
de Léon, L . (1999). Why Tzotzil children prefer verbs over nouns. Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference for the Study of Child Language. San Sebastian, Donostia, Spain.
de Villiers, J ., Roeper, T . and Vainikka, A . (1990). The acquisition of long-distance rules. In L. Frazier and J. de Villiers (eds.), Language Processing and Language Acquisition (pp. 257–97). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
de Villiers, J. G . (1991). Why questions? In T. Maxwell and B. Plunkett (eds.), Papers in the Acquisition of ‘Wh’ (pp. 155–71). Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts.
de Villiers, J. G . and Pyers, J . (2002). Complements to cognition: a longitudinal study of the relationship between complex syntax and false-belief-understanding. Cognitive Development, 17(1): 1037–60.
de Villiers, J. G ., Flusberg, H. B ., Hakuta, K . and Cohen, M . (1979). Children's comprehension of relative clauses. Journal of Psycholinguist Research, 8(5): 499–518.
de Villiers, J. G. and de Villiers, P. A. (1999). Linguistic determinism and the understanding of false beliefs. In P. Mitchell (ed.), Children's Reasoning and the Mind. Hove: Psychology Press.
Deak, G. O. (2000). Hunting the fox of word learning: why ‘constraints’ fail to capture it. Developmental Review, 20: 29–80.
Deak, G. O. and Maratsos, M. (1998). On having complex representations of things: preschoolers use multiple words for objects and people. Developmental Psychology, 34(2): 224–40.
Dehaene-Lambertz, G. , Dehaene, S. and Hertz-Pannier, L. (2002). Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants. Science, 298: 2013–15.
Demetras, M. J. , Post, K. N. and Snow, C. E. (1986). Feedback to first language learners: the role of repetitions and clarification questions. Journal of Child Language, 13(2): 275–92.
Demuth, K. (1990). Subject, topic and Sesotho passive. Journal of Child Language, 17(1): 67–84.
Diesendruck, G. (2005). The principles of conventionality and contrast in word learning: an empirical examination. Developmental Psychology, 41(3): 451–63.
Diesendruck, G. , Markson, L. , Akhtar, N. and Reudor, A. (2004). Two-year-olds' sensitivity to speakers' intent: an alternative account of Samuelson and Smith. Developmental Science, 7(1): 33–41.
Diesendruck, G. and Markson, L. (2001). Children's avoidance of lexical overlap: a pragmatic account. Developmental Psychology, 37(5): 630–41.
Diessel, H. and Tomasello, M. (2000). The development of relative clauses in spontaneous child speech. Cognitive Linguistics, 11(1–2): 131–51.
Diessel, H. and Tomasello, M. (2001). The acquisition of finite complement clauses in English: a corpus-based analysis. Cognitive Linguistics, 12(2): 97–141.
Diessel, H. and Tomasello, M. (2005). A new look at the acquisition of relative clauses. Language, 81(4): 882–906.
Dittmar, M. , Abbot-Smith, K. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2008a). German children's comprehension of word order and case marking in causative sentences. Child Development, 79(4): 1152–67.
Dittmar, M. , Abbot-Smith, K. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2008b). Young German children's early syntactic competence: a preferential looking study. Developmental Science, 11(4): 575–82.
Dixon, R. M. W. (2004). Adjective classes in typological perspective. In R. M. W. Dixon and A. Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), Adjective Classes: A Cross-linguistic Typology (pp. 30–83). Oxford University Press.
Dockrell, J. and Campbell, R. N. (1986). Lexical acquisition strategies in the preschool child. In S. A. Kuczaj II and M. D. Barrett (eds.), The Development of Word Meaning: Progress in Cognitive Development Research (pp. 121–54). New York: Springer.
Dodson, K. and Tomasello, M. (1998). Acquiring the transitive construction in English: the role of animacy and pronouns. Journal of Child Language, 25: 555–74.
Donegan, P. J. and Stampe, D. (1979). The study of natural phonology. In I. Dinnsen (ed.), Current Approaches to Phonological Theory (pp. 126–73). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Donnai, D. and Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2000). Williams syndrome: from genotype through to the cognitive phenotype. American Journal of Medical Genetics: Seminars in Medical Genetics, 97(2): 164–71.
Dressler, W. U. , Mayerthaler, W. , Panagl, O. and Wurzel, W. U. (1988). Leitmotifs in Natural Morphology. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Dromi, E. (1987). Early Lexical Development. Cambridge University Press.
Drozd, K. (2001). Children's weak interpretation of universally quantified sentences. In M. Bowerman and S. C. Levinson (eds.), Conceptual Development and Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
Drozd, K. (2004). Learnability and linguistic performance. Journal of Child Language, 31: 431–57.
Duez, D. (1993). Acoustic correlates of subjective pauses. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 22: 21–39.
Eimas, P. D. , Siqueland, E. R. , Jusczyk, P. W. and Vigorito, J. (1971). Speech perception in infants. Science, 171: 303–6.
Eisele, J. (1988). Meaning and form in children's judgments about language: a study of the truth-value judgment test. Unpublished master's thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
Elman, J. L. (1990). Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science, 14: 179–211.
Elman, J. L. (1993). Learning and development in neural networks: the importance of starting small. Cognition, 48(1): 71–99.
Elman, J. L. , Bates, E. , Johnson, M. H. , Karmiloff-Smith, A. , Parisi, D. and Plunkett, K. (1996). Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Enard, W. , Przeworski, M. , Fisher, S. E. , Lai, C. S. L. , Wiebe, V. , Kitano, T. , Monaco, A. P. and Pääbo, S. (2002). Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature, 418: 869–72.
Estigarribia, B. (2010). Facilitation by variation: right-to-left learning of English yes/no questions. Cognitive Science, 34(1): 68–93.
Evans, G. (1980). Pronouns. Linguistic Inquiry, 11: 337–62.
Feldman, H. M. , MacWhinney, B. and Sacco, K. (2002). Sentence processing in children with early unilateral brain injury. Brain and Language, 83: 335–52.
Felser, C. and Clahsen, H. (2009). Grammatical processing of spoken language in child and adult language learners. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 38: 305–19.
Fenson, L. , Dale, P. S. , Reznick, J. S. , Bates, E. , Thal, D. J. and Pethick, S. J. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(5).
Fernald, A. , Pinto, J. P. , Swingley, D. , Weinberg, A. and McRoberts, G. W. (1998). Rapid gains in speed of verbal processing by infants in the 2nd year. Psychological Science, 9(3): 228–31.
Fernald, A. , Zangl, R. , Portillo, A. L. and Marchman, V. A. (2008). Looking while listening: using eye movements to monitor spoken language comprehension by infants and young children. In I. A. Sekerina , E. M. Fernández and H. Clahsen (eds.), Developmental Psycholinguistics: On-line Methods in Children's Language Processing (pp. 97–135). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Fernald, A. and McRoberts, G. (1996). Prosodic bootstrapping: a critical analysis of the argument and the evidence. In J. Morgan and K. Demuth (eds.), Signal to Syntax: Bootstrapping from Speech to Grammar in Early Acquisition (pp. 365–88). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fernandes, K. J. , Marcus, G. F. , Di Nubila, J. A. and Vouloumanos, A. (2006). From semantics to syntax and back again: argument structure in the third year of life. Cognition, 100(2): B10–20.
Fikkert, P. (2007). Acquiring phonology. In P. de Lacy (ed.), Handbook of Phonological Theory (pp. 537–54). Cambridge University Press.
Fikkert, P. and Levelt, C. (2008). How does place fall into place? The lexicon and emergent constraints in the developing phonological grammar. In P. Avery , B. E. Dresher and K. Rice (eds.), Contrast in Phonology: Perception and Acquisition (pp. 231–68). Berlin: Mouton.
Fillmore, C. J. , Kay, P. and O'Connor, M. C. (1988). Regularity and idiomaticity in grammatical constructions: the case of let alone . Language, 64(3): 501–38.
Fisher, C. (1996). Structural limits on verb mapping: The role of analogy in children's interpretations of sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 31(1): 41–81.
Fisher, C. (2000). From form to meaning: a role for structural alignment in the acquisition of language. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 27: 1–53.
Fisher, C. (2002). The role of abstract syntactic knowledge in language acquisition: a reply to Tomasello (2000). Cognition, 82(3): 259–78.
Fisher, C. and Tokura, H. (1996). Acoustic cues to grammatical structure in infant-directed speech: cross-linguistic evidence. Child Development, 67(6): 3192–218.
Fisher, C. and Tokura, H. (1996). Prosody in speech to infants: direct and indirect acoustic cues to syntactic structure. In J. L. Morgan and K. Demuth (eds.), Signal to Syntax: Bootstrapping from Speech to Grammar in Early Acquisition (pp. 343–63). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fodor, J. (2003). Evaluating models of parameter setting. Handout, LSA Summer Institute. (cited in Tomasello, 2007)
Fodor, J. A. (1983). Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Fodor, J. D. (1998). Unambiguous triggers. Linguistic Enquiry, 29(1): 1–36.
Forrester, N. and Plunkett, K. (1994). Learning the Arabic plural: the case of minority default mappings in connectionist networks. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fowler, C. A. , Best, C. T. and McRoberts, G. W. (1990). Young infants' perception of liquid coarticulatory influences on following stop consonants. Perception and Psychophysics, 48: 559–70.
Fox, B. A. and Thompson, S. A. (1990). A discourse explanation of the grammar of relative clauses in English conversations. Language, 66: 297–316.
Fox, D. and Grodzinsky, Y. (1998). Children's passive: a view from the by-phrase. Linguistic Inquiry, 29: 311–32.
Franco, F. and Butterworth, G. (1996). Pointing and social awareness: declaring and requesting in the second year. Journal of Child Language, 23(2): 307–36.
Franks, S. (1995). Parameters of Slavic Morphosyntax. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fremgen, A. and Fay, D. (1980). Overextensions in production and comprehension: a methodological clarification. Journal of Child Language, 7(1): 205–11.
Freudenthal, D. , Pine, J. M , Aguado-Orea, J.J . and Gobet. F . (in press). (2010). Explaining quantitative variation in the rate of Optional Infinitive errors across languages: a comparison of MOSAIC and the Variational Learning Model. Journal of Child Language, 37(3): 643–69.
Freudenthal, D. , Pine, J. M . and Gobet. F . (2009). Simulating the referential properties of Dutch, German and English Root Infinitives in MOSAIC. Language Learning and Development, 5: 1–29.
Freudenthal, D. , Pine, J. M. , Aguado-Orea, J. and Gobet, F. (2007). Modelling the developmental patterning of finiteness marking in English, Dutch, German and Spanish using MOSAIC. Cognitive Science, 31(2): 311–41.
Freudenthal, D. , Pine, J. M. and Gobet, F. (2005a). Simulating Optional Infinitive errors in child speech through the omission of sentence-internal elements. In B. G. Bara , L. Barsalou and M. Buchiarelli (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 708–13). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Freudenthal, D. , Pine, J. M. and Gobet, F. (2005c). On the resolution of ambiguities in the extraction of syntactic categories through chunking. Cognitive Systems Research, 6(1): 17–25.
Freudenthal, D. Pine, J.M. and Gobet, F. (2005b). Simulating the cross-linguistic development of Optional Infinitive errors in MOSAIC. In B. G. Bara , L. Barsalou and M. Buchiarelli (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 702–7). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Friederici, A. D. (2009). Neurocognition of language development. In E. Bavin (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Child Language (pp. 51–67). Cambridge University Press.
Gómez, R. L. (2002). Variability and detection of invariant structure. Psychological Science, 13(5): 431–36.
Gómez, R. L. (2007). Statistical learning in infant language development. In M. G. Gaskell (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics (pp. 601–15). Oxford University Press.
Gambell, T. and Yang, C. D. (2003). Scope and limits of statistical learning in word segmentation. NELS 34: Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society Meeting (pp. 29–30). Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Gambell, T. and Yang, C.D. (2005). Mechanisms and constraints in word segmentation. Unpublished MS, Yale University.
Ganger, J. and Brent, M. R. (2004). Re-examining the vocabulary spurt. Developmental Psychology, 40(4): 621–32.
Gathercole, S. E. and Baddeley, A. D. (1990). Phonological memory deficits in language disordered children: is there a causal connection? Journal of Memory and Language, 29: 336–60.
Gathercole, V. C. M. , Sebastián, E. and Soto, P. (1999). The early acquisition of Spanish verbal morphology: across-the-board or piecemeal knowledge? International Journal of Bilingualism, 2 and 3: 133–82.
Gee, J. and Grosjean, F. (1983). Performance structures: a psycholinguistic and linguistic appraisal. Cognitive Psychology, 15: 411–58.
Gentner, D. (1982). Why nouns are learned before verbs: linguistic relativity versus natural partitioning. In S. A. Kuczaj (ed.), Language Development, vol. 2: Language, Thought, and Culture (pp. 301–34). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gentner, D. (2006). Why verbs are hard to learn. In K. Hirsh-Pasek and R. Golinkoff (eds.), Action Meets Word: How Children Learn Verbs (pp. 544–64). Oxford University Press.
Gentner, D. and Boroditsky, L. (2001). Individuation, relativity and early word learning. In M. Bowerman and S. Levinson (eds.), Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development (pp. 15–256). Cambridge University Press.
Gentner, D. and Medina, J. (1998). Similarity and the development of rules. Cognition, 65: 263–97.
Gergely, G. , Bekkering, H. and Király, I. (2002). Rational imitation in preverbal infants. Nature, 415: 755.
Gerken, L. , Jusczyk, P. W. and Mandel, D. R. (1994). When prosody fails to cue syntactic structure: 9-month-olds' sensitivity to phonological versus syntactic phrases. Cognition, 51(3): 237–65.
Gertner, Y. , Fisher, C. and Eisengart, J. (2006). Learning words and rules: abstract knowledge of word order in early sentence comprehension. Psychological Science, 17(8): 684–91.
Geurts, B. (2003). Quantifying kids. Language Acquisition, 11: 197–218.
Gibson, E. and Wexler, K. (1994). Triggers. Linguistic Inquiry, 25: 407–54.
Gillette, J. , Gleitman, H. , Gleitman, L. and Lederer, A. (1999). Human simulations of vocabulary learning. Cognition, 73(2): 135–76.
Gleitman, L. (1990). The structural sources of verb meanings. Language Acquisition, 1: 3–55.
Gnanadesikan, A. (2004). Markedness and faithfulness constraints in child phonology. In R. Kager , J. Pater and W. Zonneveld (eds.), Constraints in Phonological Acquisition (pp. 73–108). Cambridge University Press.
Godden, D. R. and Baddeley, A. D. (1975). Context-dependent memory in 2 natural environments – land and underwater. British Journal of Psychology, 66 (Aug): 325–31.
Goldberg, A. E . (1995). Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. University of Chicago Press.
Goldberg, A. E. (2006). Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language. Oxford University Press.
Goldin-Meadow, S. (2003). The Resilience of Language: What Gesture Creation in Deaf Children Can Tell Us About How All Children Learn Language. New York: Psychology Press.
Goldman-Eisler, F. (1972). Pauses, clauses, sentences. Language and Speech, 15: 103–13.
Golinkoff, R. M. , Mervis, C. and Hirsh-Pasek, K. (1994). Early object labels: the case for a developmental lexical principles framework. Journal of Child Language, 21: 125–55.
Golinkoff, R. M. , Suff-Bailey, M. , Olguin, R. and Ruan, W. J. (1995). Young children extend novel words at the basic level – evidence for the principle of categorical scope. Developmental Psychology, 31(3): 494–507.
Goodglass, H. (1993). Understanding Aphasia. San Diego: Academic Press.
Goodluck, H. and Tavakolian, S. (1982). Competence and processing in children's grammar of relative clauses. Cognition, 11(1): 1–27.
Gopnik, A. and Choi, S. (1995). Names, relational words and cognitive development in English and Korean speakers: nouns are not always learned before verbs. In M. Tomasello and W. Merriman (eds.), Beyond Names for Things: Young Children's Acquisition of Verbs (pp. 63–80). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gopnik, A. and Meltzoff, A. N. (1992). Categorization and naming – basic-level sorting in 18-month-olds and its relation to language. Child Development, 63(5): 1091–1103.
Gopnik, M. (1990). Feature-blind grammar and dysphasia. Nature, 344: 715.
Gordon, P. and Chafetz, J. (1990). Verb-based versus class-based accounts of actionality effects in children's comprehension of passives. Cognition, 36(3): 227–54.
Gordon, P. C. (1996). The truth value judgment task. In D. McDaniel , C. McKee and H. S. Cairns (eds.), Methods for Assessing Children's Syntax (pp. 211–32). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Grünloh, T. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Tomasello, M. (2009). German children's use of prosodic cues in resolving participant roles in transitive constructions. Poster presented at the Boston University Conference on Language Development 34, Boston, MA.
Grassmann, S. , Stracke, M. and Tomasello, M. (2009). Two-year-olds exclude novel objects as potential referents of novel words based on pragmatics. Cognition, 112(3): 488–93.
Grassmann, S. and Tomasello, M. (2007). Two-year-olds use primary sentence accent to learn new words. Journal of Child Language, 34(3): 677–87.
Greenfield, P. M . and Smith, J. H . (1976). The Structure of Communication in Early Language Development. New York: Academic Press.
Grieser, D. and Kuhl, P. K. (1989). Categorization of speech by infants: support for speech-sound prototypes. Developmental Psychology, 25: 577–88.
Grimshaw, J. and Rosen, S. T. (1990). Knowledge and obedience: the developmental status of Binding Theory. Linguistic Inquiry, 21: 187–222.
Grodzinsky, Y . and Reinhart, T . (1993). The innateness of binding and coreference. Linguistic Inquiry, 24: 69–101.
Gropen, J. , Pinker, S. , Hollander, M. , Goldberg, R. and Wilson, R. (1989). The learnability and acquisition of the dative alternation in English. Language, 65(2): 203–57.
Gropen, J. , Pinker, S. , Hollander, M. and Goldberg, R. (1991a). Affectedness and direct objects – the role of lexical semantics in the acquisition of verb argument structure. Cognition, 41(1–3): 153–95.
Gropen, J. , Pinker, S. , Hollander, M. and Goldberg, R. (1991b). Syntax and semantics in the acquisition of locative verbs. Journal of Child Language, 18(1): 115–51.
Guasti, M. , Thornton, R. and Wexler, K. (1995). Negation in children's questions: the case of English. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 228–39). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Guasti, M. T. (2004). Language Acquisition: The Growth of Grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Guilfoyle, E. and Noonan, M. (1992). Functional categories and language-acquisition. Canadian Journal of Linguistics – Revue Canadienne de Linguistique, 37(2): 241–72.
Gussenhoven, C. and Jacobs, H. (1998). Understanding Phonology. London: Arnold.
Hahn, U. and Nakisa , R. C. (2000). German inflection: single route or dual route. Cognitive Psychology, 47(4): 313–60.
Hakuta, K. , Bialystok, E. and Wiley, E. (2003). Critical evidence: a test of the critical period hypothesis for second language acquisition. Psychological Science, 14(1): 31–8.
Hall, D. G. , Waxman , S. R. and Hurwitz , W. M. (1993). How two- and four-year-old children interpret adjectives and count nouns. Child Development, 64: 1651–64.
Hamburger, H. and Crain, S. (1982). Relative acquisition. In S. Kuczaj (ed.), Language Development: Syntax and Semantics. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Happé, F. (2003). Cognition in autism: one deficit or many? Novartis Foundation Symposium, 251: 198–207.
Happé, F. and Plomin, R. (2006). Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature Neuroscience, 9: 1218–20.
Hare, B. and Tomasello, M. (1999). Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use human and conspecific social cues to locate hidden food. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113(2): 173–77.
Hare, B. and Tomasello, M. (2004). Chimpanzees are more skilful in competitive than in cooperative cognitive tasks. Animal Behaviour, 68: 571–81.
Hare, M. , Elman, J. L. and Daugherty, K. G. (1995). Default generalisation in connectionist networks. Language and Cognitive Processes, 10(6): 601–30.
Hare, M. and Elman, J. L. (1995). Learning and morphological change. Cognition, 56(1): 61–98.
Harris, C. L. and Bates, E. A. (2002). Clausal backgrounding and pronominal reference: a functionalist approach to c-command. Language and Cognitive Processes, 17(3): 237–69.
Harris, M. (1992). Language Experience and Early Language Development: From Input to Uptake. Hove: Erlbaum.
Hartshorne, J. K. and Ullman, M. (2006). Why girls say ‘holded’ more than boys. Developmental Science, 9(1): 21–32.
Hattori, R. (2003). Why do children say ‘did you went?’ The role of do-support. Poster presented at the Twenty-Eighth Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, MA.
Hauser, M. , Chomsky, N. and Fitch, W. T. (2002). The language faculty: what is it, who has it and how did it evolve? Science, 298: 1569–79.
Hayiou-Thomas, M. E. , Bishop, D. V. M. and Plunkett, K. (2004). Simulating SLI: general cognitive processing stressors can produce a specific linguistic profile. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 47(6): 1347–62.
Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with Words. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hirsh-Pasek, K. , Golinkoff, R. M. and Naigles, L. (1996). The Origins of Grammar: Evidence from Early Language Comprehension. Cambridge, MA; London: MIT Press.
Hirsh-Pasek, K. , Kemler Nelson, D. , Jusczyk, P. W. , Cassidy, K. W. , Druss, B. and Kennedy, L. (1987). Clauses are perceptual units for young infants. Cognition, 26: 269–86.
Hoeffner, J. (1996). A single mechanism account of English past tense acquisition and processing. Unpublished PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon University.
Hoekstra, T. and Hyams, N. (1998). Aspects of root infinitives. Lingua, 106(1–4): 81–112.
Hoff, E. (2001). Language Development (2nd edn). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Hoff, E. (in press). The Guide to Research Methods in Child Language. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hollich, G. J. , Hirsh-Pasek, K. , Golinkoff, R. M. and Bloom, L. (2000). Breaking the Language Barrier: An Emergentist Coalition Model for the Origins of Word Learning. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Horgan, D. (1978). Development of full passive. Journal of Child Language, 5(1): 65–80.
Houston-Price, C. , Plunkett, K. and Duffy, H. (2006). The use of social and salience cues in early word learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 95(1): 27–55.
Houston-Price, C. , Plunkett, K. and Harris, P. (2005). ‘Word-learning wizardry’ at 1;6. Journal of Child Language, 32(1): 175–89.
Hsu, J. , Cairns, H. and Fiengo, R. (1985). The development of grammars underlying children's interpretation of complex sentences. Cognition, 20: 25–48.
Hsu, J. R. , Cairns, H. S. , Eisenberg, S. and Schlisselberg, G. (1989). Control and coreference in early child language. Journal of Child Language, 16(3): 599–622.
Huttenlocher, J. , Vasilyeva, M. and Shimpi, P. (2004). Syntactic priming in young children. Journal of Memory and Language, 50(2): 182–95.
Hyams, N. (1986). Language Acquisition and the Theory of Parameters. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Hyams, N. (1994). Non-discreteness and variation in child language: implications for principle and parameter models of language development. In Y. Levy (ed.), Other Children, Other Languages (pp. 11–40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Imai, M. , Gentner, D. and Uchida, N. (1994). Children's theories of word meaning – the role of shape similarity in early acquisition. Cognitive Development, 9(1): 45–75.
Ingram, D. and Shaw, C. (1981). The comprehension of pronominal reference in children. Unpublished MS, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Inhelder, B. and Piaget, J . (1964). The Early Growth of Logic in the Child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Israel, M. , Johnson, C. and Brooks, P. J. (2000). From states to events: the acquisition of English passive participles. Cognitive Linguistics, 11: 1–2.
Jakobson, R. ([1941] 1968). Child Language, Aphasia and Phonological Universals. The Hague: Mouton. (Translated into English by A. R. Keiler, originally published in 1941 as Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze.)
Jelinek, E. and Demers, R. (1994). Predicates and pronominal arguments in Straits Salish. Language, 70: 697–736.
Johnson, E. K. and Jusczyk, P. W. (2001). Word segmentation by 8-month-olds: when speech cues count more than statistics. Journal of Memory and Language, 44: 548–67.
Johnson, J. S. and Newport, E. L. (1989). Critical period effects in 2nd language-learning – the influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a 2nd language. Cognitive Psychology, 21(1): 60–99.
Johnston, C. J. , Durieux-Smith, A. and Bloom, K. (2005). Teaching gestural signs to infants to advance child development: a review of the evidence. First Language, 25: 235–51.
Jones, G. , Gobet, F. and Pine, J. M. (2000). A process model of children's early verb use. Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 723–28). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Jones, P. E. (1995). Contradictions and unanswered questions in the Genie case: a fresh look at the linguistic evidence. Language and Communication, 15(3): 261–80.
Jusczyk, P. W. (1997). Perception of syllable-final stop consonants by two-month-old infants. Perception and Psychophysics, 21: 450–4.
Jusczyk, P. W. (1998). The Discovery of Spoken Language. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books, MIT Press.
Jusczyk, P. W. , Friederici, A. D. , Wessels, J. , Svenkerud, V. Y. and Jusczyk, A. M. (1993). Infants' sensitivity to the sound patterns of native language words. Journal of Memory and Language, 32: 402–20.
Jusczyk, P. W. , Hohne, E. A. and Bauman, A. (1999). Infant's sensitivity to allophonic cues for word segmentation. Perception and Psychophysics, 61: 1465–76.
Jusczyk, P. W. , Houston, D. M. and Newsome, M. (1999). The beginnings of word segmentation in English-learning infants. Cognitive Psychology, 39: 159–207.
Jusczyk, P. W. , Pisoni, D. B. and Mullenix, J. (1992). Some consequences of stimulus variability in speech processing by two-month-old infants. Cognition, 43: 253–91.
Jusczyk, P. W. and Aslin, R. N. (1995). Infants' detection of the sound patterns of words in fluent speech. Cognitive Psychology, 29: 1–23.
Jusczyk, P. W. and Thompson, E. J. (1978). Perception of a phonetic contrast in multisyllabic utterances by two-month-old infants. Perception and Psychophysics, 23: 105–9.
Jusczyk, P.W. , Hirsh-Pasek, K. , Kemler Nelson, D. G. , Kennedy, L. , Woodward, A. and Piwoz, J. (1992). Perception of acoustic correlates of major phrasal units by young infants. Cognitive Psychology, 24(2): 252–93.
Kõrgvee, K. (2001). Lapse sõnavara areng vanuses 1;8–2;1 [A child's lexical development, aged 1;3–2;1]. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, Tartu University.
Kager, R. , Pater, J. and Zonneveld, W. (2004). Constraints in Phonological Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2006). Modules, genes and evolution: what have we learned from atypical development? Processes of Change in Brain and Cognitive Development: Attention and Performance, 21: 563–83.
Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2007). Atypical epigenesis. Developmental Science, 10: 84–8.
Kay, P. and Fillmore, C. J . (1999). Grammatical constructions and linguistic generalizations: the What's X doing Y? construction. Language, 75: 1–33.
Kegl, J. (2002). Language emergence in a language-ready brain. In G. Morgan and B. Woll (eds.), Directions in Sign Language Acquisition (pp. 207–54). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Kelly, M. H. (1992). Using sound to solve syntactic problems: the role of phonology in grammatical category assignments. Psychological Review, 99(2): 349–64.
Keuleers, E. (2008). Memory-based learning of inflectional morphology. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Antwerp.
Keuleers, E. , Sandra, D. , Daelemans, W. , Gillis, S. , Durieux, G. and Martens, E. (2007). Dutch plural inflection: the exception that proves the analogy. Cognitive Psychology, 54(4): 283–318.
Keuleers, E. and Daelemans, W. (2007). Memory-based learning models of inflectional morphology: a methodological case study. Lingue e Linguaggio, 6(2): 151–74.
Kidd, E. , Bavin, E. L. and Rhodes, B. (2001). Two-year olds' knowledge of verbs and argument structure. In M. Almgren (ed.), Research on Child Language Acquisition (pp. 1368–82). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Kidd, E. , Brandt, S. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2007). Object relatives made easy: a cross-linguistic comparison of the constraints influencing young children's processing of relative clauses. Language and Cognitive Processes, 22(6): 860–97.
Kidd, E. , Lieven, E. and Tomasello, M. (2006). Examining the role of lexical frequency in the acquisition of sentential complements. Cognitive Development, 21: 93–107.
Kidd, E. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Tomasello, M. (2010). Lexical frequency and exemplar-based learning effects in language acquisition: evidence from sentential complements. Language Sciences, 32(1): 132–42.
Kidd, E. and Bavin, E. L. (2002). English-Speaking children's comprehension of relative clauses: evidence for general-cognitive and language-specific constraints on development. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 31(6): 599–617.
Kidd, E. and Kirjavainen, M. (in press). Investigating the contribution of procedural and declarative memory to the acquisition of past tense morphology: evidence from Finnish. Language and Cognitive Processes.
Kidd, E. and Lum, J. A. G. (2008). Sex differences in past tense over-regularization. Developmental Science, 11(6): 882–9.
Kim, J. J. , Marcus, G. F. , Pinker, S. , Hollander, M. and Coppola, M. (1994). Sensitivity of children's inflection to grammatical structure. Journal of Child Language, 21(1): 173–209.
Kim, J. J. , Pinker, S. , Prince, A. and Prasada, S. (1991). Why no mere mortal has ever flown out to center field. Cognitive Science, 15(2): 173–218.
Kirby, S. , Cornish, H. and Smith, K. (2008). Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: an experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(31): 10681–6.
Kirby, S. , Dowman, M. and Griffiths, T. L. (2007). Innateness and culture in the evolution of language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(12): 5241–5.
Kirjavainen, M. , Theakston, A. and Lieven, E. (2009). Can input explain children's me-for-I errors? Journal of Child Language, 36(5): 1091–114.
Kirkham, N. Z. , Slemmer, J. A. and Johnson, S. P. (2002). Visual statistical learning in infancy: evidence for a domain general learning mechanism. Cognition, 83: B35–B42.
Kjelgaard, M. M. and Tager-Flusberg, H. (2001). An investigation of language impairment in autism: implications for genetic subgroups. Language and Cognitive Processes, 16: 287–308.
Klatt, D. (1976). Linguistic uses of segmental duration in English: acoustic and perceptual evidence. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 59: 1208–21.
Klein, B. P. and Mervis, C. B. (1999). Contrasting patterns of cognitive abilities of 9- and 10-year-olds with Williams syndrome or Down syndrome. Developmental Neuropsychology, 16(2): 177–96.
Krajewski, G. (2007). Constructivist investigation into the development of Polish noun inflections in children between two and three-and-a-half years of age. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Manchester.
Krajewski, G. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Tomasello, M. (2010). The role of word order and case marking in Polish children's comprehension of transitives. Unpublished MS.
Krajewski, G. , Theakston, A. L. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Tomasello, M. (in press). How Polish children switch from one case to another when using novel nouns: challenges for current models of inflectional morphology. Language and Cognitive Processes.
Kramer, I. (1993). The licensing of subjects in early child language. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, 19: 197–212.
Kuczaj, S. A. (1982). Young children's overextensions of object words in comprehension and/or production: support for a prototype theory of early object word meaning. First Language, 3: 93–105.
Kuczaj, S. and Brannick, N. (1979). Children's use of the wh-question modal auxiliary placement rule. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 28: 43–67.
Kuhl, P. K. (1979). Speech perception in early infancy: perceptual constancy for spectrally dissimilar vowel categories. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 66: 1668–79.
Kuhl, P. K. (1991). Human adults and human infants show a ‘perceptual magnet effect’ for the prototypes of speech categories, monkeys do not. Perception and Psychophysics, 50: 93–107.
Kuhl, P. K. and Padden, D. M. (1982). Enhanced discriminability at the phonetic boundaries for the voicing feature in macaques. Perception and Psychophysics, 32: 542–50.
Kuhl, P.K. (1983). Perception of auditory equivalence classes for speech in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 6: 263–85.
Labelle, M. (1990). Predication, wh-movement and the development of relative clauses. Language Acquisition, 1: 95–119.
Labov, W. (2001). Principles of Linguistic Change: Social factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
Labov, W. and Labov, T. (1978). Learning the syntax of questions. In R. Campbell and P. Smith (eds.), Recent Advances in the Psychology of Language. New York: Plenum Press.
Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. University of Chicago Press.
Landau, B. and Gleitman, L. R. (1985). Language and Experience: Evidence from the Blind Child. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press.
Langacker, R. W. (1987). Foundations of Cognitive Grammar, vol. 1. Stanford University Press.
Langacker, R. W. (2000). A dynamic usage-based model. In M. Barlow and S. Kemmer (eds.), Usage-Based Models of Language (pp. 1–63). Stanford: CSLI.
Lederer, A. , Gleitman, L . and Gleitman, H . (1995). Verbs of a feather flock together: structural properties of maternal speech. In M. Tomasello and W. Merriman (eds.), Beyond Names for Things: Young Children's Acquisition of Verbs. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Lee, T. (1991). Linearity as a scope principle for Chinese: the evidence from first language acquisition. In D. Napoli and J. Kegl (eds.). Bridges between Psychology and Linguistics. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Legate, J. A. and Yang, C. (2007). Morphosyntactic learning and the development of tense. Language Acquisition, 14: 315–44.
Lehiste, I. (1972). The timing of utterances and linguistic boundaries, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 51: 2018–24.
Lenneberg, E. H. (1967). Biological Foundations of Language. New York: Wiley.
Leonard, L. (2000). Children with Specific Language Impairment. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books; MIT Press.
Leonard, L. B. , Caselli, M. C. and Devescovi, A. (2002). Italian children's use of verb and noun morphology during the preschool years. First Language, 3(66): 287–304.
Leonard, L. B. , McGregor, K. K. and Allen, G. D. (1992). Grammatical morphology and speech perception in children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35(5): 1076–85.
Leonard, L. B. , Schwartz, R. G. , Morris, B. and Chapman, K. (1981). Factors influencing early lexical acquisition: lexical orientation and phonological composition. Child Development, 52: 882–7.
Levin, B. (1985). Lexical semantics in review: an introduction. In B. Levin (ed.), Lexical Semantics in Review. Lexicon Project Working Papers no. I. Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for Cognitive Science.
Levinson, S. C. (1987). Pragmatics and the grammar of anaphora: a partial pragmatic reduction of Binding and Control phenomena. Journal of Linguistics, 23: 379–434.
Lewis, J. D. and Elman, J. L. (2001). Learnability and the statistical structure of language: poverty of stimulus arguments revisited. Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 359–70). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Liégeois, F. , Baldeweg, T. , Connelly, A. , Gadian, D. G. , Mishkin, M. and Vargha-Khadem, F. (2003). Language fMRI abnormalities associated with FOXP2 gene mutation. Nature Neuroscience, 6: 1230–7.
Li, P. and MacWhinney, B. (1996). Cryptotype, overgeneralization and competition: a connectionist model of the learning of English reversative prefixes. Connection Science, 8: 3–30.
Liberman, A. M. , DeLattre, P. D. and Cooper, F. S. (1952). The role of selected stimulus variables in the perception of unvoiced stop consonants. American Journal of Psychology, 65: 497–516.
Liberman, A. M. , Harris, K. S. , Hoffman, H. S. and Griffith, B. C. (1957). The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54: 358–68.
Lieven, E. V. M. (1994). Crosslinguistic and cross-cultural aspects of language addressed to children. In C. Gallaway and B. J. Richards (eds.), Input and Interaction in Language Acquisition (pp. 56–73). Cambridge University Press.
Lieven, E. V. M. , Behrens, H. , Speares, J. and Tomasello, M. (2003). Early syntactic creativity: a usage-based approach. Journal of Child Language, 30(2): 333–70.
Lieven, E. V. M. , Pine, J. M. and Baldwin, G. (1997). Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development. Journal of Child Language, 24(1): 187–219.
Lieven, E. V. M. , Pine, J. M. and Dresner-Barnes, H. (1992). Individual differences in early vocabulary development: redefining the referential-expressive distinction. Journal of Child Language, 19(2): 287–310.
Lieven, E. V. M. , Salomo, D. and Tomasello, M. (2009). Two-year-old children's production of multiword utterances: a usage-based analysis. Cognitive Linguistics, 20(3): 481–507.
Lightfoot, D. (1979). Principles of Diachronic Syntax. Cambridge University Press.
Lightfoot, D. (1991a). How to Set Parameters: Arguments from Language Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lightfoot, D. (1991b). Subjacency and sex. Language and Communication, 11(1/2): 67–9.
Limber, J. (1973). The genesis of complex sentences. In T. E. Moore (ed.), Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language (pp. 169–85). New York: Academic Press.
Lisker, L. and Abramson, A. S. (1964). A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: acoustical measurements. Word, 20: 384–422.
Liszkowski, U. , Carpenter, M. , Henning, A. , Striano, T. and Tomasello, M. (2004). Twelve-month-olds point to share attention and interest. Developmental Science, 7(3): 297–307.
Liszkowski, U. , Carpenter, M. , Striano, T. and Tomasello, M. (2006). Twelve- and 18-month-olds point to provide information for others. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7: 173–87.
Locke, J. L. (1983). Phonological Acquisition and Change. New York: Academic Press.
Loeb, D. F. and Leonard, L. B. (1991). Subject case marking and verb morphology in normally developing and specifically language-impaired children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34: 340–6.
Lohmann, H. and Tomasello, M. (2003). The role of language in the development of false belief understanding: a training study. Child Development, 74: 1130–44.
Lord, C. (1979). Don't you fall me down: children's generalizations regarding cause and transitivity. Papers and Reports on Child language Development (PRCLD) 17. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Department of Linguistics.
Lust, B. (2006). Child Language: Acquisition and Growth. Cambridge University Press.
Lust, B. , Eisele, J. and Mazuka, R. (1992). The binding theory module: evidence from first language acquisition for Principle C. Language, 68: 333–58.
Lust, B. , Loveland, K. and Kornet, R. (1980). The development of anaphora in first language: syntactic and pragmatic constraints. Linguistic Analysis, 6: 359–91.
Lust, B. and Clifford, T. (1986). The 3-D study: effects of depth, distance and directionality on children's acquisition of anaphora. In B. Lust (ed.), Studies in the Acquisition of Anaphora, vol. 1: Defining the Constraints (pp. 203–43). Boston: Reidel.
Macken, M. A. (1979). Developmental reorganization of phonology. Lingua, 49: 11–49.
Macnamara, J. , Cleirigh, A. O. and Kellaghan, T. (1972). The structure of the English lexicon: the simplest hypothesis. Language and Speech, 15(2): 141–8.
MacWhinney, B. (2004). A multiple process solution to the logical problem of language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 31(4): 883–914.
MacWhinney, B. , Feldman, H. M. , Sacco, K. and Valdés-Pérez, R. (2000). Online measures of basic language skills in children with early focal brain lesions. Brain and Language, 71: 400–31.
MacWhinney, B. and Bates, E. (eds.). (1989). The Cross-linguistic Study of Sentence Processing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
MacWhinney, B. and Leinbach, J. (1991). Implementations are not conceptualizations: revising the verb learning model. Cognition, 40: 1–2.
Mandel, D. R. , Jusczyk, P. W. and Pisoni, D. B. (1995). Infants' recognition of the sound patterns of their own names. Psychological Science, 6: 315–18.
Mandel, D. R. and Jusczyk, P. W. (1997). Infants' early words: familiar people and the changing nature of name representations. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Washington, DC.
Maratsos, M. (2000). More overregularizations after all: new data and discussion on Marcus, Pinker, Ullman, Hollander, Rosen and Xu. Journal of Child Language, 27(1): 183–212.
Maratsos, M. and Chalkley, M. (1980). The internal language of children's syntax: the ontogenesis and representation of syntactic categories. In K. Nelson (ed.), Children's Language, vol. 2 (pp. 127–51). New York: Gardner Press.
Maratsos, M. P. (1974). How preschool children understand missing complement subjects. Child Development, 45: 700–6.
Maratsos, M. P. , Fox, D. E. , Becker, J. A. and Chalkley, M. A. (1985). Semantic restrictions on children's passives. Cognition, 19(2): 167–91.
Maratsos, M. P. , Gudeman, R. , Gerard-Ngo, P. and DeHart, G. (1987). A study in novel word learning: the productivity of the causative. In B. MacWhinney (ed.), Mechanisms of Language Acquisition (pp. 89–112). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Maratsos, M. P. and Kuczaj, S. (1978). Against the transformationalist account: a simpler analysis of auxiliary overmarking. Journal of Child Language, 5: 337–45.
Marchman, V. A. (1997). Children's productivity in the English past tense: the role of frequency, phonology and neighborhood structure. Cognitive Science, 21(3): 283–304.
Marchman, V. A. , Plunkett, K. and Goodman, J. (1997). Overregularization in English plural and past tense inflectional morphology: a response to Marcus (1995). Journal of Child Language, 24(3): 767–79.
Marchman, V. A. , Wulfeck, B. and Weismer, S. E. (1999). Morphological productivity in children with normal language and SLI: a study of the English past tense. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 42: 206–19.
Marcus, G. F. (1993). Negative evidence in language acquisition. Cognition, 46(1): 53–85.
Marcus, G. F. (1995). Children's overregularization of English plurals: a quantitative analysis. Journal of Child Language, 22(2): 447–59.
Marcus, G. F. (1995). The acquisition of the English past tense in children and multilayered connectionist networks. Cognition, 56(3): 271–9.
Marcus, G. F. , Brinkmann, U. , Clahsen, H. , Wiese, R. and Pinker, S. (1995). German inflection: the exception that proves the rule. Cognitive Psychology, 29(3): 189–256.
Marcus, G. F. , Pinker, S. , Ullman, M. , Hollander, M. , Rosen, T. J. and Xu, F. (1992). Overregularization in language-acquisition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 57(4): R5–R165.
Marcus, G. F. and Fisher, S. E. (2003). FOXP2 in focus: what can genes tell us about speech and language? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7: 257–62.
Markman, E. M. and Hutchinson, J. E. (1984). Children's sensitivity to constraints on word meaning: taxonomic versus thematic relations. Cognitive Psychology, 16: 1–27.
Markman, E. M. and Wachtel, G. F. (1988). Children's use of mutual exclusivity to constrain the meanings of words. Cognitive Psychology, 20: 121–57.
Markson, L. and Bloom, P. (1997). Evidence against a dedicated system for word learning in children. Nature, 385: 813–15.
Maslen, R. J. C. , Theakston, A. L. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Tomasello, M. (2004). A dense corpus study of past tense and plural over-regularization in English. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 47: 1319–33.
Matthews, D. , Lieven, E. , Theakston, A. and Tomasello, M. (2007). French children's use and correction of weird word orders: a constructivist account. Journal of Child Language, 34(2): 381–409.
Matthews, D. , Lieven, E. , Theakston, A. and Tomasello, M. (2009). Pronoun co-referencing errors: challenges for generativist and usage-based accounts. Cognitive Linguistics, 20(3): 599–626.
Matthews, D. , Lieven, E. , Theakston, A. L. and Tomasello, M. (2004). The role of frequency in the acquisition of English word order. Cognitive Development, 20: 121–36.
Matthews, D. E. and Theakston, A. L. (2006). Errors of omission in English-speaking children's production of plurals and the past tense: the effects of frequency, phonology and competition. Cognitive Science, 30(6): 1027–52.
Mattys, S. L. , Jusczyk, P. W. , Luce, P. A. and Morgan, J. L. (1999). Phonotactic and prosodic effects on word segmentation in infants. Cognitive Psychology, 38: 465–94.
Mayberry, R. I. (2009). Early language acquisition and adult language ability: what sign language reveals about the Critical Period for Language. In M. Marshak and P. Spencer (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language and Education, vol. 2 (ch. 19). Oxford University Press.
Maye, J. , Werker, J. F. and Gerken, L. (2002). Infant sensitivity to distributional information can affect phonetic discrimination. Cognition, 82: 101–11.
Maye, J. and Gerken, L. (2000). Learning phonemes without minimal pairs. In S. C. Howell , S. A. Fish and T. Keith-Lucas (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 522–33). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Mazuka, R. (1996). Can a grammatical parameter be set before the first word? Prosodic contributions to early setting of a grammatical parameter. In J. Morgan and K. Demuth (eds.), Signal to Syntax: Bootstrapping from Speech to Grammar in Early Acquisition (pp. 313–30). Mawah, NJ: Erlbaum.
McCarthy, D. (1954). Language development in children. In L. Carmichael (ed.), Manual of Child Psychology (pp. 492–630). New York: Wiley.
McCawley, J. (1992). Justifying part-of-speech assignments in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 20(2): 211–46.
McClelland, J. L. and Patterson, K. (2002). ‘Words or rules’ cannot exploit the regularity in exceptions – reply to Pinker and Ullman. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(11): 464–5.
McClure, K. , Pine, J. M. and Lieven, E. V. M. (2006). Investigating the abstractness of children's early knowledge of argument structure. Journal of Child Language, 33: 693–720.
McDaniel, D. , Cairns, H. S. and Hsu, J. R. (1990/1). Control principles in the grammars of young children. Language Acquisition, 1(4): 297–335.
McDaniel, D. and Maxfield, T. L. (1992). Principle B and contrastive stress. Language Acquisition, 2: 337–58.
McDonald, J. L. (1989). The acquisition of cue-category mappings. In B. MacWhinney and E. Bates (eds.), The Cross-linguistic Study of Sentence Processing. Cambridge University Press.
McKee, C. (1992). A comparison of pronouns and anaphors in Italian and English acquisition. Language Acquisition, 1: 21–55.
McKee, C. , McDaniel, D. and Snedeker, J. (1998). Relatives children say. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 27: 573–96.
McNeill, D. (1966). Capacity for language acquisition. Volta Review, 68(1): 17–33.
McShane, J. (1980). Learning to Talk. Cambridge University Press.
Meisel, J. and Muller, N. (1992). Finiteness and verb placement in early child grammars: evidence from simultaneous acquisition of French and German in bilinguals. In J. Meisel (ed.), The Acquisition of Verb Placement (pp. 109–38). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Meltzoff, A. N. (1995). Understanding the intentions of others: re-enactment of intended acts by 18-month-old children. Developmental Psychology, 31: 838–50.
Menn, L. (1983). Development of articulatory, phonetic and phonological capabilities. In B. Butterworth (ed.), Language Production (pp. 3–50). London: Academic Press.
Menyuk, P. and Menn, L. (1979). Early strategies for the perception and production of words and sounds. In P. Fletcher and M. Garman (eds.), Language Acquisition: Studies in First Language Development (pp. 49–70). Cambridge University Press.
Mervis, C. B. , Golinkoff, R. M. and Bertrand, J. (1994). Two-year-olds readily learn multiple labels for the same basic-level category. Child Development, 65(4): 1163–77.
Messenger, K. , Branigan, H. , McLean, J. and Sorace, A. (2009). Semantic factors in young children's comprehension and production of passives. In J. Chandlee , M. Franchini , S. Lord and G.-M. Rheiner , (eds.), Proceedings of the Thirty-Third Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 355–66). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Mielke, J. (2008). The Emergence of Distinctive Features. Oxford University Press.
Miller, J. L. and Eimas, P. D. (1983). Studies on the categorization of speech by infants. Cognition, 13: 135–65.
Mills, A. E. (1985). Speech acquisition in childhood – a study on the development of syntax in small children – German. Journal of Child Language, 12(1): 239–44.
Mintz, T. , H. (2003). Frequent frames as a cue for grammatical categories in child directed speech. Cognition, 90: 91–117.
Mintz, T. H. (2002). Category induction from distributional cues in an artificial language. Memory and Cognition, 30(5): 678–86.
Mintz, T. H. (2006). Finding the verbs: distributional cues to categories available to young learners. In K. Hirsh-Pasek and R. M. Golinkoff (eds.), Action Meets Word: How Children Learn Verbs (pp. 31–63). New York: Oxford University Press.
Mintz, T. H. , Newport, E. L. and Bever, T. G. (2002). The distributional structure of grammatical categories in speech to young children. Cognitive Science, 26(4): 393–424.
Moll, H. , Carpenter, M. and Tomasello, M. (2007). Fourteen-month-olds know what others experience only in joint engagement. Developmental Science, 10(6): 826–35.
Moll, H. , Koring, C. , Carpenter, M. and Tomasello, M. (2006). Infants determine others' focus of attention by pragmatics and exclusion. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7(3): 411–30.
Moll, H. and Tomasello, M. (2007). How 14- and 18-month-olds know what others have experienced. Developmental Psychology, 43(2): 309–17.
Moore, C. , Angelopoulos, M. and Bennett, P. (1999). Word learning in the context of referential and salience cues. Developmental Psychology, 35(1): 60–8.
Morse, P. A. (1972). The discrimination of speech and non-speech stimuli in early infancy. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 14: 477–92.
Nagy, W. E. and Herman, P. A. (1987). Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: implications for acquisition and instruction. In M. G. McKeown and M. E. Curtis (eds.), The Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition (pp. 19–35). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Naigles, L. (1990). Children use syntax to learn verb meanings. Journal of Child Language, 17(2): 357–74.
Naigles, L. G. and Kako, E. T. (1993). 1st contact in verb acquisition – defining a role for syntax. Child Development, 64(6): 1665–87.
Naigles, L. R. (1996). The use of multiple frames in verb learning via syntactic bootstrapping. Cognition, 58(2): 221–51.
Nazzi, T. , Kemler Nelson, D. , Jusczyk, P. W. and Jusczyk, A. M. (2000). Six-month-olds' detection of clauses embedded in continuous speech: effects of prosodic well-formedness. Infancy, 1: 123–47.
Nelson, K. (1974). Variations in children's concepts by age and category. Child Development, 45(3): 577–84.
Nelson, K. (1985). Making Sense: The Acquisition of Shared Meaning. New York and London: Academic Press.
Nelson, K. , Hampson, J. and Shaw, L. K. (1993). Nouns in early lexicons – evidence, explanations and implications. Journal of Child Language, 20(1): 61–84.
Nespor, M. and Vogel, I. (1986). Prosodic Phonology. Dordrecht: Foris.
Newmeyer, F. (1991). Functional explanations in linguistics and the origins of language. Language and Communication, 11(1/2): 3–28.
Newport, E. L. and Aslin, R. N. (2004). Learning at a distance I. Statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies. Cognitive Psychology, 48(2): 127–62.
Niyogi, P. and Berwick, R. C. (1996). A language learning model for finite parameter spaces. Cognition, 61: 161–93.
Noble, C. H. (2009). Comprehension of argument structure and semantic roles. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Liverpool.
Noble, C. H. , Rowland, C. F. and Pine, J. M. (in press). Comprehension of argument structure and semantic roles: evidence from infants and the forced-choice pointing paradigm. Cognitive Science.
Olguin, R. and Tomasello, M. (1993). 25-month-old children do not have a grammatical category of verb. Cognitive Development, 8(3): 245–72.
Oller, D. K. (2000). The Emergence of the Speech Capacity. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Oller, D. K. , Wieman, L. , Doyle, W. and Ross, C. (1975). Infant babbling and speech. Journal of Child Language, 3: 1‑11.
Onnis, L. , Monaghan, P. , Richmond, K. and Chater, N. (2005). Phonology impacts segmentation in speech processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 53(2): 225–37.
Oviatt, S. L. (1980). The emerging ability to comprehend language: an experimental approach. Child Development, 51(1): 97–106.
Peña, M. , Bonatti, L. L. , Nespor, M. and Mehler, J. (2002). Signal-driven computations in speech processing. Science, 298: 604–7.
Perlmutter, D. M. (1978). Impersonal passives and the unaccusative hypothesis Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (pp. 157–89). University of California, Berkeley.
Peters, A. M. (1983). The Units of Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
Peters, A. M. and Menn, L. (1990). The microstructure of the development of grammatical morphemes: variation across children and across languages. ICS Technical Report no. 90-19. University of Colorado at Boulder.
Peters, A.M. and Menn, L. (1993). False starts and filler syllables: ways to learn grammatical morphemes. Language, 69(4): 742–77.
Philip, W . (1995). Event quantification in the acquisition of universal quantification. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Philip, W. and Verrips, M. (1994). Dutch preschoolers' elke. Paper presented at the 19th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, MA.
Pickering, M. J. and Ferreira, V. S. (2008). Structural priming: a critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 134(3): 427–59.
Pierce, A. E. (1992). Language Acquisition and Syntactic Theory: A Comparative Analysis of French and English Child Grammars. Dordrecht and London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Pierrehumbert, J. B. (2003). Phonetic diversity, statistical learning and acquisition of phonology. Language and Speech, 46: 115–54.
Pine, J. , Rowland, C. F. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Theakston, A. L. (2005). Testing the Agreement/Tense Omission Model: why the data on children's use of non-nominative subjects count against the ATOM. Journal of Child Language, 32: 269–89.
Pine, J. M. , Conti-Ramsden, G. , Joseph, K. L. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Serratrice, L. (2008). Tense over time: testing the Agreement/Tense Omission Model as an account of the pattern of tense-marking provision in early child English. Journal of Child Language, 35(1): 55–75.
Pine, J. M. , Lieven, E. V. M. and Rowland, C. F. (1998). Comparing different models of the development of the English verb category. Linguistics, 36(4): 807–30.
Pine, J. M. and Lieven, E. V. M. (1993). Reanalyzing rote-learned phrases – individual-differences in the transition to multi-word speech. Journal of Child Language, 20(3): 551–71.
Pine, J. M. and Lieven, E. V. M. (1997). Slot and frame patterns and the development of the determiner category. Applied Psycholinguistics, 18(2): 123–38.
Pine, J. M. and Martindale, H. (1996). Syntactic categories in the speech of young children: the case of the determiner. Journal of Child Language, 23(2): 369–95.
Pinker, S. (1979). Formal models of language learning. Cognition, 7: 217–83.
Pinker, S. (1984). Language Learnability and Language Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pinker, S. (1987). The bootstrapping problem in language acquisition. In B. MacWhinney (ed.), Mechanisms of Language Acquisition (pp. 339–441). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Pinker, S. (1989a). Learnability and Cognition: The Acquisition of Argument Structure. Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press.
Pinker, S. (1989b). Resolving a learnability paradox in the acquisition of the verb lexicon. In M. L. Rice and R. L. Shiefelsbusch (eds.), The Teachability of Language. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Pinker, S. (1994a). How could a child use verb syntax to learn verb semantics? Lingua, 92: 377–410.
Pinker, S. (1994b). The Language Instinct. New York: Harper Collins.
Pinker, S. (1999). Words and Rules. London: Phoenix.
Pinker, S. (2004). Clarifying the logical problem of language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 31(4): 949–53.
Pinker, S. , Lebeaux, D. S. and Frost, L. A. (1987). Productivity and constraints in the acquisition of the passive. Cognition, 26(3): 195–267.
Pinker, S. and Bloom, P. (1990). Natural language and natural selection. Behavioral and Brain Science, 13: 707–84.
Pinker, S. and Jackendoff, R. (2005). The faculty of language: what's special about it? Cognition, 95: 201–36.
Pinker, S. and Prince, A. (1988). On language and connectionism: analysis of a parallel distributed processing model of language acquisition. Cognition, 28(1–2): 73–193.
Pinker, S. and Ullman, M. T. (2002). The past and future of the past tense. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(11): 456–63.
Pisoni, D. B. (1977). Identification and discrimination of the relative onset time of two component tones: implications for voicing perception in stops. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 61: 1352–61.
Pizzuto, E. and Caselli, C. (1994). The acquisition of Italian verb morphology in a cross-linguistic perspective. In Y. Levy (ed.), Other Children, Other Languages (pp. 137–88). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Plomin, R. and Kovas, Y. (2005). Generalist genes and learning disabilities. Psychological Bulletin, 131: 592–617.
Plunkett, K. and Juola, P. (1999). A connectionist model of English past tense and plural morphology. Cognitive Science, 23(4): 463–90.
Plunkett, K. and Marchman, V. (1991). U-shaped learning and frequency effect in a multi-layered perceptron: implications for child language acquisition. Cognition, 38(1): 43–102.
Plunkett, K. and Marchman, V. (1993). From rote learning to system building: acquiring verb morphology in children and connectionist nets. Cognition, 48(1): 21–69.
Plunkett, K. and Nakisa, R. C. (1997). A connectionist model of the Arabic plural system. Language and Cognitive Processes, 12(5–6): 807–36.
Poeppel, D. and Wexler, K. (1993). The full competence hypothesis of clause structure in early German. Language, 69: 1–33.
Polka, L. and Werker, J. F. (1994). Developmental changes in perception of non-native vowel contrasts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20: 421–35.
Prasada, S. and Pinker, S. (1993). Generalisation of regular and irregular morphological patterns. Language and Cognitive Processes, 8(1): 1–56.
Prince, A. and Smolensky, P. (1993). Optimality Theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar. In J. McCarthy (ed.), Optimality Theory in Phonology: A Reader (pp. 3–71). Oxford: Blackwell.
Prince, Alan and Smolensky, Paul . (2004). Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pullum, G. K. and Scholz, B. C. (2002). Empirical assessment of stimulus poverty arguments. Linguistic Review, 19: 9–50.
Pye, C. and Quixtan Poz, P. (1989). Why functionalism won't function: the acquisition of passives and antipassives in K'iche' Mayan. Working Papers in Language Development, 4: 39–53. The Child Language Program, University of Kansas.
Quine, W. (1960). Word and Object. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Radford, A. (1994). The syntax of questions in child English. Journal of Child Language, 21(1): 201–36.
Radford, A. (1996). Towards a structure building model of acquisition. In H. Clahsen (ed.), Generative Perspectives on Language Acquisition (pp. 43–90). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Radford, A. (2004). Minimalist Syntax: Exploring the Structure of English. Cambridge University Press.
Radford, A. and Ploennig-Pacheco, I . (1995). The morphosyntax of subjects and verbs in child Spanish: a case study. Essex Reports in Linguistics, 5: 23–67.
Ramscar, M. (2002). The role of meaning in inflection: why the past tense does not require a rule. Cognitive Psychology, 45: 45–94.
Ramscar, M. and Yarlett, D. (2007). Linguistic self-correction in the absence of feedback: a new approach to the logical problem of language acquisition. Cognitive Science, 31: 927–60.
Randall, J. H. (1990). Catapults and pendulums: the mechanics of language-acquisition. Linguistics, 28(6): 1381–1406.
Reali, F. and Christiansen, M. H. (2004). Uncovering the richness of the stimulus: structure dependence and indirect statistical evidence. Cognitive Science, 29: 1007–28.
Redington, M. , Chater, N. and Finch, S. (1998). Distributional information: a powerful cue for acquiring syntactic categories. Cognitive Science, 22(4): 425–69.
Reinhart, T. (1983). Anaphora and Semantic Interpretation. London: Croom Helm.
Rice, M. L. , Wexler, K. and Hershberger, S. (1998). Tense over time: the longitudinal course of tense acquisition in children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 41(6): 1412–31.
Rice, M. L. and Wexler, K. (1996). A phenotype of specific language impairment: extended optional infinitives. In M. Rice (ed.), Towards a Genetics of Language (pp. 215–38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rice, M. L. and Wexler, K. (1996). Toward tense as a clinical marker of specific language impairment in English-speaking children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39(6): 1239–57.
Rijkhoff, J. (2003). When can a language have nouns and verbs? Acta Linguistica Hafniensa, 35: 7–38.
Rispoli, M. (1991). The mosaic acquisition of grammatical relations. Journal of Child Language, 18(3): 517–51.
Rispoli, M. (1994). Pronoun case overextension and paradigm building. Journal of Child Language, 21: 157–72.
Rispoli, M. (1999). Case and agreement in English language development. Journal of Child Language, 26: 357–72.
Rizzi, L. (1993/4). Some notes on linguistic theory and language development: the case of root infinitives. Language Acquisition, 3: 371–93.
Roberts, C. (1987). Modal subordination, distributivity and anaphora. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Roberts, L. , Marinis, T. , Felser, C. and Clahsen, H. (2007). Antecedent priming at trace positions in children's sentence processing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 36(2): 175–88.
Roeper, T. and de Villiers, J. (1991). The emergence of bound variable structures. In T. L. Maxfield and B. Plunkett (eds.), University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers: Papers in the Acquisition of WH (pp. 267–82). Amherst, MA: GLSA.
Rossen, M. , Klima, E. S. , Bellugi, U. , Bihrle, A. and Jones, W. (1996). Interaction between language and cognition: evidence from Williams Syndrome. In J. H. Beitchman , N. J. Cohen , M. M. Konstantareas and R. Tannock (eds.), Language, Learning and Behavior Disorders: Developmental, Biological and Clinical Perspectives (pp. 367–92). Cambridge University Press.
Rowland, C. F. (2007). Explaining errors in children's questions. Cognition, 104(1): 106–34.
Rowland, C. F. and Fletcher, S. L. (2006). The effect of sampling on estimates of lexical specificity and error rates. Journal of Child Language, 33(4): 859–77.
Rowland, C. F. and Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: ‘what children do know!’ Journal of Child Language, 27(1): 157–81.
Rowland, C. F. and Theakston, A. L. (2009). The acquisition of auxiliary syntax: a longitudinal elicitation study. Part 2: The modals and auxiliary DO. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 52(6): 1471–92.
Rubino, R. B. and Pine, J. M. (1998). Subject–verb agreement in Brazilian Portuguese: what low error rates hide. Journal of Child Language, 25(1): 35–59.
Rumelhart, D. E. and McClelland, J. L. (1986). Learning the past tenses of English verbs: implicit rules of parallel distributed processing? In B. MacWhinney (ed.), Mechanisms of Language Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Saffran, J. R. , Aslin, R. N. and Newport, E. L. (1996). Statistical learning by 8-month-olds. Science, 274: 1926–8.
Saffran, J. R. , Johnson, E. K. , Aslin, R. N. and Newport, E. L. (1999). Statistical learning of tone sequences by human infants and adults. Cognition, 70: 27–52.
Sakas, W. G. and Fodor, J. D. (2001). The structural triggers learner. In S. Bertolo (ed.), Language Acquisition and Learnability. Cambridge University Press.
Samuelson, L. K. and Smith, L. B. (1998). Memory and attention make smart word learning: an alternative account of Akhtar, Carpenter and Tomasello. Child Development, 1: 94–104.
Sanford, A. J. and Stuart, P. (2002). Depth of processing in language comprehension: not noticing the evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6: 382–6.
Santelmann, L. , Berk, S. , Austin, J. , Somashekar, S. and Lust, B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection. Journal of Child Language, 29: 813–42.
Savage, C. , Lieven, E. , Theakston, A. and Tomasello, M. (2003). Testing the abstractness of children's linguistic representations: lexical and structural priming of syntactic constructions in young children. Developmental Science, 6(5): 557–67.
Savage, C. , Lieven, E. , Theakston, A. and Tomasello, M. (2006). Structural priming as implicit learning in language acquisition: the persistence of lexical and structural priming in 4-year-olds. Language Learning and Development, 2: 27–50.
Schütze, C. T. (2001). Productive inventory and case/agreement contingencies: a methodological note on Rispoli (1999). Journal of Child Language, 28(2): 507–15.
Schütze, C. T. and Wexler, K. (1996). Subject case licensing and English root infinitives. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 670–81). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Schafer, G. and Plunkett, K. (1998). Rapid word learning by fifteen-month-olds under tightly controlled conditions. Child Development, 69(2): 309–20.
Schauwers, K. , Govaerts, P. and Gillis, S. (2005). Language acquisition in deaf children with a cochlear implant. In P. Fletcher and J. Miller (eds.), Developmental Theory and Language Disorders (pp. 95–119). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Schieffelin, B. B. and Ochs, E. (1986). Language Socialization Across Cultures. Cambridge University Press.
Schlesinger, I. M. (1988). The origin of relational categories. In Y. Levy , I. M. Schlesinger and M. D. S. Braine (eds.), Categories and Processes in Language Acquisition (pp. 121–78). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Schwartz, R. G. and Leonard, L. B. (1984). Words, objects and actions in early lexical acquisition. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 27(1): 119–27.
Scott, D. R. (1982). Duration as a cue to the perception of a phrase boundary. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71: 996–1007.
Seidl, A. (2007). Infants' use and weighting of prosodic cues in clause segmentation. Journal of Memory and Language, 57: 24–48.
Seidl, A. , Hollich, G. and Jusczyk, P. W. (2003). Early understanding of subject and object Wh-questions. Infancy, 4(3): 423–36.
Senghas, A. (2003). Intergenerational influence and ontogenetic development in the emergence of spatial grammar in Nicaraguan Sign Language. Cognitive Development, 18: 511–31.
Sethuraman, N. , Goldberg, A. and Goodman, J. (1997). Using the semantics associated with syntactic frames for interpretation without the aid of non-linguistic context. In E. Clark (ed.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Annual Child Language Research Forum (pp. 283–94). Stanford, CA: CSLI.
Sheldon, A. C. (1974). The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in English. Bloomington: Reproduced by Indiana University Linguistics Club.
Sherman, J. C. and Lust, B. (1993). Children are in control. Cognition, 46(1): 1–51.
Shi, R. , Cutler, A. , Werker, J. and Cruickshank, M. (2006). Frequency and form as determinants of functor sensitivity in English-acquiring infants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119: 61–67.
Shi, R. and Moisan, A. (2008). Prosodic cues to noun and verb categories in infant-directed speech. Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp. 450–61). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Shimpi, P. M. , Gámez, P. B. , Huttenlocher, J. and Vasilyeva, M. (2007). Syntactic priming in 3- and 4-year-old children: evidence for abstract representations of transitive and dative forms. Developmental Psychology, 43(6): 1334–46.
Shirai, Y. , Slobin, D. I. and Weist, R. (1998). The acquisition of tense/aspect morphology. First Language, 18: 245–53.
Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal Learning. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Slobin, D. (1982). Universal and particular in the acquisition of language. In E. Wanner and L. R. Gleitman (eds.), Language Acquisition: The State of the Art (pp. 128–70). Cambridge University Press.
Slobin, D. (2001). Form-function relations: How do children find out what they are? In M. Bowerman and S. Levinson (eds.). Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development (pp. 406–49). Cambridge University Press.
Slobin, D. I. (1973). Cognitive prerequisites for the development of grammar. In C. A. Ferguson and D. I. Slobin (eds.), Studies of Child Language Development (pp. 175–208). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Slobin, D. I. (1997). The origins of grammaticizable notions: beyond the individual mind. In D. I. Slobin (ed.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition, vol. 5: Expanding the Contexts (pp. 265–323). London: Erlbaum.
Smith, L. and Yu, C. (2008). Infants rapidly learn word-referent mappings via cross-situational statistics. Cognition, 106(3): 1558–68.
Smith, L. B. (2000). Avoiding associations when it's behaviorism you really hate. In R. Golinkoff et al. (eds.), Becoming a Word Learner: A Debate on Lexical Acquisition (pp. 169–75). Oxford University Press.
Smith, M. (1974). Relative clause formation between 29–36 months: a preliminary report. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 8: 104–10.
Smith, N. V. (1973). The Acquisition of Phonology: A Case Study. Cambridge University Press.
Soderstrom, M. , Seidl, A. , Kemler Nelson, D. G. and Jusczyk, P. W. (2003). The prosodic bootstrapping of phrases: evidence from prelinguistic infants. Journal of Memory and Language, 49(2): 249–67.
Soja, N. N. , Carey, S. and Spelke, E. S. (1991). Ontological categories guide young children's inductions of word meaning: object terms and substance terms. Cognition, 38(2): 179–211.
Sokolov, J. L. (1988). Cue validity in Hebrew sentence comprehension. Journal of Child Language, 15(1): 129–55.
Solan, L. (1983). Pronominal Reference: Child Language and the Theory of Grammar. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Solan, Z. , Horn, D. , Ruppin, E. and Edelman, S. (2005). Unsupervised learning of natural languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(33): 11629–34.
Sorenson, J. M. , Cooper, W. E. and Paccia, J. M (1978). Speech timing of grammatical categories. Cognition, 6: 135–53.
Stager, C. L. and Werker, J. F. (1997). Infants listen for more phonetic detail in speech perception than in word-learning tasks. Nature, 388: 381–2.
Stampe, D. (1979). A Dissertation on Natural Phonology. New York: Garland.
Steels, L. (2006). Experiments on the emergence of human communication. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(8): 347–9.
Steels, L. and de Boer, B. (2007). Embodiment and self-organization of human categories: a case study for speech. In J. Zlatev , T. Ziemke , R. Frank and R. Dirven (eds.), Body, Language and Mind, vol. 1, pp. 241–59. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Stefanowitsch, A. (2008). Negative evidence and pre-emption: a constructional approach to ungrammaticality. Cognitive Linguistics, 19(3): 513–31.
Street, J. A. and Dąbrowska, E. (2010). More individual differences in language attainment: how much do adult native speakers of English know about passives and quantifiers? Lingua, 120(8): 2080–94.
Streeter, L. A. (1976). Language perception of two-month-old infants shows effects of both innate mechanisms and experience. Nature, 259: 39–41.
Streeter, L. A. (1978). Acoustic determinants of phrase boundary perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 64: 1582–92.
Stromswold, K. (1990). Learnability and the acquisition of auxiliaries. Unpublished PhD dissertation, MIT.
Sudhalter, V. and Braine, M. D. S. (1985). How does comprehension of passives develop – a comparison of actional and experiential verbs. Journal of Child Language, 12(2): 455–70.
Suttle, L. and Goldberg, A. E. (in press). The partial productivity of constructions as induction. Linguistics.
Suzman, S. M. (1999). Learn Zulu the way children do. South African Journal of African Languages, 19(2): 134–47.
Svartvik, J. (1966). On Voice in the English Verb (Janua Linguarum, Series Practica 63). The Hague: Mouton.
Swingley, D. (2005a). Statistical clustering and the contents of the infant vocabulary. Cognitive Psychology, 50: 86–132.
Swingley, D. (2005b). 11-months-olds' knowledge of how familiar words sound. Developmental Science, 8: 432–43.
Takahashi, M. (1991). Children's interpretation of sentences containing every . In T. Maxfield and B. Plunkett (eds.), Papers in the Acquisition of WH: Proceedings of the UMass Roundtable, May 1990 (pp. 303–23). Linguistics Department, UMASS, Amherst, MA: Graduate Linguistics Students Association.
Tallal, P. , Miller, S. L. , Bedi, G. , Byma, G. , Wang, X. , Nagarajan, S. S. , et al. (1996). Language comprehension in language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified speech. Science, 271(5245): 81–4.
Tardif, T. (1996). Nouns are not always learned before verbs: evidence from Mandarin speakers' early vocabularies. Developmental Psychology, 32(3): 492–504.
Tavakolian, S. (1981). The conjoined clause analysis of relative clauses. In S. Tavakolian (ed.), Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory (pp. 167–87). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Taylor-Browne, K. (1983). Acquiring restrictions on forwards anaphora: a pilot study. Calgary Working Papers in Linguistics, 9: 75–99.
Theakston, A. L. (2004). The role of entrenchment in children's and adults' performance on grammaticality judgement tasks. Cognitive Development, 19(1): 15–34.
Theakston, A. L. , Lieven, E. V. and Tomasello, M. (2003). The role of the input in the acquisition of third person singular verbs in English. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 46(4): 863–77.
Theakston, A. L. , Lieven, E. V. M. , Pine, J. M. and Rowland, C. F. (2001). The role of performance limitations in the acquisition of verb-argument structure: an alternative account. Journal of Child Language, 28(1): 127–52.
Theakston, A. L. , Lieven, E. V. M. , Pine, J. M. and Rowland, C. F. (2002). Going, going, gone: the acquisition of the verb ‘go’. Journal of Child Language, 29(4): 783–811.
Theakston, A. L. , Lieven, E. V. M. , Pine, J. M. and Rowland, C. F. (2004). Semantic generality, input frequency and the acquisition of syntax. Journal of Child Language, 31(1): 61–99.
Theakston, A. L. , Lieven, E. V. M. , Pine, J. M. and Rowland, C. F. (2005). The acquisition of auxiliary syntax: BE and HAVE. Cognitive Linguistics, 16(1): 247–77.
Theakston, A. L. and Lieven, E. V. M. (2005). The acquisition of auxiliaries BE and HAVE: an elicitation study. Journal of Child Language, 32(3): 587–616.
Theakston, A. L. and Rowland, C. F. (2009). The acquisition of auxiliary syntax: a longitudinal elicitation study. Part 1: Auxiliary BE. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 52(6): 1449–70.
Thiessen, E. D. and Saffran, J. R. (2003). When cues collide: use of stress and statistical cues to word boundaries by 7- to 9-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 39: 706–16.
Thompson, S. A. and Mulac, A. (1991). The discourse conditions for the use of the complementizer that in conversational English. Journal of Pragmatics, 15: 237–51.
Thomson, J. R. and Chapman, R. S. (1977). Who is daddy revisited – status of 2-year-olds' over-extended words in use and comprehension. Journal of Child Language, 4(3): 359–75.
Thornton, R. and Crain, S. (1994). Successful cyclic movement. In T. Hoekstra and B. Schwartz (eds.), Language Acquisition Studies in Generative Grammar (pp. 215–53). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Thornton, R. and Wexler, K. (1999). Principle B, VP Ellipsis and Interpretation in Child Grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Thorpe, W. (1958). The learning of song patterns by birds, with special reference to the song of the Chaffinch, ‘Fringilla coelebs’. Ibis, 100: 535–70.
Thothathiri, M. and Snedeker, J. (2008). Syntactic priming during language comprehension in three- and four-year-old children. Journal of Memory and Language, 58(2): 188–213.
Tincoff, R. (2001). Infants' attention to speech and non-speech vocalizations, and its relation to word-learning. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Minneapolis, MN.
Tincoff, R. and Jusczyk, P. W. (1999). Some beginnings of word comprehension in 6-month-olds. Psychological Science, 10(2): 172–5.
Tomasello, M. (1992). First Verbs: A Case Study of Early Grammatical Development. Cambridge University Press.
Tomasello, M. (1999). The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tomasello, M. (2000). Do young children have adult syntactic competence? Cognition, 74(3): 209–53.
Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a Language: A Usage-based Theory of Language Acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tomasello, M. (2005). Beyond formalities: the case of language acquisition. The Linguistic Review, 22: 183–97.
Tomasello, M. (2007a). The Origins of Human Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Tomasello, M. (2007b). What kind of evidence could refute the UG hypothesis? Commentary on Wunderlich. In M. Penke and Anette Rosenbach (eds.), What Counts as Evidence in Linguistics? (pp. 175–78). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Tomasello, M. (2008). Origins of Human Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Tomasello, M. , Akhtar, N. , Dodson, K. and Rekau, L. (1997). Differential productivity in young children's use of nouns and verbs. Journal of Child Language, 24: 373–87.
Tomasello, M. , Brooks, P. J. and Stern, E. (1998). Learning to produce passive utterances through discourse. First Language, 18: 223–37.
Tomasello, M. , Strosberg, R. and Akhtar, N. (1996). Eighteen-month-old children learn words in non-ostensive contexts. Journal of Child Language, 23(1): 157–76.
Tomasello, M. and Abbot-Smith, K. (2002). A tale of two theories: response to Fisher. Cognition, 83(2): 207–14.
Tomasello, M. and Akhtar, N. (1995). Two-year-olds use pragmatic cues to differentiate reference to objects and actions. Cognitive Development, 10: 201–24.
Tomasello, M. and Akhtar, N. (2000). Five questions for any theory of word learning. In R. Golinkoff and K. Hirsh-Pasek (eds.), Becoming a Word Learner: A Debate on Lexical Acquisition (pp. 115–35). Oxford University Press.
Tomasello, M. and Barton, M. (1994). Learning words in nonostensive contexts. Developmental Psychology, 30(5): 639–50.
Tomasello, M. and Brooks, P. J. (1998). Young children's earliest transitive and intransitive constructions. Cognitive Linguistics, 9(4): 379–95.
Tomasello, M. and Haberl, K. (2003). Understanding attention: 12 and 18 month olds know what is new for other persons. Developmental Psychology, 39(5): 906–12.
Tomasello, M. and Kruger, A. C. (1992). Joint attention on actions – acquiring verbs in ostensive and non-ostensive contexts. Journal of Child Language, 19(2): 311–33.
Tomasello, M. and Stahl, D. (2004). Sampling children's spontaneous speech: how much is enough? Journal of Child Language, 31(1): 101–21.
Townsend, D. J. and Bever, T. G. (2001). Sentence Comprehension: The Integration of Habits and Rules. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Trehub, S. (1976). The discrimination of foreign speech contrasts by infants and adults. Child Development, 47(2): 466–72.
Trehub, S. E. (1973). Infants' sensitivity to vowel and tonal contrasts. Developmental Psychology, 9: 91–96.
Trueswell, J. C. , Sekerina, I. , Hill, N. M. and Logrip, M. L. (1999). The kindergarten-path effect: studying on-line sentence processing in young children. Cognition, 73(2): 89–134.
Ullman, M. T. (2001). The declarative/procedural model of lexicon and grammar. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30(1): 37–69.
Vainikka, A. (1994). Case in the development of English syntax. Language Acquisition, 3: 257–325.
Valian, V. (1991). Syntactic subjects in the early speech of American and Italian children. Cognition, 40: 21–81.
Valian, V. , Solt, S. and Stewart, J. (2009). Abstract categories or limited-scope formulae? The case of children's determiners. Journal of Child Language, 36(4): 743–78.
Van der Lely, H. K. J . (1997). Language and cognitive development in a grammatical SLI boy: modularity and innateness. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 10(2–3): 75–107.
Van Ginneken, J . (1917). De roman van een kleuter (A Toddler's Novel). Nijmegen: Malmberg.
Van Hoek, K . (1997). Anaphora and Conceptual Structure. University of Chicago Press.
Vargha-Khadem, F. , Gadian, D. G. , Copp, A. and Mishkin, M. (2005). FOXP2 and the neuroanatomy of speech and language. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6: 131–8.
Vargha-Khadem, F. , Watkins, K. , Alcock, K. , Fletcher, P. and Passingham, R. (1995). Praxic and nonverbal cognitive deficits in a large family with a genetically transmitted speech and language disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 92: 930–3.
Vihman, M. , Macken, M. , Miller, R. , Simmons, H. and Miller, J. (1985). From babbling to speech: a re-assessment of the continuity issue. Language, 61(2): 397–445.
Vihman, M. , Nakai, S. , DePaolis, R . and Hall, P . (2004). The role of accentual pattern in early lexical representation. Journal of Memory and Language, 50: 336–53.
Vihman, M. M. (1996). Phonological Development: The Origins of Language in the Child. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Vihman, M. M. and Croft, W. (2007). Phonological development: toward a ‘radical’ templatic phonology. Linguistics, 45: 683–725.
Vihman, M. M. and Velleman, S. L. (2000). The construction of a first phonology. Phonetica, 57: 255–66.
Wanner, E. and Maratsos, M. (1978). An ATN approach to comprehension. In M. Halle , J. Bresnan and G. Miller (eds.), Linguistic Theory and Psychological Reality (pp. 119–61). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wason, P. (1966). Reasoning. In New Horizons in Psychology (pp. 135–51). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Waterson, N. (1971). Child phonology: a prosodic view. Journal of Linguistics, 7: 179–211.
Waterson, N. (1979). The growth of complexity in phonological development. In N. Waterson and C. Snow (eds.), The Development of Communication (pp. 415–42). Chichester: Wiley.
Waxman, S. R. and Booth, A. , E (2001). On the insufficiency of evidence for a domain-general account of word learning. Cognition, 277–79.
Waxman, S. R. and Booth, A. E . (2000). Principles that are invoked in the acquisition of words, but not facts. Cognition, B33–B43.
Waxman, S. R. and Braun, I. E. (2005). Consistent (but not variable) names as invitations to form object categories: new evidence from 12-month-old infants. Cognition, 95: B59–B68.
Werker, J. F. , Cohen, L. B. , Lloyd, V. L. , Casasola, M. and Stager, C. L. (1998). Acquisition of word-object associations by 14-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 34(6): 1289–1309.
Werker, J. F. , Fennell, C. T. , Corcoran, K. M. and Stager, C. L. (2002). Infants' ability to learn phonetically similar words: effects of age and vocabulary. Infancy, 3: 1–30.
Werker, J. F. and Tees, R. C. (1983). Developmental changes across childhood in the perception of non-native speech sounds. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 37: 278–86.
Werker, J.F. and Tees, R.C. (1984). Cross-language speech perception: evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 7: 49–63.
Wexler, K. (1998). Very early parameter setting and the unique checking constraint: A new explanation of the optional infinitive stage. Lingua, 106(1–4): 23–79.
Wexler, K. , Schütze, C. T. and Rice, M. (1998). Subject case in children with SLI and unaffected controls: evidence for the Agr/Tns Omission Model. Language Acquisition, 7(2–4): 317–44.
Whorf, B. (1956). Language, Thought, and Reality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wightman, C. , Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. , Ostendorf, M. and Price, P. (1992). Segmental durations in the vicinity of prosodic phrase boundaries. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 91: 1707–17.
Willems, R. M. and Hagoort, P. (2007). Neural evidence for the interplay between language, gesture and action: a review. Brain and Language, 101: 278–89.
Wilson, S. (2003). Lexically specific constructions in the acquisition of inflection in English. Journal of Child Language, 30: 1–41.
Wimmer, H. and Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception. Cognition, 13(1): 103–28.
Wonnacott, E. , Newport, E. L. and Tanenhaus, M. K. (2008). Acquiring and processing verb argument structure: distributional learning in a miniature language. Cognitive Psychology, 56(3): 165–209.
Woodward, A. and Markman, E. M. (1998). Early word learning. In W. Damon , D. Kuhn and R. Seigler (eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology, vol. 2: Cognition, Perception and Language (pp. 371–420). New York: Wiley.
Wunderlich, D. (2007). Why assume UG? In M. Penke and A. Rosenbach (eds.), What Counts as Evidence in Linguistics? (pp. 147–74). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Yang, C. (2002). Knowledge and Learning in Natural Language. Oxford University Press.
Yang, C. (2004). Universal Grammar, statistics or both? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8: 451–6.
Zamuner, T. S. (2003). Input-based Phonological Acquisition. New York: Routledge.