Food, Energy and the Creation of Industriousness

Work and Material Culture in Agrarian England, 1550–1780

Food, Energy and the Creation of Industriousness

Until the widespread harnessing of machine energy, food was the energy which fuelled the economy. In this groundbreaking study of agricultural labourers' diet and material standard of living, Craig Muldrew uses new empirical research to present a much fuller account of the interrelationship between consumption, living standards and work in the early modern English economy than has previously existed. The book integrates labourers into a study of the wider economy and engages with the history of food as an energy source and its importance to working life, the social complexity of family earnings, and the concept of the ‘industrious revolution'. It argues that ‘industriousness' was as much the result of ideology and labour markets as labourers' household consumption. Linking this with ideas about the social order of early modern England, the author demonstrates that bread, beer and meat were the petrol of this world, and a springboard for economic change.


"With this volume Craig Muldrew advances our understanding of living standards, industriousness, and the working lives of men, women, and children in rural England." -Beverly Lemire, Journal of British Studies

"Food, Energy, and the Creation of Industriousness primarily concerns the diet, work, and income of English agricultural laborers and their families during the early modern period." -Carole Shammas, The Journal of Modern History

'With this volume Craig Muldrew advances our understanding of living standards, industriousness, and the working lives of men, women, and children in rural England.' Journal of British Studies

'Craig Muldrew's Food, Energy and the Creation of Industriousness … paints a picture of a moderately prosperous, hard-working population of wage earners, who made a decent living outside of the crisis periods of 1595–1630 and the late eighteenth century. The book has a lot to offer social and cultural historians, with a detailed examination of ordinary people's diet, of families' multiple sources of income, and of the material culture of the home.' Jane Whittle, History Workshop Journal

Özmucur, Süleyman and Pamuk, Sevket , ‘Real Wages and Standards of Living in the Ottoman Empire, 1498–1914’, Journal of Economic History, 62 (2002), pp. 293–321.
An Account of Several Workhouses for Employing and Maintaining the Poor (London, 1725).
Energy and Protein Requirements: A Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation, World Health Organization Technical Report Series 724 (1991).
Adam Smith , An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Oxford, 1976), Book I, ch. viii, pp. 99–100
Adams, Beverly (ed.), Lifestyle and Culture in Hertford … Wills and Inventories 1660–1725, Hertfordshire Record Society, 13 (1997).
Albala, Ken , Eating Right in the Renaissance (Berkeley, 2002).
Allen, Robert , ‘Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe’, Economic History Review, 56 (2003), pp. 403–43.
Allen, Robert , Enclosure and the Yeoman: The Agricultural Development of the South Midlands 1450–1850 (Oxford, 1992).
Allen, Robert , The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective (Cambridge, 2009).
Appleby, Andrew , Famine in Tudor and Stuart England (Liverpool, 1978).
Appleby, Joyce Oldham , Economic Thought and Ideology in Seventeenth-Century England (Princeton, 1978).
Archer, Ian , The Pursuit of Stability: Social Relations in Elizabethan London (Cambridge, 1991).
Archer, Ian, Barron, Caroline and Harding, Vanessa (eds.), Hugh Alley's Caveat: The Markets of London in 1598, London Topographical Society, 137 (1988).
Archer, John , Every Man His Own Doctor (London, 1671).
Arkell, Tom , ‘An Examination of the Poll Taxes of the Later Seventeenth Century, the Marriage Duty Act and Gregory King’, in Kevin Schurer and Tom Arkell (eds.), Surveying the People: The Interpretation and Use of Document Sources for the Study of Population in the Later Seventeenth Century (Oxford, 1992), pp. 142–77.
Arkell, Tom , ‘Printed Instructions for Administering the Hearth Tax’, in Schurer and Arkell, Surveying the People, pp. 38–64.
Arkell, Tom , ‘The Incidence of Poverty in England in the Later Seventeenth Century’, Social History, 12 (1987), pp. 23–47.
Arkell, Tom , ‘The Probate Process’, in Tom Arkell , Nesta Evans and Nigel Goose (eds.), When Death Do Us Part: Understanding and Interpreting the Probate Records of Early Modern England (Oxford, 2000), pp. 3–13.
Armitage, Philip , ‘A Preliminary Description of British Cattle from the Late Twelfth to the Early Sixteenth Century’, Ark, 7 (1980), pp. 405–13.
Armitage, Philip , ‘Developments in British Cattle Husbandry from the Romano-British Period to Early Modern Times’, Ark, 9 (1982), pp. 52–4.
Baker, Anne Pimlott , ‘Ellis, William (c. 1700–1758)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004),, accessed 19 March 2009.
Batchelor, Thomas , General View of the Agriculture of the County of Bedford (London, 1808).
Beaver, Daniel C. , Hunting and the Politics of Violence before the English Civil War (Cambridge, 2008).
Beier, A. L. , Masterless Men: the Vagrancy Problem in England 1560–1640 (London, 1985).
Beier, A. L. and Finlay, Roger (eds.), The Making of the Metropolis: London 1500–1700 (London, 1986).
Bellers, John , Essays about the Poor, Manufacturers, Trade, Plantations and Immorality and of the Excellency and Divinity of Inward Light (1699), in George Clarke (ed.), John Bellers, 1654 to 1725, Quaker Visionary: His Life, Times and Writings (York, 1993).
Beresford, John (ed.), The Diary of a Country Parson: The Reverend James Woodforde, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1968).
Berg, Maxine , Luxury and Pleasure in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Oxford, 2005).
Bestall, J. M and Fowkes, D. V. (eds.), Chesterfield Wills and Inventories 1521–1603, Derbyshire Record Society, 1 (1977).
Bettie, John , Crime and the Courts in England 1660–1800 (Oxford, 1986).
Beveridge, William , Prices and Wages in England (London, 1939).
Biggs, Norman , ‘A Tale Untangled: Measuring the Fineness of Yarn’, Textile History, 35 (2004), pp. 120–9.
Bird, Ruth (ed.), The Journal of Giles Moore, Sussex Record Society, 68 (1971).
Blencowe, Robert Willis (ed.), ‘The Journal and Accounts of Timothy Burrell Esq., Barrister-at-Law 1683–1714’, Sussex Archaeological Collections, 3 (1850), pp. 117–72.
Blith, Walter , The English Improver Improved or the Survey of Husbandry Surveyed (London, 1652).
Boorde, Andrew , A Compendyous Regymnet or a Dyetary of Helth (London, 1542).
Boulton, Jeremy , ‘Wage Labour in Seventeenth Century London’, Economic History Review, 49 (1996), pp. 268–90.
Bowden, Peter , ‘Agricultural Prices, Farm Profits, and Rents’, in AHEW, IV, pp. 593–695.
Bowden, Peter , ‘Agricultural Prices, Wages, Farm Profits and Rents’, in AHEW, V.II, pp. 1–118.
Brassley, Paul Lambert , and Saunders, Philip Anthony (eds.), Accounts of the Reverend John Crakanthorp of Fowlmere 1682–1710, Cambridgeshire Records Society, 8 (1988).
Braudel, Fernand , Civilization and Capitalism, 3 vols. (New York, 1981).
Brenner, Robert , Merchants and Revolutionaries: Commercial Change, Political Conflict and London's Overseas Traders 1550–1653 (Cambridge, 1993).
Brindley, Thomas , ‘Escaping from Constraints: The Industrial Revolution in a Malthusian Context’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 15 (1985), pp. 729–53.
Britten, James , Old Country Farming Words (London, 1880).
Broadberry, Stephen and Gupta, Bishnupriya , ‘The Early Modern Great Divergence: Wages, Prices and Economic Development in Europe and Asia, 1500–1800’, Economic History Review, 59 (2006), pp. 2–31.
Bruce Campbell and Mark Overton , ‘A New Perspective on Medieval and Early Modern Agriculture; Six Centuries of Norfolk Farming c. 1250–c. 1850’, Past and Present, 141 (1993), pp. 38–105
Brushfield, T. N. , ‘The Financial Diary of a Citizen of Exeter 1631–43’, Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art, 33 (1901).
Burnett, John , Plenty and Want: A Social History of Diet in England from 1815 to the Present Day (London, 1979).
Burnette, Joyce , ‘An Investigation of the Female–Male Wage Gap during the Industrial Revolution in Britain’, Economic History Review, 50 (1997), pp. 257–81.
Burnette, Joyce , ‘Labourers at the Oakes: Changes in the Demand for Female Day-Labourers at a Farm near Sheffield during the Agricultural Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 59 (1999), pp. 41–67.
Burnette, Joyce , ‘The Wages and Employment of Female Day-Labourers in English Agriculture, 1740–1850’, Economic History Review, 57 (2004), pp. 664–90.
Burton, Richard , Anatomy of Melancholy, 3 vols., ed. Thomas C. Faulkner , Nicolas K. Kiessling and Rhonda L. Blair (Oxford, 1989).
Butcher, E. E. (ed.), Bristol Corporation of the Poor 1696–1834, Bristol Record Society, 3 (1932).
Campbell, Andrew , The Book of Beer (London, 1956).
Campbell, B. M. S. , Galloway, J. A. , Keene, D. and Murphy, M. , A Medieval Capital: Agrarian Production and Distribution in the London Region c. 1300, Historical Geography Research Series, 30 (1991).
Campbell, B. M. S. and Overton, Mark , Land, Labour and Livestock: Historical Studies in European Agricultural Productivity (Manchester, 1991).
Campbell, Mildred , ‘“Of People Either Too Few or Too Many”: The Conflicts of Opinion on Population and Its Relation to Emigration’, in William Appleton Aitken and Basil Duke Henning (eds.), Conflict in Stuart England: Essays in Honour of William Notestein (London, 1960), pp. 171–201.
Carr, Lois Green , Menard, Russell R. and Walsh, Lorena , Robert Cole's World: Agriculture and Society in Early Maryland (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1994).
Cash, Margaret (ed.), Devon Inventories of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, Devon and Cornwall Record Society, n.s., 11 (1966).
Choksy, George D. , ‘The Bifurcated Economics of Sir Dudley North and Roger North: One Holistic Analytical Engine’, History of Political Economy, 27 (1995), pp. 477–92.
Clark, Alice , Working Life of Women in the Seventeenth Century (London, 1992).
Clark, Gregory , ‘A New Perspective on Medieval and Early Modern Agriculture: Six Centuries of Norfolk Farming c. 1250–c. 1850’, Past and Present, 141 (1993), pp. 38–105.
Clark, Gregory , ‘Farm Wages and Living Standards in the Industrial Revolution: England, 1670–1869’, Economic History Review, 54 (2001), pp. 477–505.
Clark, Gregory , ‘Productivity Growth without Technological Change in European Agriculture before 1850’, Journal of Economic History, 47 (1987), pp. 419–32.
Clark, Gregory , ‘The Long March of History: Farm Wages, Population, and Economic Growth, England 1209–1869’, Economic History Review, 60 (2007), pp. 97–135.
Clark, Gregory , ‘The Price History of English Agriculture, 1209–1914’, Research in Economic History, 22 (2004), pp. 41–124.
Clark, Gregory , ‘Yields per Acre in English Agriculture, 1250–1860: Evidence from Labour Inputs’, Economic History Review, 44 (1991), pp. 445–60.
Clark, Gregory , Huberman , Michael and Lindert , Peter H., ‘A British Food Puzzle, 1770–1850’, Economic History Review, 48 (1995), pp. 215–37.
Clark, Gregory and van der Werf, Ysbrand , ‘Work in Progress? The Industrious Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 58 (1998), pp. 830–43.
Clark, Peter , The English Alehouse: A Social History 1200–1830 (London, 1983).
Clarkson, L. A. , ‘The Organization of the English Leather Industry in the Late Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 14 (1960–1), pp. 245–56.
Clarkson, L. A. and Crawford, Margaret , Feast and Famine: Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500–1920 (Oxford, 2001).
Clay, Christopher , Economic Expansion and Social Change: England 1500–1700, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1984).
Clayton, John , Friendly Advice to the Poor; Written and Published at the Request of the Late and Present Officers of the Town of Manchester (Manchester, 1755).
Clutton-Brock, Juliet , ‘British Cattle in the Eighteenth Century’, Ark, 9 (1982), pp. 55–7.
Coats, A. W. , ‘Changing Attitudes to Labour in the Mid-Eighteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 11:1 (1958–9), pp. 35–51.
Cock, Thomas , Kitchin-Physick or, Advice to the Poor by Way of a Dialogue (London, 1676).
Cockburn, William , An Account of the Nature, Causes, Symptoms and Cure of the Distempers That Are Incident to Seafaring People with Observations on the Diet of the Sea-Men in His Majesty's Navy (London, 1696).
Colley, Linda , Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837 (London, 1992).
Collins, E. J. T. , ‘Harvest Technology and Labour Supply in Britain, 1790–1870’, Economic History Review, 22 (1969), pp. 453–73.
Collins, John , Considerations on Taxes as They Are Supposed to Affect the Price of Labour in Our Manufactories (London, 1765).
Collins, John , Considerations on the Expediency of Raising at This Time of General Dearth, the Wages of Servants That Are Not Domestic (London, 1767).
Collins, John , Salt and Fishery (London, 1682).
Cooper, Sheila McIsaac , ‘Probate 1500–1800: A System in Transition’, in Tom Arkell , Nesta Evans and Nigel Goose (eds.), When Death Do Us Part: Understanding and Interpreting the Probate Records of Early Modern England (Oxford, 2000), pp. 14–37.
Cooper, Sheila McIsaac , ‘Service to Servitude? The Decline and Demise of Life-Cycle Service in England’, History of the Family, 10 (2005), pp. 367–86.
Cooper, Sheila McIsaac , A Copy of the Report of an Essay of Bread … (London, 1758).
Corfield, P. J. , The Impact of English Towns, 1700–1800 (Oxford, 1982).
Cox, J. and Cox, N. , ‘Valuations in Probate Inventories, Part I’, Local Historian, 2 (1985), pp. 467–78; Part II, Local Historian, 8 (1986), pp. 85–100.
Cunningham, William , The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in Modern Times (Cambridge, 1929).
Daniel Defoe , A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain (London, 1968), I, p. 343
Daunton, Martin , Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain 1700–1850 (Oxford, 1995).
Davies, David , The Case of the Labourers in Husbandry Stated and Considered (London, 1795; reprinted 1977).
de Malynes, Gerald , Consuetudo vel lex Mercatoria (London, 1622).
de Vries, Jan , ‘Between Purchasing Power and the World of Goods: Understanding the Household Economy in Early Modern Europe’, in Roy Porter and John Brewer, Consumption and the World of Goods (London, 1993), pp. 85–132.
de Vries, Jan , ‘The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 54 (1994), pp. 249–69.
de Vries, Jan , The Industrious Revolution: Consumer Behaviour and the Household Economy, 1650 to the Present (Cambridge, 2008).
Defoe, Daniel , Giving Alms No Charity and Employing the Poor (1704), in W. R. Owens and P. N. Furbank , Political and Economic Writings of Daniel Defoe (London 2000).
Defoe, Daniel , The Great Law of Subordination Considered or, The Insolence and Insuffrable Behaviour of Servants in England Duly Enquired Into (1724), in W. R. Owens and P. N. Furbank , Religious and Didactic Writings of Daniel Defoe (London, 2007), vol. VI.
Defoe, Daniel A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain (London, 1968).
Drummond, J. C. and Wilbraham, Anne , The Englishman's Food: Five Centuries of English Diet (Oxford, 2001).
Dunning, Richard , Bread for the Poor (Exeter, 1698).
Durnin, V. G. A. and Passmore, R. , Energy, Work and Leisure (London, 1967).
Durrant, Peter (ed.), Berkshire Overseers' Papers, 1654–1834, Berkshire Record Society, 3 (1997).
Dyer, Alan , The City of Worcester in the Sixteenth Century (Leicester, 1973).
Dyer, Christopher , Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social Change in England c. 1200–1520 (Cambridge, 1989).
Earle, Peter , ‘The Female Labour Market in London in the Late Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 42 (1989), pp. 328–53.
Earle, Peter The Making of the English Middle Class (London, 1989).
Eden, Sir Frederick Morton , The State of the Poor, or a History of the Labouring Classes in England, 3 vols. (London, 1797).
Ellis, William , The Country Housewife's Family Companion (London, 1750)
Ellis, William , The London and Country Brewer … By a Person Formerly Concerned in a Common Brewhouse at London (London, 1736).
Elyot, Thomas , The Boke Named the Governour (London, 1531).
Erickson, Amy Louise , ‘An Introduction to Probate Accounts’, in G. H. Martin and Peter Spufford (eds.), The Records of the Nation (London, 1990), pp. 273–86.
Erickson, Amy Louise , ‘Married Women's Occupations in Eighteenth-Century London’, Continuity and Change 23 (2008), pp. 237–66.
Estabrook, Carl , Urbane and Rustic England: Cultural Ties and Social Spheres in the Provinces, 1660–1780 (Manchester, 1998).
Evans, Nesta and Rose, Susan (eds.), Cambridgeshire Hearth Tax Returns Michaelmas 1664, British Record Society Hearth Tax Series, 1 (2000).
Everitt, Alan , ‘Farm Labourers’, in AHEW, IV, pp. 396–465.
Farkas , G., Geldrich, J. and Láng, S , ‘Neuere Untersuchungen über den Energieverbrauch beim Ernten’, Arbeits Physiologie, 5 (1933), pp. 434–62.
Feinstein, Charles , ‘Pessimism Perpetuated: Real Wages and the Standard of Living in Britain during the Industrial Revolution’, Economic History Review, 58 (1998), pp. 625–58.
Fernand Braudel , Civilization and Capitalism, I, The Structures of Everyday Life (New York, 1981), chs. 2–3
Fissell, Mary , ‘The Marketplace of Print’, in Mark Jenner and Patrick Wallis (eds.), Medicine and the Market in England and Its Colonies, c. 1450–c. 1850 (London, 2007), pp. 108–32.
Floud, Roderick, Wachter, Kenneth and Gregory, Annabel , Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom, 1750–1980 (Cambridge, 1990).
Fogel, Robert , ‘New Sources and Techniques for the Study of Secular Trends in Nutritional Status, Health, Mortality, and the Process of Aging’, Historical Methods, 26 (1993), pp. 5–43.
Fogel, Robert , The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700–2100: Europe, America, and the Third World (Cambridge, 2004).
Foster, Charles F. , ‘Some New Evidence on Wage Assessments in the Eighteenth Century’, English Historical Review, 43 (1928), pp. 398–40.
Foster, Charles F. , ‘Wages in Eighteenth-Century England’, Journal of Economic & Business History, 2 (1929–30), pp. 603–29.
Foster, Charles F. , Cheshire Cheese and Farming in the North West in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Northwich, 1998).
Foster, Charles F. , Four Cheshire Townships in the Eighteenth Century: Arley, Appleton, Stockton Heath and Great Budworth (Northwich, 1992).
Foster, Charles F. , Seven Households: Life in Cheshire and Lancashire 1582–1774 (Northwich, 2002).
French, Henry , The Middle Sort of People in Provincial England 1600–1750 (Oxford, 2007).
Freudenberger, Hermann and Cummins, Gaylord , ‘Health, Work and Leisure before the Industrial Revolution’, Explorations in Economic History, 13 (1976), pp. 1–12.
Furniss, F. S. , The Position of the Laborer in a System of Nationalism: A Study in the Labor Theories of Later English Mercantilism (New York, 1965).
Fussell, G. E. (ed.), Robert Loder's Farm Accounts 1610–1620, Camden Society, 3rd ser., 53 (1936).
Gibson, A. J. S. , ‘The Size and Weight of Cattle and Sheep in Early Modern Scotland’, Agricultural History Review, 36 (1988), pp. 162–71.
Gibson, A. J. S. and Smout, T. C. , Prices, Food and Wages in Scotland 1550–1780 (Cambridge, 1995).
Gilboy, E. W. , ‘Labour at Thornborough: An Eighteenth Century Estate’, Economic History Review, 1st ser., 3 (1931–2), pp. 388–98.
Glennie, Paul , ‘Measuring Crop Yields in Early Modern England’, in B. M. S. Campbell and Mark Overton (eds.), Land, Labour and Livestock: Historical Studies in European Agricultural Productivity (Manchester, 1991), pp. 255–83.
Gough, Richard , History of Myddle, ed. D. Hey (Harmondsworth, 1981).
Grassby, Richard , The Business Community of Seventeenth Century England (Cambridge, 1995).
Griffiths, Paul , Youth and Authority: Formative Experiences in England 1560–1640 (Oxford, 1996).
Hakluyt, Richard , Discourse of Western Planting (1584), in E. G. R. Taylor (ed.), The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts, Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 77 (1935).
Hale, Matthew , A Discourse Touching Provision for the Poor (London, 1683).
Hallett, Mark and Riding, Christine , Hogarth (London, 2006).
Harrington, Duncan , Pearson, Sarah and Rose, Susan (eds.), Kent Hearth Tax Assessment, Lady Day 1664, British Record Society Hearth Tax Series, 2 (London, 2000).
Harrison, William , The Description of England, ed. George Edelen (New York, 1994).
Hart, James , The Diet of the Diseased (London, 1633).
Harte, N. B. , ‘The Economics of Clothing in the Late Seventeenth Century’, Textile History, 22 (1991), 277–96.
Harte, N. B. , ‘The Rise of Protection and the English Linen Trade, 1690–1780’, in N. B. Harte and K. G. Ponting (eds.), Textile History and Economic History (Manchester, 1973), pp. 74–112.
Hassell Smith, Alan , ‘Labourers in Late Sixteenth-Century England: A Case Study from North Norfolk’, Continuity and Change, [part I] 4:1 (1989), pp. 11–52; [part II] 4:3 (1989), pp. 367–94.
Hatcher, John , ‘Labour, Leisure and Economic Thought’, Past and Present, 160 (1998), pp. 65–115.
Hatcher, John , The History of the British Coal Industry, I, Before 1700 (Oxford, 1992).
Haynes, John , Great Britain's Glory: or an Account of the Great Numbers of Poor Employed in the Woollen and Silk Manufacturies (London, 1715).
Hey, David , ‘The North-West Midlands: Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire, and Shropshire’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 129–58.
Hey, David , An English Rural Community: Myddle under the Tudors and Stuarts (Leicester, 1974).
Hill, Christopher , Society and Puritanism in Pre-Revolutionary England (Harmondsworth, 1964).
Hindle, Steve , ‘Dearth and the English Revolution: The Harvest Crisis of 1647–50’, Economic History Review, 61 (2008), pp. 64–95.
Hindle, Steve , ‘Dearth, Fasting and Alms: The Campaign for General Hospitality in Late Elizabethan England’, Past and Present, 172 (2001), pp. 44–86.
Hindle, Steve , ‘Persuasion and Protest in the Caddington Common Enclosure Dispute 1635–1639’, Past and Present, 158 (1998), pp. 35–78.
Hindle, Steve , ‘Power, Poor Relief, and Social Relations in Holland Fen, c. 1600–1800’, Historical Journal, 41 (1998), pp. 67–96.
Hindle, Steve , On the Parish: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England c. 1550–1750 (Oxford, 2004).
Hipkin, Stephen , ‘Tenant Farming and Short-Term Leasing on Romney Marsh, 1585–1705’, Economic History Review, 53 (2000), pp. 646–76.
Historical Manuscript Commission Reports , no. 15, Report on Manuscripts in Various Collections (London, 1901), I, pp. 160–75.
Hitchcock, Timothy V. (ed.), Richard Hutton's Complaint Book: The Notebook of the Steward of the Quaker Workhouse at Clerkenwell 1711–1737, London Record Society, 24 (1987).
Holderness, B. A. , ‘East Anglia and the Fens: Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Ely, Huntingdonshire, Essex, and the Lincolnshire Fens’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 197–238.
Holderness, B. A. , ‘Prices, Productivity and Output’, in AHEW, VI, pp. 84–189.
Holmes, Geoffrey , ‘Gregory King and the Social Structure of Pre-Industrial England’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 27 (1977), pp. 41–68.
Horn, Pamela , ‘Davies, David (1742–1819)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004),, accessed 19 May 2009.
Horrell, Sara , ‘Home Demand and British Industrialization’, Journal of Economic History, 56 (1996), pp. 565–71.
Horrell, Sara and Humphries, Jane , ‘Old Questions, New Data, and Alternative Perspectives: Families’ Living Standards in the Industrial Revolution', Journal of Economic History, 52 (1992), pp. 849–80.
Horrell, Sara and Humphries, Jane , ‘Women's Labour Force Participation and the Transition to the Male-Breadwinner Family, 1790–1865’, Economic History Review, 48 (1995), pp. 89–117.
Hoskins, W. G. , ‘Harvest Fluctuations and English Economic History, 1480–1619’, Agricultural History Review, 12 (1964), pp. 28–46.
Hoskins, W. G. , ‘Harvest Fluctuations and English Economic History, 1620–1759’, Agricultural History Review, 16 (1968), pp. 15–31.
Hoskins, W. G. , ‘The Rebuilding of Rural England 1570–1640’, Past and Present, 4 (1953), pp. 44–57.
Houghton, John , England's Great Happiness or, A Dialogue between Content and Complaint (London, 1677).
Houlbrooke, Ralph , Death, Religion and the Family in England 1480–1750 (Oxford, 1998).
Houliston, Victor , ‘Houses of Correction at Maidstone and Westminster’, British Museum, MS Lansdowne 5, reprinted in English Historical Review, 42 (1927), pp. 251–61.
Houliston, Victor , ‘Moffet, Thomas (1553–1604)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004),, accessed 19 March 2009.
Hudson, Pat and Sonenscher, Michael (eds.), Manufacture in Town and Country before the Industrial Revolution (Cambridge, 1984).
Hughes, Elizabeth and White, Philippa (eds.), The Hampshire Hearth Tax Assessment 1665, Hampshire Record Society, 11 (1991).
Humphries, Jane , ‘Enclosures, Common Rights, and Women: The Proletarianisation of Families in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries’, Journal of Economic History, 50 (1990), pp. 17–42.
J. P. McCulloch , A Select Collection of Early English Tracts on Commerce (Cambridge, 1954), p. 313
James, John , History of the Worsted Manufacture in England (London, 1857).
Jenner, Mark , ‘From Conduit Community to Commercial Network? Water in London, 1500–1725’, in Paul Griffiths and Mark Jenner (eds.), Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London (Manchester, 2000), pp. 250–71.
Jones, Norman , The Birth of the Elizabethan Age: England in the 1560s (Oxford, 1993).
Kerridge, Eric , Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England (Manchester, 1985).
Kerridge, Eric , The Agricultural Revolution (London, 1967).
King, Gregory ‘Natural and Political Observations and Conclusions upon the State and Condition of England’ (1696), in Laslett (ed.), The Earliest Classics: John Graunt and Gregory King (London, 1973), pp. 54–5.
King, Gregory , ‘The Burns Journal’ (c. 1695–1700), in Peter Laslett (ed.), The Earliest Classics: John Graunt and Gregory King (London, 1973).
King, Peter , ‘Pauper Inventories and the Material Lives of the Poor in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, in Tim Hitchcock , Peter King and Pamela Sharpe (eds.), Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640–1840, Basingstoke, 1997), pp. 155–91.
King, Peter , ‘Social Inequality, Identity and the Labouring Poor in Eighteenth-Century England’, in Henry French and Jonathan Barry (eds.), Identity and Agency in England, 1500–1800 (London, 2004), pp. 60–86.
Kussmaul, Ann (ed.), The Autobiography of Joseph Mayett of Quainton 1783–1839, Buckingham Record Society, 23 (1986).
Kussmaul, Ann , Servants in Husbandry in Early Modern England (Cambridge, 1981).
Landau, Norma , ‘The Eighteenth-Century Context of the Laws of Settlement’, Continuity and Change, 6 (1991), pp. 417–39.
Landau, Norma , ‘The Laws of Settlement and the Surveillance of Immigration in Eighteenth-Century Kent’, Continuity and Change, 3 (1988), pp. 391–420.
Landau, Norma , ‘The Regulation of Immigration, Economic Structures and Definitions of the Poor in Eighteenth-Century England’, Historical Journal, 33 (1990), pp. 541–71.
Laslett, Peter , The World We Have Lost Further Explored, 3rd edn (London, 1983).
Latham, Robert and Mathews, William (eds.), The Diary of Samuel Pepys, 10 vols. (London, 1970–83).
Levine, David and Wrightson, Keith , The Making of an Industrial Society: Wickham 1560–1765 (Oxford, 1991).
Lindert, Peter H. and Williamson, Jeffrey G. , ‘Revising England's Social Tables 1688–1812’, Explorations in Economic History, 19 (1982), pp. 385–407.
Littleton, Edward , The Groans of the Plantations: or a True Account of their Grievous and Extreme Sufferings by the Heavy Impositions upon Sugar (London, 1689).
Locke, John , Two Treatises of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (New York, 1963).
Lodge, Eleanor C. (ed.), The Account Book of a Kentish Estate 1616–1704 (London, 1927).
Lubbock, Basil (ed.), Barlow's Journal of His Life at Sea in King's Ships, East and West Indiamen and Other Merchantmen from 1659–1703, 2 vols. (London, 1934).
Macfarlane, Alan (ed.), The Diary of Ralph Josselin, 1616–1683 (Oxford, 1976).
Machin, R. , ‘The Great Rebuilding: A Reassessment’, Past and Present, 77 (1977), pp. 33–56.
Malcolm, Thick , ‘Market Gardening in England and Wales’ in AHEW, V.II, pp. 503–32.
Malcolmson, Robert W. , Popular Recreations in English Society 1700–1850 (Cambridge, 1973).
Markham, Gervase , The English Housewife, Containing the Inward and Outward Vertues Which Ought to Be in a Compleat Woman (London, 1664).
Marshall, William , The Rural Economy of the Midland Counties, 2 vols. (London, 1796).
Martins, Susanna and Williamson, Tom (eds.), The Farming Journal of Randall Burroughes (1794–1799), Norfolk Record Society, 58 (1995).
Mathias, Peter , ‘Agriculture and the Brewing and Distilling Industries in the Eighteenth Century’, Economic History Review, n.s., 5 (1952), pp. 249–57.
Mathias, Peter , The Brewing Industry in England 1700–1830 (Cambridge, 1959).
Mayhew, Henry , London Labour and the London Poor, 4 vols. (London, 1861).
McClure, Ruth K. , Coram's Children: The London Foundling Hospital in the Eighteenth Century (New Haven, 1981).
McRae, Andrew , God Speed the Plough: The Representation of Agrarian England, 1500–1660 (Cambridge, 1996).
Meldrum, Tim , Domestic Service and Gender 1660–1750: Life and Work in the London Household (Harlow, 2000).
Meldrum, Tim , Memorandum Book of Richard Cholmeley of Brandsby, 1602–1623, North Yorkshire County Record Office Publications, 44 (1988).
Meldrum, Tim , Men and Armour for Gloucestershire in 1608 compiled by John Smith (Gloucester, 1980; reprint of 1902 edition).
Mendelson, Sara , and Crawford, Patricia , Women in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1998).
Miller, Derek , ‘Man's Demand for Energy’, in Derek Oddy and Derek Miller (eds.), Diet and Health in Modern Britain (London, 1985), pp. 274–95.
Miller, James Arthur (ed.), The Letters of Stephen Gardiner (Cambridge, 1933).
Mingay, G. E. (ed.), The Agrarian History of England and Wales, VI, 1750–1850 (Cambridge, 1981).
Mintz, Sidney W. , Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History (Harmondsworth, 1985).
Misselden, Edward , The Circle of Commerce (London, 1623).
Mitchell, B. R. and Deane, Phyllis , Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1971).
Moffet, Thomas , Health's Improvement: or, Rules Comprizing and Discovering the Nature, Method, and Manner of Preparing All Sorts of Food Used in This Nation (London, 1655).
Monckton, H. A. , A History of English Ale and Beer (London, 1966).
Money, John , ‘Teaching in the Market-Place, or “Caesar adsum jam forte: Pompey aderat”: The Retailing of Knowledge in Provincial England during the Eighteenth Century’, in John Brewer and Roy Porter (eds.), Consumption and the World of Goods (London, 1993), pp. 355–80.
Moore, Adam , Bread for the Poor (London, 1653).
Moore, Sir Norman , The History of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 2 vols. (London, 1918).
Moore-Colyer, R. J. , ‘Farming Techniques: Cattle’, AHEW, VI, pp. 313–61.
Mortimer, Ian , ‘Why Were Probate Accounts Made? Methodological Issues Surrounding the Historical use of Administrators’ and Executors' Accounts', Archives, 31 (2006), pp. 2–17.
Muldrew, Craig , ‘ “Th'ancient Distaff and Whirling Spindle”: Measuring the Contribution of Spinning to Household Earnings and the National Economy in England 1550–1770’, Economic History Review (in press).
Muldrew, Craig , ‘“Hard Food for Midas”: Cash and Its Social Value in Early Modern England’, Past and Present, 170 (2001), pp. 78–120.
Muldrew, Craig , ‘Class and Credit: Social Identity, Wealth and the Life Course in Early Modern England’, in Henry French and Jonathan Barry (eds.), Identity and Agency in England, 1500–1800 (London, 2004), pp. 147–77.
Muldrew, Craig , ‘Credit, Market Relations, and Debt Litigation in Late Seventeenth Century England, with Particular Reference to King's Lynn’, University of Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 1991.
Muldrew, Craig , ‘Economic and Urban Development of Seventeenth-Century Britain’, in Barry Coward (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Stuart Britain (Oxford, 2003), pp. 148–65.
Muldrew, Craig , ‘Wages and the Problem of Monetary Scarcity in Early Modern England’, in Jan Lucassen (ed.), Wages and Currency: Global Comparisons from Antiquity to the Twentieth Century (Berne, 2007), pp. 391–410.
Muldrew, Craig , The Economy of Obligation: The Culture of Credit and Social Relations in Early Modern England (London, 1998).
Mun, Thomas , Englands Treasure by Forraign Trade, in J. P. McCulloch (ed.), A Select Collection of Early English Tracts on Commerce (Cambridge, 1954).
Munby, Lionel M. (ed.), Early Stuart Household Accounts, Hertfordshire Record Society, 2 (1986).
Newman-Brown, W. , ‘The Receipt of Poor Relief and Family Situation, Aldenham, Hertfordshire, 1630–90’, in Richard Smith (ed.), Land, Kinship and Life Cycle (Cambridge, 1984), pp. 405–22.
North, Dudley , Discourses upon Trade; Principally Directed to the Cases of the Interest, Coynage, Clipping, Increase of Money (London, 1691).
North, Roger , A Discourse of the Poor (London, 1753).
Oddy, Derek , From Plain Fare to Fusion Food: British Diet from the 1890s to the 1990s (Woodbridge, 2003).
Oppenheim, Michael , A History of the Administration of the Royal Navy and of Merchant Shipping in Relation to the Navy, I, 1509–1660 (London, 1896).
Ormrod, David , English Grain Exports and the Structure of Agrarian Capitalism 1700–1760 (Hull, 1985).
Overton, Mark , Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500–1850 (Cambridge, 1996).
Overton, Mark , Whittle, Jane , Dean, Darron and Hann, Andrew , Production and Consumption in English Households, 1600–1750 (Abingdon, 2004).
Overton, Mark and Campbell, B. M. S. , ‘Norfolk Livestock Farming 1250–1740: A Comparative Study of Manorial Accounts and Probate Inventories’, Journal of Historical Geography, 18 (1992), pp. 377–96.
Overton, Mark and Campbell, Bruce M. S. , ‘Production et productivité dans l'agriculture anglaise, 1086–1871’, Histoire & Mesure, 11 (1996), pp. 255–97.
Palliser, D. M. , Tudor York (Oxford, 1979).
Palmer, John , How to Brew (Boulder, 2006).
Paul, A. A. and Southgate, D. T. A. , McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 4th edn (London, 1978).
Peirce, E. H. , Annals of Christ's Hospital (London, 1908).
Pennell, Sara ‘“Great Quantities of Gooseberry Pye and Baked Clod of Beef”: Victualling and Eating Out in Early Modern London’, in Paul Griffiths and Mark Jenner (eds.), Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London (Manchester, 2000), pp. 228–49.
Pennell, Sara ‘The Material Culture of Food in Early Modern England, circa 1650–1750’, University of Oxford D.Phil. thesis, 1997.
Penney, Norman (ed.), The Household Account Book of Sarah Fell of Swarthmoor Hall (Cambridge, 1920).
Perkins, J. A. , ‘Harvest Technology and Labour Supply in Lincolnshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire 1750–1850’, Tools and Tillage, 3 (1976–7), pp. 46–58, 125–35.
Peterson, Christian , Bread and the British Economy c. 1770–1870 (Aldershot, 1995).
Petyt, William , Britannia Languens or a Discourse on Trade (London, 1680), in J. P. McCulloch (ed.), A Select Collection of Early English Tracts on Commerce (Cambridge, 1954).
Phelps Brown, Henry and Hopkins, Sheila V. , ‘Seven Centuries of Building Wages’, in Henry Phelps Brown and Sheila V. Hopkins , A Perspective of Wages and Prices (London, 1981), pp. 1–12.
Phelps Brown, Henry and Hopkins, Sheila V. , ‘Seven Centuries of the Prices of Consumables, Compared with Builders’ Wage-Rates', in Henry Phelps Brown and Sheila V. Hopkins , A Perspective of Wages and Prices (London, 1981), pp. 13–59.
Phillips, Rod , A Short History of Wine (New York, 2000).
Platt, Hugh , Sundrie New and Artificiall Remedies against Famine (London, 1596).
Pollock, Vivienne , ‘Contract and Consumption: Labour Agreements and the Use of Money in Eighteenth-Century Rural Ulster’, Agricultural History Review, 43 (1995), pp. 19–34.
Porter, Roy , The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present (London, 1997).
Porter, Roy and Brewer, John (eds.), Consumption and the World of Goods (London, 1993).
Pound, John , Tudor and Stuart Norwich (Chichester, 1988).
Pounds, N. J. G. , ‘Barton Farming in Eighteenth Century Cornwall’, Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, n. s., 7 (1973), pp. 54–75.
Powel, John , The Assize of Bread (London, 1636).
Putnam, B. H. , ‘Northamptonshire Wage Assessments of 1560 and 1667’, Economic History Review, 1 (1927–8), pp. 124–34.
R. L. Winstanley and Peter Jamesond (eds.), The Diary of James Woodforde: 1785–1787, 17 vols., Parson Woodforde Society (1999), XI, pp. 28–32
Rappaport, Steve , Worlds within Worlds: Structures of Life within Sixteenth-Century London (Cambridge, 1989).
Reed, Michael , The Ipswich Probate Inventories, 1583–1631, Suffolk Records Society, 22 (1981).
Reed, Mick , ‘“Gnawing It Out”: A New Look at Economic Relations in Nineteenth-Century Rural England’, Rural History, 1 (1990), pp. 83–94.
Reid, Douglas A , ‘The Decline of Saint Monday 1766–1876’, Past and Present, 71 (1976), pp. 76–101.
Richards, Jennifer , Rhetoric and Courtliness in Early Modern Literature (Cambridge, 2003).
Richardson, R. C. , ‘Metropolitan Counties: Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, and Middlesex’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 239–69.
Roche, Daniel , A History of Everyday Things: The Birth of Consumption in France, 1600–1800 (Cambridge, 2000).
Rodger, N. A. M. , The Wooden World: An Anatomy of the Georgian Navy (London, 1986).
Rollison, David , The Local Origins of Modern Society: Gloucestershire 1500–1800 (London, 1993).
Rule, John , Albion's People: English Society 1714–1815 (London, 1992).
Sambrook, Pamela , Country House Brewing in England, 1500–1900 (London, 1996).
Sarti, Raffaella , Europe at Home: Family and Material Culture, 1500–1800 (New Haven, 1999).
Scholliers, Peter and Schwarz, Leonard (eds.), Experiencing Wages: Social and Cultural Aspects of Wage Forms in Europe since 1500 (New York and Oxford, 2003).
Schurer, Kevin and Arkell, Tom (eds.), Surveying the People: The Interpretation and Use of Document Sources for the Study of Population in the Later Seventeenth Century (Oxford, 1992).
Schwartz, Leonard , London in the Age of Industrialisation: Entrepreneurs, Labour Force and Living Conditions, 1700–1850 (Cambridge, 1993).
Sgroi, Rosemary , ‘Piscatorial Politics Revisited: The Language of Economic Debate and the Evolution of Fishing Policy in Elizabethan England’, Albion, 35 (2003), pp. 1–24.
Shammas, Carole , ‘Food Expenditures and Economic Well-Being in Early Modern England’, Journal of Economic History, 43 (1983), pp. 89–100.
Shammas, Carole , The Pre-Industrial Consumer in England and America (Oxford, 1990).
Sharp, Buchanan , In Contempt of all Authority: Rural Artisans and Riot in the West of England, 1586–1660 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1980).
Sharpe, J. A. , Crime in Seventeenth-Century England: A County Study (Cambridge, 1983).
Sharpe, J. A. , Early Modern England: A Social History 1550–1760 (London, 1987).
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh , ‘Labourers, Cows, Common Rights and Parliamentary Enclosure: The Evidence of Contemporary Comment c. 1760–1810’, Past and Present, 171 (2001), pp. 95–126.
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh , ‘Parliamentary Enclosure and the Emergence of an English Agricultural Proletariat’, Journal of Economic History, 61:3 (2001), pp. 640–62.
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh , ‘Proletarianisation, Parliamentary Enclosure and the Household Economy of the Labouring Poor 1750–1850’, University of Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 1999.
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh , ‘The Nature and Scale of the Cottage Economy’,, accessed 6 July 2010.
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh , and Jones, Amanda , ‘The Male Occupational Structure of Northamptonshire 1777–1881: A Case of Partial De-Industrialization?’,, accessed 6 July 2010.
Shepard, Alexandra , ‘Poverty, Labour and the Language of Social Description in Early Modern England’, Past and Present, 201 (2008), pp. 51–95.
Sherman, Sandra , Imagining Poverty: Quantification and the Decline of Paternalism (Columbus, OH, 2001).
Short, Brian M. , ‘The South-East: Kent, Surrey, and Sussex’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 270–357.
Slack, Paul (ed.), Poverty in Early-Stuart Salisbury, Wiltshire Record Society, 31 (1975).
Slack, Paul , ‘Material Progress and the Challenge of Affluence in Seventeenth-Century England’, Economic History Review, 62 (2009), pp. 576–603.
Slack, Paul , ‘Measuring the National Wealth in Seventeenth-Century England’, Economic History Review, 57 (2004), pp. 607–35.
Slack, Paul , From Reformation to Improvement: Public Welfare in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1998).
Smith , Thomas , Discourse of the Commonweal of This Realm of England (London, 1581).
Smith, Adam , An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1976).
Smith, Charles , Three Tracts on the Corn-Trade and Corn Laws, 2nd edn (London, 1766).
Smith, Richard M. , ‘Ageing and Well-Being in Early Modern England: Pension Trends and Gender Preferences under the Old Poor Law c. 1650–1800’, in Paul Johnson and Pat Thane (eds.), Old Age from Antiquity to Post-Modernity (London, 1998), pp. 64–95.
Sneath, Ken , ‘Consumption, Wealth, Indebtedness and Social Structure in Early Modern England’, University of Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 2009.
Snell, Keith , ‘Pauper Settlement and the Right to Poor Relief in England and Wales’, Continuity and Change, 6:3 (1991), pp. 375–415.
Snell, Keith , ‘Settlement, Poor Law and the Rural Historian: New Approaches and Opportunities’, Rural History, 3:2 (1992), pp. 145–72.
Snell, Keith , Annals of the Labouring Poor: Social Change and Agrarian England 1660–1900 (Cambridge, 1985).
Sokoll, Thomas , Household and Family among the Poor: The Case of Two Essex Communities in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries (Bochum, 1993).
Solar, Peter M. , ‘Poor Relief and English Economic Development before the Industrial Revolution’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 48 (1995), pp. 1–22.
Somerset, H. V. F. , ‘An Account Book of an Oxford Undergraduate in the Years 1619–1622’, Oxoniensia, 22 (1957), pp. 85–92.
Sonenscher, Michael , ‘Work and Wages in Paris in the Eighteenth Century’, in Maxine Berg , Pat Hudson and Michael Sonenscher (eds.), Manufacture in Town and Country before the Industrial Factory (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 147–72.
Speechley, Helen , ‘Female and Child Agricultural Day Labourers in Somerset, c. 1685–1870’, University of Exeter Ph.D. thesis, 1999.
Spufford, Margaret , ‘The Limitations of the Probate Inventory’, in John Chartres and David Hey (eds.), English Rural Society, 1500–1800: Essays in Honour of Joan Thirsk (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 139–74.
Spufford, Margaret , Contrasting Communities, English Villagers in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Cambridge, 1974).
Spufford, Margaret and Went, James , Poverty Portrayed: Gregory King and the Parish of Eccleshall (Keele, 1995).
Spufford, Peter , Brett, Matthew and Erickson Amy Louise (eds.), Guide to the Probate Accounts of England and Wales (London, 1999).
Stanes, Robin , The Old Farm: A History of Farming Life in the West Country (Exeter, 1990).
Steedman, Carolyn , Master and Servant: Love and Labour in the English Industrial Age (Cambridge, 2007).
Stone, Lawrence , The Crisis of the Aristocracy, 1558–1641 (Oxford, 1965).
Styles, John , ‘Clothing in the North: The Supply of Non-Elite Clothing in the Eighteenth Century North of England’, Textile History, 25 (1994), pp. 139–66.
Styles, John , ‘Custom or Consumption? Plebeian Fashion in Eighteenth-Century England’, in Maxine Berg and Elizabeth Eger (eds.) Luxury in the Eighteenth Century: Debates, Desires and Delectable Goods (Basingstoke, 2003), pp. 103–15.
Styles, John , ‘Embezzlement, Industry and the Law in England, 1500–1800’, in Maxine Berg , Pat Hudson and Michael Sonenscher (eds.), Manufacture in Town and Country before the Factory (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 173–210.
Styles, John , The Dress of the People: Everyday Fashion in Eighteenth-Century England (New Haven, 2007).
Svedberg, Peter , Poverty and Undernutrition: Theory, Measurement, and Policy (Oxford, 2000).
Swinton, John , A Proposal for Uniformity of Weights and Measures in Scotland, by Execution of the Laws Now in Force (Edinburgh, 1779).
Tadmor, Naomi , Family and Friends in Eighteenth Century England: Household, Kinship, and Patronage (Cambridge, 2001).
Takahashi, Motoyasu , Village Inheritance in Early Modern England; Kinship Structure, Inheritance Customs and Generation Continuity (Matsuyama, Japan, 2003).
Tawney, A. J. and Tawney, R. H. , ‘An Occupational Census of the Seventeenth Century’, Economic History Review, 5 (1934–5), pp. 25–64.
Tawney, R. H. , The Agrarian Problem in the Sixteenth Century (London, 1912; reissued London and New York, 1967).
Thirsk, Joan (ed.), The Agrarian History of England and Wales, IV, 1500–1640 (Cambridge, 1967).
Thirsk, Joan , Economic Policy and Projects: The Development of a Consumer Society in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1978).
Thirsk, Joan , English Peasant Farming: The Agrarian History of Lincolnshire from Tudor to Recent Times (London, 1957).
Thirsk, Joan , Food in Early Modern England: Phases, Fads, Fashions 1500–1760 (London, 2007).
Thirsk, Joan , The Agrarian History of England and Wales, V, 1640–1750 (Cambridge, 1984).
Thirsk, Joan and Cooper, J. P. (eds.), Seventeenth-Century Economic Documents (Oxford, 1972).
Thomas, Keith , Religion and the Decline of Magic (Harmondsworth, 1971).
Thompson, E. P. , ‘The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century’, and ‘The Moral Economy Reviewed’, in Customs in Common (London, 1991), pp. 183–305.
Thorold Rogers, J. B. , A History of Agriculture and Prices in England from 1259 to 1793, 8 vols. (Oxford, 1866–1902).
Tingey, J. C. , ‘An Assessment of Wages for the County of Norfolk in 1610’, English Historical Review, 13 (1898), pp. 522–7.
Trinder, Barrie and Cox, Jeff (eds.), Yeomen and Colliers in Telford: Probate Inventories for Dawley, Lilleshall, Wellington and Wrockwardine, 1660–1750 (Chichester, 1980).
Turner, M. E. , Beckett, J. V. and Afton, B. , Farm Production in England 1700–1914 (Oxford, 2001).
Tusser, Thomas , Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry (Oxford, 1984).
Tyrer, Frank and Bagley, J. J. (eds.), The Great Diurnal of Nicholas Blundell, 3 vols, Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 110, 112, 114 (1968–72).
Vaderlint, Jacob , Money Answers All Things: or an Essay to Make Money Sufficiently Plentiful (London, 1734).
Vaisey, David (ed.), The Diary of Thomas Turner (Oxford, 1985).
Vaisey, David A Vindication of Strong Beer and Ale (London, 1647).
Voth, Hans-Joachim , Time and Work in England 1750–1830 (Oxford, 2000).
Walter, John , Understanding Popular Violence in the English Revolution: The Colchester Plunderers (Cambridge, 1999).
Walter, John and Wrightson, Keith , ‘Dearth and the Social Order in Early Modern England’, Past and Present, 71 (1976), pp. 22–42.
Warde, Paul , Energy Consumption in England and Wales, 1560–2000 (Istituto di Studi sulle Società del Mediterraneo, 2007).
Watkins, George , Compleat English Brewer or, the Whole Art and Mystery of Brewing, in All Its Various Branches (London, 1767).
Wear, Andrew , Knowledge and Practice in English Medicine 1550–1680 (Cambridge, 2000).
Weatherill, Lorna (ed.), The Account Book of Richard Latham 1724–1767 (Oxford, 1990).
Weatherill, Lorna , Consumer Behaviour and Material Culture in Britain 1660–1760 (Cambridge, 1988).
Weatherill, Lorna , The Pottery Trade and North Staffordshire 1660–1760 (Manchester, 1971).
Webb, John (ed.), Poor Relief in Elizabethan Ipswich, Suffolk Records Society, 9 (1966).
Werner, Lex (ed.), London Bodies (London, 1998).
Whitaker, Edward , Directions for Brewing Malt Liquors (London, 1700).
Whittle, Jane , ‘Housewives and Servants in Rural England, 1440–1650: Evidence of Women's Work from Probate Documents’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 15 (2005), pp. 51–74.
Whittle, Jane , The Development of Agrarian Capitalism: Land and Labour in Norfolk 1440–1580 (Oxford, 2000).
Willan, T. S. , A Bedfordshire Wage Assessment of 1684, Bedfordshire Historical Record Society, 25 (1943), pp. 129–37.
Willan, T. S. , Elizabethan Manchester (Manchester, 1980).
William Petyt , Britannia Languens or a Discourse on Trade (London, 1680)
Williams, N. J. , The Maritime Trade of the East Anglian Ports 1550–1590 (Oxford, 1988).
Winch, Donald , ‘Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, second baronet (1766–1809)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004),, accessed 19 May 2009.
Winstanley, R. L. (ed.), The Diary of James Woodforde, X, 1782–1784 (Parson Woodforde Society, 1998).
Winstanley, R. L. , Parson Woodforde: The Life and Times of a Country Diarist (Bungay, 1996).
Winstanley, R. L. and Jameson, Peter (eds.), The Diary of James Woodforde: 1759–1802, 17 vols. (Parson Woodforde Society, 1988–2008).
Wood, Andy , ‘Fear, Hatred and the Hidden Injuries of Class in Early Modern England’, Journal of Social History, 39:3 (2006), pp. 803–26.
Wood, Andy , Riot, Rebellion and Popular Politics in Early Modern England (2002).
Woodward, Donald (ed.), The Farming and Account Books of Henry Best of Elmswell, 1642 (Oxford, 1984).
Woodward, Donald , ‘Cattle Droving in the Seventeenth Century: A Yorkshire Example’, in W. H. Chaloner and B. M. Ratcliffe (eds.), Trade and Transport: Essays in Economic History in Honour of T. S. Willan (Manchester, 1977), pp. 35–58.
Woodward, Donald , ‘Early Modern Servants in Husbandry Revisited’, Agricultural History Review, 48 (2002), pp. 141–50.
Woodward, Donald , ‘The Anglo-Irish Livestock Trade of the Seventeenth Century’, Irish Historical Studies, 18 (1972–3), pp. 489–523.
Woodward, Donald , ‘The Assessment of Wages by Justices of the Peace, 1563–1813: Some Observations’, Local Historian, 8:8 (1969), pp. 293–8.
Woodward, Donald , ‘The Means of Payment and Hours of Work in Early Modern England’, in Carol S. Leonard and B. N. Mironov (eds.), Hours of Work and Means of Payment: The Evolution of Conventions in Pre-Industrial Europe, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Economic History Congress (Milan, 1994).
Woodward, Donald , Men at Work: Labourers and Building Craftsmen in the Towns of Northern England, 1450–1750 (Cambridge, 1995).
Wordie, J. R. , ‘The Chronology of English Enclosure, 1500–1914’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 36 (1983), pp. 483–505.
Wordie, J. R. , ‘The South: Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, and Hampshire’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 317–57.
Worlidge, John , Systema Horticultra; or The Art of Gardening (London, 1700).
Wright, Sue , ‘“Chumaids, Huswyfes and Hucksters”: The Employment of Women in Tudor and Stuart Salisbury’, in Lindsey Charles and Lorna Duffin (eds.), Women and Work in Pre-Industrial England (Beckenham, 1985), pp. 103–21.
Wrightson, Keith , ‘“Sorts of People” in Tudor and Stuart England’, in Jonathan Barry and Christopher Brooks (eds.), The Middling Sort of People: Culture, Society and Politics in England, 1550–1800 (London, 1994), pp. 28–51.
Wrightson, Keith , ‘Alehouses, Order, and Reformation in Rural England, 1590–1660’, in E. Yeo and S. Yeo (eds.), Popular Culture and Class Conflict 1590–1914 (Brighton, 1981), pp. 167–87.
Wrightson, Keith , ‘Mutualities and Obligations: Changing Social Relationships in Early Modern England’, Proceedings of the British Academy, 139 (2006), pp. 157–94.
Wrightson, Keith , Earthly Necessities: Economic Lives in Early Modern Britain (New Haven, 2000).
Wrightson, Keith and Levine, David , Poverty and Piety in an English Village, Terling 1525–1700 (New York, 1979).
Wrigley, E. A. , Davies, R. S. , Oeppen, J. E. and Schofield, R. S. , English Population History from Family Reconstitution 1580–1837 (Cambridge, 1997).
Wrigley, E. A. and Schofield, R. S. , The Population History of England (Cambridge, 1989).
Wrigley, E.A. , ‘Energy Availability and Agricultural Productivity’, in B. M. S. Campbell and Mark Overton (eds.), Land, Labour and Livestock: Historical Studies in European Agricultural Productivity (Manchester, 1991), pp. 323–39.
Wrigley, E.A. , ‘English County Populations in the Later Eighteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 60 (2007), pp. 35–69.
Wrigley, E.A. , ‘Some Reflections on Corn Yields and Prices in Pre-Industrial Economies’, in John Walter and Roger Schofield (eds.), Famine, Disease and the Social Order in Early Modern Society (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 235–78.
Wrigley, E.A. , ‘The Quest for the Industrial Revolution’, in E. A. Wrigley , Poverty, Progress and Population (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 17–43.
Wrigley, E.A. , ‘The Transition to an Advanced Organic Economy: Half a Millennium of English Agriculture’, Economic History Review, 59 (2006), pp. 435–80.
Wrigley, E.A. , ‘Urban Growth and Agricultural Change: England and the Continent in the Early Modern Period’, in E. A. Wrigley , People, Cities and Wealth (Oxford, 1987), pp. 157–93.
Wrigley, E.A. , Continuity, Chance and Change: The Character of the Industrial Revolution in England (Cambridge, 1988).
Young, Arthur , A Six Month Tour through the North of England (London, 1771).
Young, Arthur , A Six Weeks Tour, through the Southern Counties of England and Wales (London, 1768).
Young, Arthur , The Farmer's Guide in Hiring and Stocking Farms, 2 vols. (London, 1770).
Young, Arthur , The Farmer's Tour through the East of England, 4 vols. (London, 1771).