Forging a Convention for Crimes against Humanity


Forging a Convention for Crimes against Humanity

Crimes against humanity were one of the three categories of crimes elaborated in the Nuremberg Charter. However, unlike genocide and war crimes, they were never set out in a comprehensive international convention. This book represents an effort to complete the Nuremberg legacy by filling this gap. It contains a complete text of a proposed convention on crimes against humanity in English and in French, a comprehensive history of the proposed convention, and fifteen original papers written by leading experts on international criminal law. The papers contain reflections on various aspects of crimes against humanity, including gender crimes, universal jurisdiction, the history of codification efforts, the responsibility to protect, ethnic cleansing, peace and justice dilemmas, amnesties and immunities, the jurisprudence of the ad hoc tribunals, the definition of the crime in customary international law, the ICC definition, the architecture of international criminal justice, modes of criminal participation, crimes against humanity and terrorism, and the inter-state enforcement regime.


 Reviews:

"The importance of this pioneering book, Forging a Convention for Crimes against Humanity, cannot be overestimated. Crimes against humanity has emerged as the premier legal vehicle for international courts to impose accountability on perpetrators responsible for the most heinous crimes against innocent civilian populations. Through the International Convention mechanism proposed and discussed by a corps of experts in this comprehensive compilation, which chronicles its history in practice as well as crucial issues involving its scope, definition and enforcement, the salutary potential of CAH as an effective protection for threatened victims around the globe could be significantly enhanced."
Patricia M. Wald, Former Judge on the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

"There exists an indisputable need for an international convention codifying and developing customary law on crimes against humanity. The editor of this book and all the distinguished contributors must be highly commended for offering a set of thoughtful papers that explore in depth the problems that the drafting of such convention may raise. All these scholars are animated by a keen desire to expand and consolidate international criminal law in an effort to bolster the principle of international accountability for mass atrocities."
Antonio Cassese, University of Florence, and former President of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

"Although the Nuremberg Trials at the end of World War II lay a solid foundation for crimes against humanity and the development of international criminal justice in general, they essentially represented the judgment of the victor over the vanquished. In Forging a Convention for Crimes against Humanity, prominent experts in the field make a powerful case for the adoption of a convention that would articulate and consolidate this most heinous category of crimes. Together with genocide, ethnic cleansing, and war crimes, crimes against humanity are now enshrined in the emerging norm of the Responsibility to Protect. Covering the historical evolution of the initiative, a wide array of substantive dimensions to the categories of the crimes involved, and a draft of the proposed convention, this volume is a monumental contribution to an area of gravest concern to humanity."
Francis M. Deng, Under-Secretary-General and Special Adviser to the UN Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide

"The onward march of international criminal law has been dramatic in recent years. What is proposed by the distinguished specialist contributors to this body is a further step of great significance -a comprehensive international convention dealing with crimes against humanity."
Sir Geoffrey Palmer, Former Prime Minister of New Zealand

"I would suggest that the need for a convention on crimes against humanity is an obvious one. Not only will it fill a vacuum in international humanitarian law, but it would enable States and international organizations to adopt appropriate measures aimed at preventing serious crimes against civilian populations. It would be another positive step toward the withdrawal of impunity from war criminals."
Richard Goldstone, Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda

"In closing, this is an outstanding and thought provoking work that will be an essential reference to academics, legal scholars, practitioners, human rights advocates and those who are engaged in the study and promotion of international criminal law. For international criminal law scholars especially, it will continue to be an essential tool for years to come."
Hilmi M. Zawati, Journal of International Criminal Justice


 Prizes:

2011 Book of the Year, American National Section of L'Association Internationale de Droit Pénal
Ahmed Rechid , L'Islam et le Droit de Gens, 60 Recueil Des Cours de l'Academie de Droit International de la Haye 371 (1937)
Alberico Gentili , De Jure Belli Libri Tres, in Classics of International Law (James B. Scott ed., 1933)
Alhaji M. S. Bah , Diamonds and Mercenaries: Exploring the Dynamics of the Sierra Leone Conflict, 29 Peacekeeping & Int'l Rel. 1 (2000)
Allison Marston Danner & Jenny S. Martinez , Guilty Associations: Joint Criminal Enterprise, Command Responsibility, and the Development of International Criminal Law, 93 Cal. L. Rev. 75, 102–20 (2005)
André Nollkaemper , The Legitimacy of International Law in the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, in Ambiguity in the Rule of Law, The Interface between National and International Legal Systems 19 (T.A.J.A. Vandamme & Jan-Herman Reestman eds., 2001)
Anne-Marie Slaughter & William Burke-White , An International Constitutional Moment, 43 Harv. Int'l L.J. 1 [2002])
Anne-Marie Slaughter , Luncheon Address: Rogue Regimes and the Individualization of International Law, 36 New Eng. L. Rev. 815, 820 (2002)
Arthur Kreuzer , Prävention durch Repression, in Angewandte Kriminologie zwischen Freiheit und Sicherheit 205, 205 (Heinz Schöch & Jörg-Marin Jehle eds., 2004)
Babafemi Akinrinade , International Humanitarian Law and the Conflict in Sierra Leone, 15 Notre Dame J.L. Ethics & Pub. Pol'y 391 (2001)
Balthazar Ayala , Three Books on the Law of War, in 2 Classics of International Law (John P. Bate trans., 1912)
Beatriz Pavon , Combating Impunity: Transitional Justice in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocities, 41 U.N. Chron. 22 (2004)
Bernard Victor Aloysius Röling , Aspects of the Criminal Responsibility for Violations of the Laws of War, in The New Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict 203 (Antonio Cassese ed., 1979)
Bernhard Kuschnik , The Legal Findings of Crimes against Humanity in the Al-Dujail Judgments of the Iraqi High Tribunal: A Forerunner for the ICC?, 7 Chinese J. Int'l L. 459, 472 (2008)
Beth van Schaack , The Definition of Crimes Against Humanity: Resolving the Incoherence, 37 Colum. J. Transnat'l L. 787, 819 (1999)
Bruce Zagaris , Developments in International Judicial Assistance and Related Matters, 18 Denv. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 339 (1990)
C. A. J. Coady , The Morality of Terrorism, 60 Phil. 47, 52 (1985)
Carmen M. Argibay , Sexual Slavery and the “Comfort Women” of World War II, 21 Berkeley J. Int'l L. 375, 388 (2003)
CarrieLyn Donigan Guymon , International Legal Mechanisms for Combating Transnational Organized Crime: The Need for a Multilateral Convention, 18 Berkeley J. Int'l L. 53, 81–85 (2000)
Carsten Stahn , Responsibility to Protect: Political Rhetoric or Emerging Legal Norm?, 101 Am. J. Int'l L. 99 (2007)
Catharine A. MacKinnon , Essay, Defining Rape Internationally: A Comment on Akayesu, 44 Colum. J. Transn'l L. 940 (2006)
Charles P. Trumbull IV, Giving Amnesties a Second Chance, 25 Berkeley J. Int'l L. 283, 284 (2007)
Chile Eboe-Osuji , Crimes against Humanity: Directing Attacks against a Civilian Population, 2 Afr. J. Legal Stud. 118, 120 (2008)
Christopher Hall , Crimes Against Humanity, in Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Observers Notes, Article by Article Art. 7 mn. 4 (Otto Triffterer ed., 2d ed. 2008)
Christopher K. Hall et al., Article 7, Crimes against Humanity in Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers' Notes, Article by Article 159 (2d ed. 2008)
Claus Kress , Der Jugoslawien-Strafgerichtshof im Grenzbereich zwischen internationalem bewaffneten Konflikt und Bürgerkrieg, in Völkerrechtliche Verbrechen vor dem Jugoslawien Tribunal, nationalen Gerichten und dem Internationalen Strafgerichtshof 15, 53–55 (Horst Fischer & Sascha Rolf Lüder eds., 1999)
Colin Warbrick & Dominic McGoldrick , Current Developments: Public International Law; The Future of Former Head of State Immunity After Ex Parte Pinochet, 48 Int'l & Comp. L.Q. 937, 940 (1999)
Daniel Ntanda Nsereko , The Role of the International Criminal Tribunals in the Promotion of Peace and Justice: The Case of the ICC, 19 Crim. L.F. 373, 376–77, 392 (2008)
Daniel Sutter , The Deterrent Effects of the International Criminal Court, in International Conflict Resolution 9, 23 (Stefan Voigt et al. eds., Mohr Siebeck 2006)
Danilo Zolo , Peace through Criminal Law?, 2 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 727, 732 (2004)
Darryl Robinson , Defining “Crimes Against Humanity” at the Rome Conference, 93 Am. J. Int'l. L. 43, 53 n.63 (1999)
Darryl Robinson , Defining Crimes Against Humanity at the Rome Conference, 93 Am. J. Int'l L. 43, 44 (1999)
Darryl Robinson , Defining Crimes against Humanity at the Rome Conference, 93 Am. J. Int'l L. 43, 58 n.76 (1999)
Darryl Robinson , Serving the Interests of Justice: Amnesties, Truth Commissions and the International Criminal Court, 14 Eur. J. Int'l L. 481, 489 (2003)
Darryl Robinson , The Elements of Crimes Against Humanity, in The International Criminal Court: Elements of Crimes and Rules of Procedure and Evidence 57, 63 (Roy S. Lee ed., 2001)
Darryl Robinson , The Identity Crisis of International Criminal Law, 21 Leiden J. Int'l L. 925 (2008)
David A. Crocker , Punishment, Reconciliation, and Democratic Deliberation, 5 Buff. Crim. L. Rev. 509, 536–37 (2002)
David Hunt , The International Criminal Court – High Hopes, “Creative Ambiguity” and an Unfortunate Mistrust in International Judges, 2 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 56, 65 (2004)
David J. Scheffer , Genocide and Atrocity Crimes, 1 Genocide Stud. & Prevention 229, 229 (2006)
David J. Scheffer , The Future of Atrocity Law, 25 Suffolk Transnat'l L. Rev. 389, 398 (2002)
David J. Scheffer , The Future of Atrocity Law, Suffolk Transnat'l L. Rev. 389, 390 n. 3 (2002)
David Koller , The Faith of the International Criminal Lawyer, 40 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol. 1019, 1029 (2008)
David Luban , A Theory of Crimes against Humanity, 29 Yale J. Int'l L. 85, 93 et seq. (2004)
David Matas , Prosecuting Crimes Against Humanity: The Lessons of World War I, 13 Fordham Int'l L.J. 86 (1989)
David O. Friedrichs , The Paradoxes of Transitional Justice, 12 Peace Rev. 155 (2000)
David Scheffer , Atrocity Crimes Framing the Responsibility to Protect, 40 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 111, 112–17 (2008)
David Scheffer , Genocide and Atrocity Crimes, 1 Genocide Stud. & Prevention 229 (2006)
David Scheffer , The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, in 3 International Criminal Law 219–55 (M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., 3d ed. 2008)
David Scheffer , The Future of Atrocity Law, 25 Suffolk Transnat'l L. Rev. 389, 394–98 (2002)
David Scheffer , The Merits of Unifying Terms: “Atrocity Crimes” and “Atrocity Law,” 2 Genocide Stud. & Prevention 81 (2007)
David Tolbert , International Criminal Law: Past and Future, 30 U. Pa. J. Int'l L. 1281, 1282 (2009)
Dieter Dölling & Dieter Hermann , Befragungsstudien zur negativen Generalprävention: Eine Bestandsaufnahme, in Kriminalität, Ökonomie und Europäischer Sozialstaat 133, 162 (Hans-Jörg Albrecht & Horst Entorf eds., 2003)
Edy Kaufman & Patricia Weis Fagen , Extrajudicial Executions: An Insight into the Global Dimensions of a Human Rights Violation, Hum. Rts. Q., Nov. 1981, at 81.
Egon Schwelb , Crimes Against Humanity, 23 Brit. Y.B. Int'l L. 178, 181 (1946)
Egon Schwelb , Crimes Against Humanity, 23 Brit. Y.B. Int'l L. 178, 181 (1946)
Egon Schwelb , Crimes Against Humanity, 23 Brit.Y.B. Int'l L. 181 (1946)
Elies van Sliedregt , Complicity to Commit Genocide, in The UN Genocide Convention: A Commentary (Paola Gaeta ed., 2009)
Elies van Sliedregt , Joint Criminal Enterprise as a Pathway to Convicting Individuals for Genocide, 5 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 184 (2007)
Elies van Sliedregt , Joint Criminal Enterprise as a Pathway to Convicting Individuals for Genocide, 5 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 184, § 3B (2007)
Elisabeth Zoller , La Définition des Crimes contre l'Humanité, 3 Journal du Droit International 549, 551 (1993)
Francisco Suárez , On War, in 2 Classics of International Law (James B. Scott ed., 1944)
Frank Neubacher , Strafzwecke und Völkerstrafrecht, 59 Neue Juristische Wochenschrift 966, 968 (2006)
George P. Fletcher & Jens David Ohlin , Reclaiming Fundamental Principles of Criminal Law in the Darfur Case, 3 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 539, 548 (2005)
Gerhard Werle , Individual Criminal Responsibility in Article 25 ICC Statute, 5 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 953 (2007)
Gilbert Guillaume , Terrorism and International Law, 53 Int'l & Comp. L.Q. 537, 540 (2004)
Goler Teal Butcher , The Unique Nature of Sanctions Against South Africa, and Resulting Enforcement Issues, 19 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol. 821, 821 (1987)
Graham T. Blewitt , The Importance of a Retributive Approach to Justice, in The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalized Vengeance 39, 45 et seq. (David A. Blumenthal & Timothy McCormack eds., 2008)
Guénaël Mettraux , Crimes Against Humanity in the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, 43 Harv. Int'l L.J. 237, 271–83 (2002)
Guénaël Mettraux , Crimes against Humanity in the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, 43 Harv. Int'l L.J. 237, 271–83 (2002)
Guénaël Mettraux , Crimes Against Humanity in the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, Harv. Int'l L.J. 237, 281 (2002)
Harmen van der Wilt , Equal Standards? On the Dialectics between National Jurisdictions and the International Criminal Court, 8 Int'l Crim. L. Rev. 229 (2008)
Harmen van der Wilt , Genocide v. War Crimes in the Van Anraat Appeal, 6 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 557 (2008)
Herbert Jäger , Hört das Kriminalitätskonzept vor der Makrokriminalität auf? – Offene Fragen und Denkansätze, in Vom Recht der Macht zur Macht des Rechts – Interdisziplinäre Beiträge zur Zukunft internationaler Strafgerichtsbarkeit 45, 57 (Frank Neubacher & Anne Klein eds., 2006)
Herman von Hebel & Darryl Robinson , Crimes within the Jurisdiction of the Court, in The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute – Issues, Negotiations, Results 91 (Roy S. Lee ed., 1999)
Hilary Charlesworth , Not Waving but Drowning: Gender Mainstreaming and Human Rights in the United Nations, 18 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 1, 14 (2005)
Ilias Bantekas , The Contemporary Law of Superior Responsibility, 93 Am. J. Int'l L. 573 (1999)
Jürgen Antony & Horst Entorf , Zur Gültigkeit der Abschreckung im Sinne der ökonomischen Theorie der Kriminalität: Grundzüge einer Meta-Studie, in Kriminalität, Ökonomie und Europäischer Sozialstaat 167, 170 (Hans-Jörg Albrecht & Horst Entorf eds., 2003)
Jackson Maogoto , International Justice in the Shadow of Realpolitik: Revisiting the Establishment of the Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunals, 5/2 Flinders J.L. Reform 161 (2001)
Jacob Robinson , The International Military Tribunal and the Holocaust: Some Legal Reflections, 7 Isr. L. Rev. 1, 3 (1972)
Jaime Malamud-Goti , Transitional Government in the Breach: Why Punish State Criminals?, in I Transitional Justice: General Considerations 189, 196 (Neil J. Kritz ed., 1995)
Jan Klabbers , Just Revenge? The Deterrence Argument in International Criminal Law, 12 Finnish Y.B. Int'l L. 249 et seq. (2001)
Janet Halley et al., From the International to the Local in Feminist Legal Responses to Rape, Prostitution/Sex Work, and Sex Trafficking: Four Studies in Contemporary Governance Feminism, 29 Harv. J.L. & Gender 335 (2006)
Jens David Ohlin , Peace, Security, and Prosecutorial Discretion, in The Emerging Practice of the ICC 185, 202 et seq. (Carsten Stahn & Göran Sluiter eds., 2008)
Jerrold L. Mallory , Note, Resolving the Confusion over Head of State Immunity: The Defined Rights of Kings, 86 Colum. L. Rev. 169, 170 (1986)
Jimmy Gurulé , The 1988 U.N. Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances – A Ten Year Perspective: Is International Cooperation Merely Illusory?, 22 Fordham Int'l L.J. 74 (1998)
John Dugard , Dealing with Crimes of the Past: Is Amnesty Still an Option?, 12 Leiden J. Int'l L. 1001 (1999)
John Dugard , Is the Truth and Reconciliation Process Compatible with International Law? An Unanswered Question, 13 S. Afr. J. Hum. Rts. 258, 267 (1997)
John Hagan & Wenona Rymond-Richmond , The Collective Dynamics of Genocidal Victimization in Darfur, 73 Am. Soc. Rev. 875, 885 (2008)
John Hagan , Wenona Rymond-Richmond & Alberto Palloni , Racial Targeting of Sexual Violence in Darfur, 99 Am. J. Pub. Health 1386 (2009)
John P. Cerone , The Jurisprudential Contributions of the ICTR to the Legal Definition of Crimes Against Humanity, 14 New Eng. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 191, 191–92 (2008)
Jordan J. Paust , Threats to Accountability after Nuremberg: Crimes against Humanity, Leader Responsibility and National Fora, 12 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Hum. Rts. 545, 549 (1996)
José Doria , Whether Crimes against Humanity Are Backdoor War Crimes, in The Legal Regime of the International Criminal Court: Essays in Honour of Professor Igor Blishchenko 645 (José Doria, Hans-Peter Gasser & M. Cherif Bassiouni eds., 2009)
Joseph Rikhof , Fewer Places to Hide? The Impact of Domestic War Crimes Prosecutions on International Impunity, 20 Crim. L.F. 1, 14 (2009)
Joseph Y. Dautricourt , Crime against Humanity: European Views on its Conception and its Future, 40 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 170 (1949)
Juan E. Méndez , National Reconciliation, Transnational Justice and the International Criminal Court, 15 Ethics Int'l Aff. 25, 30–31 (2001)
Julian G. Ku & Jide Nzelibe , Do International Criminal Tribunals Deter or Exacerbate Humanitarian Atrocities?, 84 Wash. U. L. Rev. 777, 790 (2006)
K.J.M. Smith , A Modern Treatise on the Law of Criminal Complicity 69 (1991)
Kai Ambos & Said Pirmurat , Das Todesurteil gegen Saddam Hussein, 62 Juristen Zeitung 822, 824 (2007)
Kai Ambos & Steffen Wirth , The Current Law of Crimes against Humanity. An Analysis of UNTAET Regulation 15/2000, 13 Crim. L.F. 1, 3 et seq. (2002)
Kai Ambos & Steffen Wirth , The Current Law of Crimes against Humanity: An Analysis of UNTAET Regulation 15/2000, 13 Crim. L.F. 1 (2002)
Kai Ambos , in Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court 748, margin nos. 8–9 (O. Triffterer ed., 2d ed. 2008)
Kai Ambos , Amicus Curiae Brief in the Matter of Co-Prosecutor's Appeal of the Closing Order Against Kaing Guek Eav “Duch” Dated 8 August 2008, 20 Crim. L.F. 353, 353–54 (2009) [hereinafter Ambos Amicus Brief]
Kai Ambos , Derecho penal del enemigo, in I Derecho penal del enimigo, supra, at 119; updated version in Kai Ambos, el derecho penal frente a amenazas extremas 81–145 (2007)
Kai Ambos , Feindstrafrecht, 124 Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Strafrecht 1 (2006)
Kai Ambos , Prosecuting International Crimes at the National and International Level: Between Justice and Realpolitik, in International Prosecution of Human Rights Crimes 55 (Wolfgang Kaleck et al. eds., 2006)
Kai Ambos , Selected Issues Regarding the “Core Crimes” in International Criminal Law, in International Criminal Law: Quo vadis? (Nouvelles Etudes Penales 19) 219, 243 (AIDP ed., 2004)
Kai Ambos , Superior Responsibility, in The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary 850 (Antonio Cassese et al. eds., 2002)
Kai Ambos , The Legal Framework of Transitional Justice: A Systematic Study with a Special Focus on the Role of the ICC, in Building a Future on Peace and Justice 19, 73–74 (Kai Ambos et al. eds., 2009)
Karen Engle , Feminism and its (Dis)Contents: Criminalizing Wartime Rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 99 Am. J. Int'l L. 778, 815 (2005)
Katherine M. Franke , Gendered Subjects of Transitional Justice, 15 Colum. J. Gender & L. 813, 822–23 (2006)
Kathleen Ellen MacMillan , The Practicability of Amnesty as a Non-Prosecutory Alternative in Post-Conflict Uganda, 6 Cardozo Pub. L. Pol'y & Ethics J. 199, 220 (2007)
Katrina Gustafson , The Requirement of an “Express Agreement” for Joint Criminal Enterprise Liability: A Critique of Brdˉanin, 5 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 134 (2007)
Kelly D. Askin , Women and International Humanitarian Law, in 1 Women and International Human Rights Law 51–54 (Kelly D. Askin & Dorean M. Koenig eds., 1999)
Kirsten Campbell , The Gender of Transitional Justice: Law, Sexual Violence and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 1 Int'l J. Transitional Just. 411 (2007)
Kristen Boon , Rape and Forced Pregnancy Under the ICC Statute: Human Dignity, Autonomy, and Consent, 32 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 625 (2001)
L.C. Green , Command Responsibility in International Humanitarian Law, 5 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 319, 320–27 (1995)
Larry Johnson , Ten Years Later: Reflections on the Drafting, 2 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 372 (2004)
Laura M. Olson , Provoking the Dragon on the Patio: Matters of Transitional Justice: Penal Repression vs. Amnesties, 88 ICRC Int'l Rev. 275, 291 (2006)
Leila Sadat , Exile, Amnesty and International Law, 81 Notre Dame L. Rev. 955, 998 (2006)
Leslie C. Green , Human Rights and the Law of Armed Conflict, 10 Isr. Y.B. Hum. Rts. 9 (1980)
Leslie C. Green , The Law of Armed Conflict and the Enforcement of International Criminal Law, 27 Annuaire Canadien de Droit International 4 (1984)
Lisa J. LaPlante , Outlawing Amnesty: The Return of Criminal Justice in Transitional Justice Schemes, 49 Va. J. Int'l L. 915, 923 (2009)
Lubanga Dyilo Confirmation Proceedings, 19 Crim. L.F. 519, 521–23 (2008)
Lubanga Dyilo Confirmation Proceedings, 19 Crim. L.F. 519, 542–50 (2008)
M. Cherif Bassiouini , Legal Control of International Terrorism: A Policy-Oriented Assessment, 43 Harv. Int'l L.J. 83 (2002)
M. Cherif Bassiouni , “Crimes Against Humanity”: The Need for a Specialized Convention, 31 Colum. J. Transnat'l L. 457–94 (1994)
M. Cherif Bassiouni , International Crimes: Jus Cogens and Obligatio Erga Omnes, 59 L. & Contemp. Probs. 63 (1996)
M. Cherif Bassiouni , International Criminal Justice in Historical Perspective, in M. Cherif Bassiouni, III International Criminal Law: International Enforcement 29 (M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., 3d ed. 2008)
M. Cherif Bassiouni , Legal Control of International Terrorism: A Policy Oriented Assessment, 43 Harv. Int'l L.J. 83, 90 (2001)
M. Cherif Bassiouni , The New Wars and the Crisis of Compliance with the Law of Armed Conflict by Non-State Actors, 98 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 711(2008)
M. Cherif Bassiouni , World War I: “The War to End All Wars” and the Birth of a Handicapped International Criminal Justice System, 30 Denv. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 244 (2002)
Marco Sassòli & Laura M. Olson , The Judgment of the ICTY Appeals Chamber on the Merits in the Tadić Case: New Horizons for International Humanitarian and Criminal Law?, 82 Int'l Rev. Red Cross 733, 751–52 (2000)
Margaret McAuliffe de Guzman , The Road From Rome: The Developing Law of Crimes Against Humanity, 22 Hum. Rts. Q. 335, 374 (2000)
Margaret McAuliffe deGuzman , The Road from Rome: The Developing Law of Crimes against Humanity, 22 Hum. Rts. Q. 335 (2000)
Mark A. Drumbl , Judging the 11 September Terrorist Attack, 24 Hum. Rts. Q. 323, 337 (2002)
Mark A. Drumbl , Victimhood in our Neighborhood: Terrorist Crime, Taliban Guilt, and the Asymmetries of the International Legal Order, 81 N.C. L. Rev. 1 (2002)
Mark Osiel , The Banality of Good: Aligning Incentives Against Mass Atrocities, 105 Colum. L. Rev. 1751, 1785 (2005)
Martha Crenshaw , The Psychology of Terrorism: An Agenda for the 21st Century, 21 Pol. Psychol. 405, 406 (2000)
Mary Penrose , Lest We Fail: The Importance of Enforcement in International Criminal Law, 15 Am. U. Int'l L. Rev. 321, 325 (2000)
Matthew Lippman , Crimes Against Humanity, 17 B.C. Third World L.J. 171, 173, 183 (1997)
Matthew Lippman , Crimes Against Humanity, 17 B.C. Third World L.J. 171, 201 (1997)
Matthew Lippman , The Evolution and Scope of Command Responsibility, 13 Leiden J. Int'l L. 139 (2000)
Maureen R. Berman & Roger S. Clark , State Terrorism: Disappearances, 13 Rutgers L.J. 531 (1982)
Michael J. Kelly , Cheating Justice by Cheating Death: The Doctrinal Collision for Prosecuting Foreign Terrorists – Passage of Aut Dedere Aut Judicare into Customary Law and Refusal to Extradite Based on the Death Penalty, 20 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 491, 497 (2003)
Michael P. Scharf , From the eXile Files: An Essay on Trading Justice for Peace, 63 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 339, 348 (2006)
Michael Plachta , (Non-)Extradition of Nationals: A Neverending Story?, 13 Emory Int'l L. Rev. 77, 125–26 (1999)
Michael Scharf , Defining Terrorism as the Peacetime Equivalent of War Crimes: Problems and Prospects, 36 Case W. Res. j. Int'l L. 359, 359–74 (2004)
Michael Smidt , The International Criminal Court: An Effective Means of Deterrence?, 167 Mil. L. Rev. 156, 188 (2001)
Mireille Delmas-Marty , Global Crime Calls for Global Justice, 10 Eur. J. Crime, Crim. L. & Crim. Just. 286 (2002)
Mirjan Damaška , The Shadow Side of Command Responsibility, 49 Am. J. Int'l L. 455 (2001)
Mohamed E. Badar , From the Nuremberg Charter to the Rome Statute: Defining the Elements of Crimes against Humanity, San Diego Int'l L.J. 73 (2004)
Naomi Roht-Arriaza , State Responsibility to Investigate and Prosecute Grave Human Rights Violations in International Law, 78 Calif. L. Rev. 449, 489–92 (1990)
Neha Jain , Forced Marriage as a Crime against Humanity: Problems of Definition and Prosecution, 6 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 1013, 1031 (2008)
Nick Grono & Adam O'Brien , Justice in Conflict? The ICC and Peace Processes, in Courting Conflict? Justice, Peace and the ICC in Africa 13, 17 (Nicholas Waddell & Phil Clark eds., 2008)
Oliver Tolmein , Strafrecht als Instrument zur Schaffung von Frieden: Das Beispiel des ICTY, in Humanitäres Völkerrecht 493, 507 (Jana Hasse et al. eds., 2001)
Pablo Parenti , Los Crímenes Contra la Humanidad y el Genocidio en el Derecho Internacional, in Los crímenes contra la humanidad y el genocidio en el derecho internacional: origen y evolución de las figuras, elementos típicos, jurisprudencia internacional 59–60 (Pablo Parenti et al. eds., 2007)
Paul Gully-Hart , Loss of Time Through Formal and Procedural Requirements in International Co-operation, in Principles and Procedures for a New Transnational Criminal Law: Documentation of an International Workshop, Freiburg, May 1991
Payam Akhavan , Beyond Impunity: Can International Criminal Justice Prevent Future Atrocities?, 95 Am. J. Int'l L. 7, 9 (2001)
Philip Kastner , The ICC in Darfur – Savior or Spoiler?, 14 ILSA J. Int'l & Comp. L. 145, 149 (2007)
Philippe Sands , International Law Transformed? From Pinochet to Congo…?, 16 Leiden J. Int'l L. 37, 48 (2003)
Pierre Hazan , Measuring the Impact of Punishment and Forgiveness: A Framework for Evaluating Transitional Justice, 88 ICRC Int'l Rev. 19, 35 (2006)
Rama Mani , Balancing Peace with Justice in the Aftermath of Violent Conduct, 48 Dev. 25 (2005)
Rama Mani , Reparation as a Component of Transitional Justice: Pursuing ‘Reparative Justice’ in the Aftermath of Violent Conflict, in Out of the Ashes 53, 76 (Koen de Feyter et al. eds., 2005)
Ratione Personae : Did the International Court of Justice Create a New Customary Law Rule in Congo v. Belgium?, 16 Mich. St. J. Int'l L. 459, 462 (2007)
Richard Falk , Criminal Accountability in Transitional Justice, 12 Peace Rev. 81 (2000)
Richard Goldstone , Historical Evolution – From Nuremberg to the International Criminal Court, 25 Penn St. Int'l L. Rev. 763, 767–68 (2007)
Richard Vernon , What is Crime against Humanity?, 10 J. Pol. Phil. 231, 233 (2002)
Robert A. Friedlander , Self-Determination: A Legal-Political Inquiry, 1975 Detroit C. L. Rev. 71 (1975)
Robert Cryer , The Definition of International Crimes in the Al Bashir Arrest Warrant, 7 J. Int'l Crim. L. 283 (2009)
Robert Lansing , Notes on World Sovereignty, 1 Am. J. Int'l L. 13, 25 (1921)
Rodrigo Uprimny & Maria Paula Saffon , Justicia transicional y justicia restaurativa: tensiones y complementariedades, in Entre el perdón y el paredón. Preguntas y dilemas de la Justicia Transicional 211, 225–26 (Angelika Rettberg ed., 2005)
Roger C. Algase , Protection of Civilian Lives in Warfare: A Comparison between Islamic Law and Modern International Law Concerning the Conduct of Hostilities, 16 Revue de Droit Pénal Militaire et de Droit de la Guerre 246 (1977)
Roger S. Clark , Crimes Against Humanity and The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, in International and National Law in Russia and Eastern Europe 139–56 (Roger Clark et al. eds., 2001)
Roger S. Clark , Crimes against Humanity and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, in International and National Law in Russia and Eastern Europe: Essays in Honor of George Ginsburgs 139 (Roger Clark, Ferdinand Feldbrugge & Stanislaw Pomorski eds., 2001)
Roger S. Clark , Crimes against Humanity at Nuremberg, in The Nuremberg Trial and International Law 177 (George Ginsburgs & V. N. Kudriavtsev eds., 1990)
Roger S. Clark , Crimes Against Humanity at Nuremberg, in The Nuremberg Trial and International Law 193, 195–98 (George Ginsburgs & Vladimir Nikolaevich Kudriavtsev eds., 1990)
Roger S. Clark , Elements of Crimes in Early Confirmation Decisions of Pre-Trial Chambers of the International Criminal Court, 6 N.Z.Y.B. Int'l L. (2008)
Roger S. Clark , The Mental Element in International Criminal Law: The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and the Elements of Offences, 12 Crim. L.F. 291 (2001)
Ron Sievert , A New Perspective on the International Criminal Court: Why the Right Should Embrace the ICC and How America Can Use It, 68 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 77, 99 (2006)
Rosemary Rayfuse , The Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind: Eating Disorders at the International Law Commission, 5 Crim. L.F. 43 (1997) (discussing 1996 draft)
Sanford H. Kadish , Complicity, Cause and Blame: A Study in the Interpretation of Doctrine, 73 Cal. L. Rev. 323 (1985)
Sir Arthur Watts , The Legal Position in International Law of Heads of States, Heads of Governments and Foreign Ministers, 247 Recueil des Cours 35 (1994)
Stefan Kirsch , Two Kinds of Wrong: On the Context Element of Crimes against Humanity, 22 Leiden J. Int'l L. 525 (2009)
Stefan Kirsch , Zweierlei Unrecht, in Festschrift für Rainer Hamm 283, 285 et seq. (Regina Michalke et al. eds., 2008)
Steven Powles , Joint Criminal Enterprise: Criminal Liability by Prosecutorial Ingenuity and Judicial Creativity?, 2 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 606, 613 (2004)
Thomas M. Franck & Bert B. Lockwood , Jr., Preliminary Thoughts Towards an International Convention on Terrorism, 68 Am. J. Int'L L. 69 (1974)
Thomas Rotsch , Neues zur Organisationsherrschaft, 25 Neues Zeitschrift für Strafrecht 13 (2005)
Thomas Weigend , Intent, Mistake of Law, and Co-perpetration in the Lubanga Decision on Conformation of Charges, 6 J. Int'l Crim. Just. 471 (2008)
Timothy L. H. McCormack & Gerry J. Simpson , The International Law Commission's Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind: An Appraisal of the Substantive Provisions, 5 Crim. L.F. 1 (1994)
Valerie Oosterveld , Gender, Persecution, and the International Criminal Court: Refugee Law's Relevance to the Crime Against Humanity of Gender-Based Persecution, 17 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 49 (2006)
Valerie Oosterveld , Sexual Slavery and the International Criminal Court: Advancing International Law, 25 Mich. J. Int'l L. 605, 616–25 (2004)
Valerie Oosterveld , The Definition of “Gender” in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Step Forward or Back for International Criminal Justice?, 18 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 55 (2005)
Valerie Oosterveld , The Definition of “Gender” in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Step Forward or Back for International Criminal Justice?, 18 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 55, 66–69 (2005)
Valerie Oosterveld , The Special Court for Sierra Leone's Consideration of Gender-based Violence: Contributing to Transitional Justice?, 10 Hum. Rts. Rev. 73, 85 (2009)
Valerie Oosterveld , The Special Court for Sierra Leone's Consideration of Gender-based Violence: Contributing to Transnational Justice?, 10 Hum. Rts. Rev. 73, 89 (2009)
Valerie Oosterveld , The Special Court for Sierra Leone, Child Soldiers and Forced Marriage: Providing Clarity or Confusion?, 45 Can. Y.B. Int'l L. 131, 158 (2009)
Verena Haan , The Development of the Concept of Joint Criminal Enterprise at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 5 Int'l Crim. L. Rev. 167, 194–95 (2005)
Waldemar Solf , The Status of Combatants in Non-International Armed Conflicts Under Domestic Law and Transnational Practice, 33 Am. U. L. Rev. 53, 62–62 (1983)
William A. Schabas , International Sentencing: From Leipzig (1923) to Arusha (1996), in I Bassiouni ICL, supra, at 129
William A. Schabas , State Policy as an Element of International Crimes, 98 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 953 (2008)
William A. Schabas , State Policy As An Element of International Crimes, 98 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 953, 973 (2008)
William A. Schabas , Theoretical and International Framework: Punishment of Non-State Actors in Non-International Armed Conflict, 26 Fordham Int'l L.J. 907, 929–30 (2003)
William H. Parks , Command Responsibility for War Crimes, 62 Mil. L. Rev. 1, 1–20 (1973)
William M. Hannay , The Legislative Approach to the Political Offense Exception, in Legal Responses to International Terrorism 115 (M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., 1988)
William Whitney Burke-White , Complementarity in Practice: The International Criminal Court as Part of a System of Multi-Level Global Governance in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 18 Leiden J. Int'l L. 559, 58 (2005)
Wolfgang Schomburg & Ines Peterson , Genuine Consent to Sexual Violence Under International Criminal Law, 101 Am. J. Int'l L. 121, 124 (2007)
Yasmin Sooka , Dealing with the Past and Transitional Justice: Building Peace Through Accountability, 88 Int'l Rev. Red Cross 311 (2006)
Yoram Dinstein , Crimes against Humanity after Tadić, 13 Leiden J. Int'l L. 386 (2000)