Israel's Security and Its Arab Citizens

Israel's Security and Its Arab Citizens

Although a rich literature combining international relations and domestic political developments has recently emerged, most works specializing in state-minority relations, nationalism, citizenship, and human rights have not integrated insights from the field of international relations and security affairs into their analysis. This absence is nowhere more visible than in the study of relations between the Israeli state and its Arab/Palestinian minority. This book aims to bring (back) international relations and international security perspectives into the analysis of relations between the Israeli state and its Arab minority. Drawing on international relations theory, it argues that the relationship between the Israeli state and the predominant community, as in many other cases characterized by ethno-national cleavage, was heavily influenced by the state's broader regional geo-strategic security situation. State policies toward Israel's Arab citizens moderated in the rare times of relative geo-strategic security and hardened when Israel's regional position became more precarious.


“The status of Israel's Arabs has become an increasingly contentious political issue in Israel, and Frisch offers an informed, insightful, and fresh look at how Israel's security situation shapes policies and public attitudes toward this important minority community. Israel's Security and its Arab Citizens weaves together perspectives from international relations and domestic politics, offering lessons on what is unique regarding Israel's circumstances and what is generalizable to other divided societies in a dangerous threat environment.”
– Daniel Byman, Georgetown University; Senior Fellow, Saban Center, The Brookings Institution; author of A High Price: The Triumphs and Failures of Israeli Counterterrorism

“This is a solid study of the relationship between the State of Israel and its Arab citizens. While Frisch is sensitive to the problems encountered by Israel's Arabs, as a minority within Israel, he also expertly analyzes the security and political challenges which they pose to Israel.”
– Robert O. Freedman, Johns Hopkins University

Israel’s Security and Its Arab Citizens offers an authoritative treatment of a major issue in the politics of the Middle East that has received relatively light attention. The book’s central argument, derived from classic works on the state and public policy, is that Israel’s relationship to its Arab minority is connected to its sense of threat and security fears. The research in this book establishes the importance of external insecurity in accounting for authoritarianism and intolerance toward minorities in Israel, most notably its Arab citizens. This book is essential reading for those interesting in comparative and international politics regarding the Middle East and beyond.”
– Patrick James, University of Southern California

"Frisch draws on theoretical studies relating to ethnic divisions and national security and stresses the inseparability of domestic and international politics...The author demonstrates a high level of competency in research and analysis...Summing Up: Recommended." -G.E. Perry, emeritus, Indiana State University, CHOICE Magazine

Özdağ, ÜmitAydinli, Ersel2003Efraim InbarDemocracies and Small WarsLondonFrank Cass
‘Abd al-Jabbar, Mahmud2004As’ad GhanemMustafa MohannadDawla Didda Muwatiniha: Halat I‘tiqal Qadat al-Haraka al-IslamiyyaAgainst Its CitizensUmm al-Fahm, IsraelMarkaz al-Dirasat al-Mu‘asira2004
‘Azayzeh, As‘ad1996Alouph HarevenAs’ad GhanemShivion veShiluv: Mabat LeAhor uMabat Kadima 1992–1996JerusalemSikkuy
2003JerusalemGovernment Printing Press (in Hebrew)
2009Tel-AvivAgaf Koah Hadam (in Hebrew)…%20فماذا%20تكون؟؟؟%20/%20صالح%20علي*
Abbas, Mahmud1994Tariq OsloBeirutSharikat al-Matbu‘at lil-Tawzi‘ wal Nashr (in Arabic)
Abu ‘Amer, Ziyad1987Usul al–Harakat al–Siyasiyya Fi Quta‘ GhazzaAcreDar al–Aswar (in Arabic)
Abu Aqsa, Sahara1996
Abu Asbah, Khaled1997Alouph HarevenAs’ad GhanemShivion veShiluv: Mabat LeAhor uMabat LeKadima 1992–1996JerusalemSikkuy
Abu JaberIbrahim Hasan1997The Islamic Movement within the ‘Green Line’Middle East Affairs Journal338
Abu Raya ‘IsamBen-Ze’ev Efrat2009Hamaavak HaFilastini al Itzuv HaMerhav beIsrael: MeAliyya LaRegel Ishit leHanzaha Kvutzatiti Meugenet [The Palestinian Struggle to Shape the Public Space: From Personal Pilgrimage to Organized Collective Commemoration]Politika19105
Abu Zayyad, Ziyad1992Al-Intikhabat al-Isra’iliyya al-Muqbila: Hudud al-Murahana al-Filastiniyya [The Coming Israeli Elections: The Limits of the Palestinian Wager]Shu’un Filastiniyya229–2303
Abu-Odeh, Adnan1999Jordanians, Palestinians and the Hashemite Kingdom in the Middle East Peace ProcessWashington, DCThe United States Institute of Peace Press
Abu-Saad, Ismael2006State-Controlled Education and Identity Formation among the Palestinian Arab Minority in IsraelAmerican Behavioral Scientist491085
Adalah NGO REPORT2005
Al-Barnamij al-Siyasi2009
Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiyya lil-Salam wal-Musawa’a2006
Al-Qasim, Samih1994
Algazi, Yosef1999Meuhadim Neged Netanyahu [United Against Netanyahu]Ha’aretz
AlHaj, MajidAvner, Yaniv1983Asher ArianThe Elections in Israel- 1981JerusalemRamot
Alon, Gideon2003Tibi Going to High Court after CEC Disqualifies HimHa’aretz
Alon, GideonNir, Ori2001Israeli Police Violence, Killing 13 Unarmed Protesters, 12 of Them Palestinian Citizens of Israel and 1 from GazaHa’aretz
Altonji, JosephDoraszelski, Ulrich2005The Role of Permanent Income and Demographics in Black/White Differences in WealthJournal of Human Resources401
Amara, Muhammad2000Israeli Palestinians and the Palestinian AuthorityMERIA Journal4
Amara, MuhammadKabha, Sufian1996Zehut Hatzuya: Haluka Politit veHishtaqfuyot Politiyot beKfar HatzuiGivat HavivaHaMachon LeHeker HaShalom (in Hebrew)
Anderson, Kenneth2001The Limits of Pragmatism In American Foreign Policy: Unsolicited Advice To The Bush Administration on Relations with International Nongovernmental OrganizationsChicago Journal of International Law2371
Anderson, Perry2001Scurrying Towards BethlehemNew Left Review10
Andrawus, Zuhayr2006Bush wal-Aqzam al-Sab‘a [Bush and the Seven Midgets]Kull al-‘Arab
Arab Vote Lowest Ever2001
Arian, Asher1995Security Threatened: Surveying Israeli Opinion on Peace and WarCambridge and New YorkJaffee Center for Strategic Studies and Cambridge University Press
Ashkenazi, Eli2005
Ashkenazi, Eli2007
Awauda, Wadi‘a2001Shalom DichterArab Citizens in Israel 2000–2001JerusalemSikkuyhttp://–2001.+Jerusalem:+Sikkuy,+Spring&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk
Ayoob, Mohammad1991The Security Problematic in the Third WorldWorld Politics43257
Bakariya, ‘Adnan1996
Bakariya, Walid1996
Bakker, Edwin2006
Bar-Tura, MaggieFleischer, Nicole2004Civic Service and the Palestinian Citizens of IsraelNonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly3351
Barak, Oren2001Commemorating Malikiyya: Political Myth, Multiethnic Identity and the Making of the Lebanese ArmyHistory and Memory1360
Barak, Ravid2007
Barnamij HadashMuqtatafat1996
Barnett, Michael N.1992
Barnett, Michael1991High Politics is Low Politics: The Domestic and Systemic Sources of Israeli Security Policy, 1967–1977World Politics42529
Barnett, Michael1995Sovereignty, Nationalism, and Regional Order in the Arab States SystemInternational Organization49479
Barnett, MichaelFinnemore, Martha1999The Politics, Power, and Pathologies of International OrganizationsInternational Organization,53699
Barnett, MichaelLevy, Jack1991Domestic Sources of Alliances and Alignments: The Case of Egypt, 1962–1973International Organization45369
Bartal, Oshri2004
Baumel, Yair2002HaMemshal HaTzvai VeTahalich Bitulo, 1958–1968 [The Military Government and the Process of Abolishing It]Ha-Mizrach He-Hadash43133
Baumel, Yair2007Tzel Kachol Lavan: Midiniyut HaMemsad HaIsraeli UPeulotav BeKerev HaEzrahim HaAraviim BeIsrael: Hashanim HaMeazvot 1958–1968HaifaPardes
Beit HaDin HaHaartzi LeAvoda2006$FILE/2EF5DB891A7EA5774225724A00413CDC.html?OpenElement
Beit Mishpat Hashalom Natzrat2003
Bell, J. Bowyer1989The Secret Army: the IRA, 1916–1979DublinPoolbeg
Ben-Eliezer, Uri2006Majd al-HajUri Ben-EliezerBeShem HaBitachon; Soziologia shel Shalom uMilhama beIsrael beIdan MishtanehHaifaHaifa University Press
Ben-Porat, Amir1993The State and Capitalism in IsraelWestport, CTGreenwood
Ben-Yehuda, HemdaSandler, Shmuel2002The Arab-Israeli Conflict Transformed: Fifty Years of Interstate and Ethnic CrisisAlbanyState University of New York Press
BenDor, Gabriel1980Asher ArianThe Elections in Israel 1977JerusalemJerusalem Academic Press
BenDor, GabrielPedahzur, AmiHasisi, Badi2003Anti-Liberalism and the Use of Force in Israeli DemocracyJournal of Political and Military Sociology31119
Bengio, Ofra1999Ofra BengioGabriel Ben-DorMinorities and the State in the Arab WorldBoulder, COLynne Rienner Publishers
Benziman, UziMansour, ‘Atallah1992Dayarei Mishneh: Araviei Israel – Maamadam veHamediniyut KlapeihemJerusalemKeter (in Hebrew)
Bishara, ‘Azmi1995Musa BudeiriAl-Dimuqratiyya al-Filastiniyya: Awraq NaqdiyaRamallahMuwatin
Bishara, ‘Azmi1995Ziyad Abu AmerAl-Mujtama‘ al-Madani wal-Tahawwul al-Dimuqrati fi FilastinRamallah, Muwatin
Bishara, ‘Azmi2003The Smell of Burning Cities is Sharon’s Favourite Aroma, but the Palestinian Response Worries SharonAl-Ahram Weekly6
Bligh, Alexander1999The Intifada and the New Political Role of the Israeli Arab LeadershipMiddle Eastern Studies35134
Brake, Salim1998HaBhirot BaReshuyot HaMekomiot HaAraviot BeIsraelOsafiya, IsraelMBL
Brand, Laurie1995Palestinians and Jordanians: A Crisis of IdentityJournal of Palestine Studies2446
Brender, Adi2007Does Municipal Segregation Alleviate the Economic Disadvantage of Israeli Arabs? Local Tax Collection as an IndicatorPerspectives on Middle East Socioeconomic Issues31
Brewer, John D.1991Inside the RUC: Routine Policing in a Divided SocietyOxfordClarendon Press
Central Bureau of Statistics2006Statistical Abstract of Israel. (no. 57)JerusalemCentral Bureau of Statistics
Chamlou, Nadereh2004
Cilliers, Jakkie1995Security and Transition in South AfricaJournal of Democracy635
Clingendael Security and Conflict Programme2006Jihadi Terrorists in EuropeHagueClingendael Institute
Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.Hildebrand, Vincent2004The Wealth of Mexican AmericansBonnIZA
Cohen, Hillel2006Aravim Tovim: HaModiin HaIsraeli VeHaAravim beIsraelJerusalemKeter
Cohen, Jean L.Arato, Andrew1992Civil Society and Political TheoryCambridge, MAMIT Press
Cohen, YinonTyree, Andrea1994Palestinian and Israeli-born Jewish Immigrants in the U.SInternational Migration Review,28243
Cohen-Almagor, Raphael1997Disqualification of Political Parties in Israel: 1988–1996Emory International Law Review1167
Cook, JonathanKey, Alexander2002Silencing Dissent: A Report on the Violation of Political Rights of the Arab Parties in IsraelThe Arab Association for Human
Copland, Dale C.2000The Constructivist Challenge to [International Relations] Structural Realism: A Review EssaySecurity Studies25187
Coufoudakis Van1991The Greek-American Lobby and Its Influence on Greek Foreign Policy, 1974–1989Mediterranean Quarterly270
Cruz, Consuelo2000Identity and Persuasion: How Nations Remember Their Pasts and Make Their FuturesWorld Politics52275
Dalal, Marwan2005Politics of Security in the Islamic Movement TrialAdalah’s Newsletter91
Darawsha, Abd al-Wahhab2002
Data-Israel Prisons Service2009
David, Steven R.1991Explaining Third World AlignmentWorld Politics,43233
Davis, Darren W.Silver, Brian D.2004Civil Liberties vs. Security: Public Opinion in the Context of the Terrorist Attacks on AmericaAmerican Journal of Political Science,4828
Davis, R.Will, H. Moore1997Ethnicity Matters: Transnational Ethnic Alliances and Foreign Policy BehaviorInternational Studies Quarterly41171
Day, Alan J.2002Iran: Economy. The Middle East and North AfricaLondonEuropa Publications
De Soysa, IndraNeumayer, Eric2008Disarming Fears of Diversity: Ethnic Heterogeneity and State Militarisation, 1988–2002Journal of Peace Research5497
Desch, Michael1996War and Strong States, Peace and Weak States?International Organization50237
Dichter, Shalom2000The Sikkuy Report 1999–2000JerusalemSikkuy’s_Plan
Dichter, Shalom2001Shalom DichterSikkuy’s Report on Equality & Integration of the Arab Citizens in Israel 2000–2001JerusalemSikkuy’s_Plan
Documents and Source Material1978Journal of Palestine Studies7170
Dowty, Alan1998The Jewish State: A Century Later, Updated With a New PrefaceBerkeleyUniversity of California Press
Dowty, Alan2006Dispair Is Not EnoughCooperation and Conflict415
Doyle, Michael W.1997Ways of War and Peace. Realism, Liberalism and SocialismNew YorkW. W. Norton & Company
Dudkevitch, Margot2003Israeli Arab Indicted for Driving Bombers to AttackJerusalem Post16
East Timor2009
Eichner, Itamar2001
Enloe, Cynthia H.1980Police, Military and Ethnicity: Foundations of State PowerNew Brunswick, NJTransaction
Ettinger, Yair2003
Ettinger, Yair2003
Ettinger, Yair2003
Ettinger, Yair2004 itemNo=469091
Ettinger, YairAlon, Gideon2002
Evans-Kent, Browyn2002Bringing People to Peace in Bosnia Herzegovina, Grassroots ApproachesJournal of International Relations and Development3295
Fahmy, Mahmoud1997
Farwaneh, ‘Abd al-Nasir ‘Awni2009
Farwaneh, ‘Abd al-Nasir ‘Awni2009
Fazal, TanishaGriffiths, Ryan2008State of One’s Own: The Rise of Secession since World War IIBrown Journal of World Affairs15199
Fearon, James D.Laitin, David2003Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil WarAmerican Political Science Review9775
Final Political Statement of the Fifteenth Session of the Palestine National CouncilMeeting in Damascus, April 11–19, 1981. (Excerpt)1981Journal of Palestine Studies10182
Firro, Kais2001Reshaping Druze Particularism in IsraelJournal of Palestinian Studies3040
Fisher, Ronald J.2001Cyprus: The Failure of Mediation and the Escalation of an Identity-Based Conflict to an Adversarial Impass. Journal of Peace Research38307
Flynn, GregoryFarrell, Henry1999Piecing Together the Democratic Peace: The CSCE, Norms, and the “Constitution” of Security in Post-Cold War EuropeInternational Organization53505
Frankel, Benjamin1996Benjamin FrankelRealism: Restatements and RenewalLondonFrank Cass
Frenkel, Amnon2004The Potential Effect of National Growth-Management Policy on Urban Sprawl and the Depletion of Open Spaces and FarmlandLand Use Policy21357
Frisch, Hillel1991Between Diffusion and Territorial Consolidation in RebellionTerrorism and Political Violence339
Frisch, Hillel1992Daniel J. ElazarShmuel SandlerWho’s The Boss in Israel: Israel at the Polls, 1988–89DetroitWayne State University Press
Frisch, Hillel1993The Druze Minority in the Israeli Military: Traditionalizing an Ethnic Policing RoleArmed Forces and Society2051
Frisch, Hillel1995Asher ArianMichal ShamirThe Elections in IsraelAlbanyState University of New York Press
Frisch, Hillel1995Daniel J. ElazarShmuel SandlerIsrael at the Polls – 1992LondonRowman and Littlefield Publishers
Frisch, Hillel1996The PLO and the Palestinians in Israel: Politicization or Radicalization?Nationalism and Ethnic Politics2446
Frisch, Hillel1997Ethnicity, Territorial Integrity, and Regional Order: Palestinian Identity in Jordan and IsraelJournal of Peace Research34257
Frisch, Hillel1997State Ethnicization and the Crisis of Leadership Succession among Israel’s DruzeEthnic and Racial Studies20580
Frisch, Hillel1997The Arab Vote in the 1996 General Elections: The Radicalization of Politicization?Israel Affairs4103
Frisch, Hillel1998
Frisch, Hillel2001The Arab Vote in the 1999 Elections: The Bid for LeadershipIsrael Affairs7153
Frisch, Hillel2002Between Ethnicity and Nationalism: Comparing the Nakba Narratives amongst Arab Palestinians in Israel and under the Palestinian AuthorityIsrael Affairs985
Frisch, Hillel2004The Arab Vote in the 2003 ElectionsIsrael Affairs10130
Frisch, Hillel2005
Frisch, Hillel2007Stability Amidst Flux: The Arab Parties Come of Age in 2006Israel Affairs13368
Gagnon, V. Philip1994Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict: The Case of SerbiaInternational Security,19130
Gause, F. Gregory1994Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf StatesNew YorkCouncil on Foreign Relations Press
Gavison, RuthAbu-Raya, ‘Isam1999Hashesa HaYehudi-Aravi BeIsrael: Meafyenim VeEtgarimJerusalemIsrael Institute for Democracy (in Hebrew)
Gelber, Yoav2004Komemiut UNakba: Israel, HaFalastinim VeMedinot Arav 1948Tel-AvivDvir (in Hebrew)
Ghanem, As‘ad1990Al-Jabha al-‘Arabiyya al-Sha‘biyya wal-Sira‘ Didda Musadarat al-Aradi, 1958–1961 [The Popular Arab Front and the Struggle Against Land Expropriations]Qadaya38
Ghanem, As‘ad1995HaManhigut HaMunizipalit Etzel HaAravim BeIsrael – Hemshechiyut VeShinui [The Municipal Leadership amongst the Arabs in Israel: Continuity and Change]HaMizrach HaHadash37168
Ghanem, As‘ad2001The Palestinian-Arab Minority in Israel, 1948–2000: A Political StudyAlbanyState University of New York Press
Ghanem, As‘ad2010Ethnic Politics in Israel – The Margins and the Ashkenazi CentreLondon and New YorkRoutledge – Middle Eastern Studies Series
Ghanem, As‘adOzacky-Lazar, Sarah2003The Status of the Palestinians in Israel in an Era of Peace: Part of the Problem but Not Part of the SolutionIsrael Affairs9263
Ghanem, As‘adRouhana, NadimYiftachel, Oren1998Questioning “Ethnic Democracy”: A Response to Sammy SmoohaIsrael Studies3253
Ghazzawi, ‘Umar1998
Gibler Douglas M.SewellJamil A.2006External Threat and Democracy: The Role of NATO RevisitedJournal of Peace Research43413
Gibler, Douglas M.Wolford, Scott2006Alliances, Then Democracy: An Examination of the Relationship between Regime Type and Alliance FormationJournal of Conflict Resolution50129
Gourevitch, Peter1978The Second Image Reversed: The International Sources of Domestic PoliticsInternational Organization,32881
Grieco, Joseph1993Cooperation Amongst Nations: Europe, America, and Non-Tariff Barriers to TradeIthaca, NYCornell University Press
Grinberg, Mijal2007
Grossman, David1993Sleeping on a Wire: Conversations with Palestinians in IsraelNew YorkFarrar, Straus & Giroux
Grugel, Jean2000Romancing Civil Society: European NGOs in Latin AmericaJournal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs4287
Gubser, Peter2002The Impact of NGOs on State and Non-state Relations in the Middle EastMiddle East Policy9139
Gunter, Michael M.1994The Kurdish Factor in Turkish Foreign PolicyJournal of Third World Studies11440
Gurr, Ted1993Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical ConflictsWashington, DCUnited States Institute of Peace
Haidar, Ali2001Shalom DichterSikkuy’s Report on Equality & Integration of the Arab Citizens in Israel 2000–2001JerusalemSikkuy
Haidar, Ali2003Shalom DichterAsad GhanemThe Sikkuy Report 2002–3JerusalemSikkuy
Haidar, Ali2005Ali HaidarThe Sikkuy Report 2004–2005: Monitoring Civic Equality Between Arab and Jewish Citizens of IsraelJerusalemSikkuy
Haidar, Aziz1995On the Margins: the Arab Population in the Israeli EconomyLondonHurst
Hajjar, Lisa2005Courting Conflict: The Israeli Military Court System in the West Bank and GazaBerkeleyUniversity of California Press
Haklai, Oded2004Palestinian NGOs in Israel: A Campaign for Civic Equality or “Ethnic Civil Society”?Israel Studies,9157
Halley, Laurence1985Ancient AffectionsEastbourne, UKPraeger
Hammergren, Linn1999The Development Wars: Analyzing Foreign Assistance Impact and PolicyLatin American Research Review34179
Hareven, Alouph1998Mabat LeAhor uMabat Kadima – HaUmnam “Ezrahut Mlea veQadimaJerusalemSikkuy
Hareven, AlouphGhanem, As’ad1996Alouph HarevenAs‘ad GhanemShivion veShiluv: Mabat LeAhor uMabat LeKadima 1992–1996JerusalemSikkuy
Hasisi, Badi2005
Hasisi, BadiWeitzer, Ronald2007Police Relations with Arabs and Jews in IsraelThe British Journal of Criminology47728
Henderson, Sarah L.2002Selling Western Aid: Western Aid and the Nongovernmental Organization Sector in RussiaComparative Political Studies35139
Hennessey, Thomas1997A History of Northern Ireland- 1920–1996New YorkSt. Martin’s Press
Hey, Nigel2006The Star Wars Enigma: Behind the Scenes of the Cold War Race for Missile DefenseDulles, VAPotomac Books
High Court: Ex-MK Bishara Will Continue to Receive His Pension2008
Hintze, Otto1975Felix GilbertThe Historical Essays of Otto HintzeNew YorkOxford
Hofnung, Menachem1996Democracy, Law and National Security in IsraelAldershotDartmouth Publishing Co
Holger, AlbrechtWegner, Eva2006Autocrats and Islamists: Contenders and Containment in Egypt and MoroccoThe Journal of North African Studies11123
Horowitz, Donald L.1985Ethnic Groups in ConflictBerkeleyUniversity of California
Huntington, Samuel P.1968Political Order in Changing SocietiesNew Haven, CTYale University Press
Husnein, Sa2006
Husri, Latif1999
Hutchinson, Marc L.GiblerDouglas M.2007Political Tolerance and Territorial Threat: A Cross-National StudyThe Journal of Politics,69128
Inbar, Efraim1995Daniel J. ElazarShmuel SandlerIsrael at the Polls – 1992Lanham, MDRowman and Littlefield
Inbar, Efraim1995Israel’s Continuing National Security ChallengesStrategic Review,2348
Intelligence and Terrorism2007
Interview with Health Minister Efrayim Sneh1995
Israeli, Raphael1999
Israeli, Raphael2000
Jackson, Robert H.Rosberg, Carl G.1982“Why Africa’s Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood,”World Politics351
Jamal, Amal2004The Ambiguities of Minority Patriotism: Love for Homeland Versus State Among Palestinian Citizens of IsraelNationalism and Ethnic Politics10433
Jiryis, Sabri1976The Arabs in IsraelNew YorkMonthly Review Press
Johnson, B. L. C.1975BangladeshLondonHeinemann Educational Books
Josef, Joffe2005A World Without IsraelForeign Policy14736
Judt, Tony2003Israel: The AlternativeNew York Review of Books
Kacowicz, Arie Marcelo1994Peaceful Territorial ChangeDurhamSouth Carolina Press
Kaspit, Ben2006
Kaufman, Stuart J.1996Spiraling to Ethnic War: Elites, Masses, and Moscow in Moldova’s Civil WarInternational Security21108
Kaufmann, Chaim1996Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic WarsInternational Security,20136
Kempin, Tina2003
Kessler, Glenn2004
Khair, Nazih1994
Khamaisi, Rassem2006al-Haj MajdBen-Eliezer UriBeShem HaBitachon; Soziologia shel Shalom uMilhama beIsrael beIdan MishtanehHaifaHaifa University Press
Khamaisi, Rassem2007Between Customs and Laws: Planning and Management of Land in Arab Localities in IsraelJerusalemThe Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies (in Hebrew)
Khatib, Ghassan2009
Khoury, Jack2009
Kilson, Martin1992African Americans and Africa: A Critical NexusDissent,39361
Kitvei Fatah1970
Kleiman, Aaron S.1981IsraelMiddle East Contemporary Survey – 1979–804536
Koren, David2010Arab Israeli Citizens in the 2009 Elections: Between Israeli Citizenship and Palestinian Arab IdentityIsrael Affairs16124
Kothari Smitu1993P. OldenburgIndia Briefing 1993Boulder, COWestview
Krebs, Ronald R.2006Fighting for Rights: Military Service and the Politics of CitizenshipIthaca, NYCornell University Press
Krebs, Ronald R.2009In the Shadow of War: The Effects of Conflict on Liberal DemocracyInternational Organization,63177
Kuthrani, Wajih1995Al-Sharq al-Awsatiyya wal-Tatbi‘ al-Thaqafi ma‘a Isra’il: Al-Bu‘d al-Ta’rihi wa-Ishkalat Rahina [The New Middle East and Cultural Normalization with Israel: The Historical Context and Contemporary Dilemmas]Majallat al-Dirasat al-Filastiniyya233
Lahoud, Lamia2002
Landau, Jacob1969The Arabs in Israel: A Political StudyLondonOxford University Press
Landau, Jacob1993
Lavie, Aviv2002
Levy, Gal2005From Subjects to Citizens: On Educational Reforms and the Demarcation of the “Israeli-Arabs.”Citizenship Studies9271
Lijphart, Arend1977Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative ExplorationNew Haven, CTYale University Press
Liqa’a Ma‘a Wakim Wakim1998
Lomsky-Feder, EdnaBen-Ari, Eyal2006
Louër, Laurence2007To Be An Arab in IsraelLondonC. Hurst and Co
Lustick, Ian1979Stability in Deeply Divided Societies: Consociationalism versus ControlWorld Politics,31332
Lustick, Ian1980Arabs in the Jewish StateAustinTexas University Press
Lustick, Ian1990Asher ArianMichal, ShamirThe Elections in Israel-1988Boulder, COWestview
Lustick, Ian1993Unsettled States, Disputed Lands: Britain and Ireland, France and Algeria, Israel and the West Bank-GazaIthaca and LondonCornell University Press
Lynch, Dov1998Ethnic Politics and the Post-Communist Transition in MoldovaNationalities Papers,26147
Lynch, Marc1998Abandoning Iraq: Jordan’s Alliances and the Politics of State IdentitySecurity Studies8347
Lynfield, Ben2003
Macdonald, Laura1997Supporting Civil Society: The Political Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Central AmericaNew YorkSt. Martin’s Press
Macdonald, LauraSchwartz, Mildred A.2002Political Parties and NGOs in the Creation of New Trading Blocs in the AmericasInternational Political Science Review23135
MacGinty, RogerDarby, John2002Guns and Government: the Management of the Northern Ireland Peace ProcessHoundmillsPalgrave
Mahshi, GeorgeSa‘id, ‘Adwi2006
Mankinda, Samuel M.1992Adelphi PapersLondonThe International Institute for Strategic Studies
Margalit, Dan1984
Mash‘ur, Lutfi1989
Matar, Joseph1997A Diplomatic BabelJerusalem Report26
Matza Hadash
Mayall, James1993Nationalism and International SocietyCambridgeCambridge Studies in International Relations 10
Mazawi, Andre Elias1999Concentrated Disadvantage and Access to Educational Credentials in Arab and Jewish Localities in IsraelBritish Educational Research Journal25355
Michael, Kobi2003Haya O Lo Haya? Madua Kashal HaModel Shel Shituf HaPeula HaBitchoni-Tzvai Beyn Israel veHarashut HaFalastinitJerusalemDavis Institute for International Affairs (in Hebrew)
Michael, Michális S.1991The Role of the Greek Community in the Determination of Australia’s Attitude to the Cyprus ProblemAustralian Journal of International Affairs4598
Midlarsky, Manus I.2003The Impact of External Threat on States and Domestic SocietiesInternational Studies Review513
Miller, Benny2007States, Nations, and the Great Powers: The Sources of Regional War and PeaceCambridgeCambridge University Press
Moghadam, Valentine1998Women, Work and Economic Reform in the Middle East and North AfricaNew York and LondonLynne Rienner
Mohammad Barakeh2006
Morris, Benny1999Righteous Victims: A History Of The Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–1999New YorkAlfred A. Knopf
Muhammad, Taha2007
Muharib, Muhammad1989Al-Hizb al-Shuyu‘i al-Isra’ili wal-Qadiya al-FilastiniyyaAl-Qudsn.p. (in Arabic)
Muharib, Muhammad1998Lajnat al-Mutaba‘a al-‘Ulya lil-Jama’ir al-‘Arabiyya fi Isra’il: Nahwa Qiyada Wataniyya MuwahhadaJerusalemAlternative Information Center (in Arabic)
Mulhaq al-‘Awda1998
Munson, Ziad2001Islamic Mobilization: Social Movement Theory and the Egyptian Muslim BrotherhoodThe Sociological Quarterly42487
Murad, Ibrahim1995Al- Mu’tamar al-Dawli Hawla Amn al-Bahr al-Mutawassit: Qadaya wa-Tahaddiyat Jadida [The International Conference Concerning the Security of the Mediterranean: Issues and Challenges]Al-Siyasa al-Dawliyya123290
Mustab‘adan Tanazul Harakat2009
Nabil Sha‘th Interview1996
Neuberger, Benyamin1992Occasional Papers 83Tel-AvivDayan Center, the Tel-Aviv University
Ophir, Sharon Rofeh,7340,L-3703301,00.html2010
Osman, Sabihah2000Globalization and Democratization: The Response of the Indigenous Peoples of Sarawak [Malaysia]Third World Quarterly – Journal of Emerging Areas,21977
Ozacky-Lazar, Sarah1992HaBhirot LaKnesset Ha13 Bekerev HaAravim BeIsraelGivat HavivaHaMachon LeLimudim Araviim
Ozacky-Lazar, Sarah1996HaHatzb’aa Ha’Aaravit BaBhirot LaKnesset Ha-14, 29 May 1996Givat Haviva, IsraelInstitute for Peace Research (in Hebrew)
Ozacky-Lazar, Sarah2001Between Two Octobers: The Palestinians in Israel: October 2000–October 2001Givat Haviva, IsraelInstitute for Peace Research (in Hebrew)
Ozacky-Lazar, Sarah2002HaMeimshal HaTzvai KeManganon Shlita BaEzrahim Haaravim: HaAsor HaRishon, 1948–1956 [The Military Government as a Mechanism of Controlling Arab Citizens]Hamizrah HaHadash43132
Ozacky-Lazar, SarahGhanem, Asad1991HaAravim VeIsrael Betzel HaMilhama BaMifratzGivat Haviva, IsraelHaMachon Lelimudim Araviim (in Hebrew)
Ozacky-Lazar, SarahKabha, Mustafa2008Ozacky-Lazar, SarahKabha, MustafaBein Hazon LeMetziut: Mismachei HaHazon shel HaAravim BeIsraeJerusalemHaForum LeHaskama Ezrahit (in Hebrew)
Palestinian Terrorism in 20052005
Patkar, Medha1995William F. FisherToward Sustainable Development? Struggling Over India’s Narmada RiverArmonk, NYSharpe
Pavković, Alexander2000The Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism and War in the BalkansHoundmillsMacmillan Press
Payes, Shany2003Palestinian NGOs in Israel: A Campaign for Civic Equality in a Non-Civic StateIsrael Studies,860
Peled, Alisa Rubin2001Toward Autonomy? The Islamic Movement’s Quest For Control of Islamic Institutions in IsraelMiddle East Journal45379
Peled, Alon1998A Question of Loyalty: Military Manpower Policy in Multiethnic StatesIthaca, NYCornell University Press
Peled, Yoav1992Strangers in Utopia: Ethno-Republican Citizenship and Israel’s Arab CitizensAmerican Political Science Review86432
Peleg, IlanPeleg, Shmuel1993Toward a Theory of Ethnicity and Foreign Policy: The United States and Other SocietiesInternational Problems: Society and Politics,3225
Podeh, Elie1999The Decline of Arab Unity: The Rise and Fall of the United Arab RepublicBrightonSussex Academic Press
Posen, Barry R.1993The Security Dilemma and Ethnic ConflictSurvival,3527
Prendergast, John1996Frontline Diplomacy: Humanitarian Aid and Conflict in AfricaBoulder, CO, and LondonLynne Rienner
Qra, Baruch2003
Qurai, Ahmad1998
Rabi, UziTeitelbaum, Joshua1989Armed OperationsMiddle East Contemporary Survey-198711103
Rabinowitz, Dan1997Overlooking Nazareth: the Ethnography of Exclusion in GalileeCambridgeCambridge University Press
Rabinowitz, Dan1999
Rabinowitz, Dan2001The Palestinian Citizens of Israel, The Concept of Trapped Minority and the Discourse of Transnationalism in AnthropologyEthnic and Racial Studies2464
Rapoport, Meron2007
Rapoport, Meron2007Esh Al Kohoteinu, Kach Hichshalnu Et Atzmenu BeMilhemet LevanonTel-AvivMaariv
Razin, Eran1998Fiscal Disparities among Local Authorities in Israel, 1972–1995JerusalemThe Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies (in Hebrew)
Rekhess ElieRudnizki, Arieh2006HaAravim BeIsrael VeHamilhama BaTzafonTel-AvivDayan Center for Middle East and North Africa
Rekhess, Elie1977Araviei Israel VeHafqaat HaKarkaot BaGalil: Reka, Eruim VeHashlachotTel-AvivThe Dayan Center for the Study of the Middle East and North Africa (in Hebrew)
Rekhess, Elie1995IsraelMiddle East Contemporary Survey – 199317202
Rekhess, Elie1998Elie RekhessHaAravim baPolitika haIsraelit: Dilemot shel ZehutTel-AvivThe Dayan Center for the Study of the Middle East and North Africa
Rekhess, Elie2002The Arabs of Israel after Oslo: Localization of the National StruggleIsrael Studies71
Rekhess, Elie2003HaAravim BeIsrael LeAhar Taalich Oslo: Localizatsiya shel Hamaavak Haleumi [The Arabs in Israel after Oslo: The Localization of a National Struggle]HaMizrah HaHadash,53275
Rekhess, Elie2006Arab Politics in Israel and the 17the Knesset ElectionsTel-AvivThe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies
Rekhess, Elie2006Symposium: The Arab Minority in Israel and the 17th KnessetTel-AvivUniversity: The Konrad Adenauer Program for Jewish-Arab Cooperation
Rekhess, Elie2007The Evolvement of an Arab-Palestinian National Minority in IsraelIsrael Studies121
Rekhess, ElieLitvak, Meir1996Palestinian AffairsMiddle East Contemporary Survey – 199418132
Rodan, Steve1996
Rosenberg, Tina2001
Rouhana, Nadim1989The Political Transformation of the Palestinians in Israel: From Acquiescence to ChallengeJournal of Palestinian Studies,1838
Rouhana, Nadim1997
Rouhana, Nadim2001Citizenship and the Parliamentary Politics of Minorities in Ethnic States: The Palestinian Citizens of IsraelNationalism and Ethnic Politics766
Rouhana, NadimGhanem, Asad1998The Crisis of Minorities in Ethnic States: The Case of Palestinian Citizens in IsraelInternational Journal of Middle East Studies,30321
Ruane, JosephTodd, Jennifer1996The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, Conflict and EmancipationCambridgeCambridge University Press
Rubin, Barry1999External Factors in Israel’s 1999 ElectionsMERIA Journal3
Rubinstein, Amon1992
Rubinstein, Danny1990Hibuk HaTeena: Zehut Hashiva shel HaFalastinimJerusalemKeter (in Hebrew)
Rudge, David2003
Sabagh-Khouri, Arij2004
Sadan, Ezra2005Keshet Medadim shel Dfusei Hitnaagut UBitzuim Mishkiim BaMigzar HaLoYehudi BeMedinat Israel [A Range of Measures of Economic Behavior and Performance for the Non-Jewish Sector in the State of Israel]Bitachon Leumi4123
Sadi, Ahmad H.2001Control and Resistance at Local- Level Institutions: A Study of Kafr Yassif’s Local Council Under The Military GovernmentArab Studies Quarterly2331
Saideman, Stephen M.2001The Ties that Divide: Ethnic Politics, Foreign Policy, and International ConflictNew YorkColumbia University Press
Salman, Faraj1998
Salman, Nissim ShlamFolkman, Roy2005
Sandler, Shmuel1993State of Israel-Land of Israel: The Statist and Ethnonational Dimension of Foreign PolicyGreenwood, CTGreenwood
Sandler, Shmuel1995Israeli Arabs and the Jewish State: The Activation of a Minority in Suspended AnimationMiddle Eastern Studies31932
Sas, Natan1995
Scham, Paul L.Lucas, Rusell E.2001Normalization and Anti Normalization on Jordan: The Public DebateMERIA Journal5
Schiff, Zeev1996
Schiff, Zeev2007
Schlosser, Analia2005
Seale, Patrick1998Assad of Syria, The Struggle for the Middle EastLondonTauris
Shabana, ‘Umar1994Fi Ma‘arakat al-Tatbi‘ wa-Muqawamatihi: al-Muthaqqafun fi-al-Urdunn…Bayna al-Rafd al-Mutlaq wal-Qubul al-Mutakhafit [Concerning the Normalization Campaign and the Resistance To it: The Intellectuals in Jordan … Between Utter Rejection and Tacit Acceptance]Majallat al-Dirasat al-Filastiniyya19157
Shafir, Gershon1989Land, Labour and the Origins of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, 1882–1914CambridgeCambridge University Press
Shain, Yosi1994Ethnic Diasporas and US Foreign PolicyPolitical Science Quarterly,109811
Shain, Yosi1995Multicultural Foreign PolicyForeign Policy10069
Shalev, Michael1992Labour and the Political Economy in IsraelOxfordOxford University Press, 1992
Shalim, Avi1988Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement and the Partition of PalestineOxfordClarendon
Shamir, MichalSagiv-Schifter, Tammy2006Conflict, Identity and Tolerance: Israel in the Al-Aqsa IntifadaPolitical Psychology,27569
Shavit, Ari1998>
Sheffer, Gabi1986Gabi ShefferModern Diasporas in International PoliticsLondonCroom Helm
Sheffer, Gabi1994Ethno-National Diasporas and SecuritySurvival,3660
Shilo, Gideon1980Araviei Israel BeEinei Medinot Arab VeAshafJerusalemMagnes (in Hebrew)
Shlaim, Avi1988Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement and the Partition of PalestineOxfordClarendon
Shungami, Hidemi2002On Wendt’s Philosophy: A CritiqueReview of International Studies2823
Sikkuy2004The Sikkuy Report 2003–4JerusalemSikkuy>
SikkuyThe Sikkuy Report 2006: The Equality Index of Jewish and Arab Citizens in IsraelJerusalemSikkuy>
Simmons, BethElkins, Zachary2004The Globalization of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion in the International Political EconomyThe American Political Science Review98171
Sivan, Emmanuel1990Radical Islam: Medieval Theology and Modern PoliticsNew Haven, CTYale University Press
Slone, Michelle2003The Nazareth Riots – Arab and Jewish Israeli Adolescents Pay a Different Psychological Price for ParticipationJournal of Conflict Resolution47817
Smith, Charles D.2000Palestine and the Arab Israeli ConflictBostonSt. Martin’s
Smooha, Sami1989Arabs and Jews in Israel: Conflicting and Shared Attitudes in a Divided SocietyBoulder, COWestview
Smooha, Sami1990Minority Status in an Ethnic Democracy: The Status of the Arab Minority in IsraelEthnic and Racial Studies13389
Smooha, Sami1999Kamal Abdel-MalekDavid C. JacobsonLand and Palestinian Identities: History and LiteratureLondonMacmillan
Smooha, Sami2004Index of Arab–Jewish Relations in IsraelHaifaThe Jewish–Arab Center, University of Haifa
Smooha, Sami2006
Smooha, Sami2007Mismachei HaHazon HaAraviim: Iyum Istrategi O Basis LeDialog [The Arab Vision Documents-A Strategic Threat or a Basis for Dialogue]?Daf Emda61
Sneh, Efrayim1995Interview with Health Minister Efrayim SnehIsrael Television Channel
Snyder, JackWalter, Barbara1999Civil Wars, Insecurity and InterventionNew YorkColumbia University
Sofer, Roni1999,7340,L-3703246,00.html
Solingen, Ethel1996Democracy, Economic Reform and Regional CooperationJournal of Theoretical Politics,879
Statement by the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization1977Journal of Palestine Studies7207
Steinberg, Gerald2005
Steinberg, Gerald2005
Steinberg, Gerald2006Soft Powers Play Hardball: NGOs Wage War against IsraelIsrael Affairs12748
Stern, Yoav2005
Stern, Yoav2007
Stern, YoavShahar Ilan2007
Stevenson, Jonathan2003Efraim InbarDemocracies and Small WarsLondonFrank Cass
Stier, HayaShavit Yossi2003Hans Peter BlossfeldAndreas TimmWho Marries Whom? Educational Systems and Marriage Markets in Modern SocietiesDordrechtKluwer
Sulayman, Ibrahim1992
Sultani, NimrKhuri, Arij Sabagh2003Muqawamat al-Haimana: Muhakamat ‘Azmi Bishara [Resisting Control: The Trial of Azmi Bishara]Majallat al-Dirasat al-Filastiniyya5463
Susser, Asher1995The Hashemite Kingdom of JordanMiddle East Contemporary Survey – 199317449
Susser, Asher1996The Hashemite Kingdom of JordanMiddle East Contemporary Survey – 199418407
Susser, Asher1999Policy Papers no. 53Washington, DCThe Washington Institute for Near East Policy
Susser, Asher2000The Hashemite Kingdom of JordanMiddle East Contemporary Survey – 199721455
Susser, Asher2009Partition and the Arab Palestinian Minority in IsraelIsrael Studies,14105
Susser, LeslieRekhess, Elie2000IsraelMiddle East Contemporary Survey – 199822321
Taheri, Amir2008
Tal, Lawrence1995Dealing with Radical Islam: the Case of JordanSurvival37139
Tal, Nachman2000The Islamic Movement in IsraelStrategic Assessment2
Talmor, Naama2008
Tarrow, Sidney2005The New International ActivismCambridgeCambridge University Press
Teitelbaum, Joshua1991The Palestinian Liberation OrganizationMiddle East Contemporary Survey – 198913197
Teitelbaum, Joshua1993The Palestinian Liberation OrganizationMiddle East Contemporary Survey – 199115209
The Knesset Central Elections Committee1988Protocol Number 20JerusalemKnesset
Thompson, William1996Democracy and Peace: Putting the Cart before the Horse?International Organization,50141
Tilly, Charles1975Charles TillyThe Formation of Nation States in Western EuropePrinceton, NJPrinceton University Press
Timeline: Northern Ireland Assembly2008
Tir, Jaroslav2002Letting Secessionists Have Their Way: Can Partitions Help End and Prevent Ethnic Conflicts?International Interactions28261
Tivan, Edward1987The LobbyNew YorkSimon & Schuster
Townshend, Charles1999Ireland: the 20th CenturyLondonBloomsbury Academic
Usher, Graham2000Seeking Sanctuary: The “Church” vs. “Mosque” Dispute in NazarethMiddle East Report2142
Vatikiotis, Panayiotis J.1986The History of EgyptBaltimore, MDJohns Hopkins University Press
Vilnai, Zev1959HaMiutimBeIsrael: Muslimim, Notzrim, Druzim UBahaimIsraelMuslims, Christians and Bahai
Walt, Stephen1987The Origins of AlliancesIthaca, NYCornell University Press
Ward, Michael D.2002
Wasfy, Tawfiq1988
Watad, Muhammad M.2007
Watad, Muhammad M.2007
Wendt, Alexander1992Anarchy Is What States Make of ItInternational Organization46391
Wiesel, Elie2009
Wimmer, AndreasMin, Brian2006From Empire to Nation-states. Explaining Wars in the Modern WorldAmerican Sociological Review71867
Wolff, Stefan2006Ethnic Conflict: A Global PerspectiveNew YorkOxford University Press
Wolkinson, Benjamin W1999
Wright, Frank1992Northern Ireland: A Comparative AnalysisDublinGill and Macmillan
Yaari, Ehud1970FathTel–AvivLewin-Epstein (in Hebrew)
Yaron London1996
Yerushalmi, Shalom1984
Yiftachel, Oren1992Debate: The Concept of ‘Ethnic Democracy’ and its Applicability to the Case of IsraelEthnic and Racial Studies15127
Yiftachel, Oren1998Nation-Building and the Division of Space: Ashkenazi Domination in the Internal FrontierNationalism and Ethnic Politics,433
Yiftachel, Oren2004Liqrat Teoria shel Mishtarim Etnoqratiim: Hapolitika shel Hitpashtut Etno-Leumit [Towards a Theory of Ethnocratic Regimes: The Politics of the Spread of Ethno-Nationalism]Medina VeHevra,4761
Yiftachel, OrenGhanem, As‘ad2004Understanding “Ethnocratic” Regimes: The Politics of Seizing Contested TerritoriesPolitical Geography23647
Ziv, HannyGelber, Yoav1999Bnei KeshetTel-AvivMisrad Habitachon (in Hebrew)
Zureik, Elia T.1979The Palestinians in Israel: A Study in International ColonialismLondonRoutledge