The Political Influence of Churches


The Political Influence of Churches

Djupe and Gilbert investigate the political influence of church: how membership in organized religious bodies shapes the political life of members. Djupe and Gilbert’s goal in this inquiry is to re-center scholarly attention on the voluntary association as an essential element of American civic and political life. They develop a theoretical framework that captures the multifaceted elements of church life that affect individual political attitudes and actions. Political information from clergy, small groups, and social networks flows plentifully in churches, but individuals process that information differently depending on their motivations related to their status in the church. Articulating a more fully specified model of how associations expose individuals to political information and norms will help us understand the political opinions and behavior of citizens and the contribution of that pattern to sustaining democracy.


 Reviews:

“Djupe and Gilbert have written an important book on the impact of religion on the politics of individual church members. Rather than viewing religion from afar – as another characteristic held by individuals or another organization to which some individuals belong – they look at it from the inside. They consider the structure of life in churches, and the networks of relationships that connect church members to each other and to the world outside the church. This produces a very sophisticated treatment of the contingent circumstances under which churches make a difference in the politics of church members. By giving primary attention to the patterns of social interaction and communication within churches, the authors produce a masterful analysis that is reminiscent of the classical treatment given to labor union politics by Lipset, Trow, and Coleman in Union Democracy. Political science needs more studies like this one.”
-Robert Huckfeldt, University of California, Davis

The Political Influence of Churches will be a genuinely seminal book. Djupe and Gilbert combine sophisticated theoretical understandings of religion and of group dynamics with an ambitious research design and resourceful data analysis. The authors’ emphasis on the complex social interactions which take place within congregations will change the way in which we think about political learning in religious settings, and will affect future research in religion and politics for years to come.”
-Ted G. Jelen, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

“Paul A. Djupe and Christopher P. Gilbert have written a forceful book that uses state of the art data to show that churches are about more than religion when it comes to politics. They are complex social organisms that support a wide variety of political behaviors, all of which are key to understanding how these people become citizens.”
-Scott D. McClurg, Southern Illinois University

“This book offers path-breaking analysis of how being active in religious life affects Americans’ political orientations. Active participation in a religious congregation is perhaps the most widespread form of voluntary association in American society today, and Djupe and Gilbert elucidate exactly how such social networking shapes the way we obtain and use political information. This book is sure to be a seminal work in the literature on religion and politics.”
-Laura Olson, Clemson University

“Paul Djupe and Christopher P. Gilbert have published a series of intriguing papers on the politics of mainline Protestant churches. With this book they show us the full scope of this project, and the result is a volume that political scientists, sociologists, and anyone else who is interested in the political influence of churches needs to read.”
-Clyde Wilcox, Georgetown University

Abelman, Robert , and Gary Pettey . 1988. “How Political Is Religious Television?” Journalism Quarterly 65 (2/3): 313–59.
Abramson, Paul R. , and William Claggett . 2001. “Recruitment and Political Participation.” Political Research Quarterly 54 (4): 905–16.
Abramson, Paul R. , John H. Aldrich , and David W. Rohde . 1999. Continuity and Change in the 1996 Elections. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Ackelsberg, Martha A. 1988. “Communities, Resistance, and Women's Activism.” In Ann Bookman and Sandra Morgen , eds. Women and the Politics of Empowerment. Philadelphia: Temple University, 67–90.
Allport, Gordon W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Ayala, Louis J. 2000. “Trained for Democracy: The Differing Effects of Voluntary and Involuntary Organizations on Political Participation.” Political Research Quarterly 53 (1): 99–115.
Bales, Robert F. 1950. Interaction Process Analysis: A Method for the Study of Small Groups. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Barabas, Jason. 2004. “How Deliberation Affects Policy Opinions.” American Political Science Review 98 (4): 687–702.
Beatty, Kathleen , and Oliver Walter . 1989. “A Group Theory of Religion and Politics: The Clergy as Group Leaders.” Western Political Quarterly 42: 129–46.
Behr, Roy L. , and Shanto Iyengar . 1985. “Television News, Real-world Cues, and Changes in the Public Agenda.” Public Opinion Quarterly 49 (1): 38–57.
Belenky , Mary Field , Blyth Clinchy , Nancy Goldberger , and Jill Tarule . 1986. Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic Books.
Bellah, Robert N. , Steven M. Tipton , William M. Sullivan , Richard Madsen , and Ann Swidler . 1985. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bentley, Arthur. 1995 [1908]. The Process of Government. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Berelson, Bernard , Paul Lazarsfeld, and William McPhee. 1954. Voting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Berger, Peter L. , and Richard John Neuhaus . 1977. To Empower People: The Role of Mediating Structures in Public Policy. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
Bobo, Lawrence , and Franklin D. Gilliam , Jr. 1990. “Race, Sociopolitical Participation, and Black Empowerment.” American Political Science Review 84 (2): 377–93.
Boninger, David S. , Jon A. Krosnick , Matthew K. Berent , and Leandre R. Fabrigar . 1995. “The Causes and Consequences of Attitude Importance.” In Richard E. Petty and Jon A. Krosnick , eds. Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 159–90.
Boyd, Lawrence H. , and Gudmund R. Iversen . 1979. Contextual Analysis: Concepts and Statistical Techniques. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Brady, Henry , Sidney Verba , and Kay Lehman Schlozman . 1995. “Beyond SES: A Resource Model of Political Participation.” American Political Science Review 89 (2): 271–94.
Brady, Henry , Sidney Verba , and Kay Lehman Schlozman . 1999. “Prospecting for Participants: Rational Expectations and Recruitment of Political Activists.” American Political Science Review 93: 153–68.
Brewer, Marilynn B. 2001. “The Many Faces of Social Identity: Implications for Political Psychology.” Political Psychology 22 (1):115–25.
Brown, Ronald E. , and Monica L. Wolford . 1994. “Religious Resources and African-American Political Action.” National Political Science Review 4: 30–48.
Bruce, Steve. 1994. “The Inevitable Failure of the New Christian Right.” Sociology of Religion 55: 229–42.
Burns, Nancy , Kay Lehman Schlozman , and Sidney Verba . 1997. “The Public Consequences of Private Inequality: Family Life and Civic Participation.” American Political Science Review 91 (2): 373–89.
Burns, Nancy , Kay Lehman Schlozman , and Sidney Verba . 2001. The Private Roots of Public Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Burt, Ronald S. 1987. “Social Contagion and Innovation: Cohesion versus Structural Equivalence.” American Journal of Sociology 92 (6): 1287–335.
Button, Mark , and Kevin Mattson . 1999. “Deliberative Democracy in Practice: Challenges and Prospects for Civic Deliberation.” Polity 31: 609–37.
Cady, Steven H. , and Joanie Valentine . 1999. “Team Innovation and Perceptions of Consideration: What Difference Does Diversity Make?” Small Group Research 30 (6): 730–50.
Calfano, Brian R. , and Paul A. Djupe . 2008. “God of War? The Effect of Religious Values in Context on U.S. Foreign Intervention Attitudes.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA, Boston.
Calhoun-Brown, Allison . 1996. “African-American Churches and Political Mobilization: The Psychological Impact of Organizational Resources.” Journal of Politics 58: 935–53.
Campbell, Angus , Phillip E. Converse , Warren E. Miller , and Donald E. Stokes . 1960. The American Voter. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Campbell, Ernest Q. , and Thomas F. Pettigrew . 1959. Christians in Racial Crisis: A Study of Littlerock's Ministry. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press.
Carron, Albert V. , and Lawrence R. Brawley . 2000. “Cohesion: Conceptual and Measurement Issues.” Small Group Research 31 (1): 89–106.
Cassel, Carol A. 1999. “Voluntary Associations, Churches, and Social Participation Theories of Turnout.” Social Science Quarterly 80 (3): 504–17.
Cavendish, James C. , Michael R. Welch , and David C. Leege . 1998. “Social Network Theory and Predictors of Religiosity for Black and White Catholics: Evidence of a ‘Black Sacred Cosmos’?” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 37 (3): 397–410.
Cavendish, James C. 2000. “Church-Based Community Activism: A Comparison of Black and White Catholic Congregations.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 39 (3): 371–84.
Chaiken, Shelly , Akiva Liberman , and Alice H. Eagly . 1989. “Heuristic and Systematic Processing Within and Beyond the Persuasion Context.” In James S. Uleman and John A. Bargh , eds. Unintended Thought. New York: Guilford, 212–52.
Chaiken, Shelly , Roger Giner-Sorolla , and Serena Chen . 1996. “Beyond Accuracy: Defense and Impression Motives in Heuristic and Systematic Information Processing.” In Peter M. Gollwitzer and John A. Bargh , eds. The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior. New York: Guilford, 553–78.
Chapman, Audrey R. 1991. Faith, Power, and Politics: Political Ministry in Mainline Churches. New York: Pilgrim.
Chaves, Mark , Mary Ellen Konieczny , Kraig Beyerlein , and Emily Barman . 1999. “The National Congregations Study: Background, Methods, and Selected Results.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 38 (4): 458–76.
Chen, Serena , Kimberly Duckworth , and Shelly Chaiken . 1999. “Motivated Heuristic and Systematic Processing.” Psychological Inquiry 10 (1): 44–9.
Christian Century . 2006. “ELCA Numbers Drop, Contributions Grow.” Christian Century 22 August: 13, <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_17_123/ai_n26705052>. Accessed July 8, 2008.
Coffin, Brent. 2005. “Moral Deliberation in Congregations.” In Mary Jo Bane , Brent Coffin , and Richard Higgins , eds. Taking Faith Seriously. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 113–45.
Conover, Pamela J. , and Stanley Feldman . 1984. “How People Organize the Political World: A Schematic Model.” American Journal of Political Science 28 (1): 95–126.
Conover, Pamela J. 1984. “The Influence of Group Identifications on Political Perceptions and Evaluation.” The Journal of Politics. 46 (3): 760–85.
Conover, Pamela J. 1988. “The Role of Social Groups in Political Thinking.” British Journal of Political Science 18 (1): 51–76.
Crawford, Sue E. S. , and Laura R. Olson , eds. 2001. Christian Clergy in American Politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dawson, Michael C. , Ronald E. Brown , and Richard Allen . 1990. “Racial Belief Systems, Religious Guidance, and African-American Political Participation.” National Political Science Review. 2: 22–44.
Delli- Carpini, Michael X. , and Scott Keeter . 1996. What Americans Know About Politics and Why It Matters. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dewey, John. 1927. The Public and Its Problems. New York: Henry Holt.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Brian R. Calfano . 2007. “Duel Processing: Religion and Academia Go Mano a Mano.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA, Chicago.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Christopher P. Gilbert . 2002. “The Political Voice of Clergy.” Journal of Politics 64 (2): 596–609.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Christopher P. Gilbert . 2003. The Prophetic Pulpit: Clergy, Churches, and Communities in American Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Christopher P. Gilbert . 2006. “The Resourceful Believer: Generating Civic Skills in Church.” Journal of Politics 68 (1): 116–27.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Christopher P. Gilbert . 2008. “Politics in Church: Byproduct or Central Mission?” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47 (1): 45–62.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Franklyn C. Niles . 2006. “The Challenge of Small Interest Groups: Ministerial Organizations in American Politics.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA, Philadelphia.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Gregory W. Gwiasda . 2007. “Evangelizing the Environment: Decision Process Effects in Political Persuasion.” Unpublished manuscript.
Djupe, Paul A. , and J. Tobin Grant . 2001. “Religious Institutions and Political Participation in America.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 40 (2): 303–14.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Jacob R. Neiheisel. 2008. “Deliberation on Gay Rights and Homosexuality in Churches.” Polity.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Laura R. Olson , eds. 2007. Religious Interests in Community Conflict: Beyond the Culture Wars. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Laura R. Olson . 2006. “Sermons in a Different Voice? Gendered Clergy Effects on Public Opinion.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SSSR, Portland.
Djupe, Paul A. , and Scott D. McClurg . 2000. “What Are You Thinking About? An Examination of Social Communication and Issue Importance.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA, Washington, DC.
Djupe, Paul A. , Jacob R. Neiheisel , and Anand E. Sokhey . 2007. “Clergy and Controversy: A Study of Clergy and Gay Rights in Columbus, Ohio.” In Paul A. Djupe and Laura R. Olson , eds. Religious Interests in Community Conflict. Waco: Baylor University Press, 73–102.
Djupe, Paul A. , Laura R. Olson , and Christopher P. Gilbert . 2005. “Sources of Clergy Support for Denominational Lobbying in Washington.” Review of Religious Research 47 (1): 86–99.
Djupe, Paul A. , Laura R. Olson , and Christopher P. Gilbert . 2006. “Whether to Adopt Statements on Homosexuality in Two Denominations.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 45 (4): 609–21.
Djupe, Paul A. 1997. “The Plural Church: Church Involvement and Political Behavior.” Ph.D. dissertation. Washington University, St. Louis.
Djupe, Paul A. 2000. “Religious Brand Loyalty and Political Loyalties.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 39 (1): 78–89.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
Druckman, James N. , and Kjersten R. Nelson . 2003. “Framing and Deliberation: How Citizens' Conversations Limit Elite Influence.” American Journal of Political Science 47 (4): 729–45.
Dutwin, David. 2003. “The Character of Deliberation: Equality, Argument, and the Formation of Public Opinion.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 15: 239–64.
Entman, Robert M. 1989. “How the Media Affect What People Think: An Information Processing Approach.” Journal of Politics 51 (2): 347–70.
Erbring, Lutz , Edie N. Goldenberg , and Arthur H. Miller . 1980. “Front Page News and Real-world Cues: A New Look at Agenda-setting by the Media.” American Journal of Political Science 24 (1): 16–49.
Erickson, Bonnie H. , and T. A. Nosanchuk . 1990. “How an Apolitical Organization Politicizes.” Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 27: 206–19.
Festinger, Leon. 1957. Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson Press.
Fine, Gary Alan , and Brooke Harrington . 2004. “Tiny Publics: Small Groups and Civil Society.” Sociological Theory 22 (3): 341–56.
Finifter, Ada. 1974. “The Friendship Group as a Protective Environment for Political Deviants.” American Political Science Review 68 (2):607–25.
Finke, Roger , and Rodney Stark . 1992. The Churching of America 1776–1990: Winners and Losers in Our Religious Economy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Fiorina, Morris P. 1981. Retrospective Voting in American National Elections. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Fiske, Susan T. , and Stephanie A. Goodwin . 1996. “Introduction: Social Cognition and Small Group Research: A West Side Story or …?” In Judith L. Nye and Aaron M. Brower , eds. What's Social About Social Cognition? Research on Socially Shared Cognition in Small Groups . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1–2.
Flammang, Janet A. 1997. Women's Political Voice: How Women Are Transforming the Practice and Study of Politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Flanigan, William , and Nancy Zingale . 2006. Political Behavior of the American Electorate, 11th edn. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Fowler, Robert , Allen Hertzke , Laura Olson , and Kevin Den Dulk . 2004. Religion and Politics in America. 3rd edn. Boulder: Westview.
Gelman, Andrew , and Jennifer Hill . 2007. Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gilbert, Christopher P. , David A. M. Peterson , Timothy R. Johnson , and Paul A. Djupe . 1999. Religious Institutions and Minor Parties in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Gilbert, Christopher P. 1993. The Impact of Churches on Political Behavior. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Gilbert, Julie K. 2003. Small Group Spirituality and the Search for Community in Episcopal Parish Life: A Congregational Study. Unpublished M.A. thesis, St. John's University, Collegeville, MN.
Gilbreath, Edward. 1995. “Billy Graham Had a Dream.” Christian History & Biography 14 (3): 44–6.
Giles, Michael W. , and Marilyn K. Dantico . 1982. “Political Participation and the Neighborhood Social Context Revisited.” American Journal of Political Science 26: 144–50.
Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Glock, Charles Y. , and Rodney Stark . 1965. Religion and Society in Tension. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Goodstein, Laurie. 2006. “Disowning Conservative Politics, Evangelical Pastor Rattles Flock.” New York Times S. 1: 1.
Granovetter, Mark. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78: 1360–80.
Green, John C. , James L. Guth , Corwin E. Smidt , and Lyman A. Kellstedt . 1996. Religion and the Culture Wars: Dispatches from the Front. Boulder: Rowman and Littlefield.
Gremillion, Joseph , and Jim Castelli . 1987. The Emerging Parish: The Notre Dame Study of Catholic Life Since Vatican II. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Griffith, R. Marie . 1997. God's Daughters: Evangelical Women and the Power of Submission. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Guth, James L. , John C. Green , Corwin E. Smidt , Lyman A. Kellstedt , and Margaret Poloma . 1997. The Bully Pulpit: The Politics of Protestant Clergy. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.
Hadden, Jeffrey K. 1969. The Gathering Storm in the Churches. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Hansen, Susan B. 1997. “Talking about Politics: Gender and Contextual Effects on Political Proselytizing.” Journal of Politics 59 (1): 73–103.
Hargrove, Barbara. 1979. The Sociology of Religion: Classical and Contemporary Approaches. Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson.
Harrington, Brooke , and Gary Alan Fine . 2000. “Opening the ‘Black Box’: Small Groups and Twenty-First-Century Sociology.” Social Psychology Quarterly 63 (4): 312–23.
Harris, Fredrick C. 1999. Something Within: Religion in African-American Political Activism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hart, Stephen. 1996. What Does the Lord Require? How American Christians Think About Economic Justice. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
Hauser, Robert M. 1974. “Contextual Analysis Revisited.” Sociological Methods and Research 2: 365–75.
Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hofrenning, Daniel J. B. 1995. In Washington but Not of It: The Prophetic Politics of Religious Lobbyists. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Hopewell, James F. 1987. Congregation: Stories and Structures. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
Horan, Patrick M. 1971. “Social Positions and Political Cross Pressures: A Reexamination.” American Sociological Review 36: 650–660.
Hougland, James G. , and James A. Christenson . 1983. “Religion and Politics: The Relationship of Religious Participation to Political Efficacy and Involvement.” Sociology and Social Research 67: 405–20.
Huckfeldt, R. Robert . 1979. “Political Participation and the Neighborhood Social Context.” American Journal of Political Science 23 (3): 579–92.
Huckfeldt, R. Robert . 1986. Politics in Context: Assimilation and Conflict in Urban Neighborhoods. New York: Agathon Press.
Huckfeldt, Robert , and John Sprague . 1987. “Networks in Context: The Social Flow of Political Information.” American Political Science Review 81: 1197–216.
Huckfeldt, Robert , and John Sprague . 1988. “Choice, Social Structure, and Political Information: The Informational Coercion of Minorities.” American Journal of Political Science 32: 467–82.
Huckfeldt, Robert , and John Sprague . 1992. “Political Parties and Electoral Mobilization: Political Structure, Social Structure, and the Party Canvass.” American Political Science Review 86 (1): 70–86.
Huckfeldt, Robert , and John Sprague . 1993. “Citizens, Contexts, and Politics.” In Ada W. Finifter , ed. Political Science: The State of the Discipline II. Washington, DC: American Political Science Association, 281–303.
Huckfeldt, Robert , and John Sprague . 1995. Citizens, Politics, and Social Communications: Information and Influence in an Election Campaign. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huckfeldt, Robert , Paul Allen Beck , Russell J. Dalton , and Jeffrey Levine . 1995. “Political Environments, Cohesive Social Groups, and the Communication of Public Opinion.” American Journal of Political Science 39: 1025–54.
Huckfeldt, Robert , Paul E. Johnson , and John Sprague . 2004. Political Disagreement: The Survival of Diverse Opinions within Communication Networks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Iversen, Gudmund R. 1991. Contextual Analysis. Newbury Park: Sage.
Iyengar, Shanto , and Donald R. Kinder . 1987. News That Matters: Television and American Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
James, Michael Rabinder . 2004. Deliberative Democracy and the Plural Polity. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Jelen, Ted G. , and Clyde Wilcox. 2003. “Causes and Consequences of [US] Public Attitudes Toward Abortion: A Review and Research Agenda.” Political Research Quarterly 56 (4): 489–500.
Jelen, Ted G. , ed. 1989. Religion and Political Behavior in the United States. New York: Praeger.
Jelen, Ted G. 1992. “Political Christianity: A Contextual Analysis.” American Journal of Political Science 36: 692–714.
Jelen, Ted G. 1993a. “The Political Consequences of Religious Group Attitudes.” Journal of Politics 55 (1): 178–90.
Jelen, Ted G. 1993b. The Political World of the Clergy. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jelen, Ted G. 2000. “Clergy as Political Leaders: Notes for a Theory.” In Sue Crawford and Laura Olson , eds. Clergy and Politics: Choices and Consequences. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 15–29.
Johnson, Benton , and Richard White . 1967. “Protestantism, Political Preference, and the Nature of Religious Influence: Comment on Anderson's Paper.” Review of Religious Research 9: 28–35.
Jones- Correa, Michael A. , and David L. Leal . 2001. “Political Participation: Does Religion Matter?” Political Research Quarterly 54 (4): 751–70.
Katz, Elihu , and Paul Lazarsfeld . 1955. Personal Influence. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Kelley, Dean M. 1972. Why Conservative Churches Are Growing. New York: Harper & Row.
Kellstedt, Lyman A. , and John C. Green . 1993. “Knowing God's Many People: Denominational Preference and Political Behavior.” In Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics, ed. David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt . Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Kellstedt, Lyman A. , John C. Green , James L. Guth , and Corwin E. Smidt . 1996. “Grasping the Essentials: The Social Embodiment of Religion and Political Behavior.” In John C. Green , James L. Guth , Corwin E. Smidt , and Lyman A. Kellstedt , eds. Religion and the Culture Wars: Dispatches from the Front. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Kenny, Christopher B. 1992. “Political Participation and Effects from the Social Environment.” American Journal of Political Science 39: 259–67.
Key, V. O. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Keyton, Joann , and Lawrence R. Frey . 2002. “The State of Traits.” In Lawrence R. Frey , ed. New Directions in Group Communication . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 99–120.
Klofstad, Casey , Scott D. McClurg , and Meredith Rolfe . 2006. “Family Members, Friends, and Neighbors: Differences in Personal and Political Networks.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.
Knight, Jack , and James Johnson 1994. “Aggregation and Deliberation: On the Possibility of Democratic Legitimacy.” Political Theory 22 (2): 277–96.
Knoke, David. 1990. Organizing for Collective Action: The Political Economies of Associations. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Kohut, Andrew , John C. Green , Scott Keeter , and Robert C. Toth . 2000. The Diminishing Divide: Religion's Changing Role in American Politics. Washington DC: Brookings Institution.
Kotler-Berkowitz, Laurence . 2005. “Friends and Politics: Linking Diverse Friendship Networks to Political Participation.” In Alan S. Zuckerman , ed. The Social Logic of Politics: Personal Networks as Contexts for Political Behavior. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 152–70.
Krosnick, Jon A. , David S. Boninger , Yao C. Chuang , Matthew K. Berent , and Catherine G. Carnot . 1993. “Attitude Strength: One Construct or Many Related Constructs?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65 (6): 1132–51.
Krosnick, Jon A. 1989. “Attitude Importance and Attitude Accessibility.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 15 (3): 297–308.
Krosnick, Jon A. 1990. “Government Policy and Citizen Passion: A Study of Issue Publics in Contemporary America.” Political Behavior 12 (1): 59–92.
Lake, Ronald La Due , and Robert Huckfeldt . 1998. “Social Capital, Social Networks, and Political Participation.” Political Psychology 19 (3): 567–84.
Layman, Geoffrey C. 2001. The Great Divide: Religious and Cultural Conflict in American Party Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lazarsfeld, Paul , Bernard Berelson , and Hazel Gaudet . 1948. The People's Choice. New York: Columbia University Press.
Leege, David C. , and Lyman A. Kellstedt , eds. 1993. Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Leege, David C. , and Michael R. Welch . 1989. “Religious Roots of Political Orientations: Variations Among American Catholic Parishioners.” Journal of Politics 51 (1): 137–62.
Leege, David C. , Kenneth D. Wald , Brian S. Krueger , and Paul D. Mueller . 2002. The Politics of Cultural Differences: Social Change and Voter Mobilization Strategies in the Post-New Deal Period. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Leege, David C. 1988. “Catholics and the Civic Order: Parish Participation, Politics, and Civic Participation.” The Review of Politics 50 (4): 704–37.
Leege, David C. 1996. “Religiosity Measures in the National Election Studies: A Guide to Their Use, Part 2.” Votes and Opinions Newsletter of the APSA organized section on Elections, Public Opinion, and Voting Behavior 2 (July/August): 6–9, 33–6.
Leighley, Jan E. 1990. “Social Interaction and Contextual Influences on Political Participation.” American Politics Quarterly 18: 459–75.
Leighley, Jan E. 1996. “Group Membership and the Mobilization of Political Participation.” Journal of Politics 58 (2): 447–63.
Lenski, Gerhard. 1961. The Religious Factor. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Levine, Jeffrey. 2005. “Choosing Alone? The Social Network Basis of Modern Political Choice.” In Alan S. Zuckerman , ed. The Social Logic of Politics: Personal Networks as Contexts for Political Behavior. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 132–51.
Levine, John M. , and Richard L. Moreland . 1990. “Progress in Small Group Research.” Annual Review of Psychology 41: 585–634.
Lin, Ann Chih . 2005. “Networks, Gender, and the Use of State Authority: Evidence from a Study of Arab Immigrants in Detroit.” In Alan S. Zuckerman , ed. The Social Logic of Politics: Personal Networks as Contexts for Political Behavior. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 171–83.
Lopatto, Paul. 1985. Religion and the Presidential Election. New York: Praeger.
MacKuen, Michael B. 1984. “Exposure to Information, Belief Integration, and Individual Responsiveness to Agenda Change.” American Political Science Review 78 (2): 372–91.
MacKuen, Michael B. 1990. “Speaking of Politics: Individual Conversational Choice, Public Opinion, and the Prospects for Deliberative Democracy.” In John A. Ferejohn and James H. Kuklinski , eds. Information and Democratic Processes. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 59–99.
Manning, Christel. 1999. God Gave Us the Right. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Marsden, Peter V. 1987. “Core Discussion Networks of Americans.” American Sociological Review 52 (1): 122–31.
Martin, William. 1996. With God on Our Side. New York: Broadway Books.
Marty, Martin E. 1994. “Public and Private: Congregation as Meeting Place.” In James P. Wind and James W. Lewis , eds. American Congregations, Volume 2: New Perspectives in the Study of Congregations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McClurg, Scott D. 2003. “Social Networks and Political Participation: The Role of Social Interaction in Explaining Political Participation.” Political Research Quarterly 56 (4): 449–64.
McClurg, Scott D. 2006a. “The Electoral Relevance of Political Talk: Examining Disagreement and Expertise Effects in Social Networks on Political Participation.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (3): 737–54.
McClurg, Scott D. 2006b. “Political Disagreement in Context: The Conditional Effect of Neighborhood Context, Disagreement, and Political Talk on Electoral Participation.” Political Behavior 28 (4): 349–66.
McCombs, Maxwell E. , and Donald L. Shaw . 1972. “The Agenda-setting Function of the Mass Media.” Public Opinion Quarterly 36: 176–87.
McGraw, Kathleen M. 2003. “Political Impressions: Formation and Management.” In David O. Sears , Leonie Huddy , and Robert Jervis , eds. Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 394–432.
McGreevy, John T. 1996. Parish Boundaries: The Catholic Encounter with Race in the Twentieth-Century Urban North. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McKenzie, Brian D. 2004. “Religious Social Networks, Indirect Mobilization, and African-American Political Participation.” Political Research Quarterly 57 (4): 621–32.
McKeown, Bruce , and Carlson, James . 1987. “An Experimental Study of the Influence of Religious Elites on Public Opinion.” Journal of Political Communication and Persuasion 4: 93–102.
McPhee, William , with Robert B. Smith and Jack Ferguson . 1963. “A Theory of Informal Social Influence.” In William McPhee , ed. Formal Theories of Mass Behavior. London: Collier-Macmillan, Free Press, 74–103.
McPherson, J. Miller , and Lynn Smith-Lovin . 1986. “Sex Segregation in Voluntary Associations.” American Sociological Review 51 (1): 61–79.
McPherson, J. Miller , Lynn Smith-Lovin , and James M. Cook . 2001. “Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks.” Annual Review of Sociology 27: 415–44.
Milbrath, Lester W. , and M. L. Goel . 1977. Political Participation. 2nd edn. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Miller, Arthur H. , and Martin P. Wattenberg 1984. “Politics from the Pulpit: Religiosity and the 1980 Elections.” Public Opinion Quarterly 48 (1): 301–17.
Miller, Warren E. , and J. Merrill Shanks . 1996. The New American Voter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Moberg, David O. 1962. The Church as a Social Institution: The Sociology of American Religion. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Mobley, G. Melton . 1984. “The Political Influence of Television Ministers.” Review of Religious Research 25: 314–20.
Mockabee, Stephen T. , Kenneth D. Wald , and David C. Leege . 2007. “Reexamining Religiosity: A Report on the New Religion Items in the 2006 ANES Pilot Study.” Report to the ANES Board of Overseers.
Moody, Michael. 2002. “Caring for Creation: Environmental Advocacy by Mainline Protestant Organizations.” In Robert Wuthnow and John H. Evans , eds. The Quiet Hand of God: Faith-Based Activities and the Public Role of Mainline Protestantism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 237–64.
Moore, R. Laurence . 1986. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans. New York: Oxford University Press.
Morris, Aldon D. 1984. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change. New York: Free Press.
Musick, Marc A. , John Wilson , and William B. Bynum Jr. 2000. “Race and Formal Volunteering: The Differential Effects of Class and Religion.” Social Forces 78 (4): 1539–70.
Mutz, Diana C. 1998. Impersonal Influence: How Perceptions of Mass Collectives Affect Political Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mutz, Diana C. 2002a. “The Consequences of Cross-Cutting Networks for Political Participation.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (4): 838–55.
Mutz, Diana C. 2002b. “Cross-Cutting Social Networks: Testing Democratic Theory in Practice.” American Political Science Review 96: 111–26.
Mutz, Diana C. 2006. Hearing the Other Side: Deliberative Versus Participatory Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
National Council of Churches . 2005. “Membership Statistics for the National Council of Churches' Member Communions.” <http://www.electronicchurch.org/2002/ NCC_members.htm> Accessed 29 November 2006.
Neiheisel, Jacob R. , and Paul A. Djupe . 2008. “Christian Right Horticulture: Grassroots Support in a Republican Primary Campaign.” Politics and Religion 1 (1) 55–84.
Neiheisel, Jacob R. , Paul A. Djupe , and Anand E. Sokhey . 2009. “Veni, Vidi, Vocavi: Churches and the Promise of Democratic Deliberation.” American Politics Research.
Newman, William A. 1993. “The Meanings of a Merger: Denominational Identity in the United Church of Christ.” In Jackson Carroll and Wade Clark Roof , eds. Beyond Establishment: Protestant Identity in a Post-Protestant Age. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 296–308.
Niebuhr, H. Richard . 1929. The Social Sources of Denominationalism. New York: Meridian.
Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth . 1984. The Spiral of Silence: Public Opinion, Our Social Skin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Noll, Mark A. 1990. Religion and American Politics: From the Colonial Period to the 1980s. New York: Oxford University Press.
Norton, Edward C. , Hua Wang , and Chunrong Ai . 2004. “Computing Interaction Effects and Standard Errors in Logit and Probit Models.” Stata Journal 4 (2): 154–67.
Nye, Judith L. , and Aaron M. Brower , eds. 1996. What's Social About Social Cognition? Research on Socially Shared Cognition in Small Groups. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
O'Connor, Phillip . 2004. “Roman Catholic Church Raises Some Eyebrows by Warning Politicians.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch 8 February: B1.
Oetzel, John G. 2002. “The Effects of Culture and Cultural Diversity on Communication in Work Groups.” In Lawrence R. Frey , ed. New Directions in Group Communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 121–40.
Olson, Laura R. , Sue E. S. Crawford , and Melissa M. Deckman . 2005. Women with a Mission: Religion, Gender, and the Politics of Women Clergy. Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press.
Olson, Laura R. 2000. Filled with Spirit and Power: Protestant Clergy in Politics. New York: State University of New York Press.
Olson, Mancur , Jr. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ozorak, Elizabeth W. 1996. “The Power, But Not the Glory: How Women Empower Themselves Through Religion.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 35 (1): 17–29.
Peterson, Steven A. 1992. “Church Participation and Political Participation: The Spillover Effect.” American Politics Quarterly 20 (1): 123–39.
Petty, Richard E. , and John T. Cacioppo . 1979. “Effects of Forewarning of Persuasive Intent and Involvement on Cognitive Responses and Persuasion.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 5 (2): 173–6.
Petty, Richard E. , and John T. Cacioppo . 1986. “The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion.” In Leonard Berkowitz , ed. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. 19: 123–205. San Diego, CA: Academic.
Pollock, Philip H. 1982. “Organizations as Agents of Mobilization: How Does Group Activity Affect Political Participation?” American Journal of Political Science 26 (3): 485–503.
Pope, Liston. 1942. Millhands and Preachers: A Study of Gastonia. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Popkin, Samuel L. 1991. The Reasoning Voter. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Prapavessis, Harry , and Albert V. Carron . 1997. “Cohesion and Work Output.” Small Group Research 28 (2): 294–301.
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Quinley, Harold E. 1974. The Prophetic Clergy: Social Activism among Protestant Ministers. New York: Wiley.
Raudenbush, Stephen W. , and Anthony S. Bryk . 2002. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis, 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Roof, Wade Clark , and William McKinney . 1987. American Mainline Religion: Its Changing Shape and Future. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Roof, Wade Clark . 1999. Spiritual Marketplace: Baby Boomers and the Remaking of American Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Roozen, David A. , William McKinney , and Jackson W. Carroll . 1984. Varieties of Religious Presence: Mission in Public Life. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press.
Rosenstone, Steven J. , and John Mark Hansen . 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: MacMillan.
Rothenberg, Lawrence. 1988. “Organizational Maintenance and the Retention Decision in Groups.” American Political Science Review 82: 1129–52.
Rozell, Mark J. , and Clyde Wilcox . 1996. Second Coming: The New Christian Right in Virginia Politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ryfe, David M. 2005. “Does Deliberative Democracy Work?” Annual Review of Political Science 8: 49–71.
Sapiro, Virginia. 1983. The Political Integration of Women. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Scheufele, Dietram A. , Matthew C. Nisbet , Dominique Brossard , and Erik C. Nisbet . 2004. “Social Structure and Citizenship: Examining the Impact of Social Setting, Network Heterogeneity, and Informational Variables on Political Participation.” Political Communication 21 (3): 315–38.
Schlozman , Kay Lehman , Nancy Burns , and Sidney Verba . 1994. “Gender and the Pathways to Participation: The Role of Resources.” Journal of Politics 56 (4): 963–90.
Schlozman , Kay Lehman , Nancy Burns , and Sidney Verba . 1999. “ ‘What Happened at Work Today’: A Multistage Model of Gender, Employment, and Political Participation.” Journal of Politics 61: 29–53.
Schlozman , Kay Lehman , Nancy Burns , Sidney Verba , and Jessie Donahue . 1995. “Gender and Citizen Participation: Is There a Different Voice?” American Journal of Political Science 39 (2): 267–93.
Schlozman, Kay Lehman . 2002. “Citizen Participation in America: What Do We Know? Why Do We Care?” In Ira Katznelson and Helen V. Milner , eds. Political Science: The State of the Discipline. New York: W.W. Norton, 433–61.
Shingles, Richard D. 1981. “Black Consciousness and Political Participation: The Missing Link.” American Political Science Review. 75: 76–91.
Smidt, Corwin E. , ed. 2004. Pulpits and Politics: Clergy and the 2000 Presidential Election. Waco: Baylor University Press.
Sokhey, Anand E. , and Paul A. Djupe . 2008. “Examining the Social Supply of Political Expertise in the Electorate.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the WPSA, San Diego.
Sprague, John. 1982. “Is There a Micro-Theory Consistent with Contextual Analysis?” In Elinor Ostrom , ed. Strategies of Political Inquiry. Beverly Hills: Sage, 99–121.
Steenbergen, Marco R. , and Bradford S. Jones . 2002. “Modeling Multilevel Data Structures.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (1): 218–37.
Strasburg, Jenny. 2005. “Equity, Losing Ground: More than 40 years after the Civil Rights Act, Why Do Women's Wages Still Trail Men's?” San Francisco Chronicle January 9: Magazine 14.
Sunstein, Cass R. 2000. “Deliberative Trouble? Why Groups Go to Extremes.” Yale Law Journal 110: 71–119.
Tajfel, Henri. 1981. Human Groups and Social Categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tate, Katherine. 1991. “Black Political Participation in the 1984 and 1988 Presidential Election.” American Political Science Review. 85: 1159–76.
Tocqueville, Alexis de . 1994 [1840]. Democracy in America. Vol. 2. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Towns, Elmer L. 1990. An Inside Look at 10 of Today's Most Innovative Churches. Ventura, CA: Regal Books.
Trueheart, Charles. 1996. “Welcome to the Next Church.” Atlantic Monthly 278 (2): 37–58.
Truman, David. 1951. The Governmental Process. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Turner, John C. , Michael A. Hogg , P. J. Oakes , S. D. Reicher , and M. S. Wetherell . 1987. Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-Categorization Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Turner, John C. 1982. “Towards a Cognitive Redefinition of the Social Group.” In Henri Tajfel , ed. Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ulbig, Stacy G. , and Carolyn L. Funk . 1999. “Conflict Avoidance and Political Participation.” Political Behavior 21 (3): 265–82.
United States Department of Labor . 2004. http://www.dol.gov/wb/factsheets/nontra2000.htm.
Verba, Sidney , and Norman H. Nie . 1972. Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality. New York: Harper & Row.
Verba, Sidney , Kay Lehman Schlozman , and Henry E. Brady . 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Verba, Sidney , Kay Lehman Schlozman , Henry E. Brady , and Norman H. Nie . 1993. “Race, Ethnicity, and Political Resources: Participation in the United States.” British Journal of Political Science 23 (4): 453–97.
Verba, Sidney , Nancy Burns , and Kay Lehman Schlozman . 1997. “Knowing and Caring about Politics: Gender and Political Engagement.” Journal of Politics 59 (4): 1051–72.
Verba, Sidney. 1961. Small Groups and Political Behavior: A Study of Leadership. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Wald, Kenneth D. , Adam L. Silverman , and Kevin S. Fridy . 2005. “Making Sense of Religion in Political Life.” Annual Review of Political Science 8: 121–43.
Wald, Kenneth D. , Dennis Owen , and Samuel Hill . 1988. “Churches as Political Communities.” American Political Science Review 82: 531–48.
Wald, Kenneth D. , Dennis Owen , and Samuel Hill . 1990. “Political Cohesion in Churches.” Journal of Politics 52: 197–215.
Wald, Kenneth D. 1992. Religion and Politics in the United States. 2nd edn. Washington DC: CQ Press.
Wald, Kenneth D. 1997. Religion and Politics in the United States. 3rd edn. Washington DC: CQ Press.
Walsh, Katherine Cramer . 2004. Talking About Politics: Informal Groups and Social Identity in American Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Warner, R. Stephen . 1994. “The Place of the Congregation in the Contemporary American Religious Configuration.” In James P. Wind and James W. Lewis , eds. American Congregations, Volume 2: New Perspectives in the Study of Congregations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 54–99.
Warren, Mark E. 2001. Democracy and Association. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Watson, W. E ., K. Kumar , and L. K. Michaelson . 1993. “Cultural Diversity's Impact on Interaction Process and Performance: Comparing Homogenous and Diverse Task Groups.” Academy of Management Journal 36 (3): 590–602.
Wech, Barbara A. , Kevin W. Mossholder , Robert P. Steel , and Nathan Bennett . 1998. “Does Work Group Cohesiveness Affect Individuals' Performance and Organizational Commitment? A Cross-Level Examination.” Small Group Research 29 (4): 472–94.
Welch, Michael R. , David C. Leege , Kenneth D. Wald , and Lyman A. Kellstedt . 1993. “Are the Sheep Hearing the Shepherds? Cue Perceptions, Congregational Responses, and Political Communication Processes.” In David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt , eds. Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 235–54.
Wellman, James K. 1999. The Gold Coast Church and the Ghetto: Christ and Culture in Mainline Protestantism. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Wielhouwer, Peter , and Brad Lockerbie . 1994. “Party Contacting and Political Participation, 1952–90.” American Journal of Political Science 38 (1): 211–29.
Wielhouwer, Peter W. 2000. “Releasing the Fetters: Parties and the Mobilization of the African-American Electorate.” Journal of Politics 62 (1): 206–22.
Wilcox, Clyde , and Carin Larson . 2006. Onward Christian Soldiers? The Religious Right in American Politics. 3rd edn. Boulder: Westview Press.
Wilcox, Clyde , Ted Jelen , and David C. Leege . 1993. “Religious Group Identifications: Toward a Cognitive Theory of Religious Mobilization.” In David C. Leege and Lyman A. Kellstedt , eds. Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 72–99.
Wind, James P. , and James W. Lewis , eds. 1994a. American Congregations, Volume 1: Portraits of Twelve Religious Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wind, James P. , and James W. Lewis , eds. 1994b. American Congregations, Volume 2: New Perspectives in the Study of Congregations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Winter, Gibson. 1961. The Suburban Captivity of the Churches. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Wolfinger, Raymond , and Steven Rosenstone . 1980. Who Votes? New Haven: Yale University Press.
Wuthnow, Robert , and John H. Evans , eds. 2002b. The Quiet Hand of God: Faith-Based Activities and the Public Role of Mainline Protestantism. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wuthnow, Robert , and John H. Evans . 2002a. “Introduction.” In Robert Wuthnow and John H. Evans , eds. The Quiet Hand of God: Faith-Based Activities and the Public Role of Mainline Protestantism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1–26.
Wuthnow, Robert. 1988. The Restructuring of American Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Wuthnow, Robert. 1993. Sharing the Journey: Support Groups & the Quest for a New Community. New York: Free Press.
Wuthnow, Robert. 1999a. Growing Up Religious: Christians and Jews and Their Journeys of Faith. Boston: Beacon Press.
Wuthnow, Robert. 1999b. “Mobilizing Civic Engagement: The Changing Impact of Religious Involvement.” In Theda Skocpol and Morris P. Fiorina , eds. Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Zaller, John R. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zipp, John F. , and Joel Smith . 1979. “The Structure of Electoral Political Participation.” American Journal of Sociology 85: 167–77.
Zuckerman, Alan S. , ed. 2005. The Social Logic of Politics: Personal Networks as Contexts for Political Behavior. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.