A Primer of Conservation Genetics


A Primer of Conservation Genetics
  • By Richard Frankham


    By Jonathan D. Ballou


    By David A. Briscoe


    Illustrated by Karina H. McInnes

  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

    Online Publication Date:June 2012

    Online ISBN:9780511817359

    Hardback ISBN:9780521831109

    Paperback ISBN:9780521538275

  • Book DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511817359

    Subjects: Ecology and conservation , Genetics

Intended for those with a limited background in genetic studies, this concise, entry-level text in conservation genetics is presented in a user-friendly format, with main points clearly highlighted. Solved problems are provided throughout to help illustrate key equations, although a basic knowledge of Mendelian genetics and simple statistics is assumed. A glossary and suggestions for further reading provide additional support for the reader. Numerous pen-and-ink portraits of endangered species bring the material to life. Also available: Introduction to Conservation Genetics "...balance[s] student need for clarity and brevity with the requirements of conservation professionals for detailed applications." Choice 0-521-63014-2 Hardback $130.00 C 0-521-63985-9 Paperback $50.00 D


 Reviews:

"The authors have provided a stellar description of the key genetic principles and issues in conservation genetics. The book is so well crafted in its narrative, explained with case studies and illustrated with lovely drawings, that it provides a non-intimidating and even pleasurable portal into this important field within conservation biology." Natural Areas Journal

"This book will be a valuable asset for anyone involved with wildlife management who lacks a basic understanding of population genetics, and is perhaps intimidated by the increasing role of genetics in conservation planning and legal decision-making...The biggest strength of this book is its use of real-life examples, which serves to clarify difficult concepts and makes for an enjoyable read." - The Quarterly Review of Biology, Carla Hurt, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama

"...an undergraduate primer text in this discipline is very timely and relevant...a very nicely done book, and even though it is the only show in town at the moment on this topic in this format, we're fortunate that the first was in such good hands." - A. Rus Hoelzel, Durham University

"A Primer of Conservation Genetics is ideal for absolute beginners as well as those seeking to consolidate knowledge. The authors bring to the book the wealth of their own experience in laboratory experimentation, hands-on genetic management and empirical data collection ... So will A Primer of Conservation Genetics lead to greater advantage being taken of the opportunities offered by conservation genetics to aid in the preservation of our wondrous mammalian diversity? I believe its effective promotion of a greater understanding of genetic concepts is a major step in the right direction."
Australian Mammalogy Reviews

"... as an introduction to conservation genetics for the undergraduate or novice practicioner, this books is excellent, and there is presently no other resource that covers the subject at this level. I strongly recommend it to anyone who is involved in conservation, in any context and at any level, but who lacks a basic understanding of the genetic issues that are increasingly being recognized as a great importance in conservation biology."
Oryx

"All you need is in this book ... This is only a primer, and an excellent one, so good students will want more. It provides exactly what it says on the cover."
Biologist

"I enjoyed reading the Primer of Conservation Genetics, and I would definitely recommend it as a first introduction to the field of conservation genetics."
Plant Systematics and Evolution

"...it is written in an easy-to-read style, gives a good overview (or refresher for the older ones of us) and provides interesting examples. I felt that the book could also serve as a textbook for a graduate course on population genetics ... I enjoyed reading the Primer of Conservation Genetics, and I would definitely recommend it as a first introduction to the field of conservation genetics."
Plant Systematics and Evolution

Ecological Bulletin. 2000. Volume 48: Population Viability Analysis. Special issue on PVA. See especially papers by Akçakaya & Sjögren-Gulve, Akçakaya, and Lacy
Avise, J. C. & J. Hamrick. (eds.) 1996. Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman & Hall, New York. Advanced scientific reviews on the conservation of major groups of animals and plants, including considerable information on genetic diversity
Avise, J. C. & J. Hamrick. 1996. Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman & Hall, New York. Advanced scientific reviews that describe many cases of resolving taxonomic uncertainties with the aid of molecular genetic techniques
Avise, J. C. & J. L. Hamrick. (eds.) 1996. Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman & Hall, New York. Contains case histories on wild management of threatened species
Avise, J. C. & J. L. Hamrick. (eds.) 1996. Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman & Hall, New York. Scientific reviews containing examples of the use of genetic markers to understand species biology
Avise, J. C. 1994. Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution. Chapman & Hall, New York. Has a lucid treatment of the use of molecular genetic techniques to understand species biology
Avise, J. C. 1994. Molecular Markers, Natural History, and Evolution. Chapman & Hall, New York
Avise, J. C. 2000. Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA
Avise, J. C. 2000. Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. An excellent textbook on coalescence and phylogeography by the founder of the field
Baker, C. S. & S. R. Palumbi. 1996. Population structure, molecular systematics, and forensic identification of whales and dolphins. Pp. 10–49 in J. C. Avise & J. L. Hamrick, eds. Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman & Hall, New York
Ballou, J. D. & R. C. Lacy. 1995. Identifying genetically important individuals for management of genetic diversity in pedigreed populations. Pp. 76–111 in J. D. Ballou, M. Gilpin & T. J. Foose, eds. Population Management for Survival and Recovery: Analytical Methods and Strategies in Small Population Conservation. Columbia University Press, New York
Ballou, J. D., R. C. Lacy, D. Kleiman, A. Rylands & S. Ellis. 1998. Leontopithecus II: The Second Population and Habitat Viability Assessment for Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus): Final Report. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN), Apple Valley, MN
Ballou, J. D., T. J. Foose & M. Gilpin. 1995. Population Management for Survival and Recovery: Analytical Methods and Strategies in Small Population Conservation. Columbia University Press, New York. Advanced treatment of topics relating to captive breeding and reintroduction; see especially the chapters by Ballou & Lacy on use of minimize kinship in the captive management, and by Princée on genetic management of groups
Barone, M. A. , M. E. Roelke , J. Howard , J. L. Brown , A. E. Anderson & D. E. Wildt . 1994. Reproductive characteristics of male Florida panthers: comparative studies from Florida, Texas, Colorado, Latin America, and North American Zoos. J. Mammal. 75, 150–162
Beheregaray, L. B. , C. Ciofi , A. Caccone , J. P. Gibbs & J. R. Powell . 2002. Genetic divergence, phylogeography and conservation units of giant tortoises from Santa Cruz and Pinzón, Galápagos Islands. Conserv. Gen. 4, 31–46
Beheregaray, L. B. , P. Sunnucks , D. L. Alpers , S. C. Banks & A. C. Taylor . 2000. A set of microsatellite loci for the hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus krefftii and L. latifrons). Conserv. Genet. 1, 89–92
Beissinger, S. R. & D. R. McCullough. (eds.) 2002. Population Viability Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. Proceedings of a conference on PVA that reviews the contribution of PVA to endangered species management
Beissinger, S. R. & D. R. McCullough. 2002. Population Viability Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. Proceedings of a conference on PVA. See especially contributions by Mills & Lindberg, Ralls et al. and Shaffer et al
Berger, J. 1990. Persistence of different sized populations: an empirical assessment of rapid extinctions in bighorn sheep. Conserv. Biol. 4, 91–98
Botting, D. 1999. Biography of Gerald Durrell. Harper Collins, New York. An entertaining popular biography of a highly influential figure who encouraged leading zoos to be involved in conservation of endangered species
Bowen, B. W., F. A. Abreu-Grobois, G. H. Balazs, N. Kamenzaki, C. J. Limpus & R. J. Ferl. 1995. Trans-Pacific migrations of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) demonstrated with mitochondrial DNA markers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 3731–3734
Briggs, D. & S. M. Walters. 1997. Plant Variation and Evolution, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Reviews evidence for adaptive genetic changes in plants
Brook, B. W. & J. Kikkawa . 1998. Examining threats faced by island birds: a population viability analysis on the Capricorn silvereye using long-term data. J. Appl. Ecol. 35, 491–503
Claridge, M. F., H. A. Dawah & M. R. Wilson. 1997. Species: The Units of Biodiversity. Chapman & Hall, London. A collection of scientific papers on species, including the many different definitions
Clausen, J., D. D. Keck & W. M. Heisey. 1940. Experimental Studies on the Nature of Species, vol. 1, Environmental Responses of Climatic Races of Achillea. Carnegie Institute, Washington, DC
Constable, J. L. , M. V. Ashley , J. Goodall & A. E. Pusey . 2001. Noninvasive paternity assignment in Gombe chimpanzees. Molecular Ecology 10, 1279–1300
Crandall, K. A. , O. R. P. Bininda-Edmonds , G. M. Mace & R. K. Wayne . 2000. Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology: an alternative to ‘evolutionary significant units’. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15, 290–295
Crandall, K. A., O. R. P. Bininda-Edmonds, G. M. Mace & R. K. Wayne. 2000. Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology: an alternative to ‘evolutionarily significant units’. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15, 290–295. Method proposed for using genetic and ecological differences between populations within species as a basis for deciding on whether they deserve separate management
Culver, M. , W. E. Johnson , J. Pecon-Slattery & S. J. O'Brien . 2000. Genomic ancestry of the American puma (Puma concolor). J. Hered. 91, 186–197
Daniels, S. J., J. A. Priddy & J. R. Walters. 2000. Inbreeding in small populations of red-cockaded woodpeckers: analyses using a spatially-explicit simulation model. Pp. 129–147 in A. G. Young & G. M. Clarke, eds. Genetics, Demography and Viability in Fragmented Populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
Daugherty, C. H. , A. Cree , J. M. Hay & M. B. Thompson . 1990. Neglected taxonomy and continuing extinctions of tuatara (Sphenodon). Nature 347, 177–179
De Bois, H. , A. A. Dhondt & B. Van Puijenbroek . 1990. Effects of inbreeding on juvenile survival of the okapi Okapi johnstoni in captivity. Biol. Conserv. 54, 147–155
Dizon, A., G. Lento, S. Baker, P. Parsboll, F. Capriano & R. Reeves. 2000. Molecular genetic identification of whales, dolphins, and porpoises: Proceedings of a Workshop on the forensic Use of Molecular Techniques to Identify Wildlife Products in the Marketplace: NOA Technical Memorandum NMFS. US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC
Dobson, A. P., G. M. Mace, J. Poole & R. A. Brett. 1992. Conservation biology: the ecology and genetics of endangered species. Pp. 405–430 in R. J. Berry, T. J. Crawford & G. M. Hewitt, eds. Genes in Ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, UK
Ecological Bulletin. 2000. Volume 48: Population Viability Analysis. A special volume devoted to the process of PVA and its contributions to conservation
El-Kassaby, Y. A. & A. D. Yanchuk . 1994. Genetic diversity, differentiation, and inbreeding in Pacific yew from British Columbia. J. Hered. 85, 112–117
Eldridge, M. D. B. , J. M. King , A. K. Loupis , P. B. S. Spencer , A. C. Taylor , L. C. Pope & G. P. Hall . 1999. Unprecedented low levels of genetic variation and inbreeding depression in an island population of the black-footed rock wallaby. Conserv. Biol. 13, 531–541
England, P. R. 1997. Conservation genetics of population bottlenecks. PhD thesis, Macquaire University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Falconer, D. S. & T. F. C. Mackay. 1996. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, 4th edn. Longman, Harlow, UK Chapter 3 provides a very clear introduction to the topics in this chapter
Falconer, D. S. & T. F. C. Mackay. 1996. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, 4th edn. Longman, Harlow, UK. This textbook provides a very clear treatment of the topics in this chapter with a focus on animal breeding applications
Falk, D. A. & K. E. Holsinger. 1991. Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. Oxford University Press, New York. Contains a number of chapters on wild management of threatened plant species
Falk, D. A., C. I. Millar & M. Olwell. 1996. Restoring Diversity: Strategies for Reintroduction of Endangered Plants. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Wide-ranging coverage of plant reintroductions with several case studies
Fenner, F. & F. N. Ratcliffe. 1965. Myxomatosis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
Frankham, R. 1995. Inbreeding and extinction: a threshold effect. Conserv. Biol. 9, 792–799
Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou & D. A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Chapter 15 has a slightly extended treatment of these topics, along with references
Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou & D. A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Chapter 19 has a slightly extended treatments of these topics, plus references
Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou & D. A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Chapters 16 and 20 have extended treatments of these topics, along with references
Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou & D. A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Chapters 17 and 18 have extended treatments of these topics, plus references
Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou & D. A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Chapters 2, 12, 14 and 20 have extended treatments of these topics, along with references
Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou & D. A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Chapters 3–5 have extended treatments of these topics, plus references
Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou & D. A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Chapters 8, 10, 11 and 13 have extended treatments of these topics, along with references
Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou & D. A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Comprehensive textbook of conservation genetics. Chapter 1 has an extended treatment of these topics, plus references
Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou. & D. A. Briscoe. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Chapters 6, 7 and 9 have extended treatments of these topics, plus references
Fritsch, P. & L. H. Rieseberg. 1996. The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in conservation genetics. Pp. 54–73 in T. B. Smith & R. K. Wayne, eds. Molecular Approaches in Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York
Futuyma, D. J. 1998. Evolutionary Biology, 3rd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA
Futuyma, D. J. 1998. Evolutionary Biology, 3rd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA. A textbook with a broad readable coverage of evolution, adaptations and the genetic processes underlying them
Futuyma, D. J. 1998. Evolutionary Biology, 3rd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA. A textbook with an excellent readable coverage of speciation and the genetic processes underlying it
Gipps, J. H. W. 1991. Beyond Captive Breeding. Oxford University Press, New York. Covers a wide variety of issues related to reintroductions
Gottelli, D. , C. Sillero-Zubiri , G. D. Appelbaum , M. S. Roy , D. J. Girman , J. Garica-Moreno , E. A. Ostrander & R. K. Wayne . 1994. Molecular genetics of the most endangered canid: the Ethiopian wolf Canis simensis. Mol. Ecol. 3, 301–312
Grant, B. S. 1999. Fine tuning the peppered moth paradigm. Evolution 53, 980–984
Grativol, A. D. , J. D. Ballou & R. C. Fleischer . 2001. Microsatellite variation within and among recently fragmented populations of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). Conserv. Genet. 2, 1–9
Groombridge, J. J., C. G. Jones, M. W. Bruford & R. A. Nichols. 2000. ‘Ghost’ alleles of the Mauritius kestrel. Nature 403, 616
Hall, B. G. 2001. Phylogenetics Made Easy: A How-to Manual for Molecular Biologists. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA. A clearly written guide to building phylogenetic trees from molecular data
Hamrick, J. L. & M. J. W. Godt. 1989. Allozyme diversity in plant species. Pp. 43–63 in A. H. D. Brown, M. T. Clegg, A. L. Kahler & B. S. Weir, eds. Plant Population Genetics, Breeding, and Genetic Resources. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA
Hanski, I. & M. Gilpin. (eds.) 1997. Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics and Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. A fine collection of relevant papers on fragmented populations. See especially the chapters by Hedrick & Gilpin, Barton & Whitlock and Giles & Goudet
Hartl, D. L. & A. G. Clarke. 1997. Principles of Population Genetics, 3rd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA. A widely used textbook on population genetics
Hedrick, P. W. , P. S. Miller , E. Geffen & R. Wayne . 1997. Genetic evaluation of the three Mexican wolf lineages. Zoo Biol. 16, 47–69
Hedrick, P. W. 1983. Genetics of Populations. Science Books International, Boston, MA
Hedrick, P. W. 2000. Genetics of Populations, 2nd edn. Jones & Bartlett, Boston, MA. Chapters 5–7 provide clear treatments of many of the genetic issues relating to small populations and population fragmentation
Hedrick, P. W. 2000. Genetics of Populations, 2nd edn. Jones & Bartlett, Boston, MA. This textbook has extensive, authoritative treatments of many of the topics in this chapter
Hedrick, P. W. 2000. Genetics of Populations, 2nd edn. Jones & Bartlett, Sudbury, MA
Hoelzel, A. R. (ed.) 1998. Molecular Genetic Analysis: A Practical Approach, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. An edited book with technical details and case studies on the use of molecular genetic methods to illuminate aspects of species biology
Houlden, B. A. , B. H. Costello , D. Sharkely , E. V. Fowler , A. Melzer , W. Ellis , F. Carrick , P. R. Baverstock & M. S. Elphinstone . 1998. Phylogeographic differentiation in the mitochondrial control region in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss 1817). Mol. Ecol. 8, 999–1011
Houlden, B. A. , P. R. England , A. C. Taylor , W. D. Greville & W. B. Sherwin . 1996. Low genetic variability of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus in southeastern Australia. Mol. Ecol. 5, 269–281
Houle, D. , B. Morikawa & M. Lynch . 1996. Comparing mutational variabilities. Genetics 143, 1467–1483
IUCN. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland
IUCN. 2002. Red List of Threatened Species. Website with full details of the international recognized IUCN categorization system for designating threatened species, plus up-to-date summaries of the proportions of species threatened in different major groups and categorization lists for animals and links to a plant database
Kettlewell, H. B. D. 1973. The Evolution of Melanism. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK
Kulhavy, D. L., R. G. Hooper & R. Costa. 1995. Red-cockaded Woodpecker: Recovery, Ecology and Management. Center for Applied Studies, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX
Land, D. E. & R. C. Lacy . 2000. Introgression level achieved through Florida panther genetic restoration. Endang. Sp. Updates 17, 99–103
Lanza, R. P., B. L. Draper & P. Damiani. 2000. Cloning Noah's ark. Scientific American 87 (5), 84–89. Describes actual and potential uses of artificial reproductive technologies in conservation
Leakey, R. & R. Lewin. 1995. The Sixth Extinction: Biodiversity and its Survival. Phoenix, London. Account of the biodiversity crisis written for a general audience
Lens, L. , P. Galbusera , T. Brooks , E. Waiyaki & T. Schenck . 1998. Highly skewed sex ratios in the critically endangered Taita thrush as revealed by CHD genes. Biodiver. Conserv. 7, 869–873
Lu, Z. , W. E. Johnson , M. A. Menotti-Raymond , N. Yuhki , J. S. Martenson , S. Mainka , H. Shi-Quiang , Z. Zhihe , G. Li , W. Pan , X. Mao & S. J. O'Brien . 2001. Patterns of genetic diversity in remaining giant panda populations. Conserv. Biol. 15, 1596–1607
Lynch, M. & B. Walsh. 1998. Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA
Madsen, T. , R. Shine , M. Olsson & H. Wittzell . 1999. Restoration of an inbred adder population. Nature 402, 34–35
Majerus, M. E. N. 1998. Melanism: Evolution in Action. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK
Meffe, G. K. & C. R. Carroll. 1997. Principles of Conservation Biology, 2nd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA. Basic textbook in conservation biology, with a reasonable coverage of genetic issues
Milne, H. & F. W. Robertson . 1965. Polymorphism in egg albumen and behaviour in eider ducks. Nature 205, 367–369
Moritz, C., J. Worthington Wilmer, L. Pope, W. B. Sherwin, A. C. Taylor & C. J. Limpus. 1996. Applications of genetics to the conservation and management of Australian fauna: four case studies from Queensland. Pp. 442–456 in T. B. Smith & R. K. Wayne, eds. Molecular Genetic Approaches to Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York
Nei, M. & S. Kumar. 2000. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New York. Textbook on genetic distances and molecular methods in taxonomy
Norman, J. , P. Olsen & L. Christidis . 1998. Molecular genetics confirms taxonomic affinities of the endangered Norfolk Island boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata . Biol. Conserv. 86, 33–36
Nunney, L. & K. A. Campbell . 1993. Assessing minimum viable population size: demography meets population genetics. Trends Ecol. Evol. 8, 234–239
Olney, P. J. S., G. M. Mace & A. T. C. Feistner. 1994. Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals. Chapman & Hall, London. Considers many of the issues dealt with in this chapter and has several case studies
Pitman, N. C. A. & P. M. J⊘rgensen. 2002. Estimating the size of the World's threatened flora. Science 298, 989
Primack, R. B. 2002. Essentials of Conservation Biology, 3rd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA. Basic textbook in conservation biology with a good, but limited coverage of genetic issues
Princée, F. P. G. 1995. Overcoming the constraints of social structure and incomplete pedigree data through low-intensity genetic management. Pp. 124–154 in J. D. Ballou, M. Gilpin & T. J. Foose, eds. Population Management for Survival and Recovery: Analytical Methods and Strategies in Small Population Conservation. Columbia University Press, New York
Ralls, K. & J. Ballou. 1983. Extinction: lessons from zoos. Pp. 164–184 in C. M. Schonewald-Cox, S. M. Chambers, B. MacBryde & L. Thomas, eds. Genetics and Conservation: A Reference for Managing Wild Animal and Plant Populations. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA
Ralls, K. , J. D. Ballou , B. A. Rideout & R. Frankham . 2000. Genetic management of chondrodystrophy in the California condor. Anim. Conserv. 3, 145–153
Ralls, K., J. D. Ballou & A. Templeton. 1988. Estimates of lethal equivalents and the cost of inbreeding in mammals. Conservation Biology 2, 185–193. Classic paper on the impacts of inbreeding on captive mammals
Reed, D. H. , J. J. O'Grady , B. W. Brook , J. D. Ballou & R. Frankham . 2003. Estimates of minimum viable population size for vertebrates and factors influencing those estimates. Biol. Conserv. 113, 23–34
Rich, S. S., A. E. Bell & S. P. Wilson. 1979. Genetic drift in small populations of Tribolium. Evolution 33, 579–583
Rieseberg, L. H. & S. M. Swensen. 1996. Conservation genetics of endangered island plants. Pp. 305–334 in J. C. Avise & J. L. Hamrick, eds. Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman & Hall, New York
Roelke, M. E. , J. Martenson & S. J. O'Brien . 1993. The consequences of demographic reduction and genetic depletion in the endangered Florida panther. Curr. Biol. 3, 340–350
Saccheri, I. , M. Kuussaari , M. Kankare , P. Vikman , W. Fortelius & I. Hanski . 1998. Inbreeding and extinction in a butterfly metapopulation. Nature 392, 491–494
Saccheri, I., M. Kuussaari, M. Kankare, P. Vikman, W. Fortelius & I. Hanski. 1998. Inbreeding and extinction in a butterfly metapopulation. Nature 392, 491–494. Describes the first direct evidence that inbreeding contributes to the extinction of wild populations in nature
Seebeck, J. H. & P. G. Johnson . 1980. Potorous longipes (Marsupialia: Macropidae): a new species from Eastern Victoria. Aust. J. Zool. 28, 119–134
Seymour, A. M. , M. E. Montgomery , B. H. Costello , S. Ihle , G. Johnsson , B. John , D. Taggart & B. A. Houlden . 2001. High effective inbreeding coefficients correlate with morphological abnormalities in populations of South Australian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Anim. Conserv. 4, 211–219
Sherwin, W. B. , P. Timms , J. Wilcken & B. Houlden . 2000. Analysis and conservation implications of koala genetics. Conserv. Biol. 14, 639–649
Sloane, M. A. , P. Sunnucks , D. Alpers , L. B. Beheregaray & A. C. Taylor . 2000. Highly reliable genetic identification of individual northern hairy-nosed wombats from single remotely collected hairs: a feasible censusing method. Mol. Ecol. 9, 1233–1240
Smith, H. G. 1993. Heritability of tarsus length in cross-fostered broods of the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Heredity 71, 318–322
Smith, T. B. & R. K. Wayne. (eds.) 1996. Molecular Genetic Approaches in Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York. Contains information on genetic diversity in threatened species and the diverse molecular methods for measuring it. Advanced
Smith, T. B. & R. K. Wayne. (eds.) 1996. Molecular Genetic Approaches in Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York. This book contains much technical detail and many examples of the use of molecular genetic analyses to understand species biology
Smith, T. B. , L. A. Freed , J. K. Lepson & J. H. Carothers . 1995. Evolutionary consequences of extinctions in populations of a Hawaiian honeycreeper. Conserv. Biol. 9, 107–113
Soulé, M. E. & D. Simberloff . 1986. What do genetics and ecology tell us about the design of nature reserves? Biol. Conserv. 35, 19–40
Stangel, P. W. , M. R. Lennartz & M. H. Smith . 1992. Genetic variation and population structure of Red-cockaded woodpeckers. Conserv. Biol. 6, 283–292
Sukumar, R. , U. Ramakrishnan & J. A. Santosh . 1998. Impact of poaching on an Asian elephant population in Periyar, southern India: a model of demography and tusk harvest. Anim. Conserv. 1, 281–291
Sun, M. 1996. The allopolyploid origin of Spiranthes hongkongensis (Orchidaceae). Am. J. Bot. 83, 252–260
Sunnucks, P. 2000. Efficient markers for population biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15, 199–203. Recent review on the use of molecular genetic methods in population biology and conservation
Tarr, C. L. , S. Conant & R. C. Fleischer . 1998. Founder events and variation at microsatellite loci in an insular passerine bird, the Laysan finch (Telespiza cantans). Mol. Ecol. 7, 729–731
Taylor, A. C. , A. Horsup , C. N. Johnson , P. Sunnucks & W. B. Sherwin . 1997. Relatedness structure detected by microsatellite analysis and attempted pedigree reconstruction in an endangered marsupial, the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii. Mol. Ecol. 6, 9–19
Taylor, A. C. , W. B. Sherwin & R. K. Wayne . 1994. Genetic variation of microsatellite loci in a bottlenecked species: the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii. Mol. Ecol. 3, 277–290
Templeton, A. R. 1998. Nested clade analyses of phylogeographic data: testing hypotheses about gene flow and population history. Mol. Ecol. 7, 381–397
Thomas, C. D. 1990. What do real populations tell us about minimum viable population sizes? Conserv. Biol. 4, 324–327
Ward, R. D. , D. O. F. Skibinski & M. Woodwark . 1992. Protein heterozygosity, protein structure, and taxonomic differentiation. Evol. Biol. 26, 73–159
Weigensberg, I. & D. A. Roff. 1996. Natural heritabilities: can they be reliably estimated in the laboratory? Evolution 50, 2149–2157
Westemeier, R. L. , J. D. Brawn , S. A. Simpson , T. L. Esker , R. W. Jansen , J. W. Walk , E. L. Kershner , J. L. Bouzat & K. N. Paige . 1998. Tracking the long-term decline and recovery of an isolated population. Science 282, 1695–1698
Westemeier, R. L., J. D. Brawn, S. A. Simpson, T. L. Esker, R. W. Jansen, J. W. Walk, E. L. Kershner, J. L. Bouzart & K. N. Paige. 1998. Tracking the long-term decline and recovery of an isolated population. Science 282, 1695–1698. Describes the decline of a small, isolated greater prairie chicken population in Illinois due to loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding, and its recovery following introduction of unrelated birds from other states
Woodford, J. 2000. The Wollemi Pine: The Incredible Discovery of a Living Fossil from the Age of the Dinosaurs. Text Publishing, Melbourne, Australia. An interesting, well-written popular book on the discovery, conservation and genetics of the Wollemi pine
Xu, X. & U. Arnason . 1996. The mitochondrial DNA molecule of Sumatran orangutan and a molecular proposal for two (Bornean and Sumatran) species of orangutan. J. Mol. Evol. 43, 431–437
Young, A. G., A. H. D. Brown, B. G. Murray, P. H. Thrall & C. H. Miller. 2000. Genetic erosion, restricted mating and reduced viability in fragmented populations of the endangered grassland herb Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides. Pp. 335–359 in A. G. Young & G. M. Clarke, eds. Genetics, Demography and Viability of Fragmented Populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Describes fitness consequences of loss of genetic diversity for self-incompatibility alleles in an endangered plant
Zhi, L. , W. B. Karesh , D. N. Janczewski , H. Frazier-Taylor , D. Sajuthi , F. Gombek , M. Andau , J. S. Martenson & S. J. O'Brien . 1996. Genetic differentiation among natural populations of orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Curr. Biol. 6, 1326–1336