The Dynamics of International Law

Paul F. Diehl and Charlotte Ku's new framework for international law divides it into operating and normative systems. The authors provide a theory of how these two systems interact, which explains how changes in one system precipitate changes and create capacity in the other. A punctuated equilibrium theory of system evolution, drawn from studies of biology and public policy studies, provides the basis for delineating the conditions for change and helps explain a pattern of international legal change that is often infrequent and sub-optimal, but still influential.


"Diehl and Ku's book, particularly its focus on the normative and operating systems, contributes nicely to this growing literature on international legal change."
Jacob Katz CoganUniversity of Cincinnati College of Law

Reference Type: reference-list

Abbott, K. W. 1999. “International Relations Theory, International Law, and the Regime Governing Atrocities in Internal Conflicts,” American Journal of International Law 93 (2): 361–79
Abbott, K. W. and D. Snidal 2000. “Hard and Soft Law in International Governance,” International Organization 54 (3): 421–56
Aceves, W. J. 2000. “Liberalism and International Legal Scholarship: The Pinochet Case and the Move Toward a Universal System of Transnational Law Litigation,” Harvard International Law Journal 41 (1): 129–84
Adler, E. and P. M. Haas 1992. “Conclusion: Epistemic Communities, World Order, and the Creation of a Reflective Research Program,” International Organization 46 (1): 367–90
Alston, L. 2000. “A Framework for Understanding the New Institutional Economics,” unpublished paper
Alter, K. and S. Meunier 2009. “The Politics of International Regime Complexity,” Perspectives on Politics 7 (1): 13–24
Alvarez, J. 2002. “The New Treaty Makers,” Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 25 (2): 213–34
Alvarez, J. 2005. International Organizations as Law-makers. Oxford: Oxford University Press
American Society of International Law 1998. Trilateral Perspectives on International Legal Issues: From Theory into Practice. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers
Anghie, A. 2004. Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Annan, K. 2000. We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century. New York: United Nations
Arend, A. 1999. Legal Rules and International Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Arrieta, J. I. 2000. Governance Structures within the Catholic Church. Montreal: Wilson & Lafleur
Arzt, D. and I. Lukashuk 1995. “Participants in International Legal Relations,” in L. F. Damrosch , G. Danilenko , and R. Mullerson (eds.), Beyond Confrontation: International Law for the Post-Cold War Era. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 61–92
Aust, A. 2005. Handbook of International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Avdeyera, O. 2007. “When Do States Comply with International Treaties? Policies on Violence against Women in Post-Communist Countries,” International Studies Quarterly 51 (4): 877–900
Aviel, J. F. 2000. “Placing Human Rights and Environmental Issues on ASEAN Agenda: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations,” Asian Journal of Political Science 8 (2): 17–34
Aviram, A. 2004. “A Paradox of Spontaneous Formation: The Evolution of Private Legal Systems,” Yale Law and Policy Review 22 (1): 1–68
Axelrod, R. and R. Keohane 1985. “Achieving Cooperation Under Anarchy: Strategies and Institutions,” in K. Oye (ed.), Cooperation Under Anarchy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 226–54
Barnett, M. 1995. “The United Nations and Global Security: The Norm is Mightier than the Sword,” Ethics and International Affairs 9: 37–54
Barnett, M. and M. Finnemore 2004. Rules for the World: International Organizations in Global Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Barrett, S. 2003. Environment and Statecraft: The Strategy of Environmental Treaty-making. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Barrett, S. 2007. Why Cooperate? The Incentive to Supply Global Public Goods. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Baumgartner, F. and B. Jones 1993. Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Beck, R. 1996. “International Law and International Relations: The Prospects for Interdisciplinary Collaboration,” in R. Beck , A. Arend , and R. Vander Lugt (eds.), International Rules: Approaches from International Law and International Relations. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 3–33
Bederman, D. J. 2001. International Law in Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Bederman, D. J. 2002. The Spirit of International Law. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press
Bentham, J. 1970. Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham. J. H. Burns and H. L. A. Hart (eds.). London: Athlone Press
Berman, P. S. 2005. The Globalization of International Law. London: Ashgate
Berman, P. S. 2007a. “Global Legal Pluralism,” Southern California Law Review 80 (6): 1155–1238
Berman, P. S. 2007b. “A Pluralist Approach to International Law,” Yale Journal of International Law 32 (2): 301–29
Bianchi, A. 1999. “Immunity and Human Rights: The Pinochet Case ,” European Journal of International Law 10 (2): 237–77
Bodin, J. 1992. On Sovereignty: Four Chapters from the Six Books of the Commonwealth, (ed. and trans.) J. H. Franklin . New York: Cambridge University Press
Boulding, K. 1985. The World as a Total System. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications
Boutros-Ghali, B. 1995. An Agenda for Peace. New York: United Nations
Bradlow, D. 2005. “Private Complainants and International Organizations: A Comparative Study of the Independent Inspection Mechanisms in International Financial Institutions,” Georgetown Journal of International Law 36 (2): 403–94
Breen, C. 2003. “The Role of NGOs in the Formulation of and Compliance with the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict,” Human Rights Quarterly 25 (2): 453–81
Brierly, J. L. 1963. The Law of Nations: An Introduction to the International Law of Peace, 6th edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Brunnée, J. 2004. “The United States and International Environmental Law: Living with an Elephant,” European Journal of International Law 15 (4): 617–49
Brunnée, J. and S. J. Toope 2000. “International Law and Constructivism: Elements of an International Theory of International Law,” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 39 (1): 19–74
Buergenthal, T. 1997. “Modern Constitutions and Human Rights Treaties,” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 36 (1/2): 211–24
Buergenthal, T. 2006. “The Evolving International Human Rights System,” American Journal of International Law 100 (4): 783–807
Bull, H. 1977. The Anarchical Society. New York: Columbia University Press
Bunn, I. D. 2004. “Global Advocacy for Corporate Accountability: Transatlantic Perspectives from the NGO Community,” American University International Law Review 19 (6): 1256–1306
Burci, G. L. 2005. “Institutional Adaptation without Reform: WHO and the Challenges of Globalization,” International Organizations Law Review 2: 437–43
Burke-White, W. 2002. “A Community of Courts: Toward a System of International Criminal Law Enforcement,” Michigan Journal of International Law 24: 1–101
Burley (Slaughter), A. M. and W. Mattli 1993. “Europe before the Court: A Political Theory of Legal Integration,” International Organization 47 (1): 41–76
Cakmak, C. 2004. “The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Norm Creation Process in the Field of Human Rights,” Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations 3 (1): 100–22
Calabresi, G. 1961. “Some Thoughts on Risk Distribution and the Law,” Yale Law Journal 70 (3): 499–553
Capoccia, G. and D. Keleman 2007. “The Study of Critical Junctures. Theory, Narrative, and Counterfactuals in Historical Institutionalism,” World Politics 59 (April): 341–69
Carr, E. H. 1964. The Twenty Years' Crisis: 1919–1939. New York: Harper & Row
Cassese, A. 1986. International Law in a Divided World. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Charlesworth, H., C. M. Chinkin, and S. Wright 1999. “Feminist Methods in International Law,” American Journal of International Law 93 (2): 379–94
Charney, J. I. 1993. “Universal International Law,” American Journal of International Law 87 (4): 529–51
Charney, J. I. 1999. “The Proliferation of Courts and Tribunals: Piercing Together the Puzzle,” New York University Journal of International Law 31: 697–708
Charnovitz, S. 2006. “Nongovernmental Organizations and International Law,” American Journal of International Law 100 (2): 348–72
Chayes, A. and A. H. Chayes 1993. “On Compliance,” International Organization 47 (2): 175–205
Chayes, A. and A. H. Chayes 1995. The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Chayes, A. , T. Ehrlich , and A. Lowenfeld 1968. International Legal Process: Materials for an Introductory Course. Boston: Little, Brown and Company
Chinkin, C. M. 1989. “The Challenge of Soft Law: Development and Change in International Law,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 38: 850–66
Chinkin, C. M. 2000. “Normative Development in the International Legal System,” in D. Shelton (ed.), Commitment and Compliance: The Role of Non-binding Norms in the International Legal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 21–42
Cioffi-Revilla, C. 1998. “The Political Uncertainty of Interstate Rivalries: A Punctuated Equilibrium Model,” in P. F. Diehl (ed.), The Dynamics of Enduring Rivalries. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp. 64–97
Claude, I. L. 1966. “Collective Legitimization as a Political Function of the United Nations,” International Organization 20 (2): 367–79
Coase, R. 1960. “The Problem of Social Cost,” Journal of Law and Economics 3 (1): 1–44
Cohen, C. P. 1990. “The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations in the Drafting of the Convention on the Rights of the Child,” Human Rights Quarterly 12 (1): 137–47
Cohen, M. , J. March , and J. Olsen 1972. “A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice,” Administrative Science Quarterly 17 (1): 1–25
Colaresi, M. 2001. “Shocks to the System: Great Power Rivalry and the Leadership Long-cycle,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 45 (5): 569–93
Cook, R. 2004. “Dynamic Content: The Strategic Contingency of International Law,” Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 14 (1): 89–123
Cooter, R. and T. Ulen 1987. Law and Economics. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman
Cover, R. 1983. “The Supreme Court, 1982 Term – Foreword: Nomos and Narrative,” Harvard Law Review 97 (1): 4–68
Cox, R. W. and H. K. Jacobson 1973. The Anatomy of Influence: Decision Making in International Organization. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Crawford, J. 2002. The International Law Commission's Articles on State Responsibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Crow, M. E. 2004. “Smokescreens and State Responsibility: Using Human Rights Strategies to Promote Global Tobacco Controls,” Yale Journal of International Law 29 (1): 209–50
Dahl, R. A. 1998. On Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Dai, X. 2007. International Institutions and National Policies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Damrosch, L. 2004. “Brief of International Law Experts and Former Diplomats as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioner,” Appeal from the District Court of Oklahoma, County, State of Oklahoma, CF-1993–4302
Damrosch, L. F. and B. H. Oxman 2004. “Editors' Introduction to Agora: The United States Constitution and International Law,” American Journal of International Law 98 (1): 42–3
Danner, A. M. 2006. “When Courts Make Law: How the International Criminal Tribunal Recast the Law of War,” Vanderbilt Law Review 59 (1): 1–57
Deehr, M. 1991. “A Proposal for the International Monitoring of Potential Genocide Conditions,” Wisconsin International Law Journal 9 (2): 491–514
Dessler, D. 1989. “What's at Stake in the Agent–Structure Debate?” International Organization 43 (2): 441–73
Deutsch, K. and J. D. Singer 1964. “Multipolar Power Systems and International Stability,” World Politics 16 (3): 390–406
Diehl, P. F. 2001. “International Law: Stepchild in Social Science Research,” International Studies Review 3 (1): 4–9
Diehl, P. F. and G. Goertz 2000. War and Peace in International Rivalry. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Downs, G. , D. Rocke , and P. Barsoom 1996. “Is the Good News about Compliance Good News about Cooperation?” International Organization 50 (3): 379–406
Dubinsky, P. 2005. “Human Rights Law Meets Private Law Harmonization,” Yale Journal of International Law 30 (1): 211–317
Duffield, J. 2003. “The Limits of Rational Design,” International Organization 57 (2): 413–30
Dunoff, J. and J. Trachtman 1999. “The Law and Economics of Humanitarian Law Violations in Internal Conflict,” American Journal of International Law 93 (2): 394–409
Durant, R. and P. F. Diehl 1989. “Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policy: Lessons from the US Foreign Policy Arena,” Journal of Public Policy 9 (2): 179–205
Eldredge, N. 1985. Time Frames: The Evolution of Punctuated Equilibria. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Eldredge, N. 1995. Reinventing Darwin: The Great Evolutionary Debate. New York: Wiley
Ellickson, R. 1991. Order Without Law. How Neighbors Settle Disputes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Evans, P. B. , H. K. Jacobson , and R. Putnam 1993 (eds.). Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press
Fauchald, O. K. 2008. “The Legal Reasoning of ICSID Tribunals: An Empirical Analysis,” European Journal of International Law 19 (2): 301–64
Fawcett, J. E. S. 1968. The Law of Nations. New York: Basic Books
Fearon, J. 1998. “Bargaining, Enforcement, and International Cooperation,” International Organization 52 (2): 269–305
Ferstman, C. 1997. “Domestic Trials for Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity: The Example of Rwanda,” African Journal of International and Comparative Law 9 (4): 857–77
Finlayson, J. and M. Zacher 1981. “The GATT and the Regulation of Trade Barriers: Regime Dynamics and Functions,” International Organization 35 (4): 561–602
Finnemore, M. 1996. National Interests in International Society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Franck, T. M. 1990. The Power of Legitimacy among Nations. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Friedmann, W. 1966. The Changing Structure of International Law. New York: Columbia University Press
Gamble, J. K. 1980. “Reservations to Multilateral Treaties: A Macroscopic View of State Practice,” American Journal of International Law 74 (2): 372–94
Gamble, J. K. 2006. “The Comprehensive Statistical Database of Multilateral Treaties (CSDMT) Project.” Paper presented at the Shambaugh Conference, “Building Synergies: Institutions and Cooperation in World Politics,” Iowa City, IA
Genco, S. 1980. “Integration Theory and System Change in Western Europe: The Neglected Role of Systems Transformation Episodes,” in O. Holsti , R. Siverson , and A. L. George (eds.), Change in the International System. Boulder, CO: Westview, pp. 55–80
George, A. L. 1979. “The Causal Nexus between Cognitive Beliefs and Decision-Making Behavior: The ‘Operational Code’ Belief System,” in L. Falkowski (ed.), Psychological Models in International Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview, pp. 104–24
George, A. L. and T. McKeown 1985. “Case Studies and Theories of Organizational Decision Making,” in R. Coulam and R. A. Smith (eds.), Advances in Information Processing in Organizations, vol. II, Research on Public Organizations. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, pp. 21–58
Gilligan, M. 2006. “Is Enforcement Necessary for Effectiveness? A Model of the International Criminal Regime,” International Organization 60 (4): 935–67
Ginsburg, T. 2005. “Bounded Discretion in International Judicial Lawmaking,” Virginia Journal of International Law 45 (3): 631–73
Ginsburg, T. 2006. “Locking in Democracy. Constitutions, Commitment, and International Law,” International Law and Politics 38: 707–59
Giorgia, G. 1992. “Positivism and Dualism in Dionisio Anzilotti,” European Journal of International Law 3 (1): 123–38
Goertz, G. 2003. International Norms and Decision Making: A Punctuated Equilibrium Model. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield
Goertz, G. and P. F. Diehl 1992. “Toward a Theory of International Norms: Some Conceptual and Measurement Issues,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 36 (4): 634–64
Goertz, G. , B. Jones , and P. F. Diehl 2005. “Maintenance Processes in International Rivalries,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (5): 742–69
Goertz, G. and H. Starr 2002. Necessary Conditions: Theory, Methodology, and Applications. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield
Goldsmith, J. and E. Posner 2005. The Limits of International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Goldstein, J. , M. Kahler , R. O. Keohane , and A. M. Slaughter 2000. “Legalization and World Politics,” International Organization 54 (3): 401–758
Gould, S. J. 1983. Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes. New York: W. W. Norton
Gould, S. J. and N. Eldredge 1993. “Punctuated Equilibrium Comes of Age,” Nature 366: 223–7
Green, S. 1997. “A Campaign to Sweep Away Danger,” Chronicle of Philanthropy (20 October): 60
Gross, L. 1948. “The Peace of Westphalia, 1648–1948,” American Journal of International Law 42 (1): 20–41
Grotius, H. 1925. “De jure belli ac pacis. Libri tres,” (trans.) F. W. Kelwey , in J. B. Scott (ed.), The Classics of International Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Gruber, L. 2005. “Power Politics and the Institutionalization of International Relations,” in M. Barnett and R. Duvall (eds.), Power in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 102–29
Guzman, A. 2005. “The Design of International Agreements,” European Journal of International Law 16 (4): 579–612
Guzman, A. 2008. How International Law Works. A Rational Choice Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Haas, E. 1990. When Knowledge is Power: Three Models of Change in International Organizations. Berkeley: University of California Press
Haas, P. M. 1992. “Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination,” International Organization 46 (1): 1–35
Hall, P. and K. Thelen 2006. “Institutional Change in Varieties of Capitalism.” Paper presented for the Europeanists Conference, Chicago
Halperin, M. 1974. Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution
Hart, H. L. A. 1961. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Hart, H. L. A. 1994. The Concept of Law, 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Hasenclever, A. , P. Mayer , and V. Rittberger 1997. Theories of International Regimes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Hathaway, O. A. 2007. “Why Do Countries Commit to Human Rights Treaties?” Journal of Conflict Resolution 51 (4): 588–621
Hawkins, D. 2004. “Explaining Costly International Institutions: Persuasion and Enforceable Human Rights Norms,” International Studies Quarterly 48: 779–804
Heldring, F. 1988. “Can the US Dollar Survive as a World Reserve Currency?” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 500: 23–32
Helfer, L. R. 2005. “Exiting Treaties,” Virginia Law Review 91 (7): 1579–1648
Helfer, L. R. 2006. “Response: Not Fully Committed? Reservations, Risk, and Treaty Design,” Yale Journal of International Law 31 (2): 367–82
Helfer, L. R. 2008a. “Nonconsensual International Lawmaking,” Illinois Law Review 102 (1): 71–125
Helfer, L. R. 2008b. “Redesigning the European Court of Human Rights: Embeddedness as a Deep Structural Principle of the European Human Rights Regime,” European Journal of International Law 19 (1): 125–59
Helfer, L. and A. M. Slaughter 2005. “Why States Create International Tribunals: A Response to Professors Posner and Yoo,” California Law Review 93 (3): 901–56
Henkin, L. 1968. How Nations Behave: Law and Foreign Policy. New York: Columbia University Press
Henkin, L. 1995. International Law: Politics and Values. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Henkin, L. and J. L. Hargrove 1994 (eds.). Human Rights: An Agenda for the Next Century. Washington, DC: American Society for International Law
Higgins, R. 1968. “Policy Considerations and the International Judicial Process,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 17 (1): 58–84
Higgins, R. 1994. Problems and Process: International Law and How We Use It. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Hollis, D. B. 2005. “Why State Consent Still Matters: Non-State Actors, Treaties, and the Changing Sources of International Law,” Berkeley Journal of International Law 23 (1): 137–74
Huntington, S. P. 1991. The Third Wave. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press
Ikenberry, G. J. and C. Kupchan 1990. “Socialization and Hegemonic Power,” International Organization 44 (3): 283–315
International Law Association , 1998. Committee on Cultural Heritage. Report of the Sixty-Eighth Conference. Available at http://whc.
Janis, M. W. 1988/1993. An Introduction to International Law. Boston: Little, Brown and Company
Jennings, R. Y. 1938. “The Caroline and McLeod Cases,” American Journal of International Law 32 (10): 82–99
Jervis, R. 1997. System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Joyner, C. C. 2006. “International Law Is as International Theory Does?” American Journal of International Law 100 (1): 248–58
Joyner, C. C. 2007. “The Responsibility to Protect: Humanitarian Concerns and the Lawfulness of Armed Intervention,” Virginia Journal of International Law 47 (3): 693–724
Kader, D. 1991. “Progress and Limitations in Basic Genocide Law,” in I. Charny (ed.), Genocide: A Critical Bibliographical Review, vol. II. London: Mansell, pp. 141–5
Kaldor, M. 2003. Global Civil Society: An Answer to War. Cambridge: Polity Press
Kaplan, M. A. 1957. System and Process in International Politics. New York: Wiley
Keck, M. E. and K. Sikkink 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Kegley, C. 2008. World Politics: Trend and Transformation. Boston, MA: Thomson/Wadsworth
Kennedy, D. 1986. “Primitive Legal Scholarship,” Harvard Journal of International Law 27 (1): 1–98
Kennedy, D. 1997. “New Approaches to Comparative Law: Comparativism and International Governance,” Utah Law Review 2: 545–637
Kennedy, D. and C. Tennant 1994. “New Approaches to International Law: A Bibliography,” Harvard Journal of International Law 35 (2): 417–60
Kent, H. S. K. 1954. “The Historical Origins of the Three-Mile Limit,” American Journal of International Law 48 (4): 537–53
Keohane, R. 1980. “The Theory of Hegemonic Stability and Changes in International Economic Regimes, 1967–1977,” in O. Holsti , R. Siverson , and A. George (eds.), Change in the International System. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 131–62
Keohane, R. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Keohane, R. 1986 (ed.). Neorealism and Its Critics. New York: Columbia University Press
Keohane, R. and J. Nye 2000. “Introduction,” in J. Nye and J. D. Donahue (eds.), Governance in a Globalizing World. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, pp. 18–20
Kindleberger, C. 1973. The World in Depression, 1929–1939. London: Penguin Press
Kingdon, J. W. 1995. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. New York: Harper Collins
Kirsch, P. 2007. “The Role of the International Criminal Court in Enforcing International Criminal Law,” American University International Law Review 22: 539–47
Kissinger, H. 2001. “The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction,” Foreign Affairs 80 (4): 86–96
Klir, G. and B. Yuan 1995. Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications. New York: Prentice-Hall
Klotz, A. 1995. Norms in International Relations: The Struggle against Apartheid. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Koenig, C. 1991. “Observer Status for the ICRC at the United Nations: A Legal Viewpoint,” International Review of the Red Cross 280: 37–48
Koh, H. 1997. “Why Do Nations Obey International Law?” Yale Law Journal 106: 2599–659
Koh, H. 2002. “Opening Remarks: Transnational Legal Process Illuminated,” in M. Likosky (ed.), Transnational Legal Process: Globalisation and Power Disparities. London: Butterworths, pp. 327–32
Konig, T. and S. Hug 2000. “Ratifying Maastricht,” European Union Politics 1 (1): 93–124
Koremenos, B. , C. Lipson , and D. Snidal 2003 (eds.). The Rational Design of International Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Koskienniemi, M. 2001. The Gentle Civilizer of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870–1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Krasner, S. 1983 (ed.). International Regimes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Krasner, S. 1984. “Approaches to the State: Alternative Conceptions and Historical Dynamics,” Comparative Politics 16 (2): 223–46
Kriehbiel, K. 1991. Information and Legislative Organization. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Krisch, N. and B. Kingsbury 2006. “Introduction: Global Governance and Global Administrative Law in the International Legal Order,” European Journal of International Law 17 (1): 1–13
Ku, C. 2007. “Strengthening International Law's Capacity to Govern through Multilayered Strategic Partnerships,” South African Yearbook of International Law 33: 107–23
Ku, C. and C. Borgen 2000. “American Lawyers and International Competence,” Dickinson Journal of International Law 18 (3): 493–515
Ku, C. and J. K. Gamble 2000. “International Law – New Actors and New Technologies: Center Stage for NGOs?” Law and Policy in International Business 32 (2): 221–62
Ku, C. and H. K. Jacobson 2003. Democratic Accountability and the Use of Force in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Ku, C. and T. Weiss 1998. Towards Understanding Global Governance: The International Law and International Relations Toolbox. Waterloo, ON: Academic Council on the United Nations System
Larsen, J. 2004. “Importing Constitutional Norms from a ‘Wider Civilization’: Lawrence and the Rehnquist Court's Use of Foreign and International Law in Domestic Constitutional Interpretation,” Ohio State Law Journal, 65: 1283–1327
Lasswell, H. and M. McDougal 1992. Jurisprudence for a Free Society: Studies in Law, Science, and Policy. Dordrecht: Kluwer Law
Lazlo, E. 1983. General Systems Theory. New York: Braziller
Leben, C. 1998. “Hans Kelsen and the Advancement of International Law,” European Journal of International Law 9 (2): 287–305
LeBlanc, L. 1991. The United States and the Genocide Convention. Durham, NC: Duke University Press
Lippman, M. 1998. “The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide: Fifty Years Later,” Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law 15: 415–514
Luhmann, N. 1988. “The Unity of the Legal System,” in G. Teubner (ed.), Autopoietic Law: A New Approach to Law and Society. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 12–35
Luhmann, N. 2004. Law as a Social System. Oxford: Oxford University Press
March, J. G. and H. A. Simon 1958. Organizations. New York: Wiley
Martens, G. F. von 1803. The Law of Nations, Founded on the Treaties and Customs of the Modern Nations of Europe: With the Science of National Law, Covenant, Power, etc. to Which is Added, a Complete List of all the Treaties, Conventions, Compacts, Declarations, etc. from the Year 1731 to 1802 Inclusive, Indicating the Several Works in Which They are to be Found. London: E. Jeffrey
Martin, L. and B. Simmons 1998 (eds.). International Institutions. An International Organization Reader. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Martin de Agar, J. T. 2007. Handbook on Canon Law. Montreal: Wilson & Lafleur
Mathews, J. T. 1997. “Power Shift,” Foreign Affairs 76 (1): 50–66
McAdams, R. H. 1997. “The Origin, Development, and Regulation of Norms,” Michigan Law Review 96 (2): 338–433
McDougal, H. and D. Lasswell 1959. “The Identification and Appraisal of Diverse Systems of Public Order,” American Journal of International Law 53 (1): 1–29
Mearsheimer, J. 1994–5. “The False Promise of International Institutions,” International Security 19 (3): 5–49
Miller, J. and S. Page 2007. Complex Adaptive Systems. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Mingst, K. 2003. “Domestic Political Factors and Decisions to Use Military Forces,” in C. Ku and H. K. Jacobson (eds.), Democratic Accountability and the Use of Force in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61–80
Mitchell, R. 2002. “A Quantitative Approach to Evaluating International Environmental Regimes,” Global Environmental Politics 2 (4): 58–83
Moore, S. 1973. “Law and Social Change: The Semi-Autonomous Social Field as an Appropriate Field of Study,” Law and Society Review 7: 719–46
Morgenthau, H. 1948. Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: Knopf
Murphy, P. 2008. “Excluding Justice or Facilitating Justice? International Criminal Law Would Benefit From Rules of Evidence,” International Journal of Evidence and Proof 12: 1–31
Nussbaum, A. 1954. A Concise History of the Law of Nations. New York: Macmillan
O'Connell, M. E. 1999. “New International Legal Process,” American Journal of International Law 93 (2): 334–51
Onuma, Y. 2003. “International Law in and with International Politics: The Functions of International Law in International Society,” European Journal of International Law 14 (1): 105–39
Oppenheim, L. 1955. International Law: A Treatise, 8th edn. H. Lauterpacht (ed.). New York: David McKay Company, vol. I
Otto, D. 1996. “Nongovernmental Organizations in the United Nations System: The Emerging Role of Civil Society,” Human Rights Quarterly 18 (1): 17–41
Page, S. 2006. “Path Dependence,” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 1 (1): 87–115
Pahre, R. 1999. Leading Questions: How Hegemony Affects the International Political Economy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Pahre, R. 2006 (ed.). Democratic Foreign Policy Making: Problems of Divided Government and International Cooperation. New York: Palgrave
Peterson, M. J. 1992. “Whalers, Cetologists, and the International Management of Whaling,” International Organization 46 (1): 147–86
Pevehouse, J. , T. Nordstrom , and K. Warnke 2004. “The COW-2 International Organizations Dataset Version 2.0,” Conflict Management and Peace Science 21 (2): 101–19
Pierson, P. 2004. Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Posner, E. and J. Yoo 2005. “Judicial Independence in International Tribunals,” California Law Review 93 (2): 957–73
Posner, M. 2005/6. “President's Letter,” Human Rights First 2005/06 Annual Report
Posner, R. 2007. Economic Analysis of Law. New York: Aspen Publishers
Price, R. 1998. “Reversing the Gun Sights: Transnational Civil Society Targets Land Mines,” International Organization 52 (3): 613–44
Ratner, S. and J. S. Abrams 1997. Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Ratner, S. and A. M. Slaughter 1999. “Appraising the Methods of International Law: A Prospectus for Readers,” American Journal of International Law 93 (2): 291–302
Raustiala, K. 2005. “Form and Substance in International Agreements,” American Journal of International Law 99 (3): 581–614
Reisman, M. W. and A. Armstrong 2006. “The Past and Future of the Claim of Pre-emptive Self-defense,” American Journal of International Law 100 (3): 525–50
Reus-Smit, C. 2004. “The Politics of International Law,” in C. Reus-Smit (ed.), The Politics of International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 14–44
Rhodes, R. , S. Binder , and B. Rockman 2006. Oxford Handbook of Political Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Roberts, Adam 1999. “NATO's Humanitarian War,” Survival 3: 102–23
Roberts, Anthea 2001. “Traditional and Modern Approaches to Customary International Law: A Reconciliation,” American Journal of International Law 95 (3): 757–91
Rogers, C. A. 2005. “The Vocation of the International Arbitrator,” American University International Law Review 20 (5): 957–1020
Root, E. 1911. “The Function of Private Codification in International Law,” American Journal of International Law 5 (3): 577–89
Rottleuthner, H. 1988. “Biological Metaphors in Legal Thought,” in G. Teubner (ed.), Autopoietic Law: A New Approach to Law and Society. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 97–127
Rovine, A. 1976. Digest of United States Practice in International Law. Washington, DC: Office of the Legal Advisor, Department of State
Rutherford, K. R. 2000. “The Evolving Arms Control Agenda: Implications of the Role of NGOs in Banning Antipersonnel Landmines,” World Politics 5 (3): 74–114
Saint Augustine 1958. City of God. V. J. Bourke (ed.). New York: Image Books
Salacuse, J. W. and N. P. Sullivan 2005. “Do BITs Really Work? An Evaluation of Bilateral Investment Treaties and Their Grand Bargain,” Harvard International Law Journal 46 (1): 67–130
Sandholtz, W. and K. Stiles 2009. International Norms and Cycles of Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Sandholtz, W. and A. S. Sweet 2004. “Law, Politics, and Global Governance,” in C. Reus-Smit (ed.), The Politics of International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 238–71
Sassen, S. 2006. Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Satzer, J. 2007. “Explaining the Decreased Use of International Courts: The Case of the ICJ,” Review of Law and Economics 3 (1): 11–36
Scelle, G. 1932. Droit International Public. Paris: Les Éditions Dorat Montchretien
Schachter, O. 1991. International Law in Theory and Practice. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Selden, J. 2003. Of the Dominion, or, Ownership of the Sea. (trans.) M. Nedham . Clark, NJ: Lawbook Exchange
Shaffer. G. 2004. “Recognizing Public Goods in WTO Dispute Settlement: Who Participates? Who Decides? The Case of TRIPS and Pharmaceutical Patent Protection,” Journal of International Economic Law 7 (2): 459–82
Shaffer, G. 2005. “Power, Governance, and the WTO: A Comparative Institutional Approach,” in M. Barnett and R. Duvall (eds.), Power in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 130–60
Shanks, C. , H. K. Jacobson , and J. H. Kaplan 1996. “Inertia and Change in the Constellation of International Governmental Organizations, 1981–1992,” International Organization 50 (3): 593–627
Shaw, M. 2008. International Law, 6th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Shelton, D. 1994. “The Participation of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Judicial Proceedings,” American Journal of International Law 88: 611–42
Shelton, D. 2000 (ed.). Commitment and Compliance: The Role of Non-binding Norms in the International Legal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Shelton, D. 2006. Remedies in International Human Rights Law, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Shepsle, K. A. and B. Weingast 1995. Positive Theories of Congressional Institutions. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Sikkink, K. 1993. “Human Rights, Principled Issue-Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin America,” International Organization 47 (3): 411–41
Sikkink, K. 1998. “Transnational Politics, International Relations Theory, and Human Rights,” PS: Political Science and Politics 31 (3): 517–21
Simma, B. 1995. “The Contribution of Alfred Verdross to the Theory of International Law,” European Journal of International Law 6 (1): 33–54
Simma, B. and A. Paulus 1999. “The Responsibility of Individuals for Human Rights Abuses in Internal Conflicts: A Positivist View,” American Journal of International Law 93 (2): 302–16
Simmons, B. 2000. “International Law and State Behavior: Commitment and Compliance in International Monetary Affairs,” American Political Science Review 94 (4): 819–35
Simmons, B. 2001. “International Law – Stepchild in Social Science Research? A Rejoinder to Paul Diehl,” International Studies Review 3 (1): 9–14
Singer, J. D. and M. Wallace 1970. “Inter-Governmental Organization and the Preservation of Peace, 1816–1965: Some Bivariate Relationships,” International Organization 24 (3): 520–47
Siverson, R. 1980. “War and Change in the International System,” in O. Holsti , R. Siverson , and A. L. George (eds.), Change in the International System. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 211–29
Slaughter, A. M. 1993. “Regulating the World: Multilateralism, International Law, and the Projection of the New Deal Regulatory State,” in J. G. Ruggie (ed.), Multilateralism Matters: The Theory and Praxis of an Institutional Form. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 125–56
Slaughter, A. M. 1997. “The Real New World Order,” Foreign Affairs 76: 183–98
Slaughter, A. M. 1998. “International Law and International Relations Theory: A New Generation of Interdisciplinary Scholarship,” American Journal of International Law 92 (3): 367–97
Slaughter, A. M. 2004. A New World Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Slaughter, A. M. and D. Bosco 2002. “Plaintiff's Diplomacy,” Foreign Affairs 79 (5): 102–17
Slaughter, A. M. and W. Burke-White 2006. “The Future of International Law is Domestic (or, the European Way of Law),” Harvard International Law Journal 47 (2): 327–52
Stein, A. 1990. Why Nations Cooperate: Circumstances and Choices in International Relations. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Steinbrunner, J. 1974. The Cybernetic Theory of Decision: New Dimensions of Political Analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Stiles, K. W. 2006. “The Power of Procedure and the Procedures of the Powerful: Anti-Terror Law in the United States,” Journal of Peace Research 43 (1): 37–54
Streeck, W. and K. Thelen 2005. “Introduction: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies,” in W. Streeck and K. Thelen (eds.), Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–39
Sylvest, C. 2004. “International Law in Nineteenth-Century Britain,” British Yearbook of International Law 75: 9–70
Taft, W. H. , IV and T. B. Buchwald 2003. “Preemption, Iraq, and International Law,” American Journal of International Law 97 (3): 557–63
Taylor, P. 1987. “Prescribing for the Reform of International Organization: The Logic of Argument for Change,” Review of International Studies 13: 19–38
Teubner, G. 1988. (ed.) Autopoietic Law: A New Approach to Law and Society. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
Teubner, G. 1993. Law as an Autopoietic System. Oxford: Blackwell
Thelen, K. 2004. How Institutions Evolve. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Thelen, K. 2006. “Institutions and Social Change: The Evolution of Vocational Training in Germany,” in I. Shapiro , S. Skowronek , and D. Galvin (eds.), Rethinking Political Institutions: The Art of the State. New York: New York University Press, pp. 135–70
Thelen, K. and S. Steinmo 1992. “Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics,” in S. Steinmo , K. Thelen , and F. Longstreth (eds.), Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–32
Thierry, H. 1990. “The Thought of George Scelle,” European Journal of International Law 1 (1/2): 193–209
Tipson, F. S. 1974. ‘The Lasswell–McDougal Enterprise: Toward a World Order of Human Dignity,” Virginia Journal of International Law 14: 535–85
Trachtman, J. 2008. The Economic Structure of International Law. Harvard University Press
Tsebelis, G. 2002. Veto Players: How Political Institutions Work. Princeton: Princeton University Press
United Nations General Assembly 2006. “Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law,” Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission. Finalized by M. Koskienniemi (April 13), A/CN.4/L.682.0
Van Schaack, B. 1997. “Crime of Political Genocide: Repairing the Convention's Blindspot,” Yale Law Journal 106 (7): 2259–91
Vick, D. 2002. “The Human Rights Act and the British Constitution,” Texas International Law Journal 37: 329–72
Waldron, J. 2005. “Foreign Law and Modern Ius Gentium ,” Harvard Law Review 119: 129–47
Walker, T. A. 1893. The Science of International Law, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Waltz, K. 1964. “The Stability of a Bipolar World,” Daedalus 93 (3): 881–909
Waltz. K. 1979. Theory of International Politics. New York: McGraw Hill
Waters, M. 2007. “Normativity in the ‘New’ Schools: Assessing the Legitimacy of International Legal Norms Created by Domestic Courts,” Yale Journal of International Law 32: 455–84
Weil, P. 1983. “Towards Relative Normality in International Law,” American Journal of International Law 77 (3): 413–42
Weintraub, R. 2002. “Introduction to Symposium on International Forum Shopping,” Texas International Law Journal 37 (3): 463–67
Weiss, E. B. and H. K. Jacobson 1998. Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Weiss, T. 2007. Humanitarian Intervention: Ideas in Action. Cambridge: Polity Press
Weiss, T. and T. Shaw 1998 (eds.). Beyond UN-Subcontracting: Task-Sharing with Regional Security Arrangements and Service Providing NGOs. London: Macmillan
Wendt, A. 2003. “Driving with the Rearview Mirror: On the Rational Science of Institutional Design,” in B. Koremenos , C. Lipson , and D. Snidal (eds.), The Rational Design of International Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 259–90
Westfield, E. 2001–2. “Globalization, Governance, and Multinational Enterprise Responsibility: Corporate Codes of Conduct in the 21st Century,” Virginia Journal of International Law 42: 1075–1108
Whewell, W. 1853. “Editor's Preface,” in W. Whewell (ed.), Hugo Grotius, De Jure Belli et Pacis Libri Tres. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Widmaier, W. , M. Blyth , and L. Seabrooke 2007. “Exogenous Shocks or Endogenous Constructions? The Meaning of Wars and Crises,” International Studies Quarterly 51 (4): 747–59
Wiessner, S. and A. Willard 1999. “Policy-Oriented Jurisprudence and Human Rights Abuses in Internal Conflict: Toward a World Public Order of Human Dignity,” American Journal of International Law 93 (2): 316–34
Wolff, C. 1934. “Introduction,” in O. Nippold (ed.), J. Drake (trans.), Jus Gentium Methodo Scientifica Pertractatum. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Young, O. 1989a. International Cooperation: Building Regimes for Natural Resources and the Environment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Young, O. 1989b. “The Politics of International Regime Formation: Managing Natural Resources and the Environment,” International Organization 43 (3): 349–76
Zartman, I. W. 2000. “Ripeness: The Hurting Stalemate and Beyond,” in P. Stern and D. Druckman (eds.), International Conflict Resolution after the Cold War. Washington: National Academy Press, pp. 225–50
Zimmermann, H.-J. 2001. Fuzzy Set Theory and Its Applications, 4th edn. Dordrecht: Kluwer International
Zinnes, D. 1980. “Prerequisites for the Study of System Transformation,” in O. Holsti , R. Siverson , and A. L. George (eds.), Change in the International System. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 3–21