Multimedia Learning


Multimedia Learning

For hundreds of years verbal messages such as lectures and printed lessons have been the primary means of explaining ideas to learners. Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool, this book explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal. Recent advances in graphics technology and information technology have prompted new efforts to understand the potential of multimedia learning as a means of promoting human understanding. In Multimedia Learning, Second Edition, Richard E. Mayer examines whether people learn more deeply when ideas are expressed in words and pictures rather than in words alone. He reviews 12 principles of instructional design that are based on experimental research studies and grounded in a theory of how people learn from words and pictures. The result is what Mayer calls the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, a theory first developed in the first edition of Multimedia Learning and further developed in The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.


 Reviews:

"...The material is well structured and goes into succeeding levels of detail to describe what works and what doesn’t. Cognitive aspects of how learning is delivered are thoroughly presented, using many charts and graphics to provide alternate means of viewing the text data. The text relies on extensive research performed by the author and other notable cognitive psychologists and instructional designers in the field. The book can serve as an excellent text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in instructional design. It can also be used by professionals in the field, as a reference guide to what may be new cognitive research applied to the area of multimedia learning."
--Bernice Glenn, Reviews.com (Computing Reviews)



 Prizes:

Winner, 2008 American Psychological Association’s Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training Award

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Title: Section 1 on “What Is Multimedia Instruction?”

Reference Type: reference-list

Spector, J. M. , Merrill, M. D. , van Merrienboer, J., & Driscoll, M. P. (2008). Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (3rd ed.) New York: Erlbaum.
Mayer, R. E. (Ed.). (2005). The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Reference Title: Section 2 on “The Case for Multimedia Learning”

Reference Type: reference-list

* Mayer, R. E. (2000). The challenge of multimedia literacy. In A. W. Pailliotet & P. B. Mosenthal (Eds.), Reconceptualizing literacy in the new age of media, multimedia, and hypermedia (pp. 363–376). Norwood, NJ: JAI/Ablex.
* Mayer, R. E. (2005). Introduction to multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 1–17). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Reference Title: Section 3 on “Three Views of Multimedia Messages”

Reference Type: reference-list

* Mayer, R. E. (1997). Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right questions? Educational Psychologist, 32, 1–19.

Reference Title: Section 4 on “Two Approaches to Multimedia Design”

Reference Type: reference-list

Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines: The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press.
Landauer, T. K. (1995). The trouble with computers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
* Mayer, R. E. (1999). Instructional technology. In F. T. Durso , R. S. Nickerson , R. W. Schvaneveldt , S. T. Dumais , D. S. Lindsay , & M. T. H. Chi (Eds.), Handbook of applied cognition (pp. 551–569). Chichester, England: Wiley.
Norman, D. A. (1993). Things that make us smart. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Reference Title: Section 5 on “Three Metaphors of Multimedia Learning”

Reference Type: reference-list

Bransford, J. D. , Brown, A. L. , & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.). (1999). How people learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
* Mayer, R. E. (1992). Cognition and instruction: Their historic meeting within educational psychology. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 405–412.

Reference Title: Section 6 on “Three Kinds of Multimedia Learning Outcomes”

Reference Type: reference-list

Anderson, L. W. , Krathwohl, D. R. , Airasian, P. W. , Cruikshank, K. A. , Mayer, R. E. , Pintrich, R. E. , & Raths, J. (2001). A taxonomy of learning for teaching: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Addison-Wesley-Longman.
* Mayer, R. E. (2008). Learning and instruction (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Merrill.

Reference Title: Section 7 on “Two Kinds of Active Learning”

Reference Type: reference-list

* Mayer, R. E. (1999). Designing instruction for constructivist learning. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models (pp. 141–159). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
* Mayer, R. E. (2004). Should there be a three strikes rule against pure discover learning? The case for guided methods of instruction. American Psychologist, 59(1), 14–19.

Reference Title: Section 8 on “Two Goals of Multimedia Research”

Reference Type: reference-list

* Mayer, R. E. (2008). Applying the science of learning: Evidence-based principles of multimedia instruction. American Psychologist, 63(8), 760–769.
Stokes, D. E. (1997). Pasteur's quadrant: Basic science and technological innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

Reference Title: “How Lightning Storms Develop”

Reference Type: further-reading

* Harp, S. F. , & Mayer, R. E. (1998). How seductive details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interest in science learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 414–434.
* Mayer, R. E. , & Moreno, R. (1998). A split-attention effect in multimedia learning: Evidence for dual processing systems in working memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 312–320.

Reference Title: “How Brakes Work”

Reference Type: further-reading

* Mayer, R. E. (1989). Systematic thinking fostered by illustrations in scientific text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 240–246.
* Mayer, R. E. , & Anderson, R. B. (1992). The instructive animation: Helping students build connections between words and pictures in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 444–452.

Reference Title: “How Pumps Work”

Reference Type: further-reading

* Mayer, R. E. , & Anderson, R. B. (1991). Animations need narrations: An experimental test of a dual-coding hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 484–490.
* Mayer, R. E. , & Gallini, J. K. (1990). When is an illustration worth ten thousand words? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 715–726.

Reference Title: “How Plants Grow”

Reference Type: further-reading

* Moreno, R. , & Mayer, R. E. (2002). Learning science in virtual reality multimedia environments: Role of methods and media. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 598–610.
* Moreno, R. , Mayer, R. E. , Spires, H. A. , & Lester, J. C. (2001). The case for social agency in computer-based teaching: Do students learn more deeply when they interact with animated pedagogical agents? Cognition and Instruction, 19, 177–213.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Clark, J. M., & Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 149–210.
* Mayer, R. E. (2005a). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 31–48). New York: Cambridge University Press.
* Mayer, R. E. , & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38, 43–52.
Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Camberwell, Australia: ACER Press.
Wittrock, M. C. (1989). Generative processes of comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 24, 345–376.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

Reference Title: Section 1 on Coherence Principle 1

Reference Type: further-reading

* Harp. S. F. , & Mayer, R. E. (1998). How seductive details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interest in science learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 414–434.
* Harp, S. F. , & Mayer, R. E. (1997). The role of interest in learning from scientific text and illustrations: On the distinction between emotional interest and cognitive interest. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 92–102.
* Mayer, R. E. , Heiser, J. , & Lonn, S. (2001). Cognitive constraints on multimedia learning: When presenting more material results in less understandings. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 187–198.

Reference Title: Section 2 on Coherence Principle 2

Reference Type: further-reading

* Moreno, R. , & Mayer, R. E. (2000a). A coherence effect in multimedia learning: The case for minimizing irrelevant sounds in the design of multimedia messages. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 117–125.

Reference Title: Section 3 on Coherence Principle 3

Reference Type: further-reading

* Mayer, R. E. , Bove, W. , Bryman, A. , Mars, R. & Tapangco, L. (1996). When less is more: Meaningful learning from visual and verbal summaries of science textbook lessons. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 64–73.
* Mayer, R. E. , & Jackson, J. (2005). The case for coherence in scientific explanations: Quantitative details can hurt qualitative understanding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11, 13–18.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

* Harp, S. F. , & Mayer, R. E. (1998). How seductive details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interest in science learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 414–434.
* Mautone, P. D. , & Mayer, R. E. (2001). Signaling as a cognitive guide in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 377–389.
* Stull, A. , & Mayer, R. E. (2007). Learning by doing versus learning by viewing: Three experimental comparisons of learner-generated versus author-provided graphic organizers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 808–820.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

Kalyuga, S. , Chandler, P. , & Sweller, J. (1999). Managing split-attention and redundancy in multimedia instruction. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 351–371.
* Mayer, R. E. , Heiser, H. , & Lonn, S. (2001). Cognitive constraints on multimedia learning: When presenting more material results in less understanding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 187–198.
* Moreno, R. , & Mayer, R. E. (2002a). Verbal redundancy in multimedia learning: When reading helps listening. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 156–163.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

Ayres, P. , & Sweller, J. (2005). The split-attention principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 135–146). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ginns, P. (2006). Integrating information: A meta-analysis of spatial contiguity and temporal contiguity effects. Learning and Instruction, 16, 511–525.
*Mayer, R. E. (1989). Systematic thinking fostered by illustrations in scientific text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 240–246.
*Mayer, R. E. , Steinhoff, K. , Bower, G. , & Mars, R. (1995). A generative theory of textbook design: Using annotated illustrations to foster meaningful learning of science text. Educational Technology Research and Development, 43, 31–43.
*Moreno, R. , & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 358–368.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

Ginns, P. (2006). Integrating information: A meta-analysis of the spatial contiguity and temporal contiguity effects. Learning and Instruction, 16, 511–525.
* Mayer, R. E. , & Anderson, R. B. (1991). Animations need narrations: An experimental test of a dual-coding hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 484–490.
* Mayer, R. E. , & Anderson, R. B. (1992). The instructive animation: Helping students build connections between words and pictures in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 444–452.
* Mayer, R. E. , Moreno, R. , Boire, M. , & Vagge, S. (1999). Maximizing constructivist learning from multimedia communications by minimizing cognitive load. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 638–643.
* Mayer, R. E. , & Sims, V. K. (1994). For whom is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a dual-coding theory of multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 389–401.
* Moreno, R. , & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 358–368.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

Ayres, P. (2006). Impact of reducing intrinsic cognitive load on learning in a mathematical domain. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 287–298.
*Mayer, R. E. , & Chandler, P. (2001). When learning is just a click away: Does simple user interaction foster deeper understanding of multimedia messages? Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 390–397.
*Mayer, R. E. , Dow, G. , & Mayer, S. (2003). Multimedia learning in an interactive self-explaining environment: What works in the design of agent-based microworlds. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 806–813.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

*Mayer, R. E. , Mathias, A. , & Wetzell, K. (2002). Fostering understanding of multimedia messages through pre-training: Evidence for a two-stage theory of mental model construction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 147–154.
Pollock, E. , Chandler, P. , & Sweller, J. (2002). Assimilating complex information. Learning and Instruction, 12, 61–86.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

Ginns, P. (2005). Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction, 15, 313–331.
Low, R. , & Sweller, J. (2005). The modality principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 147–158). New York: Cambridge University Press.
*Mayer, R. E. , & Moreno, R. (1998). A split-attention effect in multimedia learning: Evidence for dual processing systems in working memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 312–320.
*Moreno, R. , & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 358–368.
Mousavi, S. , Low, R. , & Sweller, J. (1995). Reducing cognitive load by mixing auditory and visual presentation modes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 319–334.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

*Mayer, R. E. (1989). Systematic thinking fostered by illustrations in scientific text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 240–246.
*Mayer, R. E. , & Anderson, R. B. (1991). Animations need narrations: An experimental test of a dual-coding hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 484–490.
*Mayer, R. E. , & Anderson, R. B. (1992). The instructive animation: Helping students build connections between words and pictures in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 444–452.
*Mayer, R. E. , Bove, W. , Bryman, A. , Mars, R. , & Tapangco, L. (1996). When less is more: Meaningful learning from visual and verbal summaries of science textbook lessons. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 64–73.
*Mayer, R. E. , & Gallini, J. K. (1990). When is an illustration worth ten thousand words? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 715–726.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

*Atkinson, R. K. , Mayer, R. E. , & Merrill, M. M. (2005). Fostering social agency in multimedia learning: Examining the impact of an animated agent's voice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 117–139.
*Mayer, R. E. , Fennell, S. , Farmer, L. , & Campbell, J. (2004). A personalization effect in multimedia learning: Students learn better when words are in conversational style rather than formal style. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 389–395.
*Mayer, R. E. , Sobko, K. , & Mautone, P. D. (2003). Social cues in multimedia learning: Role of speaker's voice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 419–425.
*Moreno, R. , & Mayer, R. E. (2000). Engaging students in active learning: The case for personalized multimedia messages. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 724–733.
*Moreno, R. , & Mayer, R. E. (2004). Personalized messages that promote science learning in virtual environments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 165–173.
*Wang, N. , Johnson, W. L. , Mayer, R. E. , Rizzo, P. , Shaw, E. , & Collins, H. (2008). The politeness effect: Pedagogical agents and learning outcomes. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 66, 98–112.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READINGS

Reference Type: further-reading

Clark, R. C. , & Mayer, R. E. (2008). e-Learning and the science of instruction (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Mayer, R. E. (Ed.). (2005). The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
O'Neil, H. F. (Ed.). (2005). What works in distance learning: Guidelines. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

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