Mapping Species Distributions

Spatial Inference and Prediction

Mapping Species Distributions

Maps of species' distributions or habitat suitability are required for many aspects of environmental research, resource management and conservation planning. These include biodiversity assessment, reserve design, habitat management and restoration, species and habitat conservation plans and predicting the effects of environmental change on species and ecosystems. The proliferation of methods and uncertainty regarding their effectiveness can be daunting to researchers, resource managers and conservation planners alike. Franklin summarises the methods used in species distribution modeling (also called niche modeling) and presents a framework for spatial prediction of species distributions based on the attributes (space, time, scale) of the data and questions being asked. The framework links theoretical ecological models of species distributions to spatial data on species and environment, and statistical models used for spatial prediction. Providing practical guidelines to students, researchers and practitioners in a broad range of environmental sciences including ecology, geography, conservation biology, and natural resources management.


'This is a very useful book that we commend to anyone interested in species distribution models … This is probably the best book available on species distribution models.' Oryx

Abdulla, F. A. & Lettenmaier, D. P. (1997) Development of regional parameter estimation equations for a macroscale hydrologic model. Journal of Hydrology, 197, 230–257.
Accad, A. & Neil, D. T. (2006) Modelling pre-clearing vegetation distribution using GIS-integrated statistical, ecological and data models: a case study from the wet tropics of Northeastern Australia. Ecological Modelling, 198, 85–100.
Ackerly, D. D. (2003) Community assembly, niche conservatism, and adaptive evolution in changing environments. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164, S165–S184.
Ackerly, D. D. (2004) Adaptation, niche conservatism, and convergence: comparative studies of leaf evolution in the California chaparral. American Naturalist, 163, 654–671.
Adjemian, J. C. Z. , Girvetz, E. H. , Beckett, L. , & Foley, J. E. (2006) Analysis of Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production (GARP) modeling approach for predicting distributions of fleas implicated as vectors of plague, Yersinia pestis, in California. Journal of Medical Entomology, 43, 93–103.
Agresti, A. (1996) An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Ahlqvist, O. (2005) Using uncertain conceptual spaces to translate between land cover categories. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 19, 831–857.
Akçakaya, H. R. & Atwood, J. L. (1997) A habitat based metapopulation model of the California gnatcatcher. Conservation Biology, 11, 422–434.
Akçakaya, H. R. (2000) Viability analyses with habitat-based metapopulation models. Population Ecology, 42, 45–53.
Akçakaya, H. R. (2001) Linking population-level risk assessment with landscape and habitat models. Science of the Total Environment, 274, 283–291.
Akçakaya, H. R. , Butchart, S. H. M. , Mace, G. M. , Stuart, S. N. , & Hilton-Taylor, C. (2006) Use and misuse of the IUCN Red List Criteria in projecting climate change impacts on biodiversity. Global Change Biology, 12, 2037–2043.
Akçakaya, H. R. , Franklin, J. , Syphard, A. D. , & Stephenson, J. R. (2005) Viability of Bell's Sage Sparrow (Amphispiza belli ssp. belli) under altered fire regimes. Ecological Applications, 15, 521–531.
Akçakaya, H. R. , Radeloff, V. C. , Mladenoff, D. J. , & He, H. S. (2004) Integrating landscape and metapopulation modeling approaches: viability of the sharp-tailed grouse in a dynamic landscape. Conservation Biology, 18, 526–537.
Albert, P. S. & McShane, L. M. (1995) A generalized estimating equations approach for spatially correlated binary data: applications to the analysis of neuroimaging data. Biometrics, 51, 627–638.
Aldridge, C. L. & Boyce, M. S. (2007) Linking occurrence and fitness to persistence: habitat-based approach for endangered Greater Sage-Grouse. Ecological Applications, 17, 508–526.
Alexander, S. M. , Logan, T. B. , & Paquet, P. C. (2006) Spatio-temporal co-occurrence of cougars (Felis concolor) and wolves (Canis lupis) and their prey during winter: a comparison of two analytical methods. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 2001–2012.
Allouche, O. , Tsoar, A. , & Kadmon, R. (2006) Assessing the accuracy of species distribution models: prevalence, kappa and the true skill statistic (TSS). Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 1223–1232.
Andersen, M. C. , Adams, H. , Hope, B. , & Powell, M. (2004) Risk analysis for invasive species: general framework and research needs. Risk Analysis, 24, 893–900.
Anderson, D. R. & Burnham, K. P. (2002) Avoiding pitfalls when using information-theoretic methods. Journal of Wildlife Management, 66, 912–918.
Anderson, R. P. , Lew, D. , & Peterson, A. T. (2003) Evaluating predictive models of species distributions: criteria for selecting optimal models. Ecological Modelling, 162, 211–232.
Anselin, A. , Meire, P. M. , & Anselin, L. (1989) Multicriteria techniques in ecological evaluation: an example using the analytical hierarchy process. Biological Conservation, 49, 215–229.
Anselin, L. & Rey, S. J. (1991) Properties of tests for spatial dependence in linear regression models. Geographical Analysis, 23, 112–131.
Anselin, L. (2002) Under the hood – Issues in the specification and interpretation of spatial regression models. Agricultural Economics, 27, 247–267.
Anselin, L. , Florax, R. J. G. M. , & Rey, S. J. (2004) Advances in Spatial Econometrics: Methodology, Tools and Applications. Berlin: Springer.
AraÚjo, M. B. & Guisan, A. (2006) Five (or so) challenges for species distribution modeling. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1677–1688.
AraÚjo, M. B. & Luoto, M. (2007) The importance of biotic interactions for modelling species distributions under climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 743–753.
AraÚjo, M. B. & New, M. (2007) Ensemble forecasting of species distributions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 22, 42–47.
AraÚjo, M. B. & Williams, P. H. (2000) Selecting areas for species persistence using occurrence data. Biological Conservation, 96, 331–345.
AraÚjo, M. B. , Pearson, R. G. , Thuiller, W. , & Erhard, M. (2005a) Validation of species-climate impact models under climate change. Global Change Biology, 11, 1504–1513.
AraÚjo, M. B. , Thuiller, W. , & Pearson, R. G. (2006) Climate warming and the decline of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1712–1728.
AraÚjo, M. B. , Thuiller, W. , Williams, P. H. , & Reginster, I. (2005b) Downscaling European species atlas distributions to a finer resolution: implications for conservation planning. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14, 17–30.
Armstrong, J. S. & Collopy, F. (1992) Error measures for generalizing about forecasting methods: empirical comparisons. International Journal of Forecasting, 8, 69–80.
Ashcroft, M. B. (2006) A method for improving landscape scale temperature predictions and the implications for vegetation modelling. Ecological Modelling, 197, 394–404.
Asher, J. , Warren, M. , Fox, R. , Harding, P. , Jeffcoate, G. , & Jeffcoat, S. (Eds.) (2001) The Millennium Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Asner, G. P. , Martin, R. E. , Ford, A. J. , Metcalfe, D. J. , & Liddell, M. J. (2009) Leaf chemical and spectral diversity in Australian tropical forests. Ecological Applications, 19, 236–253.
Aspinall, R. & Veitch, N. (1993) Habitat mapping from satellite imagery and wildlife survey data using a Bayesian modeling procedure in GIS. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 59, 537–543.
Aspinall, R. J. & Pearson, D. M. (1996) Data quality and spatial analysis: analytical use of GIS for ecological modeling. In Goodchild, M. F. , Steyaert, L. T. , Parks, B. O. et al. (Eds.) GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books, pp. 35–38.
Augustin, N. , Mugglestone, M. , & Buckland, S. (1996) An autologistic model for the spatial distribution of wildlife. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 339–347.
Augustin, N. , Mugglestone, M. , & Buckland, S. (1998) The role of simulation in modelling spatially correlated data. Environmetrics, 9, 175–196.
Austin, M. & Cunningham, R. (1981) Observational analysis of environmental gradients. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia, 11, 109–119.
Austin, M. (1971) The role of regression analysis in plant ecology. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia, 6, 63–75.
Austin, M. (1999) A silent clash of paradigms: some inconsistencies in community ecology. Oikos, 86, 170–178.
Austin, M. P. & Heyligers, P. C. (1989) Vegetation survey design for conservation: gradsect sampling of forests in North-eastern New South Wales. Biological Conservation, 50, 13–32.
Austin, M. P. & Heyligers, P. C. (1991) New approach to vegetation survey design: gradsect sampling. In Margules, C. R. & Austin, M. P. (Eds.) Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis. East Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, pp. 31–36.
Austin, M. P. & Meyers, J. (1996) Current approaches to modelling the environmental niche of eucalypts: implication for management of forest biodiversity. Forest Ecology and Management, 85, 95–106.
Austin, M. P. & Smith, T. M. (1989) A new model for the continuum concept. Vegetatio, 83, 35–47.
Austin, M. P. (1980) Searching for a model for use in vegetation analysis. Vegetatio, 42, 11–21.
Austin, M. P. (1985) Continuum concept, ordination methods, and niche theory. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16, 39–61.
Austin, M. P. (1990) Community theory and competition in vegetation. In Grace, J. B. & Tilman, D. (Eds.) Perspectives on Plant Competition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 215–238.
Austin, M. P. (1992) Modelling the environmental niche of plants: some implications for plant community response to elevation CO2 levels. Australian Journal of Botany, 40, 615–630.
Austin, M. P. (1998) An ecological perspective on biodiversity investigations: examples from Australian eucalypt forests. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 85, 2–17.
Austin, M. P. (2002) Spatial prediction of species distribution: an interface between ecological theory and statistical modelling. Ecological Modelling, 157, 101–118.
Austin, M. P. (2007) Species distribution models and ecological theory: a critical assessment and some possible new approaches. Ecological Modelling, 200, 1–19.
Austin, M. P. , Belbin, L. , Meyers, J. A. , Doherty, M. D. , & Luoto, M. (2006) Evaluation of statistical models used for predicting plant species distributions: Role of artificial data and theory. Ecological Modelling, 199, 197–216.
Austin, M. P. , Cunningham, R. B. , & Fleming, P. M. (1984) New approaches to direct gradient analysis using environmental scalars and statistical curve-fitting procedures. Vegetatio, 55, 11–27.
Austin, M. P. , Nicholls, A. O. , & Margules, C. R. (1990) Determining the realised qualitative niche: environmental niches of five Eucalyptus species. Ecological Monographs, 60, 161–177.
Austin, M. P. , Nicholls, A. O. , Doherty, M. D. , & Meyers, J. A. (1994) Determining species response functions to an environmental gradient by means of a beta-function. Journal of Vegetation Science, 5, 215–228.
Austin, M. P. , Pausas, J. G. , & Nicholls, A. O. (1996) Patterns of tree species richness in relation to environment in southeastern New South Wales, Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology, 21, 154–164.
Bach, M. , Breuer, L. , Frede, H. G. , Huisman, J. A. , Otte, A. , & Waldhardt, R. (2006) Accuracy and congruency of three different digital land-use maps. Landscape and Urban Planning, 78, 289–299.
Bailey, L. L. , Simons, T. R. , & Pollock, K. H. (2004) Estimating site occupancy and species detection probability parameters for terrestrial salamanders. Ecological Applications, 14, 692–702.
Bailey, T. C. & Gatrell, A. C. (1995) Interactive spatial data analysis, Harlow, England, Longman.
Band, L. E. (1986) Topographic partitioning of watersheds with digital elevation models. Water Resources Research, 22, 15–24.
Banks, W. E. , D'errico, F. , Peterson, A. T. et al. (2008) Human ecological niches and ranges during the LGM in Europe derived from an application of eco-cultural niche modeling. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 481–491.
Barnes, T. K. , Volety, A. K. , Chartier, K. , Mazzotti, F. J. , & Pearlstine, L. (2007) A habitat suitability index model for the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), a tool for restoration of the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research, 26, 949–959.
Barnett, V. (2002) Sample Survey: Principles and Methods. London: Arnold.
Barrows, C. W. (1997) Habitat relationships of the Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata). Southwestern Naturalist, 42, 218–223.
Barrows, C. W. , Swartz, M. B. , Hodges, W. L. et al. (2005) A framework for monitoring multiple-species conservation plants. Journal of Wildlife Management, 69, 1333–1345.
Barry, S. & Elith, J. (2006) Error and uncertainty in habitat models. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 413–423.
Barry, S. C. & Welsh, A. H. (2002) Generalized additive modelling and zero inflated count data. Ecological Modelling, 157, 179–188.
Bazzaz, F. A. & Pickett, S. T. A. (1980) Physiological ecology of tropical succession: A comparative review. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11, 287–310.
Beale, C. M. , Lennon, J. J. , Elston, D. A. , Brewer, M. J. , & Yearsley, J. M. (2007) Red herrings remain in geographical ecology: a reply to Hawkins et al. (2007). Ecography, 30, 845–847.
Beaumont, L. J. (2008) Why is the choice of future climate scenarios for species distribution modelling important? Ecology Letters, 11, 1135–1146.
Beck-Worner, C. , Raso, G. , Vounatsou, P. et al. (2007) Bayesian spatial risk prediction of Schistosoma mansoni infection in western Côte d'Ivoire using a remotely-sensed digital elevation model. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76, 956–963.
Beerling, D. , Huntley, B. , & Bailey, J. (1995) Climate and the distribution of Fallopia japonica: use of an introduced species to test the predictive capacity of response surfaces. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6, 269–282.
Beger, M. & Possingham, H. P. (2008) Environmental factors that influence the distribution of coral reef fishes: modeling occurrence data for broad-scale conservation and management. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 361, 1–13.
Beissinger, S. R. & McCullough, D. R. (Eds.) (2002) Population Viability Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bell, J. F. (1996) Application of classification trees to the habitat preference of upland birds. Journal of Applied Statistics, 23, 349–359.
Bellis, L. M. , Pidgeon, A. M. , Radeloff, V. C. , St-Louis, V. , Navarro, J. L. , & Martella, M. B. (2008) Modeling habitat suitability for greater rheas based on satellite image texture. Ecological Applications, 18, 1956–1966.
Benedict, M. Q. , Levine, R. S. , Hawley, W. A. , & Lounibos, L. P. (2007) Spread of the tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus . Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 7, 76–85.
Benediktsson, J. A. , Swain, P. H. , & Ersoy, O. K. (1993) Conjugate-gradient neural networks in classification of multisource and very-high-dimensional remote sensing data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 14, 2883–2903.
Benito Garzón, M. , Blazek, R. , Neteler, M. , Sónchez de Dios, R. , Ollero, H. S. , & Furlanello, C. (2006) Predicting habitat suitability with machine learning models: the potential area of Pinus sylvestris L. in the Iberian Peninsula. Ecological Modelling, 197, 383–393.
Benito Garzón, M. , Sanchez de Dios, R. , & Sainz Ollero, H. (2008) Effects of climate change on the distribution of Iberian tree species. Applied Vegetation Science, 11, 169–178.
Besag, J. (1972) Nearest-neighbour systems and the autologistic model for binary data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, 34, 75–83.
Besag, J. (1974) Spatial interaction and the statistical analysis of lattice systems. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 36, 192–236.
Bickford, S. A. & Laffan, S. W. (2006) Multi-extent analysis of the relationship between pteridophyte species richness and climate. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15, 588–601.
Bio, A. M. F. , Alkemade, R. , & Barendregt, A. (1998) Determining alternative models for vegetation response analysis: a non-parametric approach. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 5–16.
Boitani, L. , Sinibaldi, I. , Corsi, F. et al. (2008) Distribution of medium- to large-sized African mammals based on habitat suitability models. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 605–621.
Bojorquez-Tapia, L. A. , Brower, L. P. , Castilleja, G. et al. (2003) Mapping expert knowledge: redesigning the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. Conservation Biology, 17, 367–379.
Bolker, B. M. , Brooks, M. E. , Clark, C. J. et al. (2009) Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24, 127–35.
Bolstad, P. V. & Lillesand, T. M. (1992) Improved classification of forest vegetation in northern Wisconsin through a rule-based combination of soils, terrain, and Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Forest Science, 38, 5–20.
Bond, J. E. & Stockman, A. K. (2008) An integrative method for delimiting cohesion species: finding the population-species interface in a group of Californian trapdoor spiders with extreme genetic divergence in geographic structuring. Systematic Biology, 57, 628–646.
Borcard, D. , Legendre, P. , & Drapeau, P. (1992) Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology, 73, 1045–1055.
Botkin, D. B. , Saxe, H. , AraÚjo, M. B. et al. (2007) Forecasting the effects of global warming on biodiversity. Bioscience, 57, 227–236.
Bourgeron, P. S. , Humphries, C. J. , & Jensen, M. E. (2001) General data collection and sampling design considerations for integrated ecological assessment. In Bourgeron, P. , Jensen, M. & Lessard, G. (Eds.) An Integrated Ecological Assessment Protocols Guidebook. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 92–107.
Box, E. (1981) Macroclimate and Plant Forms: An Introduction to Predictive Modeling in Phytogeography. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk.
Boyce, M. S. (2006) Scale for resource selection functions. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 269–276.
Boyce, M. S. , Vernier, P. R. , Nielsen, S. E. , & Schmiegelow, F. K. A. (2002) Evaluating resource selection functions. Ecological Modelling, 157, 281–300.
Bradbury, R. B. , Kyrkos, A. , Morris, A. J. , Clark, S. C. , Perkins, A. J. , & Wilson, J. D. (2000) Habitat associations and breeding success of yellowhammers on lowland farmland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 789–805.
Bradley, B. A. & Fleishman, E. (2008) Can remote sensing of land cover improve species distribution modelling? Journal of Biogeography, 35, 1158–1159.
Braunisch, V. , Bollmann, K. , Graf, R. F. , & Hirzel, A. H. (2008) Living on the edge – modelling habitat suitability for species at the edge of their fundamental niche. Ecological Modelling, 214, 153–167.
Breiman, L. (1996) Bagging predictors. Machine Learning, 26, 123–140.
Breiman, L. (2001a) Statistical modeling: the two cultures. Statistical Science, 16, 199–215.
Breiman, L. (2001b) Random forests. Machine Learning, 45, 15–32.
Breiman, L. , Friedman, J. , Olshen, R. , & Stone, C. (1984) Classification and Regression Trees. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Brigham, C. A. , Thomson, D. M. , Brigham, C. A. , & Schwartz, M. W. (2003) Approaches to modeling population viability in plants: an overview. Population viability in plants: Conservation, management and modeling of rare plants, 145–171.
Brodley, C. & Utgoff, P. (1995) Multivariate decision trees. Machine Learning, 19, 45–77.
Broennimann, O. & Guisan, A. (2008) Predicting current and future biological invasions: both native and invaded ranges matter. Biology Letters, 4, 585–589.
Broennimann, O. , Thuiller, W. , Hughes, G. , Midgley, G. F. , Alkemade, J. M. R. , & Guisan, A. (2006) Do geographic distribution, niche property and life form explain plants' vulnerability to global change? Global Change Biology, 12, 1079–1093.
Broennimann, O. , Treier, U. A. , Muller-Scharer, H. , Thuiller, W. , Peterson, A. T. , & Guisan, A. (2007) Evidence of climatic niche shift during biological invasion. Ecology Letters, 10, 701–709.
Brotons, L. , Herrando, S. , & Pla, M. (2007) Updating bird species distribution at large spatial scales: applications of habitat modelling to data from long-term monitoring programs. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 276–288.
Brotons, L. , Thuiller, W. , AraÚjo, M. B. , & Hirzel, A. H. (2004) Presence-absence versus presence-only modelling methods for predicting bird habitat suitability. Ecography, 27, 437–448.
Brown, D. (1994) Predicting vegetation types at treeline using topography and biophysical disturbance variables. Journal of Vegetation Science, 5, 641–656.
Brown, D. B. & Bara, T. J. (1994) Recognition and reduction of systematic error in elevation and derivative surfaces from 7 1/2-minute DEMs. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 60, 189–194.
Browning, D. M. , Beaupre, S. J. , & Duncan, L. (2005) Using partitioned Mahalanobis D-2(K) to formulate a GIS-based model of timber rattlesnake hibernacula. Journal of Wildlife Management, 69, 33–44.
Brzeziecki, B. , Kienast, F. , & Wildi, O. (1993) A simulated map of the potential natural forest vegetation of Switzerland. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 499–508.
Buckley, L. B. & Roughgarden, J. (2004) Biodiversity conservation: effects of changes in climate and land use. Nature, 430, 2 pp. following 33; discussion following 33.
Buermann, W. , Saatchi, S. , Smith, T. B. et al. (2008) Predicting species distributions across the Amazonian and Andean regions using remote sensing data. Journal of Biogeography, 35, 1160–1176.
Burgman, M. A. & Fox, J. C. (2003) Bias in species range estimates from minimum convex polygons: implications for conservation and options for improved planning. Animal Conservation, 6, 19–28.
Burgman, M. A. (2005) Risks and Decisions for Conservation and Environmental Management. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Burgman, M. A. , Lindenmayer, D. B. , & Elith, J. (2005) Managing landscapes for conservation under uncertainty. Ecology, 86, 2007–2017.
Burnham, K. P. & Anderson, D. R. (1998) Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information – Theoretic Approach. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag.
Burrough, P. & McDonnell, R. (1998) Principles of Geographical Information Systems, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Busby, J. R. (1986) A biogeoclimatic analysis of Nothofagus cunninghamii (Hook.) Oerst. in southeastern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology, 11, 1–7.
Busby, J. R. (1991) BIOCLIM – a bioclimatic analysis and prediction system. In Margules, C. R. & Austin, M. P. (Eds.) Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis. East Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, pp. 64–68.
Callaway, R. M. & Pennings, S. C. (2000) Facilitation may buffer competitive effects: Indirect and diffuse interactions among salt marsh plants. American Naturalist, 156, 416–424.
Cantor, S. B. , Sun, C. C. , Tortolero-Luna, G. , Richards-Kortum, R. , & Follen, M. (1999) A comparison of C/B ratios from studies using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 52, 885–892.
Card, D. H. (1982) Using known map category marginal frequencies to improve estimates of thematic map accuracy. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 48, 431–439.
Carlson, K. M. , Asner, G. P. , Hughes, R. F. , Ostertag, R. , & Martin, R. E. (2007) Hyperspectral remote sensing of canopy biodiversity in Hawaiian lowland rainforests. Ecosystems, 10, 536–549.
Carmel, Y. & Flather, C. H. (2006) Constrained range expansion and climate change assessments. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4, 178–179.
Carpenter, G. , Gillison, A. N. , & Winter, J. (1993) DOMAIN: a flexible modeling procedure for mapping potential distributions of plants and animals. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2, 667–680.
Carpenter, G. A. , Gopal, S. , Macomber, S. , Martens, S. , Woodcock, C. E. , & Franklin, J. (1999) A neural network method for efficient vegetation mapping. Remote Sensing of Environment, 70, 326–338.
Carroll, C. & Johnson, D. S. (2008) The importance of being spatial (and reserved): Assessing Northern Spotted Owl habitat relationships with hierarchical Bayesian Models. Conservation Biology, 22, 1026–1036.
Carroll, C. , Phillips, M. K. , Schumaker, N. H. , & Smith, D. W. (2003) Impacts of landscape change on wolf restoration success: Planning a reintroduction program based on static and dynamic spatial models. Conservation Biology, 17, 536–548.
Carroll, C. , Zielinski, W. J. , & Noss, R. F. (1999) Using presence-absence data to build and test spatial habitat models for the fisher in the Klamath Region, U.S.A. Conservation Biology, 13, 1344–1359.
Carstens, B. C. & Richards, C. L. (2007) Integrating coalescent and ecological niche modeling in comparative phylogeography. Evolution, 61, 1439–1454.
Carter, G. M. , Stolen, E. D. , & Breininger, D. R. (2006) A rapid approach to modeling species–habitat relationships. Biological Conservation, 127, 237–244.
Cawsey, E. M. , Austin, M. P. , & Baker, B. L. (2002) Regional vegetation mapping in Australia: a case study in the practical use of statistical modelling. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11, 2239–2274.
Chambers, J. M. & Hastie, T. J. (1992) Statistical Models in S. Pacific Grove, CA: Wadsworth.
Chase, J. M. & Leibold, M. A. (2003) Ecological Niches: Linking Classical and Contemporary Approaches. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Chatfield, C. (1995) Model uncertainty, data mining and statistical inference. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 158, 419–466.
Chefaoui, R. M. & Lobo, J. M. (2008) Assessing the effects of pseudo-absences on predictive distribution model performance. Ecological Modelling, 210, 478–486.
Chen, D. M. & Stow, D. (2003) Strategies for integrating information from multiple spatial resolutions into land-use/land-cover classification routines. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 69, 1279–1287.
Ciarniello, L. M. , Boyce, M. S. , Seip, D. R. , & Heard, D. C. (2007) Grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent. Ecological Applications, 17, 1424–1440.
Civco, D. L. (1993) Artificial neural networks for land-cover classification and mapping. International Journal of Geographic Information Systems, 7, 173–186.
Clark, J. D. , Dunn, J. E. , & Smith, K. G. (1993) A multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a geographic information system. Journal of Wildlife Management, 57, 519–526.
Clark, L. A. & Pregibon, D. (1992) Tree-based models. In Chambers, J. & Hastie, T. J. (Eds.) Statistical Models in S. Pacific Grove, CA: Wadsworth and Brooks/Cole Advanced Books and Software, pp. 377–419.
Clark, M. L. , Roberts, D. A. , & Clark, D. B. (2005) Hyperspectral discrimination of tropical rain forest tree species at leaf to crown scales. Remote Sensing of Environment, 96, 375–398.
Clarke, K. C. & Gaydos, L. J. (1998) Loose-coupling a cellular automaton model and GIS: long-term urban growth prediction for San Francisco and Washington/Baltimore. International Journal of Geographic Information Science, 12, 699–714.
Clarke, K. C. (1997) Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Clevenger, A. P. , Wierzchowski, J. , Chruszcz, B. , & Gunson, K. (2002) GIS-generated, expert-based models for identifying wildlife habitat linkages and planning mitigation passages. Conservation Biology, 16, 503–514.
Cochran, W. G. (1977) Sampling Techniques. New York: Wiley.
Cohen, W. B. & Goward, S. N. (2004) Landsat's role in ecological applications of remote sensing. Bioscience, 54, 535–545.
Collins, S. L. , Glenn, S. M. , & Roberts, D. W. (1993) The hierarchical continuum concept. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 149–156.
Congalton, R. G. (1991) A review of assessing the accuracy of classifications of remotely sensed data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 37, 35–46.
Cooperrider, A. Y. , Boyd, R. J. , & Stuart, H. R. (Eds.) (1986) Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. Denver, CO: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Service Center.
Cord, P. L. (2008) Using species-environmental amplitudes to predict pH values from vegetation. Journal of Vegetation Science, 19, 437–444.
Cordellier, M. & Pfenninger, M. (2009) Inferring the past to predict the future: climate modelling predictions and phylogeography for the freshwater gastropod Radix balthica (Pulmonata, Basommatophora). Molecular Ecology, 18, 534–544.
Corsi, F. , Dupre, E. , & Biotani, L. (1999) A large-scale model of wolf distribution in Italy for conservation planning. Conservation Biology, 13, 150–159.
Costa, J. , Peterson, A. T. , & Beard, C. B. (2002) Ecologic niche modeling and differentiation of populations of Triatoma brasiliensis neiva, 1911, the most important Chagas' disease vector in northeastern Brazil (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 67, 516–520.
Coudun, C. & Gégout, J.-C. (2007) Quantitative prediction of the distribution and abundance of Vaccinium myrtillus with climatic and edaphic factors. Journal of Vegetation Science, 18, 517–524.
Coudun, C. , Gégout, J.-C. , Piedallu, C. , & Rameau, J.-C. (2006) Soil nutritional factors improve models of plant species distribution: an illustration with Acer campestre (L.) in France. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1750–1763.
Cramer, J. S. (2003) Logit Models from Economics and Other Fields. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cramer, W. , Bondeau, A. , Woodward, F. I. et al. (2001) Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology, 7, 357–373.
Crawley, M. J. (2005) Statistics: An Introduction Using R. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cressie, N. (1991) Statistics for Spatial Data. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Crossman, N. D. & Bass, D. A. (2008) Application of common predictive habitat techniques for post-border weed risk management. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 213–224.
Culvenor, D. S. (2002) TIDA: an algorithm for the delineation of tree crowns in high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery. Computers & Geosciences, 28, 33–44.
Cumming, G. S. (2000a) Using between-model comparisons to fine-tune linear models of species ranges. Journal of Biogeography, 27, 441–455.
Cumming, G. S. (2000b) Using habitat models to map diversity: pan-African species richness of ticks (Acari: Ixodida). Journal of Biogeography, 27, 425–440.
Cumming, G. S. (2002) Comparing climate and vegetation as limiting factors for species ranges of African ticks. Ecology, 83, 255–268.
Cunningham, H. R. , Rissler, L. J. , & Apodaca, J. J. (2009) Competition at the range boundary in the slimy salamander: using reciprocal transplants for studies on the role of biotic interactions in spatial distributions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 52–62.
Curran, P. (1980) Multispectral remote sensing of vegetation amount. Progress in Physical Geography, 4, 315–341.
Currie, D. J. (1991) Energy and large-scale patterns of animal-species and plant-species richness. American Naturalist, 137, 27–49.
Cutler, D. R. , Edwards Jr., T. C. , Beard, K. H. et al. (2007) Random forests for classification in ecology. Ecology, 88, 2783–2792.
Daly, C. & Taylor, G. H. (1996) Development of a new Oregon precipitation map using the PRISM model. In Goodchild, M. F. , Steyaert, L. T. , Park, B. O. et al. (Eds.) GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research issues. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books, pp. 91–92.
Daly, C. (2006) Guidelines for assessing the suitability of spatial climate data sets. International Journal of Climatology, 26, 707–721.
Daly, C. , Halbleib, M. , Smith, J. I. et al. (2008) Physiographically sensitive mapping of climatological temperature and precipitation across the conterminous United States. International Journal of Climatology, 28, 2031–2064.
Daly, C. , Neilson, R. P. , & Phillips, D. L. (1994) A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain. Applied Meteorology, 33, 140–158.
Das, A. , Lele, S. R. , Glass, G. E. , Shields, T. , & Patz, J. (2002) Modeling as a discrete spatial response using generalized linear mixed models: application to Lyme disease. International Journal of Geographic Information Science, 16, 152–166.
Davis, F. W. & Goetz, S. (1990) Modeling vegetation pattern using digital terrain data. Landscape Ecology, 4, 69–80.
Davis, F. W. , Seo, C. , & Zielinski, W. J. (2007) Regional variation in home-range-scale habitat models for fisher (Martes pennanti) in California. Ecological Applications, 17, 2195–2213.
Davis, F. W. , Stine, P. A. , Stoms, D. M. , Borchert, M. I. , & Hollander, A. (1995) Gap analysis of the actual vegetation of California: 1. The southwestern region. Madroño, 42, 40–78.
De'ath, G. & Fabricius, K. E. (2000) Classification and regression trees: a powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis. Ecology, 81, 3178–3192.
De'ath, G. (2002) Multivariate regression trees: a new technique for modeling species–environment relationships. Ecology, 83, 1105–1117.
De'ath, G. (2007) Boosted trees for ecological modeling and prediction. Ecology, 88, 243–251.
Dechka, J. A. , Franklin, S. E. , Watmough, M. D. , Bennett, R. P. , & Ingstrup, D. W. (2002) Classification of wetland habitat and vegetation communities using multi-temporal Ikonos imagery in southern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 28, 679–685.
Dedecker, A. P. , Goethals, P. L. M. , Gabriels, W. , & De Pauw, N. (2004) Optimization of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model design for prediction of macroinvertebrates in the Zwalm river basin (Flanders, Belgium). Ecological Modelling, 174, 161–173.
DeFries, R. S. & Townshend, J. R. G. (1999) Global land cover characterization from satellite data: from research to operational implementation? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 8, 367–379.
DeMatteo, K. E. & Loiselle, B. A. (2008) New data on the status and distribution of the bush dog (Speothos venaticus): evaluating its quality of protection and directing research efforts. Biological Conservation, 141, 2494–2505.
DeMers, M. (1991) Classification and purpose in automated vegetation maps. Geographical Review, 81, 267–280.
DeMers, M. (2009) Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Deng, Y. , Wilson, J. P. , & Bauer, B. O. (2007) DEM resolution dependencies of terrain attributes across a landscape. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21, 187–213.
Dettmers, R. , Buehler, D. A. & Bartlett, J. B. (2002) A test and comparison of wildlife-habitat modeling techniques for predicting bird occurrence at a regional scale. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. , Raphael, M. , Haufler, J. , & Wall, B. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 607–615.
Di Luzio, M. , Johnson, G. L. , Daly, C. , Eischeid, J. K. , & Arnold, J. G. (2008) Constructing retrospective gridded daily precipitation and temperature datasets for the conterminous United States. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47, 475–497.
Diggle, P. (1983) Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns. London: Academic Press.
Diniz-Filho, J. A. F. & Bini, L. M. , (2005) Modelling geographical patterns in species richness using eigenvector-based spatial filters. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14, 177–185.
Diniz-Filho, J. A. F. , Bini, L. M. , & Hawkins, B. A. (2003) Spatial autocorrelation and red herrings in geographical ecology. Global Ecology & Biogeography, 12, 53–64.
Diniz-Filho, J. A. F. , Hawkins, B. A. , Bini, L. M. , De Marco, P. , & Blackburn, T. M. (2007a) Are spatial regression methods a panacea or a Pandora's box? A reply to Beale et al. (2007). Ecography, 30, 848–851.
Diniz-Filho, J. A. F. , Rangel, T. F. L. V. B. , Bini, L. M. , & Hawkins, B. A. (2007b) Macroevolutionary dynamics in environmental space and the latitudinal diversity gradient in New World birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B, 274, 43–52.
Dirnböck, T. , Dullinger, S. , Gottfried, M. , Ginzler, C. , & Grabherr, G. (2003) Mapping alpine vegetation based on image analysis, topographic variables and Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Applied Vegetation Science, 6, 85–96.
Donald, P. F. & Fuller, R. J. (1998) Ornithological atlas data: a review of uses and limitations. Bird Study, 45, 129–145.
Dormann, C. F. (2007a) Assessing the validity of autologistic regression. Ecological Modelling, 207, 234–242.
Dormann, C. F. (2007b) Effects of incorporating spatial autocorrelation into the analysis of species distribution data. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 129–138.
Dormann, C. F. (2007c) Promising the future? Global change projections of species distributions. Basic and Applied Ecology, 8, 387–397.
Dormann, C. F. , McPherson, J. M. , AraÚjo, M. B. et al. (2007) Methods to account for spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of species distributional data: a review. Ecography, 30, 609–628.
Dormann, C. F. , Purschke, O. , Garcĺa-Marquez, J. , Lautenbach, S. , & Schröder, B. (2008) Components of uncertainty in species distribution analysis: a case study of the Great Grey Shrike. Ecology 89, 3371–3386.
Doswald, N. , Zimmermann, F. , & Breitenmoser, U. (2007) Testing expert groups for a habitat suitability model for the lynx Lynx lynx in the Swiss Alps. Wildlife Biology, 13, 430–446.
Dozier, J. & Frew, J. (1990) Rapid calculation of terrain parameters for radiation modeling from digital elevation data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 28, 963–969.
Dozier, J. (1980) A clear-sky spectral solar radiation model for snow-covered mountainous terrain. Water Resources Research, 16, 709–718.
Drake, J. M. , Randin, C. , & Guisan, A. (2006) Modelling ecological niches with support vector machines. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 424–432.
Dray, S. , Legendre, P. , & Peres-Neto, P. R. (2006) Spatial modelling: a comprehensive framework for principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices (PCNM). Ecological Modelling, 196, 483–493.
Dreisbach, T. A. , Smith, J. A. , & Molina, R. (2002) Challenges of modeling fungal habitats: when and where do you find chanterelles? In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 475–481.
Dubayah, R. & Rich, P. M. (1995) Topographic solar radiation for GIS. International Journal of Geographic Information Systems, 9, 405–419.
Dubayah, R. & Rich, P. M. (1996) GIS-based solar radiation modeling. In Goodchild, M. F. , Steyaert, L. T. , Parks, B. O. et al. (Eds.) GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books, pp. 129–134.
Dudĺk, M. , Phillips, S. J. , & Schapire, R. E. (2007) Maximum entropy density estimation with generalized regularization and an application to species distribution modeling. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 8, 1217–1260.
Duncan, B. W. , Breininger, D. R. , Schmalzer, P. A. , & Larson, V. L. (1995) Validating a Florida scrub jay habitat suitability model using demographic data on Kennedy Space Center. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 61, 1361–1370.
Dunk, J. R. , Zielinski, W. J. , & Preisler, H. K. (2004) Predicting the occurrence of rare mollusks in northern California forests. Ecological Applications, 14, 713–729.
Dutilleul, P. (1993) Modifying the t-Test for assessing the correlation between two spatial processes. Biometrics, 49, 305–314.
Early, R. , Anderson, B. , & Thomas, C. D. (2008) Using habitat distribution models to evaluate large-scale landscape priorities for spatially dynamic species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 228–238.
Echarri, F. , Tambussi, C. , & Hospitaleche, C. A. (2009) Predicting the distribution of the crested tinamous, Eudromia spp. (Aves, Tinamiformes). Journal of Ornithology, 150, doi:10.1007/s10336–008-0319–5.
Edwards, T. C., Jr ., Cutler, D. R. , Zimmermann, N. E. , Geiser, L. , & Alegria, J. (2005) Model-based stratifications for enhancing the detection of rare ecological events. Ecology, 86, 1081–1090.
Edwards, T. C., Jr ., Cutler, D. R. , Zimmermann, N. E. , Geiser, L. , & Moisen, G. G. (2006) Effects of sample survey design on the accuracy of classification tree models in species distribution models. Ecological Modelling, 199, 132–141.
Eisen, R. J. , Reynolds, P. J. , Ettestad, P. et al. (2007) Residence-linked human plague in New Mexico: a habitat-suitability model. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77, 121–125.
Elder, J. F. (2003) The generalization paradox of ensembles. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 12, 853–864.
Elith, J. & Burgman, M. A. (2002) Predictions and their validation: rare plants in the Central Highlands, Victoria, Australia. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 303–313.
Elith, J. & Graham, C. (2009) Do they? How do they? WHY do they differ? On finding reasons for differing performances of species distribution models. Ecography, 32, 1–12.
Elith, J. & Leathwick, J. (2007) Predicting species distributions from museum and herbarium records using multiresponse models fitted with multivariate adaptive regression splines. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 265–275.
Elith, J. & Leathwick, J. (2009) Conservation prioritisation using species distribution modelling. In Moilanen, A. , Wilson, K. A. , & Possingham, H. (Eds.) Spatial Conservation Prioritization: Quantitative Methods and Computational Tools. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 70–93.
Elith, J. , Burgman, M. A. , & Regan, H. M. (2002) Mapping epistemic uncertainties and vague concepts in predictions of species distribution. Ecological Modelling, 157, 313–329.
Elith, J. , Graham, C. H. , Anderson, R. P. et al. (2006) Novel methods improve prediction of species distributions from occurrence data. Ecography, 29, 129–151.
Elith, J. , Leathwick, J. R. , & Hastie, T. (2008) A working guide to boosted regression trees. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 802–813.
Ellenberg, H. (1988) Vegetation Ecology of Central Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ellenberg, H. , Weber, H. E. , Duell, R. , Wirth, V. , Werner, W. , & Paulissen, D. (1991) Indicator Values of Plants in Central Europe. Goettingen (Germany, F.R.): Goltze.
Ellison, A. M. (2004) Bayesian inference in ecology. Ecology Letters, 7, 509–520.
Elton, C. (1927) Animal Ecology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Engler, R. , Guisan, A. , & Rechsteiner, L. (2004) An improved approach for predicting the distribution of rare and endangered species from occurrence and pseudo-absence data. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 263–274.
Epstein, H. E. , Lauenroth, W. K. , Burke, I. C. , & Coffin, D. P. (1997) Productivity patterns of C-3 and C-4 functional types in the US Great Plains. Ecology, 78, 722–731.
Erasmus, B. F. N. , van Jaarsveld, A. S. , Chown, S. L. , Kshatriya, M. , & Wessels, K. J. (2002) Vulnerability of South African animal taxa to climate change. Global Change Biology, 8, 679–693.
Ertsen, A. C. D. , Alkemade, J. R. M. , & Wassen, M. J. (1998) Calibrating Ellenberg indicator values for moisture, acidity, nutrient availability and salinity in the Netherlands. Plant Ecology, 135, 113–124.
Estes, J. E. & Mooneyhan, D. W. (1994) Of maps and myths. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 60, 517–524.
Estes, L. D. , Okin, G. S. , Mwangi, A. G. , & Shugart, H. H. (2008) Habitat selection by a rare forest antelope: a multi-scale approach combining field data and imagery from three sensors. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 2033–2050.
Evangelista, P. H. , Kumar, S. , Stohlgren, T. J. et al. (2008) Modelling invasion for a habitat generalist and a specialist plant species. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 808–817.
Fairbanks, D. H. K. & McGwire, K. C. (2004) Patterns of floristic richness in vegetation communities of California: regional scale analysis with multi-temporal NDVI. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 13, 221–235.
Farber, O. & Kadmon, R. (2003) Assessment of alternative approaches for bioclimatic modeling with special emphasis on the Mahalanobis distance. Ecological Modelling, 160, 115–130.
Fels, J. E. (1994) Modeling and mapping potential vegetation using digital terrain data. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, College of Forest Resource, North Carolina State University.
Feranec, J. , Hazeu, G. , Christensen, S. , & Jaffrain, G. , (2007) CORINE land cover change detection in Europe (case studies of the Netherlands and Slovakia). Land Use Policy, 24, 234–247.
Fernandez, N. , Delibes, M. , & Palomares, F. (2006) Landscape evaluation in conservation: Molecular sampling and habitat modeling for the Iberian lynx. Ecological Applications, 16, 1037–1049.
Ferrer-Castan, D. & Vetaas, O. R. (2005) Pteridophyte richness, climate and topography in the Iberian Peninsula: comparing spatial and nonspatial models of richness patterns. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14, 155–165.
Ferrier, S. & Guisan, A. (2006) Spatial modelling of biodiversity at the community level. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 393–404.
Ferrier, S. (2002) Mapping spatial pattern in biodiversity for regional conservation planning: where to from here? Systematic Biology, 51, 331–363.
Ferrier, S. , Drielsma, M. , Manion, G. , & Watson, G. (2002a) Extended statistical approaches to modelling spatial pattern in biodiversity in northeast New South Wales. II. Community-level modeling. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11, 2309–2338.
Ferrier, S. , Manion, G. , Elith, J. , & Richardson, K. (2007) Using generalized dissimilarity modelling to analyse and predict patterns of beta diversity in regional biodiversity assessment. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 252–264.
Ferrier, S. , Watson, G. , Pearce, J. , & Drielsma, M. (2002b) Extended statistical approaches to modelling spatial pattern in biodiversity in northeast New South Wales. I. Species-level modelling. Biodiversity and Conservation, 11, 2275–2307.
Fertig, W. & Reiners, W. A. (2002) Predicting Presence/Absence of plant species for range mapping: a case study from Wyoming. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 483–489.
Ficetola, G. F. , Thuiller, W. , & Miaud, C. (2007) Prediction and validation of the potential global distribution of a problematic alien invasive species – the American bullfrog. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 476–485.
Ficetola, G. F. , Thuiller, W. , & Padoa-Schioppa, E. (2009) From introduction to the establishment of alien species: bioclimatic differences between presence and reproduction localities in the slider turtle. Diversity and Distributions, 15, 108–116.
Fielding, A. H. & Bell, J. F. (1997) A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models. Environmental Conservation, 24, 38–49.
Fielding, A. H. & Haworth, P. F. (1995) Testing the generality of bird-habitat models. Conservation Biology, 9, 1466–1481.
Fielding, A. H. (Ed.) (1999) Machine learning methods for ecological applications, Boston, Kluwer.
Fischer, H. (1990) Simulating the distribution of plant communities in an alpine landscape. Coenoses, 5, 37–43.
Fisher, R. N. , Suarez, A. V. , & Case, T. J. (2002) Spatial patterns in the abundance of the coastal horned lizard. Conservation Biology, 16, 205–215.
Fitzgerald, R. W. & Lees, B. G. (1992) The application of neural networks to floristic classification of remote sensing and GIS data in complex terrain. Proceedings of the XVII Congress ISPRS. Bethesda, MD, American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
Fitzpatrick, M. C. , Gove, A. D. , Sanders, N. J. , & Dunn, R. R. (2008) Climate change, plant migration, and range collapse in a global biodiversity hotspot: the Banksia (Proteaceae) of Western Australia. Global Change Biology, 14, 1337–1352.
Fleishman, E. , Murphy, D. D. , & Sjögren-Gulve, P. (2002) Modeling species richness and habitat suitability for taxa of conservation interest. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 507–517.
Fleming, G. , Van Der Merwe, M. , & McFerren, G. (2007) Fuzzy expert systems and GIS for cholera health risk prediction in southern Africa. Environmental Modelling & Software, 22, 442–448.
Flesch, A. D. & Hahn, L. A. (2005) Distribution of birds and plants at the western and southern edges of the Madrean Sky Islands in Sonora, Mexico. U S Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station Proceedings RMRS-P, 36, 80–87.
Florinsky, I. V. (1998) Combined analysis of digital terrain models and remotely sensed data in landscape investigation. Progress in Physical Geography, 22, 33–60.
Foley, J. A. , DeFries, R. , Asner, G. P. et al. (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science, 309, 570–574.
Fonseca, R. L. , Guimaraes, P. R. , Morbiolo, S. R. , Scachetti-Pereira, R. , & Peterson, A. T. (2006) Predicting invasive potential of smooth crotalaria (Crotalaria pallida) in Brazilian national parks based on African records. Weed Science, 54, 458–463.
Foody, G. M. & Cutler, M. E. J. (2003) Tree biodiversity in protected and logged Bornean tropical rain forests and its measurement by satellite remote sensing. Journal of Biogeography, 30, 1053–1066.
Foody, G. M. (2004) Spatial nonstationarity and scale-dependency in the relationship between species richness and environmental determinants for the sub-Saharan endemic avifauna. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 13, 315–320.
Fornes, G. L. (2004) Habitat use by loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) at Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, Illinois: an application of Brooks and Temple's habitat suitability index. American Midland Naturalist, 151, 338–345.
Fortin, M. J. , Keitt, T. H. , Maurer, B. A. , Taper, M. L. , Kaufman, D. M. , & Blackburn, T. M. (2005) Species geographic ranges and distributional limits: pattern analysis and statistical issues. Oikos, 108, 7–17.
Fortin, M.-J. & Dale, M. R. T. (2005) Spatial Analysis: A Guide for Ecologists. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Fotheringham, A. S. , Brunsdon, C. , & Charlton, M. (2002) Geographically Weighted Regression: The Analysis of Spatially Varying Relationships. Chichester, UK: Wiley & Sons.
Franklin, J. & Woodcock, C. E. (1997) Multiscale vegetation data for the mountains of Southern California: spatial and categorical resolution. In Quattrochi, D. A. & Goodchild, M. F. (Eds.) Scale in Remote Sensing and GIS. Boca Raton, FL, CRC/Lewis Publishers Inc., pp. 141–168.
Franklin, J. (1995) Predictive vegetation mapping: geographic modeling of biospatial patterns in relation to environmental gradients. Progress in Physical Geography, 19, 474–499.
Franklin, J. (1998) Predicting the distribution of shrub species in southern California from climate and terrain-derived variables. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 733–748.
Franklin, J. (2001) Geographic information science and ecological assessment. In Bourgeron, P. , Jensen, M. & Lessard, G. (Eds.) An Integrated Ecological Assessment Protocols Guidebook. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 151–161.
Franklin, J. (2002) Enhancing a regional vegetation map with predictive models of dominant plant species in chaparral. Applied Vegetation Science, 5, 135–146.
Franklin, J. (in press) Spatial point pattern analysis of plants. In Rey, S. J. & Anselin, L. (Eds.) Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis. New York: Springer.
Franklin, J. , Keeler-Wolf, T. , Thomas, K. et al. (2001) Stratified sampling for field survey of environmental gradients in the Mojave Desert Ecoregion. In Millington, A. , Walsh, S. , & Osborne, P. (Eds.) GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in Biogeography and Ecology. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 229–253.
Franklin, J. , Logan, T. , Woodcock, C. E. , & Strahler, A. H. (1986) Coniferous forest classification and inventory using Landsat and digital terrain data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, GE-24, 139–149.
Franklin, J. , McCullough, P. , & Gray, C. (2000) Terrain variables used for predictive mapping of vegetation communities in Southern California. In Wilson, J. & Gallant, J. (Eds.) Terrain Analysis: Principles and Applications. New York: Wiley & Sons, pp. 331–353.
Franklin, J. , Phinn, S. R. , Woodcock, C. E. , & Rogan, J. (2003) Rationale and conceptual framework for classification approaches to assess forest resources and properties. In Wulder, M. A. & Franklin, S. E. (Eds.) Remote Sensing of Forest Environments: Concepts and Case Studies. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 279–300.
Franklin, J. , Syphard, A. D. , He, H. S. , & Mladenoff, D. J. (2005) The effects of altered fire regimes on patterns of plant succession in the foothills and mountains of southern California. Ecosystems, 8, 885–898.
Franklin, J. , Wejnert, K. E. , Hathaway, S. A. , Rochester, C. J. , & Fisher, R. N. (2009) Effect of species rarity on the accuracy of species distribution models for reptiles and amphibians in southern California. Diversity and Distributions 15, 167–177.
Franklin, S. E. & Wulder, M. A. (2002) Remote sensing methods in medium spatial resolution satellite data land cover classification of large areas. Progress in Physical Geography, 26, 173–205.
Freeman, E. A. & Moisen, G. (2008b) PresenceAbsence: An R package for presence absence analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 23.
Freeman, E. A. & Moisen, G. G. (2008a) A comparison of the performance of threshold criteria for binary classification in terms of predicted prevalence. Ecological Modelling, 217, 48–58.
Frescino, T. S. , Edwards, T. C., Jr ., & Moisen, G. G. (2001) Modeling spatially explicit forest structural attributes using Generalized Additive Models. Journal of Vegetation Science, 12, 15–26.
Freund, Y. & Schapire, R. (1996) Experiments with a new boosting algorithm. Machine Learning: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference. San Francisco: Morgan Kauffman, pp. 148–156.
Friedman, J. H. & Roosen, C. B. (1995) An introduction to multivariate adaptive regression splines. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 4, 197–217.
Friedman, J. H. (1991) Multivariate adaptive regression splines. Annals of Statistics, 19, 1–141.
Friedman, J. H. (2001) Greedy function approximation: a gradient boosting machine. Annals of Statistics, 29, 1189–1232.
Friedman, J. H. (2002) Stochastic gradient boosting. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 38, 367–378.
Gégout, J.-C. , Coudun, C. , Bailly, G. , & Jabiol, B. (2005) EcoPlant: a forest site database to link floristic data with soil resources and climate conditions. Journal of Vegetation Science, 16, 257–260.
Gahegan, M. (2003) Is inductive machine learning just another wild goose (or might it lay the golden egg)? International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17, 69–92.
Gallagher, R. V. , Beaumont, L. J. , Downey, P. O. , Hughes, L. , & Leishman, M. R. (2008) Projecting the impact of climate change on bitou bush and boneseed distributions in Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly, 23, 37.
Gamon, J. A. & Qiu, H.-L. (1999) Ecological applications of remote sensing at multiple scales. In Pugnaire, F. I. & Valladares, F. (Eds.) Handbook of Functional Plant Ecology. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., pp. 805–846.
Gasc, J. P. , Cabela, A. , Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. et al. (1997) Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe, 1–496.
Gaston, K. J. (2003) The Structure and Dynamics of Geographic Ranges. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Gauch, H. G. & Whittaker, R. H. (1972) Coencline simulation. Ecology, 53.
Gause, G. F. (1934) The Struggle for Existence. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
German, G. & Gahegan, M. (1996) Neural network architectures for the classification of temporal image sequences. Computers & Geosciences, 22, 969–979.
Gerrard, R. , Stine, P. , Church, R. , & Gilpin, M. , (2001) Habitat evaluation using GIS: a case study applied to the San Joaquin Kit Fox. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52, 239–255.
Gibson, L. , Barrett, B. , & Burbidge, A. (2007) Dealing with uncertain absences in habitat modelling: a case study of a rare ground-dwelling parrot. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 704–713.
Gibson, L. A. , Wilson, B. A. , Cahill, D. M. , & Hill, J. (2004) Modelling habitat suitability of the swamp antechinus (Antechinus minimus maritimus) in the coastal heathlands of southern Victoria, Australia. Biological Conservation, 117, 143–150.
Gillespie, T. W. (2005) Predicting woody-plant species richness in tropical dry forests: A case study from south Florida, USA. Ecological Applications, 15, 27–37.
Gillespie, T. W. , Foody, G. M. , Rocchini, D. , Giorgi, A. P. , & Saatchi, S. (2008) Measuring and modelling biodiversity from space. Progress in Physical Geography, 32, 203–221.
Gillison, A. N. & Brewer, K. R. W. (1985) The use of gradient directed transects or gradsect in natural resources survey. Journal of Environmental Management, 20, 103–127.
Gleason, H. A. (1926) The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 53, 7–26.
Godinho, R. , Teixeira, J. , Rebelo, R. et al. (1999) Atlas of the continental Portuguese herpetofauna: an assemblage of published and new data. Revista Espanola de Herpetologia, 13, 61–82.
Goetz, S. , Steinberg, D. , Dubayah, R. , & Blair, B. (2007) Laser remote sensing of canopy habitat heterogeneity as a predictor of bird species richness in an eastern temperate forest, USA. Remote Sensing of Environment, 108, 254–263.
Goodchild, M. F. & Gopal, S. (1989) The accuracy of spatial databases, London, Taylor & Francis.
Goodchild, M. F. & Tate, N. J. (1992) Description of terrain as a fractal surface, and application to digital elevation model quality assessment. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 58, 1568–1570.
Goodchild, M. F. (1988) Stepping over the line: technological constraints and the new cartography. American Cartographer, 15, 311–319.
Goodchild, M. F. (1992) Geographical data modeling. Computers & Geosciences, 18, 401–408.
Goodchild, M. F. (1994) Integrating GIS and remote sensing for vegetation analysis and modeling: methodological issues. Journal of Vegetation Science, 5, 615–626.
Goodchild, M. F. (1996) The spatial data infrastructure of environmental modeling. In Goodchild, M. F. , Steyaert, L. T. , Parks, B. O. et al. (Eds.) GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books, pp. 11–15.
Goodchild, M. F. , Parks, B. O. , & Steyaert, L. T. (1993) Environmental Modeling with GIS: New York: Oxford University Press.
Goodchild, M. F. , Steyaert, L. T. , Parks, B. O. et al. (Eds.) (1996) GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books.
Gottschalk, T. K. , Huettmann, F. , & Ehlers, M. (2005) Thirty years of analysing and modelling avian habitat relationships using satellite imagery data: a review. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26, 2631–2656.
Gotway, C. & Stroup, W. (1997) A generalized linear model approach to spatial data analysis and prediction. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 2, 152–178.
Gould, W. (2000) Remote sensing of vegetation, plant species richness, and regional biodiversity hotspots. Ecological Applications, 10, 1861–1870.
Graham, C. H. & Blake, J. G. (2001) Influence of patch- and landscape-level factors on bird assemblages in a fragmented tropical landscape. Ecological Applications, 11, 1709–1721.
Graham, C. H. & Fine, P. V. A. (in press) Phylogenetic beta diversity: linking ecological and evolutionary processes across space in time. Trends in Ecology & Evolution.
Graham, C. H. & Hijmans, R. J. (2006) A comparison of methods for mapping species ranges and species richness. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15, 578–587.
Graham, C. H. , Elith, J. , Hijmans, R. J. et al. (2008) The influence of spatial errors in species occurrence data used in distribution models. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 239–247.
Graham, C. H. , Ferrier, S. , Huettman, F. , Moritz, C. , & Peterson, A. T. (2004) New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19, 497–503.
Granadeiro, J. P. , Andrade, J. , & Palmeirim, J. M. (2004) Modelling the distribution of shorebirds in estuarine areas using generalised additive models. Journal of Sea Research, 52, 227–240.
Greenberg, J. A. , Dobrowski, S. Z. , Ramirez, C. M. , Tuil, J. L. , & Ustin, S. L. (2006) A bottom-up approach to vegetation mapping of the Lake Tahoe Basin using hyperspatial image analysis. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 72, 581–589.
Greig-Smith, P. (1983) Quantitative Plant Ecology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Gret-Regamey, A. & Straub, D. (2006) Spatially explicit avalanche risk assessment linking Bayesian networks to a GIS. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 6, 911–926.
Griffith, D. A. & Peres-Neto, P. R. (2006) Spatial modeling in ecology: The flexibility of eigenfunction spatial analyses. Ecology, 87, 2603–2613.
Griffith, D. A. (2006) Assessing spatial dependence in count data: Winsorized and spatial filter specification alternatives to the auto-Poisson model. Geographical Analysis, 38, 160–179.
Grinnell, J. (1917a) The niche-relationships of the California thrasher. Auk, 34, 427–433.
Grinnell, J. (1917b) Field tests and theories concerning distributional control. The American Naturalist, 51, 115–128.
Grossman, D. H. , Faber-Langendeon, D. , Weakley, A. S. et al. (1998) International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States Volume 1. The National Vegetation Classification System: Development, Status and Applications. Washington, DC: The Nature Conservancy.
Gu, W. D. & Swihart, R. K. (2004) Absent or undetected? Effects of non-detection of species occurrence on wildlife-habitat models. Biological Conservation, 116, 195–203.
Guisan, A. & Harrell, F. E. (2000) Ordinal response regression models in ecology. Journal of Vegetation Science, 11, 617–626.
Guisan, A. & Thuiller, W. (2005) Predicting species distributions: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecology Letters, 8, 993–1009.
Guisan, A. & Zimmermann, N. E. (2000) Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling, 135, 147–186.
Guisan, A. , Edwards, T. C., Jr ., & Hastie, T. (2002) Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: setting the scene. Ecological Modelling, 157, 89–100.
Guisan, A. , Lehmann, A. , Ferrier, S. et al. (2006) Making better biogeographical predictions of species distributions. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 386–392.
Guisan, A. , Theurillat, J.-P. , & Kienast, F. (1998) Predicting the potential distribution of plant species in an alpine environment. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 65–74.
Guisan, A. , Weiss, S. , & Weiss, A. (1999) GLM versus CCA spatial modeling of plant species distributions. Plant Ecology, 143, 107–122.
Guisan, A. , Zimmermann, N. E. , Elith, J. , Graham, C. H. , Phillips, S. , & Peterson, A. T. (2007) What matters for predicting the occurrences of trees: Techniques, data, or species characteristics? Ecological Monographs, 77, 615–630.
Gumpertz, M. , Graham, J. , & Ristaino, J. (1997) Autologistic model of spatial pattern of Phytophthora epidemic in bell pepper: Effects of soil variation on disease presence. Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics, 2, 131–156.
Gumpertz, M. , Wu, C. , & Pye, H. (2000) Logistic regression for southern pine beetle outbreaks with spatial and temporal autocorrelation. Forest Science, 46, 95–107.
Guo, Q. H. , Kelly, M. , & Graham, C. H. (2005) Support vector machines for predicting distribution of sudden oak death in California. Ecological Modelling, 182, 75–90.
Guo, Q. H. , Kelly, M. , Gong, P. , & Liu, D. S. (2007) An object-based classification approach in mapping tree mortality using high spatial resolution imagery. GIScience & Remote Sensing, 44, 24–47.
Gurevitch, J. , Scheiner, S. M. , & Fox, G. A. (2006) The Ecology of Plants, Sunderland, MA, Sinauer Associates.
Gustafson, E. J. (1998) Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: What is the state of the art? Ecosystems, 1, 143–156.
Hagemeijer, W. J. M. & Blair, M. J. (1997) The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds. Their Distribution and Abundance. London: Poyser.
Haining, R. P. (1990) Spatial Data Analysis in the Social and Environmental Sciences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hanley, J. A. & McNeil, B. J. (1982) The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristics curve. Radiology, 143, 29–36.
Hannah, L. & Phillips, B. (2004) Extinction-risk coverage is worth inaccuracies. Nature, 430, 141.
Hanski, I. (1999) Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Harrell, F. E. (2001) Regression Modelling Strategies: with Applications to Linear Models, Logistic Regression and Survival Analysis. New York: Springer.
Hastie, T. , Tibshirani, R. , & Friedman, J. (2001) The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference and Prediction. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Hastie, T. , Tibshirani, R. , & Friedman, J. (2009) The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference and Prediction. 2nd edn., New York: Springer-Verlag.
Hastie, T. , Tibshirani, R. J. , & Buja, A. (1994) Flexible discriminant analysis by optimal scoring. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 89, 1255–1270.
Hastie, T. J. & Pregibon, D. (1992) Generalized linear models. In Chambers, J. & Hastie, T. (Eds.) In Statistical Models in S. Pacific Grove, CA: Wadsworth, pp. 195–247.
Hastie, T. J. & Tibshirani, R. J. (1990) Generalized Additive Models. London: Chapman and Hall.
Hathaway, S. A. (2000) An exploratory analysis of the biogeographic distribution of herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians) and environmental variation in San Diego County using museum records and survey data. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Geography Department, San Diego State University.
Hawkins, B. A. , Diniz-Filho, J. A. F. , Bini, L. M. , De Marco, P. , & Blackburn, T. M. (2007) Red herrings revisited: spatial autocorrelation and parameter estimation in geographical ecology. Ecography, 30, 375–384.
Hazin, H. & Erzini, K. (2008) Assessing swordfish distribution in the South Atlantic from spatial predictions. Fisheries Research, 90, 45–55.
He, H. S. & Mladenoff, D. J. (1999) Spatially explicit and stochastic simulation of forest-landscape fire disturbance and succession. Ecology, 80, 81–90.
Heath, L. S. , Birdsey, R. A. , & Williams, D. W. (2002) Methodology for estimating soil carbon for the forest carbon budget model of the United States, 2001. Environmental Pollution, 116, 373–380.
Heikkinen, R. K. , Luoto, M. , Araújo, M. B. , Virkkala, R. , Thuiller, W. , & Sykes, M. T. (2006) Methods and uncertainties in bioclimatic envelope modelling under climate change. Progress in Physical Geography, 30, 751–777.
Heikkinen, R. K. , Luoto, M. , Virkkala, R. , & Rainio, K. (2004) Effects of habitat cover, landscape structure and spatial variables on the abundance of birds in an agricultural-forest mosaic. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 824–835.
Heikkinen, R. K. , Luoto, M. , Virkkala, R. , Pearson, R. G. , & Korber, J. H. (2007) Biotic interactions improve prediction of boreal bird distributions at macro-scales. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 754–763.
Hellgren, E. C. , Bales, S. L. , Gregory, M. S. , Leslie, D. M. , & Clark, J. D. (2007) Testing a Mahalanobis distance model of black bear habitat use in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71, 924–928.
Henle, K. , Lindenmayer, D. B. , Margules, C. R. , Saunders, D. A. , & Wissel, C. (2004) Species survival in fragmented landscapes: where are we now? Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 1–8.
Hennig, C. & Hausdorf, B. (2006) Design of dissimilarity measures: a new dissimilarity between species distribution areas. In Batagelj, V. , Bock, H.-H. , Ferligoj, A. , & Žiberna, A. (Eds.) Data Science and Classification. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 29–37.
Hepinstall, J. A. , Krohn, W. B. , & Sader, S. A. (2002) Effects of niche width on the performance and agreement of avian habitat models. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 593–606.
Herborg, L. M. , Jerde, C. L. , Lodge, D. M. , Ruiz, G. M. , & Macisaac, H. J. (2007) Predicting invasion risk using measures of introduction effort and environmental niche models. Ecological Applications, 17, 663–674.
Hernandez, M. , Miller, S. N. , Goodrich, D. C. et al. (2000) Modeling runoff response to land cover and rainfall spatial variability in semi-arid watersheds. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 64, 285–298.
Hernandez, P. A. , Franke, I. , Herzog, S. K. et al. (2008) Predicting species distributions in poorly-studied landscapes. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 1353–1366.
Hernandez, P. A. , Graham, C. H. , Master, L. L. , & Albert, D. L. (2006) The effect of sample size and species characteristics on performance of different species distribution modeling methods. Ecography, 29, 773–785.
Hershey, R. R. (2000) Modeling the spatial distribution of ten tree species in Pennsylvania. In Mowrer, H. T. & Congalton, R. G. (Eds.) Quantifying Spatial Uncertainty in Natural Resources: Theory and Applications for GIS and Remote Sensing. Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press, pp. 119–136.
Hestir, E. L. , Khanna, S. , Andrew, M. E. et al. (2008) Identification of invasive vegetation using hyperspectral remote sensing in the California Delta ecosystem. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 4034–4047.
Hijmans, R. J. & Graham, C. H. (2006) The ability of climate envelope models to predict the effect of climate change on species distributions. Global Change Biology, 12, 2272–2281.
Hijmans, R. J. , Cameron, S. E. , Parra, J. L. , Jones, P. G. , & Jarvis, A. (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1965–1978.
Hijmans, R. J. , Guarino, L. , Cruz, M. , & Rojas, E. (2001) Computer tools for spatial analysis of plant genetic resources data: 1. DIVA-GIS. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, 127, 15–19.
Hilbert, D. W. & Ostendorf, B. (2001) The utility of artificial neural networks for modelling the distribution of vegetation in past, present and future climates. Ecological Modelling, 146, 311–327.
Hilbert, D. W. & van den Muyzenberg, J. (1999) Using an artificial neural network to characterise the relative suitability of environments for forest types in a complex tropical vegetation mosaic. Diversity and Distributions, 5, 263–274.
Hill, M. O. , Roy, D. B. , Mountford, J. O. , & Bunce, R. G. H. (2000) Extending Ellenberg's indicator values to a new area: an algorithmic approach. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 3–15.
Hirzel, A. & Guisan, A. (2002) Which is the optimal sampling strategy for habitat suitability modelling? Ecological Modelling, 157, 331–341.
Hirzel, A. H. & Arlettaz, R. (2003) Modeling habitat suitability for complex species distributions by environmental-distance geometric mean. Environmental Management, 32, 614–623.
Hirzel, A. H. & Le Lay, G. (2008) Habitat suitability modelling and niche theory. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 1372–1381.
Hirzel, A. H. , Hausser, J. , Chessel, D. , & Perrin, N. (2002) Ecological-niche factor analysis: how to compute habitat-suitability maps without absence data? Ecology, 83, 2027–2036.
Hirzel, A. H. , Helfer, V. , & Métral, F. (2001) Assessing habitat-suitability models with a virtual species. Ecological Modelling, 145.
Hirzel, A. H. , Le Lay, G. , Helfer, V. , Randin, C. , & Guisan, A. (2006) Evaluating the ability of habitat suitability models to predict species presences. Ecological Modelling, 199, 142–152.
Hirzel, A. H. , Posse, B. , Oggier, P. A. , Crettenand, Y. , Glenz, C. , & Arlettaz, R. (2004) Ecological requirements of reintroduced species and the implications for release policy: the case of the bearded vulture. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 1103–1116.
Hobbs, N. T. (2003) Challenges and opportunities in integrating ecological knowledge across scales. Forest Ecology and Management, 181, 223–238.
Hoeting, J. A. , Davis, R. A. , Merton, A. A. , & Thompson, S. E. (2006) Model selection for geostatistical models. Ecological Applications, 16, 87–98.
Hoeting, J. A. , Madigan, D. , Raftery, A. E. , & Volinsky, C. T. (2000) Bayesian model averaging: a tutorial. Statistical Science, 14, 382–417.
Hoffer, R. M. E. A. (1975) Natural resource mapping in mountainous terrain by computer analysis of ERTS-1 satellite data, Purdue University, W. Lafayette , In Agricultural Experimental Station Research Bulletin 919, and LARS Contract Report 061575.
Holdridge, L. (1947) Determination of world plant formations from simple climatic data. Science, 105, 367–368.
Holling, C. S. (1992) Cross-scale morphology, geometry, and dynamics of ecosystems. Ecological Monographs, 62, 447–502.
Homann, P. S. , Sollins, P. , Fiorella, M. , Thorson, T. , & Kern, J. S. (1998) Regional soil organic carbon storage estimates for western Oregon by multiple approaches. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62, 789–796.
Hooten, M. B. , Larsen, D. R. , & Wikle, C. K. (2003) Predicting the spatial distribution of ground flora on large domains using a hierarchical Bayesian model. Landscape Ecology, 18, 487–502.
Hosmer, D. & Lemeshow, S. (2000) Applied Logistic Regression, New York, Wiley.
Howell, J. E. , Peterson, J. T. , & Conroy, M. J. (2008) Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the state of Georgia. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72, 168–178.
Huang, C. Y. & Geiger, E. L. (2008) Climate anomalies provide opportunities for large-scale mapping of non-native plant abundance in desert grasslands. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 875–884.
Hubbell, S. P. (2001) The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Huberty, C. J. (1994) Applied Discriminant Analysis. New York, USA: Wiley Interscience.
Hugall, A. , Moritz, C. , Moussalli, A. , & Stanisic, J. (2002) Reconciling paleodistribution models and comparative phylogeography in the Wet Tropics rainforest land snail Gnarosophia bellendenkerensis (Brazier 1875). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 6112–6117.
Hunsaker, C. T. , Nisbet, R. A. , Lam, D. C. L. et al. (1993) Spatial models of ecological systems and processes: the role of GIS. In Goodchild, M. F. , Parks, B. O. , & Steyaert, L. T. (Eds.) Environmental Modeling with GIS. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 248–264.
Hunter, G. J. & Goodchild, M. F. (1997) Modeling the uncertainty of slope and aspect estimates derived from spatial databases. Geographical Analysis, 29, 35–49.
Huntley, B. & Webb, T., III (1988) Vegetation History. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Huntley, B. , Bartlein, P. J. & Prentice, I. C. (1989) Climate control of the distribution and abundance of beech (Fagus L.) in Europe and North America. Journal of Biogeography, 16, 551–560.
Huntley, B. , Green, R. E. , Collingham, Y. C. et al. (2004) The performance of models relating species geographical distributions to climate is independent of trophic level. Ecology Letters, 7, 417–426.
Hurlbert, A. H. & Haskell, J. P. (2003) The effect of energy and seasonality on avian species richness and community composition. American Naturalist, 161, 83–97.
Hurtt, G. C. , Rosentrater, L. , Frolking, S. , & Moore, B., III , (2001) Linking remote-sensing estimates of land cover and census statistics on land use to produce maps of land use of the conterminous United States. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15, 673–685.
Huston, M. A. (2002) Introductory essay: critical issues for improving predictions. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 7–21.
Hutchinson, C. F. (1982) Techniques for combining Landsat and ancillary data for digital classification improvement. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 48, 123–130.
Hutchinson, M. F. & Gallant, J. (2000) Digital elevation models and representation of terrain shape. In Wilson, J. & Gallant, J. (Eds.) Terrain Analysis: Principles and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 29–50.
Hutchinson, M. F. & Gessler, P. E. (1994) Splines – more than just a smooth interpolator. Geoderma, 62, 45–67.
Hutchinson, M. F. (1987) Methods for generation of weather sequences. In Bunting, A. H. (Ed.) Agricultural environments: characterisation, classification and mapping. Wallingford: CAB, International, 149–157.
Hutchinson, M. F. (1996) Thin plate spline interpolation of mean rainfall. In Goodchild, M. F. , Steyaert, L. T. & Park, B. O. (Eds.) GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books, pp. 85–90.
Ibáñez, I. , Silander, J. A., Jr ., Wilson, A. M. , Lafleur, N. , Tanaka, N. , & Tsuyama, I. (2009) Multivariate forecasts of potential distributions of invasive plant species. Ecological Applications, 19, 359–375.
Inglis, G. J. , Huren, H. , Oldman, J. , & Haskew, R. (2006) Using habitat suitability index and particle dispersion models for early detection of marine invaders. Ecological Applications, 16, 1377–1390.
Iverson, L. R. & Prasad, A. M. (1998) Predicting abundance of 80 tree species following climate change in the eastern United States. Ecological Monographs, 68, 465–485.
Iverson, L. R. , Prasad, A. , & Schwartz, M. W. (1999) Modeling potential future individual tree-species distributions in the eastern United States under a climate change scenario: a case study with Pinus virginiana . Ecological Modelling, 115, 77–93.
Iverson, L. R. , Prasad, A. M. , Matthews, S. N. , & Peters, M. (2008) Estimating potential habitat for 134 eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios. Forest Ecology and Management, 254, 390–406.
Iverson, L. R. , Schwartz, M. W. , & Prasad, A. M. (2004a) How fast and far might tree species migrate in the eastern United States due to climate change? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 13, 209–219.
Iverson, L. R. , Schwartz, M. W. , & Prasad, A. M. (2004b) Potential colonization of newly available tree-species habitat under climate change: an analysis for five eastern US species. Landscape Ecology, 19, 787–799.
Jaberg, C. & Guisan, A. (2001) Modeling the influence of landscape structure on bat species distribution and community composition in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 1169–1181.
Jackson, S. T. & Overpeck, J. T. (2000) Responses of plant populations and communities to environmental changes of the late Quaternary. Paleobiology, 26.
Jacobs, B. F. , Romme, W. H. , & Allen, C. D. (2008) Mapping “old” vs. “young” piñon-juniper stands with a predictive topo-climatic model. Ecological Applications, 18, 1627–1641.
Jeffers, J. N. R. (1999) Genetic algorithms I: Ecological applications of the Beagle and Gafer genetic algorithms. In Fielding, A. H. (Ed.) Machine Learning Methods for Ecological Applications. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishing, pp. 107–121.
Jenny, H. (1941) Factors of Soil Formation. New York: McGraw Hill.
Jenson, S. K. & Domingue, J. O. (1988) Extracting topographic structure from digital elevation data for geographic information system analysis. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 54, 1593–1600.
Jetz, W. & Rahbek, C. (2002) Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness. Science, 297, 1548–1551.
Jetz, W. , Rahbek, C. & Lichstein, J. W. (2005) Local and global approaches to spatial data analysis in ecology. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14, 97–98.
Jiménez-Valverde, A. , Lobo, J. M. , & Hortal, J. (2008) Not as good as they seem: the importance of concepts in species distribution modeling. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 885–890.
Jiménez-Valverde, A. , Ortuno, V. M. , & Lobo, J. M. (2007) Exploring the distribution of Sterocorax Ortuno, 1990 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) species in the Iberian peninsula. Journal of Biogeography, 34, 1426–1438.
Johnson, C. J. & Gillingham, M. P. (2005) An evaluation of mapped species distribution models used for conservation planning. Environmental Conservation, 32, 117–128.
Johnson, C. J. , Nielsen, S. E. , Merrill, E. H. , McDonald, T. L. , & Boyce, M. S. (2006) Resource selection functions based on use-availability data: Theoretical motivation and evaluation methods. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70, 347–357.
Johnson, C. M. & Krohn, W. B. (2002) Dynamics patterns of associations between environmental factors and island use by breeding seabirds. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Scale and Accuracy. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 171–182.
Johnson, C. M. , Johnson, L. B. , Richards, C. , & Beasley, V. (2002) Predicting the occurrence of amphibians: an assessment of multiple-scale models. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 157–170.
Johnson, D. H. (1980) The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preference. Ecology, 61, 65–71.
Jones, J. P. & Cassetti, E. (1992) Applications of the Expansion Method. London: Routledge.
Jones, M. M. , Olivas Rojas, P. , Tuomisto, H. , & Clark, D. B. (2007) Environmental and neighborhood effects on tree fern distributions in a neotropical lowland rain forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 18, 13–24.
Jones, M. T. , Niemi, G. J. , Hanowski, J. M. , & Regal, R. R. (2002) Poisson regression: a better approach to modeling abundance data? In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 411–418.
Justice, C. O. , Vermote, E. , Townshend, J. R. G. et al. (1998) The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): land remote sensing for global change research. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 36, 1228–1249.
Köchler, A. W. & Zonneveld, I. S. (Eds.) (1998) Vegetation Mapping. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Köchler, A. W. (1973) Problems in classifying and mapping vegetation for ecological regionalization. Ecology, 54, 512–523.
Köppen, W. P. (1923) Die Klimate der Erde : Grundriss der Klimakunde. Berlin; Leipzig: Walter de Gruyter & So.
Kühn, I. (2007) Incorporating spatial autocorrelation may invert observed patterns. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 66–69.
Kadmon, R. , Farber, O. , & Danin, A. (2003) A systematic analysis of factors affecting the performance of climatic envelope models. Ecological Applications, 13, 853–867.
Kadmon, R. , Farber, O. , & Danin, A. (2004) Effect of roadside bias on the accuracy of predictive maps produced by bioclimatic models. Ecological Applications, 14, 401–413.
Kambhampati, S. & Peterson, A. T. (2007) Ecological niche conservation and differentiation in the wood-feeding cockroaches, Cryptocercus, in the United States. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 90, 457–466.
Karl, J. W. , Svancara, L. K. , Heglund, P. J. , Wright, N. M. , & Scott, J. M. (2002) Species commonness and the accuracy of habitat-relationship models. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 573–580.
Kearney, M. (2006) Habitat, environment and niche: what are we modelling? Oikos, 115, 186–191.
Keating, K. A. & Cherry, S. (2004) Use and interpretation of logistic regression in habitat selection studies. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 774–789.
Keith, D. A. , Akçakaya, H. R. , Thuiller, W. et al. (2008) Predicting extinction risks under climate change: coupling stochastic population models with dynamic bioclimatic habitat models. Biology Letters, 4, 560–563.
Keitt, T. H. , Bjørnstad, O. N. , Dixon, P. M. , & Citron-Pousty, S. (2002) Accounting for spatial pattern when modeling organism–environment interactions. Ecography, 25, 616–625.
Kelly, M. & Meentemeyer, R. K. (2002) Landscape dynamics of the spread of sudden oak death. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 68, 1001–1009.
Kelly, M. , Allen-Diaz, B. , & Kobzina, N. (2005) Digitization of a historic dataset: the Wieslander California vegetation type mapping project. Madroño, 52, 191–201.
Kelly, M. , Guo, Q. , Liu, D. , & Shaari, D. (2007) Modeling the risk for a new invasive forest disease in the United States: An evaluation of five environmental niche models. Computers Environment and Urban Systems, 31, 689–710.
Kerr, J. T. & Ostrovsky, M. (2003) From space to species: ecological applications for remote sensing. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 16, 299–305.
Kerr, J. T. , Southwood, T. R. E. , & Cihlar, J. (2001) Remotely sensed habitat diversity predicts butterfly species richness and community similarity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 98, 11365–11370.
Kessell, S. R. (1976) Gradient modeling: a new approach to fire modeling and wilderness resource management. Environmental Management, 1, 39–48.
Kessell, S. R. (1978) Forum: perspectives in fire research. Environmental Management, 2, 291–312.
Kessell, S. R. (1979) Gradient Modeling: Resource and Fire Management. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Kindvall, O. , Bergman, K.-O. , Akçakaya, H. R. et al. (2004) Woodland brown butterfly (Lopinga achine) in Sweden: viability in a dynamic landscape maintained by grazing. Species Conservation and Management: Case Studies, 171–178.
Kissling, W. D. & Carl, G. (2008) Spatial autocorrelation and the selection of simultaneous autoregressive models. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 59–71.
Knick, S. T. & Dyer, D. L. (1997) Spatial distribution of black-tailed jackrabbit habitat determined by GIS in southwestern Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management, 61, 75–85.
Knick, S. T. & Rotenberry, J. T. (1998) Limitations to mapping habitat areas in changing landscapes using the Mahalanobis distance statistic. Journal of Agricultural Biological and Environmental Statistics, 3, 311–322.
Knowles, L. L. , Carstens, B. C. , & Keat, M. L. (2007) Coupling genetic and ecological-niche models to examine how past population distributions contribute to divergence. Current Biology, 17, 940–946.
Kozak, K. H. & Wiens, J. J. (2006) Does niche conservatism promote speciation? A case study in North American salamanders. Evolution, 60, 2604–2621.
Kozak, K. H. , Graham, C. H. , & Wiens, J. J. (2008) Integrating GIS-based environmental data into evolutionary biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 141–148.
Kremen, C. , Cameron, A. , Moilanen, A. et al. (2008) Aligning conservation priorities across taxa in Madagascar with high-resolution planning tools. Science, 320, 222–226.
Kueppers, L. M. , Snyder, M. A. , Sloan, L. C. , Zavaleta, E. S. , & Fulfrost, B. (2005) Modeled regional climate change and California endemic oak ranges. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 16281–16286.
Kueppers, L. M. , Zavaleta, E. , Fulfrost, B. , Snyder, M. A. , & Sloan, L. C. (2006) Constrained range expansion and climate change assessments – The authors reply. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4, 179–179.
Kuhnert, P. M. , Do, K.-A. , & McClure, R. (2000) Combining non-parametric models with logistic regression: an application to motor vehicle injury data. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 34, 371–386.
Kupfer, J. A. & Farris, C. A. (2007) Incorporating spatial non-stationarity of regression coefficients into predictive vegetation models. Landscape Ecology, 22, 837–852.
Kyriakidis, P. C. & Dungan, J. L. (2001) A geostatistical approach for mapping thematic classification accuracy and evaluating the impact of inaccurate spatial data on ecological model predictions. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 8, 311–330.
La Morgia, V. , Bona, F. , & Badino, G. (2008) Bayesian modelling procedures for the evaluation of changes in wildlife habitat suitability: a case study of roe deer in the Italian Alps. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 863–872.
Ladle, R. J. , Jepson, P. , Araújo, M. B. , & Whittaker, T. J. (2004) Dangers of crying wolf over risk of extinctions. Nature, 428, 799–799.
Lane, S. N. , Richards, K. S. , & Chandler, J. H. (1998) Landform Monitoring, Modelling and Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.
Larson, M. A. , Thompson, F. R. , Millspaugh, J. J. , Dijak, W. D. , & Shifley, S. R. (2004) Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planning. Ecological Modelling, 180, 103–118.
Lassalle, G. , Beguer, M. , Beaulaton, L. , & Rochard, E. (2008) Diadromous fish conservation plans need to consider global warming issues: an approach using biogeographical models. Biological Conservation, 141, 1105–1118.
Lassau, S. A. & Hochuli, D. F. (2007) Associations between wasp communities and forest structure: do strong local patterns hold across landscapes? Austral Ecology, 32, 656–662.
Lassueur, T. , Joost, S. , & Randin, C. F. (2006) Very high resolution digital elevation models: do they improve models of plant species distribution? Ecological Modelling, 198, 139–153.
Lathrop, R. G. , Aber, J. D. , & Bognar, J. A. (1995) Spatial variability of digital soil maps and its impact on regional ecosystem modeling. Ecological Modelling, 82, 1–10.
Latifovic, R. , Zhu, Z.-L. , Cihlar, J. , & Giri, C. (2002) Land cover of North America 2000. Natural Resources Canada, Canada Center for Remote Sensing. US Geological Survey, EROS Data Center.
Latimer, A. M. , Wu, S. S. , Gelfand, A. E. , & Silander, J. A. (2006) Building statistical models to analyze species distributions. Ecological Applications, 16, 33–50.
Laurent, E. J. , Shi, H. J. , Gatziolis, D. , Lebouton, J. P. , Walters, M. B. , & Liu, J. G. (2005) Using the spatial and spectral precision of satellite imagery to predict wildlife occurrence patterns. Remote Sensing of Environment, 97, 249–262.
Lawler, J. J. , Shafer, S. L. , White, D. (2009) Projected climate-induced faunal changes in the Western Hemisphere. Ecology, 90, 588–597.
Lawler, J. J. , White, D. , Neilson, R. P. , & Blaustein, A. R. (2006) Predicting climate-induced range shifts: model differences and model reliability. Global Change Biology, 12, 1568–1584.
Le Maitre, D. C. , Thuiller, W. , & Schonegevel, L. (2008) Developing an approach to defining the potential distributions of invasive plant species: a case study of Hakea species in South Africa. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 569–584.
Leathwick, J. R. & Austin, M. P. (2001) Competitive interactions between tree species in New Zealand's old-growth indigenous forests. Ecology, 82, 2560–2573.
Leathwick, J. R. (1995) Climatic relationships of some New Zealand forest tree species. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6, 237–248.
Leathwick, J. R. (1998) Are New Zealand's Nothofagus species in equilibrium with their environment? Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 719–732.
Leathwick, J. R. (2001) New Zealand's potential forest pattern as predicted from current species-environment relationships. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 39, 447–464.
Leathwick, J. R. , Elith, J. , & Hastie, T. (2006b) Comparative performance of generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines for statistical modelling of species distributions. Ecological Modelling, 199, 188–196.
Leathwick, J. R. , Elith, J. , Francis, M. P. , Hastie, T. , & Taylor, P. (2006a) Variation in demersal fish species richness in the oceans surrounding New Zealand: an analysis using boosted regression trees. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 321, 267–281.
Leathwick, J. R. , Rowe, D. , Richardson, J. , Elith, J. , & Hastie, T. (2005) Using multivariate adaptive regression splines to predict the distributions of New Zealand's freshwater diadromous fish. Freshwater Biology, 50, 2034–2052.
Lee, D. R. & Sallee, G. T. (1970) A method of measuring shape. Geographical Review, 60, 555–563.
Lee, M. , Fahrig, L. , Freemark, K. , & Currie, D. J. (2002) Importance of patch scale vs landscape scale on selected forest birds. Oikos, 96, 110–118.
Lee, S. & Choi, J. (2004) Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS and the weight-of-evidence model. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 18, 789–814.
Lees, B. G. & Ritman, K. (1991) Decision-tree and rule-induction approach to integration of remotely sensed and GIS data in mapping vegetation in disturbed or hilly environments. Environmental Management, 15, 823–831.
Lefsky, M. A. , Cohen, W. B. , & Spies, T. A. (2001) An evaluation of alternate remote sensing products for forest inventory, monitoring, and mapping of Douglas-fir forests in western Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31, 78–87.
Legates, D. R. & McCabe, G. J., Jr . (1998) Evaluating the use of “goodness-of-fit” measures in hydrologic and hydroclimatic model validation. Water Resources Research, 35, 233.
Legendre, P. & Fortin, M. J. (1989) Spatial pattern and ecological analysis. Vegetatio, 80, 107–138.
Legendre, P. & Legendre, L. (1998) Numerical Ecology. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Legendre, P. (1993) Spatial autocorrelation: problem or new paradigm. Ecology, 74, 1659–1673.
Legendre, P. , Borcard, D. , & Peres-Neto, P. R. (2005) Analyzing beta diversity: partitioning the spatial variation of community composition data. Ecological Monographs, 75, 435–450.
Lehmann, A. (1998) GIS modeling of submerged macrophyte distribution using Generalized Additive Models. Plant Ecology, 139, 113–124.
Lehmann, A. , Overton, J. M. , & Leathwick, J. R. (2002) GRASP: generalized regression analysis and spatial prediction. Ecological Modelling, 157, 189–207.
Lek, S. & Guégan, J.-F. (2000) Artificial Neural Networks: Application to Ecology and Evolution. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Lenihan, J. M. & Neilson, R. (1993) A rule-based vegetation formation model for Canada. Journal of Biogeography, 20, 615–628.
Lenihan, J. M. (1993) Ecological response surfaces for North American boreal tree species and their use in forest classification. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 667–680.
Lennon, J. J. (2002) Red shifts and red herrings in geographical ecology. Ecography, 23, 101–113.
Levin, N. , Shmida, A. , Levanoni, O. , Tamari, H. , & Kark, S. (2007) Predicting mountain plant richness and rarity from space using satellite-derived vegetation indices. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 692–703.
Levin, S. A. (1992) The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology, 73, 1943–1967.
Levine, R. S. , Peterson, A. T. , & Benedict, M. Q. (2004) Geographic and ecologic distributions of the Anopheles gambiae complex predicted using a genetic algorithm. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 70, 105–109.
Leyequien, E. , Verrelst, J. , Slot, M. , Schaepman-Strub, G. , Heitkonig, I. M. A. , & Skidmore, A. (2007) Capturing the fugitive: applying remote sensing to terrestrial animal distribution and diversity (vol 9, pg 1, 2007). International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 9, 224–224.
Li, J. , Hilbert, D. W. , Parker, T. , & Williams, S. (2009) How do species respond to climate change along an elevation gradient? A case study of the grey-headed robin (Heteromyias albispecularis). Global Change Biology, 15, 255–267.
Li, W. J. , Wang, Z. J. , Ma, Z. J. , & Tang, H. X. (1999) Designing the core zone in a biosphere reserve based on suitable habitats: Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and the red crowned crane (Grus japonensis). Biological Conservation, 90, 167–173.
Lichstein, J. W. , Simons, T. R. , Shriner, S. A. , & Franzberg, K. E. (2002) Spatial autocorrelation and autoregressive models in ecology. Ecological Monographs, 72, 445–463.
Lindenmayer, D. B. & Possingham, H. P. (1996) Modelling the inter-relationships between habitat patchiness, dispersal capability and metapopulation persistence of the endangered species, Leadbeater's possum, in south-eastern Australia. Landscape Ecology, 11, 79–105.
Lindenmayer, D. B. , McCarthy, M. A. , Parris, K. M. , & Pope, M. L. (2000) Habitat fragmentation, landscape context, and mammalian assemblages in southeastern Australia. Journal of Mammalogy, 81, 787–797.
Linderman, M. A. , Liu, J. , Qi, J. et al. (2004) Using artificial neural networks to map the spatial distribution of understory bamboo from remotely sensed data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25, 1685–1700.
Lippitt, C. D. , Rogan, J. , Toledano, J. et al. (2008) Incorporating anthropogenic variables into a species distribution model to map gypsy moth risk. Ecological Modelling, 210, 339–350.
Liu, C. R. , Berry, P. M. , Dawson, T. P. , & Pearson, R. G. (2005) Selecting thresholds of occurrence in the prediction of species distributions. Ecography, 28, 385–393.
Lobo, J. M. (2008) More complex distribution models or more representative data? Biodiversity Informatics, 5, 14–19.
Lobo, J. M. , Jay-Robert, P. , & Lumaret, J.-P. (2004) Modelling the species richness distribution for French Aphodiidae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Ecography, 27, 145–156.
Lobo, J. M. , Jimenez-Valverde, A. , & Real, R. (2008) AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 145–151.
Lobo, J. M. , Lumaret, J.-P. , & Jay-Robert, P. (2002) Modelling the species richness of French dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) and delimiting the predictive capacity of different groups of explanatory variables. Global Ecology & Biogeography, 11, 265–277.
Lohse, K. A. , Newburn, D. A. , Opperman, J. J. , & Merenlender, A. M. (2008) Forecasting relative impacts of land use on anadromous fish habitat to guide conservation planning. Ecological Applications, 18, 467–482.
Loiselle, B. A. , Jorgensen, P. M. , Consiglio, T. et al. (2008) Predicting species distributions from herbarium collections: does climate bias in collection sampling influence model outcomes? Journal of Biogeography, 35, 105–116.
Long, P. R. , Zefania, S. , Ffrench-Constant, R. H. , & Szekely, T. (2008) Estimating the population size of an endangered shorebird, the Madagascar plover, using a habitat suitability model. Animal Conservation, 11, 118–127.
Loo, S. E. , Mac Nally, R. , & Lake, P. S. (2007) Forecasting New Zealand mudsnail invasion range: model comparisons using native and invaded ranges. Ecological Applications, 17, 181–189.
Lopez-Lopez, P. , Garcia-Ripolles, C. , Soutullo, A. , Cadahia, L. , & Urios, V. (2007) Identifying potentially suitable nesting habitat for golden eagles applied to ‘important bird areas’ design. Animal Conservation, 10, 208–218.
Louzao, M. , Hyrenbach, K. D. , Arcos, J. M. , Abello, P. , De Sola, L. G. , & Oro, D. (2006) Oceanographic habitat of an endangered Mediterranean procellariiform: implications for marine protected areas. Ecological Applications, 16, 1683–1695.
Loveland, T. R. & Ohlen, D. O. (1993) Experimental AVHRR land data sets for environmental monitoring and modeling. In Goodchild, M. F. , Parks, B. O. , & Steyaert, L. T. (Eds.) Environmental Modeling with GIS. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ludeke, A. K. , Maggio, R. C. , & Reid, L. M. (1990) An analysis of anthropogenic deforestation using logistic regression and GIS. Journal of Environmental Management, 31, 247–259.
Luoto, M. , Poyry, J. , Heikkinen, R. K. , & Saarinen, K. (2005) Uncertainty of bioclimate envelope models based on the geographical distribution of species. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 14, 575–584.
Lutolf, M. , Kienast, F. , & Guisan, A. (2006) The ghost of past species occurrence: improving species distribution models for presence-only data. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 802–815.
Lynn, H. , Mohler, C. L. , DeGloria, S. D. , & McCulloch, C. E. (1995) Error assessment in decision-tree models applied to vegetation analysis. Landscape Ecology, 10, 323–335.
Lytle, D. J. (1993) Digital soils databases for the United States. In Goodchild, M. F. , Parks, B. O. , & Steyaert, L. T. (Eds.) Environmental Modeling with GIS. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 386–391.
Lytle, D. J. , Bliss, N. B. & Waltman, S. W. (1996) Interpreting the State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO). In Goodchild, M. F. , Steyaert, L. T. , Parks, B. O. et al. (Eds.) GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books, pp. 49–52.
MacKenzie, D. I. , Nichols, J. D. , Lachman, G. B. , Droege, S. , Royle, A. , & Langtimm, C. A. (2002) Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are less than one. Ecology, 83, 2248–2255.
MacKenzie, D. I. , Nichols, J. D. , Sutton, N. , Kawanishi, K. , & Bailey, L. L. (2005) Improving inferences in population studies of rare species that are detected imperfectly. Ecology, 86, 1101–1113.
Mackey, B. G. & Lindenmayer, D. B. (2001) Towards a hierarchical framework for modeling the spatial distribution of animals. Journal of Biogeography, 28, 1147–1166.
Mackey, B. G. & Sims, R. A. (1993) A climatic analysis of selected boreal tree species, and potential responses to global climate change. World Resource Review, 5, 469–487.
Mackey, B. G. (1993a) Predicting the potential distribution of rain-forest structural characteristics. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 43–54.
Mackey, B. G. (1993b) A spatial analysis of the environmental relations of rainforest structural types. Journal of Biogeography, 20, 303–336.
Maindonald, J. & Braun, J. (2003) Data Analysis and Graphics Using R – An Example-based Approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Manel, S. , Dias, J. M. , & Ormerod, S. J. (1999b) Comparing discriminant analysis, neural networks and logistic regression for predicting species distributions: a case study with a Himalayan river bird. Ecological Modelling, 120, 337–347.
Manel, S. , Dias, J. M. , Buckton, S. T. , & Ormerod, S. J. (1999a) Alternative methods for predicting species distribution: an illustration with Himalayan river birds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 36, 734–747.
Manel, S. , Williams, H. C. , & Ormerod, S. J. (2001) Evaluating presence-absence models in ecology: the need to account for prevalence. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 921–931.
Manly, B. F. J. , McDonald, L. L. , Thomas, D. L. , McDonald, T. L. , & Erickson, W. (2002) Resource Selection by Animals: Statistical Design and Analysis for Field Studies. New York, NY, USA: Kluwer Press.
Mann, L. K. , King, A. W. , Dale, V. H. et al. (1999) The role of soil classification in geographic information system modeling of habitat pattern: threatened calcareous ecosystems. Ecosystems, 2, 524–538.
Margules, C. R. & Austin, M. P. (1994) Biological models for monitoring species decline: the construction and use of databases. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 344, 69–75.
Margules, C. R. , Nicholls, A. O. , & Austin, M. P. (1987) Diversity of Eucalyptus species predicted by a multivariable environmental gradient. Oecologia, 71, 229–232.
Mark, D. M. (1979) Phenomenon-based data-structuring and digital terrain modeling. Geo-Processing, 1, 27–36.
Marks, D. , Dozier, J. & Frew, J. (1984) Automated basin delineation from digital terrain data. Geo Processing, 2, 299–311.
Marmion, M. , Parviainen, M. , Luoto, M. , Heikkinen, R. K. , & Thuiller, W. (2009) Evaluation of consensus methods in predictive species distribution modelling. Diversity and Distributions, 15, 59–69.
Martínez-Meyer, E. & Peterson, A. T. , (2006) Conservatism of ecological niche characteristics in North American plant species over the Pleistocene-to-Recent transition. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1779–1789.
Martínez-Meyer, E. , Peterson, A. T. , & Hargrove, W. W. (2004) Ecological niches as stable distributional constraints on mammal species, with implications for Pleistocene extinctions and climate change projections for biodiversity. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 13, 305–314.
Martínez-Meyer, E. , Peterson, A. T. , Servin, J. I. , & Kiff, L. F. (2006) Ecological niche modelling and prioritizing areas for species reintroductions. Oryx, 40, 411–418.
Massolo, A. , Della Stella, R. M. , & Meriggi, A. (2007) Zoning and wild boar management: a multi-criteria approach to planning. Hystrix, 18, 57–68.
Mastrorillo, S. , Lek, S. , Dauba, F. , & Belaud, A. (1997) The use of artificial neural networks to predict the presence of small-bodied fish in a river. Freshwater Biology, 38, 237–246.
Mathew, J. , Jha, V. K. , & Rawat, G. S. (2007) Weights of evidence modelling for landslide hazard zonation mapping in part of Bhagirathi Valley, Uttarakhand. Current Science, 92, 628–638.
Mau-Crimmins, T. M. , Schussman, H. R. , & Geiger, E. L. (2006) Can the invaded range of a species be predicted sufficiently using only native-range data? Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) in the southwestern United States. Ecological Modelling, 193, 736–746.
Mayer, K. E. & Laudenslayer, W. F., Jr . (1988) A Guide to Wildlife Habitats in California. Sacramento: The Resource Agency, State of California.
McAlpine, C. A. , Rhodes, J. R. , Bowen, M. E. et al. (2008) Can multiscale models of species distribution be generalized from region to region? A case study of the koala. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 558–567.
McAlpine, C. A. , Scarth, P. , Phinn, S. P. , & Eyre, T. J. (2002) Mapping glider habitat in dry eucalypt forests for Montreal Process indication 1.1e: fragmentation of forest types. Australian Forestry, 64, 232–241.
McCullagh, P. & Nelder, J. A. (1989) Generalized Linear Models. London: Chapman and Hall.
McCune, B. (2006) Non-parametric habitat models with automatic interactions. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17, 819–830.
McCune, B. (2007) Improved estimates of incident radiation and heat load using non-parametric regression against topographic variables. Journal of Vegetation Science, 18, 751–754.
McGarigal, K. & Marks, B. J. (1995) FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure.
McGarigal, K. (2002) Landscape pattern metrics. In el-Shaarawi, A. H. & Piergorsch, W. W. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. Chichester, Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 1135–1142.
McHarg, I. L. (1969) Design with Nature. New York: Wiley.
McNab, W. H. (1989) Terrain shape index: quantifying effect of minor landforms on tree height. Forest Science, 35, 91–104.
McNab, W. H. (1993) A topographic index to quantify the effect of mesoscale landform on site productivity. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 23, 1100–1107.
McPherson, J. M. & Jetz, W. , (2007) Effects of species ecology on the accuracy of distribution models. Ecography, 30, 135–151.
McPherson, J. M. , Jetz, W. , & Rogers, D. J. (2004) The effects of species range sizes on the accuracy of distribution models: ecological phenomenon or statistical artefact? Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 811–823.
McPherson, J. M. , Jetz, W. , & Rogers, D. J. (2006) Using coarse-grained occurrence data to predict species distributions at finer spatial resolution – possibilities and limitations. Ecological Modelling, 192, 499–522.
McRea Jr., J. E. , Greene, H. G. , O'Connell, V. M. , & Wakefield, W. W. (1999) Mapping marine habitats with high resolution sidescan sonar. Oceanologica Acta, 22, 679–686.
Meentemeyer, R. K. , Anacker, B. L. , Mark, W. , & Rizzo, D. M. (2008b) Early detection of emerging forest disease using dispersal estimation and ecological niche modeling. Ecological Applications, 18, 377–390.
Meentemeyer, R. K. , Moody, A. , & Franklin, J. (2001) Landscape-scale patterns of shrub-species abundance in California chaparral: the role of topographically mediated resource gradients. Plant Ecology, 156, 19–41.
Meentemeyer, R. K. , Rank, N. E. , Anacker, B. L. , Rizzo, D. M. , & Cushman, J. H. (2008a) Influence of land-cover change on the spread of an invasive forest pathogen. Ecological Applications, 18, 159–171.
Melbourne, B. A. , Davies, K. F. , Margules, C. R. et al. (2004) Species survival in fragmented landscapes: where to from here? Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 275–284.
Menke, S. B. , Fisher, R. N. , Jetz, W. , & Holway, D. A. (2007) Biotic and abiotic controls of argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales. Ecology, 88, 3164–3173.
Meyer, C. B. & Thuiller, W. (2006) Accuracy of resource selection functions across spatial scales. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 288–297.
Meynard, C. N. & Quinn, J. F. (2007) Predicting species distributions: a critical comparison of the most common statistical models using artificial species. Journal of Biogeography, 34, 1455–1469.
Michaelsen, J. , Davis, F. W. , & Borchert, M. (1987) A non-parametric method for analyzing hierarchical relationships in ecological data. Coenoses, 2, 39–48.
Michaelsen, J. , Schimel, D. S. , Friedl, M. A. , Davis, F. W. , & Dubayah, R. C. (1994) Regression tree analysis of satellite and terrain data to guide vegetation sampling and surveys. Journal of Vegetation Science, 5, 673–686.
Midgley, G. F. , Hannah, L. , Millar, D. , Rutherford, M. C. , & Powrie, L. W. (2002) Assessing the vulnerability of species richness to anthropogenic climate change in a biodiversity hotspot. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11, 445–451.
Midgley, G. F. , Hughes, G. O. , Thuiller, W. , & Rebelo, A. G. (2006) Migration rate limitations on climate change-induced range shifts in Cape Proteaceae. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 555–562.
Miller, J. & Franklin, J. (2002) Predictive vegetation modeling with spatial dependence – vegetation alliances in the Mojave Desert. Ecological Modelling, 57, 227–247.
Miller, J. (2005) Incorporating spatial dependence in predictive vegetation models: residual interpolation methods. The Professional Geographer, 57, 169–184.
Miller, J. , & Franklin, J. (2006) Explicitly incorporating spatial dependence in predictive vegetation models in the form of explanatory variables: a Mojave Desert case study. Journal of Geographical Systems, 8, 411–435.
Miller, J. , Franklin, J. , & Aspinall, R. (2007) Incorporating spatial dependence in predictive vegetation models. Ecological Modelling, 202, 225–242.
Miller, J. R. , Turner, M. G. , Smithwick, E. A. H. , Dent, C. L. , & Stanley, E. H. (2004) Spatial extrapolation: The science of predicting ecological patterns and processes. Bioscience, 54, 310–320.
Mitchell-Jones, A. J. , Amori, G. , Bogdanowicz, W. et al. (1999) Atlas of European Mammals, i–xi, 1–484.
Mladenoff, D. J. & Baker, W. L. (1999) Development of forest and landscape modeling approaches. In Mladenoff, D. J. & Baker, W. L. (Eds.) Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscape Change: Approaches and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–13.
Mladenoff, D. J. & He, H. S. (1999) Design, behavior and application of LANDIS, as object-oriented model of forest landscape disturbance and succession. In Mladenoff, D. J. & Baker, W. L. (Eds.) Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscape Change: Approaches and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 125–162.
Mohamed, K. I. , Papes, M. , Williams, R. , Benz, B. W. , & Peterson, A. T. (2006) Global invasion potential of 10 parasitic witchweeds and related Orobanchaceae. Ambio, 35, 281–288.
Moisen, G. G. & Frescino, T. S. (2002) Comparing five modelling techniques for predicting forest characteristics. Ecological Modelling, 157, 209–225.
Moisen, G. G. , Freeman, E. A. , Blackard, J. A. , Frescino, T. S. , Zimmermann, N. E. , & Edwards Jr., T. C. (2006) Predicting tree species presence and basal area in Utah: a comparison of stochastic gradient boosting, generalized additive models and tree-based methods. Ecological Modelling, 199, 176–187.
Monestiez, P. , Dubroca, L. , Bonnin, E. , Durbec, J.-P. , & Guinet, C. (2006) Geostatistical modeling of spatial distribution of Blaaenoterpa physalus in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea from sparse count data and heterogeneous observation efforts. Ecological Modelling, 193, 615–628.
Monteiro De Barros, F. S. , De Aguiar, D. B. , Rosa-Freitas, M. G. et al. (2007) Distribution summaries of malaria vectors in the northern Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Vector Ecology, 32, 161–167.
Moore, D. M. , Lees, B. G. , & Davey, S. M. (1991a) A new method for predicting vegetation distributions using decision tree analysis in a geographic information system. Environmental Management, 15, 59–71.
Moore, I. D. , Burch, G. J. , & Mackenzie, D. H. (1988) Topographic effects on the distribution of surface soil water and the location of ephemeral gullies. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 31, 1098–1107.
Moore, I. D. , Grayson, R. , & Ladson, A. (1991b) Digital terrain modelling: a review of hydrological, geomorphological, and biological applications. Hydrological Processes, 5, 3–30.
Morrison, M. L. , Marcot, B. G. , & Mannan, R. W. (1992) Wildlife–habitat Relationships. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.
Morrison, M. L. , Marcot, B. G. , & Mannan, R. W. (1998) Wildlife-Habitat Relationships: Concepts and Applications. 2nd edn. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.
Muñoz, J. & Felicisimo, A. M. (2004) Comparison of statistical methods commonly used in predictive modelling. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15, 285–292.
Mueller, T. , Olson, K. A. , Fuller, T. K. , Schaller, G. B. , Murray, M. G. , & Leimgruber, P. (2008) In search of forage: predicting dynamic habitats of Mongolian gazelles using satellite-based estimates of vegetation productivity. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 649–658.
Mueller-Dombois, D. & Ellenberg, H. (1974) Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. New York: Wiley.
Mugglestone, M. A. , Kenward, M. G. , & Clark, S. J. (2002) Generalized estimating equations for spatially referenced binary data. In Gregori, D. , Carmeci, G. , Friedl, H. , Ferligoj, A. , & Wedlin, A. (Eds.) Correlated Data Modeling. Trieste: FrancoAngeli S.R.L.
Murphy, H. T. & Lovett-Doust, J. (2004) Context and connectivity in plant metapopulations and landscape mosaics: does the matrix matter? Oikos, 105, 3–14.
Murray-Smith, C. , Brummitt, N. A. , Oliveira-Filho, A. T. et al. (2009) Plant diversity hotspots in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Conservation Biology, 23, 151–163.
Nagendra, H. (2001) Using remote sensing to assess biodiversity. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22, 2377–2400.
Nams, V. O. , Mowat, G. , & Panian, M. A. (2006) Determining the spatial scale for conservation purposes – an example with grizzly bears. Biological Conservation, 128, 109–119.
Neilson, R. & Running, S. (1996) Global dynamic vegetation modelling: coupling biogeochemistry and biogeography models. In Walker, B. & Steffen, W. (Eds.) Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 451–465.
Neilson, R. P. , King, G. A. , & Koerper, G. (1992) Toward a rule-based biome model. Landscape Ecology, 7, 27–43.
Nelder, V. J. , Crosslet, D. C. , & Cofinas, M. (1995) Using geographic information systems (GIS) to determine the adequacy of sampling in vegetation surveys. Biological Conservation, 73.
Nelson, T. A. & Boots, B. (2008) Detecting spatial hot spots in landscape ecology. Ecography, 31, 556–566.
Newton-Cross, G. , White, P. C. L. , & Harris, S. (2007) Modelling the distribution of badgers Meles meles: comparing predictions from field-based and remotely derived habitat data. Mammal Review, 37, 54–70.
Nicholls, A. (1989) How to make biological surveys go further with generalised linear models. Biological Conservation, 50, 51–75.
Niu, X. Z. & Duiker, S. W. (2006) Carbon sequestration potential by afforestation of marginal agricultural land in the Midwestern US. Forest Ecology and Management, 223, 415–427.
Nogues-Bravo, D. , Araújo, M. B. , Romdal, T. , & Rahbek, C. (2008) Scale effects and human impact on the elevational species richness gradients. Nature, 453, 216–218.
O'Connor, R. J. , Jones, M. T. , White, D. et al. (1996) Spatial partitioning of environmental correlates of avian biodiversity in the conterminous United States. Biodiversity Letters, 3, 97–110.
Ohmann, J. L. & Gregory, M. J. (2002) Predictive mapping of forest composition and structure with direct gradient analysis and nearest neighbor imputation in coastal Oregon, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32, 725–741.
Ohmann, J. L. & Spies, T. A. (1998) Regional gradient analysis and spatial pattern of woody plant communities of Oregon forests. Ecological Monographs, 68, 151–182.
Oindo, B. O. & Skidmore, A. K. (2002) Interannual variability of NDVI and species richness in Kenya. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23, 285–298.
Oksanen, J. & Minchin, P. R. (2002) Continuum theory revisited: what shape are species responses along ecological gradients? Ecological Modelling, 157, 119–129.
Olden, J. D. , Joy, M. K. , & Death, R. G. (2006) Rediscovering the species in community-wide predictive modeling. Ecological Applications, 16, 1449–1460.
Olden, J. D. , Lawler, J. J. , & Poff, N. L. (2008) Machine learning methods without tears: A primer for ecologists. Quarterly Review of Biology, 83, 171–193.
Olivier, F. & Wotherspoon, S. J. (2006) Modelling habitat selection using presence-only data: Case study of a colonial hollow nesting bird, the snow petrel. Ecological Modelling, 195, 187–204.
Olivier, F. & Wotherspoon, S. J. (2008) Nest selection by snow petrels Pagodroma nivea in East Antarctica – Validating predictive habitat selection models at the continental scale. Ecological Modelling, 210, 414–430.
Orme, C. D. L. , Davies, R. G. , Burgess, M. et al. (2005) Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat. Nature, 436, 1016–1019.
Ortega-Huerta, M. A. & Peterson, A. T. (2004) Modelling spatial patterns of biodiversity for conservation prioritization in North-eastern Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10, 39–54.
Osborne, P. E. & Suarez-Seoane, S. (2002) Should data be partitioned spatially before building large-scale distribution models? Ecological Modelling, 157, 249–259.
Osborne, P. E. & Suarez-Seoane, S. (2007) Identifying core areas in a species range using temporal suitability analysis: an example using little bustards Tetrax tetrax L. in Spain. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 3505–3518.
Osborne, P. E. & Tigar, B. J. (1992) Interpreting bird atlas data using logistic models: an example from Lesotho, southern Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology, 29, 55–62.
Osborne, P. E. , Alonso, J. C. , & Bryant, R. G. (2001) Modelling landscape-scale habitat use using GIS and remote sensing: a case study with great bustards. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 458–471.
Osborne, P. E. , Foody, G. M. , & Suarez-Seoane, S. (2007) Non-stationarity and local approaches to modelling the distribution of wildlife. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 313–323.
Ozesmi, S. L. & Ozesmi, U. (1999) An artificial neural network approach to spatial habitat modelling with interspecific interaction. Ecological Modelling, 116, 15–31.
Palmer, M. W. , Earls, P. G. , Hoagland, B. W. , White, P. S. , & Wohlgemuth, T. (2002) Quantitative tools for perfecting species lists. Environmetrics, 13, 121–137.
Parisien, M.-A. & Moritz, M. A. (2009) Environmental controls on the distribution of wildfire at multiple spatial scales. Ecological Monographs, 79, 127–154.
Parmesan, C. (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 37, 637–669.
Pausas, J. G. & Austin, M. P. (2001) Patterns of plant species richness in relation to different environments: An appraisal. Journal of Vegetation Science, 12, 153–166.
Pausas, J. G. & Carreras, J. (1995) The effect of bedrock type, temperature and moisture on species richness of Pyrenean Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Forests. Vegetatio, 116, 85–92.
Pausas, J. G. , Braithwaite, L. W. , & Austin, M. P. (1995) Modeling habitat quality for arboreal marsupials in the south coastal forests of New-South-Wales, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 78, 39–49.
Pausas, J. G. , Carreras, J. , Ferre, A. , & Font, X. (2003) Coarse-scale plant species richness in relation to environmental heterogeneity. Journal of Vegetation Science, 14, 661–668.
Pearce, J. & Ferrier, S. (2000) An evaluation of alternative algorithms for fitting species distribution models using logistic regression. Ecological Modelling, 128, 127–147.
Pearce, J. & Lindenmayer, D. (1998) Bioclimatic analysis to enhance reintroduction biology of the endangered helmeted honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix) in southeastern Australia. Restoration Ecology, 6, 238–243.
Pearce, J. , Ferrier, S. , & Scotts, D. (2001) An evaluation of the predictive performance of distributional models for flora and fauna in north-east New South Wales. Journal of Environmental Management, 62, 171–184.
Pearce, J. L. & Boyce, M. S. (2006) Modelling distribution and abundance with presence-only data. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 405–412.
Pearman, P. B. , Guisan, A. , Broennimann, O. , & Randin, C. F. (2008) Niche dynamics in space and time. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 149–158.
Pearson, R. G. & Dawson, T. P. (2003) Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimatic envelope models useful? Global Ecology & Biogeography, 12, 361–371.
Pearson, R. G. , Dawson, T. P. , & Liu, C. (2004) Modelling species distribution in Britain: a hierarchical integration of climate and land cover. Ecography, 27, 285–298.
Pearson, R. G. , Dawson, T. P. , Berry, P. M. , & Harrison, P. A. , (2002) SPECIES: a spatial evaluation of climate impact on the envelope of species. Ecological Modelling, 154, 289–300.
Pearson, R. G. , Raxworthy, C. J. , Nakamura, M. , & Peterson, A. T. (2007) Predicting species distributions from small numbers of occurrence records: a test case using cryptic geckos in Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography, 34, 102–117.
Pearson, R. G. , Thuiller, W. , Araújo, M. B. et al. (2006) Model-based uncertainty in species range prediction. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1704–1711.
Pearson, S. M. (1993) The spatial extent and relative influence of landscape-level factors on wintering bird populations. Landscape Ecology, 8, 3–18.
Pereira, J. M. & Itami, R. M. (1991) GIS-based habitat modeling using logistic multiple regression: a study of the Mt. Graham Red Squirrel. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 57, 1475–1486.
Pereira, J. M. C. & Duckstein, L. (1993) A multiple criteria decision-making approach to GIS-based land suitability evaluation. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 7, 407–424.
Perring, F. (1958) A theoretical approach to a study of chalk grassland. Journal of Ecology, 46, 665–679.
Perring, F. (1959) Topographical gradients of chalk grassland. Journal of Ecology, 47, 447–481.
Perring, F. (1960) Climatic gradients of chalk grassland. Journal of Ecology, 48, 415–442.
Peters, D. P. C. , Herrick, J. E. , Urban, D. L. , Gardner, R. H. , & Breshears, D. D. (2004) Strategies for ecological extrapolation. Oikos, 106, 627–636.
Peterson, A. T. & Holt, R. D. (2003) Niche differentiation in Mexican birds: using point occurrences to detect ecological innovation. Ecology Letters, 6, 774–782.
Peterson, A. T. & Kluza, D. A. (2003) New distributional modelling approaches for gap analysis. Animal Conservation, 6, 47–54.
Peterson, A. T. & Nyari, A. S. (2008) Ecological niche conservatism and Pleistocene refugia in the thrush-like mourner, Schiffornis sp., in the neotropics. Evolution, 62, 173–183.
Peterson, A. T. & Robins, C. R. (2003) Using ecological-niche modeling to predict Barred Owl invasions with implications for Spotted Owl conservation. Conservation Biology, 17, 1161–1165.
Peterson, A. T. & Vieglais, D. A. (2001) Predicting species invasions using ecological niche modeling: New approaches from bioinformatics attack a pressing problem. Bioscience, 51, 363–371.
Peterson, A. T. (2003) Predicting the geography of species invasions via ecological niche modeling. Quarterly Review of Biology, 78, 419–433.
Peterson, A. T. (2006) Ecologic niche modeling and spatial patterns of disease transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12, 1822–1826.
Peterson, A. T. , Ortega-Huerta, M. A. , Bartley, J. et al. (2002) Future projections for Mexican faunas under global climate change scenarios. Nature, 416, 626–629.
Peterson, A. T. , Papes, M. , & Eaton, M. (2007) Transferability and model evaluation in ecological niche modeling: a comparison of GARP and Maxent. Ecography, 30, 550–560.
Peterson, A. T. , Papes, M. , & Kluza, D. A. (2003) Predicting the potential invasive distributions of four alien plant species in North America. Weed Science, 51, 863–868.
Peterson, A. T. , Papes, M. , & Soberón, J. , (2008) Rethinking receiver operating characteristic analysis applications in ecological niche modeling. Ecological Modelling, 213, 63–72.
Peterson, A. T. , Sánchez-Cordero, V. , Martínez-Meyer, E. , & Navarro-Sigüenza, A. G. (2006) Tracking population extirpations via melding ecological niche modeling with land cover information. Ecological Modelling, 195, 229–236.
Peterson, A. T. , Soberón, J. , & Sanchez-Cordero, V. (1999) Conservatism of ecological niches in evolutionary time. Science, 285, 1265–1267.
Pettorelli, N. , Vik, J. O. , Mysterud, A. , Gaillard, J. M. , Tucker, C. J. , & Stenseth, N. C. (2005) Using the satellite-derived NDVI to assess ecological responses to environmental change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20, 503–510.
Phillips, S. J. & Dudík, M. (2008) Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography, 31, 161–175.
Phillips, S. J. (2008) Transferability, sample selection bias and background data in presence-only modelling: a response to Peterson et al. (2007). Ecography, 31, 272–278.
Phillips, S. J. , Anderson, R. P. , & Schapire, R. E. (2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
Phillips, S. J. , Dudík, M. , Elith, J. et al. (2009) Sample selection bias and presence-only distribution models: implications for background and pseudo-absence data. Ecological Applications, 19, 181–197.
Phinn, S. R. (1998) A framework for selecting appropriate remotely sensed data dimensions for environmental monitoring and management. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 3457–3463.
Phinn, S. R. , Stow, D. A. , & Zedler, J. B. (1996) Monitoring wetland habitat restoration in southern California using airborne multispectral video data. Restoration Ecology, 4, 412–422.
Phinn, S. R. , Stow, D. S. , Franklin, J. , Mertes, L. A. K. , & Michaelsen, J. (2003) Optimizing remotely sensed data for ecosystem analyses: combining hierarchy theory and scene models. Environmental Management, 31, 429–441.
Pickett, S. T. A. & Cadenasso, M. L. (1995) Landscape ecology: spatial heterogeneity in ecological systems. Science, 269, 331–334.
Pickett, S. T. A. & White, P. S. (1985) The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics. New York NY: Academic Press.
Pielou, E. C. (1975) Ecological Diversity. New York: Wiley.
Pindyck, R. S. & Rubenfeld, D. L. (1981) Econometric Models and Econometric Forecasts. New York, USA: McGraw Hill.
Pineda, E. & Lobo, J. M. (2009) Assessing the accuracy of species distribution models to predict amphibian species richness patterns. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 182–190.
Platts, P. J. , McClean, C. J. , Lovett, J. C. , & Marchant, R. (2008) Predicting tree distributions in an East African biodiversity hotspot: model selection, data bias and envelope uncertainty. Ecological Modelling, 218, 121–134.
Plotnick, R. E. , Gardner, R. H. , & O'Neill, R. V. (1993) Lacunarity indices as a measure of landscape texture. Landscape Ecology, 8.
Pontius, R. G. & Schneider, L. C. (2001) Land-cover change model validation by an ROC method for the Ipswich watershed, Massachusetts, USA. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 85, 239–248.
Posillico, M. , Alberto, M. I. B. , Pagnin, E. , Lovari, S. , & Russo, L. (2004) A habitat model for brown bear conservation and land use planning in the central Apennines. Biological Conservation, 118, 141–150.
Potts, J. M. & Elith, J. (2006) Comparing species abundance models. Ecological Modelling, 199, 153–163.
Poulos, H. M. , Camp, A. E. , Gatewood, R. G. , & Loomis, L. (2007) A hierarchical approach for scaling forest inventory and fuels data from local to landscape scales in the Davis Mountains, Texas, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 244, 1–15.
Poyry, J. , Luoto, M. , Heikkinen, R. K. , & Saarinen, K. (2008) Species traits are associated with the quality of bioclimatic models. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 403–414.
Prasad, A. M. , Iverson, L. R. , & Liaw, A. (2006) Newer classification and regression techniques: bagging and random forests for ecological prediction. Ecosystems, 9, 181–199.
Prates-Clark, C. D. , Saatchi, S. S. , & Agosti, D. (2008) Predicting geographical distribution models of high-value timber trees in the Amazon Basin using remotely sensed data. Ecological Modelling, 211, 309–323.
Prentice, I. C. , Bartlein, P. J. , & Webb, T., III (1991) Vegetation and climate change in eastern North-America since the Last Glacial Maximum. Ecology, 72, 2038–2056.
Prentice, I. C. , Cramer, W. , Harrison, S. P. , Leemans, R. , Monserud, R. A. , & Solomon, A. M. (1992) A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. Journal of Biogeography, 19, 117–134.
Preston, C. D. , Pearman, D. A. , & Dines, T. D. (Eds.) (2002) New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Preston, F. W. (1948) The commonness, and rarity, of species. Ecology, 29, 254–283.
Preston, K. , Rotenberry, J. T. , Redak, R. A. , & Allen, M. F. (2008) Habitat shifts of endangered species under altered climate conditions: importance of biotic interactions. Global Change Biology, 14, 2501–2515.
Pulliam, H. R. (1988) Sources, sinks, and population regulation. American Naturalist, 132, 652–661.
Pulliam, H. R. (2000) On the relationship between niche and distribution. Ecology Letters, 3, 349–361.
Pulliam, H. R. , Dunning, J. , & Liu, J. (1992) Population dynamics in complex landscapes: a case study. Ecological Applications, 2, 165–177.
Quinlan, J. R. (1993) C4.5: Programs for Machine Learning. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufman Publishers.
Quinn, G. P. & Keough, M. J. (2002) Experimental design and data analysis for biologists, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
Quinn, P. , Beven, K. , Chevallier, P. , & Planchon, O. (1991) The prediction of hillslope flow paths for distributed hydrological modeling using digital terrain models. Hydrological Processes, 5, 59–79.
R Development Core Team (2004) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. 2.0.1 ed. Vienna, Austria, R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Rüger, N. , Schlueter, M. , & Matthies, M. (2005) A fuzzy habitat suitability index for Populus euphratica in the Northern Amudarya delta (Uzbekistan). Ecological Modelling, 184, 313–328.
Rabinowitz, D. (1981) Seven forms of rarity. In Synge, H. (Ed.) The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant Conservation. Chichester, UK: Wiley, pp. 205–217.
Rahbek, C. & Graves, G. R. (2001) Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 4534–4539.
Raleigh, R. F. , Zuckerman, L. D. , & Nelson, P. C. (1986) Habitat suitability index models and instream flow sustainability curves: Brown trout, revised. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service Biological Report 82(10.124).
Randin, C. F. , Dirnbock, T. , Dullinger, S. , Zimmermann, N. E. , Zappa, M. , & Guisan, A. (2006) Are niche-based species distribution models transferable in space? Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1689–1703.
Rangel, T. F. L. V. B. , Diniz-Filho, J. A. F. , & Bini, L. M. (2006) Towards an integrated computational tool for spatial analysis in macroecology and biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15.
Rasmussen, C. (2006) Distribution of soil organic and inorganic carbon pools by biome and soil taxa in Arizona. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70, 256–265.
Raso, G. , Vounatsou, P. , Singer, B. H. , N'Goran, E. K. , Tanner, M. , & Utzinger, J. (2006) An integrated approach for risk profiling and spatial prediction of Schistosoma mansoni-hookworm coinfection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 6934–6939.
Raul, R. C. , Novillo, C. J. , Millington, J. D. A. , & Gomez-Jimenez, I. (2008) GIS analysis of spatial patterns of human-caused wildfire ignition risk in the SW of Madrid (Central Spain). Landscape Ecology, 23, 341–354.
Ray, N. & Burgman, M. A. (2006) Subjective uncertainties in habitat suitability maps. Ecological Modelling, 195, 172–186.
Ree, R. H. , Moore, B. R. , Webb, C. O. , & Donoghue, M. J. (2005) A likelihood framework for inferring the evolution of geographic range on phylogenetic trees. Evolution, 59, 2299–2311.
Reese, G. C. , Wilson, K. R. , Hoeting, J. A. , & Flather, C. H. (2005) Factors affecting species distribution predictions: a simulation modeling experiment. Ecological Applications, 15, 554–564.
Regan, H. M. , Colyvan, M. , & Burgman, M. A. (2002) A taxonomy and treatment of uncertainty for ecology and conservation biology. Ecological Applications, 12, 618–628.
Rehfeldt, G. E. , Crookston, N. L. , Warwell, M. V. , & Evans, J. S. (2006) Empirical analyses of plant–climate relationships for the western United States. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 167, 1123–1150.
Reineking, B. & Schroder, B. (2006) Constrain to perform: Regularization of habitat models. Ecological Modelling, 193, 675–690.
Rejmanek, M. & Richardson, D. M. (1996) What attributes make some plant species more invasive?. Ecology, 77, 1655–1661.
Richardson, D. M. & Thuiller, W. (2007) Home away from home – objective mapping of high-risk source areas for plant introductions. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 299–312.
Ridgeway, G. (1999) The state of boosting. Computing Science and Statistics, 31, 172–181.
Ripley, B. D. (1981) Spatial Statistics. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Ripley, B. D. (1996) Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Rissler, L. J. & Apodaca, J. J. (2007) Adding more ecology into species delimitation: Ecological niche models and phylogeography help define cryptic species in the black salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus). Systematic Biology, 56, 924–942.
Robertson, M. P. , Villet, M. H. , & Palmer, A. R. (2004) A fuzzy classification technique for predicting species distributions: applications using invasive alien plants and indigenous insects. Diversity and Distributions, 10, 461–474.
Rocchini, D. , Ricotta, C. , & Chiarucci, A. (2007) Using satellite imagery to assess plant species richness: The role of multispectral systems. Applied Vegetation Science, 10, 325–331.
Rodriguéz, J. P. , Brotons, L. , Bustmante, J. , & Seoane, J. (2007) The application of predictive modelling of species distribution to biodiversity conservation. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 243–251.
Rodrigues, A. S. L. , Andelman, S. J. , Bakarr, M. I. et al. (2004) Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature, 428, 640–643.
Romero-Calcerrada, R. & Luque, S. (2006) Habitat quality assessment using Weights-of-Evidence based GIS modelling: the case of Picoides tridactylus as species indicator of the biodiversity value of the Finnish forest. Ecological Modelling, 196, 62–76.
Rondinini, C. , Stuart, S. & Boitani, L. (2005) Habitat suitability models and the shortfall in conservation planning for African vertebrates. Conservation Biology, 19, 1488–1497.
Root, T. L. , Price, J. T. , Hall, K. R. , Schneider, S. H. , Rosenzweig, C. , & Pounds, J. A. (2003) Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature, 421, 57–60.
Rosenblatt, A. E. , Gold, A. J. , Stolt, M. H. , Groffman, P. M. , & Kellogg, D. Q. (2001) Identifying riparian sinks for watershed nitrate using soil surveys. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 1596–1604.
Rosenzweig, C. , Karoly, D. , Vicarelli, M. et al. (2008) Attributing physical and biological impacts to anthropogenic climate change. Nature, 453, 353.
Rotenberry, J. T. , Knick, S. T. , & Dunn, J. E. (2002) A minimalist approach to mapping species habitat: Pearson's planes of closest fit. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 281–289.
Rotenberry, J. T. , Preston, K. L. , & Knick, S. T. (2006) GIS-based niche modeling for mapping species habitat. Ecology, 87, 1458–1464.
Roura-Pascual, N. , Suarez, A. V. , McNyset, K. et al. (2006) Niche differentiation and fine-scale projections for Argentine ants based on remotely sensed data. Ecological Applications, 16, 1832–1841.
Royle, J. A. , Kery, M. , Gautier, R. , & Schmid, H. (2007) Hierarchical spatial models of abundance and occurrence from imperfect survey data. Ecological Monographs, 77, 465–481.
Rubio, A. & Sanchez-Palomares, O. (2006) Physiographic and climatic potential areas for Fagus sylvatica L. based on habitat suitability indicator models. Forestry, 79, 439–451.
Running, S. W. , Justice, C. J. , Salomonson, V. et al. (1994) Terrestrial remote sensing science and algorithms planned for EOS/MODIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 15, 3587–3620.
Rushton, S. P. , Ormerod, S. J. , & Kerby, G. (2004) New paradigms for modelling species distributions? Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 193–200.
Rykiel, E. J., Jr . (1996) Testing ecological models: the meaning of validation. Ecological Modelling, 90, 229–244.
Saatchi, S. , Buermann, W. , Ter Steege, H. , Mori, S. , & Smith, T. B. (2008) Modeling distribution of Amazonian tree species and diversity using remote sensing measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 2000–2017.
Saathoff, E. , Olsen, A. , Sharp, B. , Kvalsvig, J. D. , Appleton, C. C. , & Kleinschmidt, I. (2005) Ecologic covariates of hookworm infection and reinfection in rural Kwazulu-Natal/South Africa: A geographic information system-based study. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 72, 384–391.
Sattler, T. , Bontadina, F. , Hirzel, A. H. , & Arlettaz, R. (2007) Ecological niche modelling of two cryptic bat species calls for a reassessment of their conservation status. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44, 1188–1199.
Saveraid, E. H. , Debinski, D. M. , Kindscher, K. , & Jakubauskas, M. E. (2001) A comparison of satellite data and landscape variables in predicting bird species occurrences in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Landscape Ecology, 16, 71–83.
Schadt, S. , Revilla, E. , Wiegand, T. et al. (2002) Assessing the suitability of central European landscapes for the reintroduction of Eurasian lynx. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 189–203.
Scheller, R. M. , van Tuyl, S. , Clark, K. , Hayden, N. G. , Hom, J. , & Mladenoff, D. J. (2008) Simulation of forest change in the New Jersey Pine Barrens under current and pre-colonial conditions. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 1489–1500.
Schmit, C. , Rousevell, M. D. A. , & La Jeunesse, I. (2006) The limitations of spatial land use data in environmental analysis. Environmental Science & Policy, 9, 174–188.
Schulz, T. T. & Joyce, L. A. (1992) A spatial application of a marten habitat model. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 20, 74–83.
Scott, J. M. , Davis, F. , Csuti, B. et al. (1993) Gap analysis: a geographical approach to protection of biological diversity. Wildlife Monographs, 123, 1–41.
Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) (2002) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press.
Scull, P. , Franklin, J. , & Chadwick, O. A. (2005) The application of classification tree analysis to soil type prediction in a desert landscape. Ecological Modelling, 181, 1–15.
Scull, P. , Franklin, J. , & McArthur, D. (2003) Predictive soil mapping: a review. Progress in Physical Geography, 27, 171–197.
Segurado, P. & Araújo, M. B. (2004) An evaluation of methods for modelling species distributions. Journal of Biogeography, 31, 1555–1568.
Segurado, P. , Araújo, M. B. , & Kunin, W. E. (2006) Consequences of spatial autocorrelation for niche-based models. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 433–444.
Sellars, J. D. & Jolls, C. L. (2007) Habitat modeling for Amaranthus pumilus: An application of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. Journal of Coastal Research, 23, 1193–1202.
Sergio, C. , Figueira, R. , Draper, D. , Menezes, R. , & Sousa, A. J. (2007) Modelling bryophyte distribution based on ecological information for extent of occurrence assessment. Biological Conservation, 135, 341–351.
Seto, K. C. , Fleishman, E. , Fay, J. P. , & Betrus, C. J. (2004) Linking spatial patterns of bird and butterfly species richness with Landsat TM derived NDVI. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25, 4309–4324.
Sheppard, J. K. , Lawler, I. R. , & Marsh, H. (2007) Seagrass as pasture for seacows: landscape-level dugong habitat evaluation. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 71, 117–132.
Shi, H. , Laurent, E. J. , Lebouton, J. et al. (2006) Local spatial modeling of white-tailed deer distribution. Ecological Modelling, 190, 171–189.
Shriner, S. A. , Simons, T. R. , & Farnsworth, G. L. (2002) A GIS-based habitat model for Wood Thrush, Hyocichla mustelina, in Great Smokey Mountains National Park. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , & Morrison, M. L. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 529–535.
Shugart, H. H. (1998) Terrestrial Ecosystems in Changing Environments, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Sitch, S. , Smith, B. , Prentice, I. C. et al. (2003) Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biology, 9, 161–185.
Skidmore, A. K. (1989) An expert system classifies eucalypt forest types using thematic mapper data and a digital terrain model. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 55, 1449–1464.
Skidmore, A. K. (1990) Terrain position as mapped from a gridded digital elevation model. International Journal of Geographic Information Systems, 4, 33–49.
Skov, F. & Svenning, J. C. (2004) Potential impact of climatic change on the distribution of forest herbs in Europe. Ecography, 27, 366–380.
Smith, G. M. & Wyatt, B. K. (2007) Multi-scale survey by sample-based field methods and remote sensing: A comparison of UK experience with European environmental assessments. Landscape and Urban Planning, 79, 170–176.
Smith, P. A. (1994) Autocorrelation in logistic regression modelling of species distributions. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 4, 47–61.
Smith, T. M. , Shugart, H. H. , & Woodward, F. I. (1997) Plant Functional Types. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Soberón, J. & Peterson, A. T. (2004) Biodiversity informatics: managing and applying primary biodiversity data. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 359, 689–698.
Soberón, J. & Peterson, A. T. (2005) Interpretation of models of fundamental ecological niches and species distributional areas. Biodiversity Informatics, 2, 1–10.
Soberón, J. (2007) Grinnellian and Eltonian niches and geographic distributions of species. Ecology Letters, 10, 1115–1123.
Speight, J. G. (1974) A parametric approach to landform regions. Special Publications Institute of British Geographers, 7, 213–230.
Stanbury, K. B. & Starr, R. M. (1999) Applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to habitat assessment and marine resource management. Oceanologica Acta, 22, 699–703.
Stehman, S. V. & Czaplewski, R. L. (1998) Design and analysis for thematic map accuracy assessment: fundamental principles. Remote Sensing of Environment, 64, 331–344.
Steiner, F. M. , Schlick-Steiner, B. C. , VanDerWal, J. et al. (2008) Combined modelling of distribution and niche in invasion biology: a case study of two invasive Tetramorium ant species. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 538–545.
Stephenson, C. M. , MacKenzie, M. L. , Edwards, C. , & Travis, J. M. J. (2006) Modelling establishment probabilities of an exotic plant, Rhododendron ponticum, invading a heterogeneous, woodland landscape using logistic regression with spatial autocorrelation. Ecological Modelling, 193, 747–758.
Steyaert, L. T. (1996) Status of land data for environmental modeling and challenges for geographic information systems in land characterization. In Goodchild, M. F. , Steyaert, L. T. , Parks, B. O. et al. (Eds.) GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books, pp. 17–27.
Stickler, C. M. & Southworth, J. (2008) Application of multi-scale spatial and spectral analysis for predicting primate occurrence and habitat associations in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 2170–2186.
Stigall, A. L. & Lieberman, B. S. (2006) Quantitative palaeobiogeography: GIS, phylogenetic biogeographical analysis, and conservation insights. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 2051–2060.
Stockwell, D. R. B. & Noble, I. R. (1992) Induction of sets of rules from animal distribution data – a robust and informative method of data-analysis. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 33, 385–390.
Stockwell, D. R. B. & Peters, D. P. (1999) The GARP modelling system: problems and solutions to automated spatial prediction. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 13, 143–158.
Stockwell, D. R. B. & Peterson, A. T. (2002) Effects of sample size on accuracy of species distribution models. Ecological Modelling, 148, 1–13.
Stockwell, D. R. B. (1999) Genetic algorithms II. In Fielding, A. H. (Ed.) Machine Learning Methods for Ecological Applications. Boston: Kluwer, pp. 123–144.
Stockwell, D. R. B. (2006) Improving ecological niche models by data mining large environmental datasets for surrogate models. Ecological Modelling, 192, 188–196.
Stockwell, D. R. B. , Arzberger, P. , Fountain, T. , & Helly, J. (2000) An interface between computing, ecology, and biodiversity: environmental informatics. Korean Journal of Ecology, 23, 101–106.
Stockwell, D. R. B. , Beach, J. H. , Stewart, A. , Vorontsov, G. , Vieglais, D. , & Pereira, R. S. (2006) The use of the GARP genetic algorithm and Internet grid computing in the Lifemapper world atlas of species biodiversity. Ecological Modelling, 195, 139–145.
Stoms, D. & Estes, J. E. (1993) A remote sensing research agenda for mapping and monitoring biodiversity. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 14, 1839–1860.
Stoms, D. M. , Davis, F. W. , & Cogan, C. B. (1992) Sensitivity of wildlife habitat models to uncertainties in GIS data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 58, 843–850.
Store, R. & Kangas, J. (2001) Integrating spatial multi-criteria evaluation and expert knowledge for GIS-based habitat suitability modelling. Landscape and Urban Planning, 55, 79–93.
Strahler, A. H. (1980) The use of prior probabilities in maximum likelihood classification of remotely sensed data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 10, 135–163.
Strahler, A. H. (1981) Stratification of natural vegetation for forest and rangeland inventory using Landsat digital imagery and collateral data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2, 15–41.
Strickland, B. K. & Demarais, S. (2006) Effectiveness of the State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) to predict white-tailed deer morphometrics in Mississippi. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34, 1264–1272.
Suarez-Seoane, S. , de la Morena, E. L. G. , Prieto, M. B. M. , Osborne, P. E. , & de Juana, E. (2008) Maximum entropy niche-based modelling of seasonal changes in little bustard (Tetrax tetrax) distribution. Ecological Modelling, 219, 17–29.
Suarez-Seoane, S. , Osborne, P. E. , & Rosema, A. (2004) Can climate data from METEOSAT improve wildlife distribution models? Ecography, 27, 629–636.
Sundermeyer, M. A. , Rothschild, B. J. , & Robinson, A. R. (2006) Assessment of environmental correlates with the distribution of fish stocks using a spatially explicit model. Ecological Modelling, 197, 116–132.
Swanson, F. J. , Kratz, T. K. , Caine, N. , & Woodmansee, R. G. (1988) Landform effects on ecosystem patterns and processes. BioScience, 38, 92–98.
Swets, J. A. (1988) Measures of the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science, 240, 1285–1293.
Syphard, A. D. & Franklin, J. (in press-a) Species functional type affects the accuracy of species distribution models for plants in southern California. Journal of Vegetation Science.
Syphard, A. D. & Franklin, J. (in press-b) Differences in spatial predictions among species distribution modeling methods vary with species traits and environmental predictors. Ecography.
Syphard, A. D. , Clarke, K. C. , & Franklin, J. (2007) Simulating fire frequency and urban growth in southern California coastal shrublands, USA. Landscape Ecology, 22, 431–445.
Syphard, A. D. , Franklin, J. , & Keeley, J. E. (2006) Simulating the effects of frequent fire on southern California coastal shrublands. Ecological Applications, 16, 1744–1756.
Syphard, A. D. , Radeloff, V. C. , Keuler, N. S. et al. (2008) Predicting spatial patterns of fire on a southern California landscape. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 17, 602–613.
Telesco, R. L. , van Manen, F. T. , Clark, J. D. , & Cartwright, M. E. (2007) Identifying sites for elk restoration in Arkansas. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71, 1393–1403.
ter Braak, C. J. F. (1987) The analysis of vegetation-environment relationships by canonical correspondence analysis. Vegetatio, 69, 69–77.
Termansen, M. , McClean, C. J. , & Preston, C. D. (2006) The use of genetic algorithms and Bayesian classification to model species distributions. Ecological Modelling, 192, 410–424.
Thatcher, C. A. , van Manen, F. T. , & Clark, J. D. (2006) Identifying suitable sites for Florida panther reintroduction. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70, 752–763.
Thenkabail, P. S. , Enclona, E. A. , Ashton, M. S. , Legg, C. , & De Dieu, M. J. (2004) Hyperion, IKONOS, ALI, and ETM plus sensors in the study of African rainforests. Remote Sensing of Environment, 90, 23–43.
Theobald, D. M. (2007) Using GIS to generate spatially balanced random survey designs for natural resource applications. Environmental Management, 134–146.
Thogmartin, W. E. , Sauer, J. R. , & Knutson, M. G. (2004) A hierarchical spatial model of avian abundance with application to Cerulean Warblers. Ecological Applications, 14, 1766–1779.
Thomaes, A. , Kervyn, T. , & Maes, D. (2008) Applying species distribution modelling for the conservation of the threatened saproxylic Stag Beetle (Lucanus cervus). Biological Conservation, 141, 1400–1410.
Thomas, C. D. , Cameron, A. , Green, R. E. et al. (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427, 145–148.
Thomas, K. , Keeler-Wolf, T. , & Franklin, J. (2002) A comparison of fine- and coarse-resolution environmental variables toward predicting vegetation distribution in the Mojave Desert. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. , Raphael, M. , Haufler, J. , & Wall, B. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covello, CA: Island Press, pp. 133–139.
Thompson, L. M. , van Manen, F. T. , Schlarbaum, S. E. , & Depoy, M. (2006) A spatial modeling approach to identify potential Butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park. Restoration Ecology, 14, 289–296.
Thompson, S. K. (1992) Sampling. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Thomson, J. , Weiblen, G. , Thomson, B. , Alfaro, S. , & Legendre, P. (1996) Untangling multiple factors in spatial distributions: lilies, gophers and rocks. Ecology, 77, 1698–1715.
Thorn, J. S. , Nijman, V. , Smith, D. , & Nekaris, K. A. I. (2009) Ecological niche modelling as a technique for assessing threats and setting conservation priorities for Asian slow lorises (Primates: Nycticebus). Diversity and Distributions, 15, 289–298.
Thuiller, W. (2004) Patterns and uncertainties of species range shifts under climate change. Global Change Biology, 10, 2020–2027.
Thuiller, W. (2007) Biodiversity – climate change and the ecologist. Nature, 448, 550–552.
Thuiller, W. , Albert, C. , Araújo, M. B. et al. (2008) Predicting global change impacts on plant species distributions: future challenges. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 9, 137–152.
Thuiller, W. , Araújo, M. B. , & Lavorel, S. (2003) Generalized models vs. classification tree analysis: Predicting spatial distributions of plant species at different scales. Journal of Vegetation Science, 14, 669–680.
Thuiller, W. , Araújo, M. B. , Pearson, R. G. , Whittaker, R. J. , Brotons, L. , & Lavorel, S. (2004a) Biodiversity conservation – uncertainty in predictions of extinction risk. Nature, 430.
Thuiller, W. , Brotons, L. , Araújo, M. B. , & Lavorel, S. (2004b) Effects of restricting environmental range of data to project current and future species distributions. Ecography, 27, 165–172.
Thuiller, W. , Lavorel, S. , Sykes, M. T. , & Araújo, M. B. (2006) Using niche-based modelling to assess the impact of climate change on tree functional diversity in Europe. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 49–60.
Tilman, D. (1982) Resource Competition and Community Structure. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Tobalske, C. (2002) Effects of spatial scale on the predictive ability of habitat models for the Green Woodpecker in Switzerland. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 197–204.
Tobler, W. (1979) Cellular geography. In Gale, G. O. S. (Ed.) Philosophy in Geography. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 379–389.
Tognelli, M. F. & Kelt, D. A. (2004) Analysis of determinants of mammalian species richness in South America using spatial autoregressive models. Ecography, 27, 427–436.
Tomlin, C. D. (1990) Geographic Information Systems and Cartographic Modeling. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Publishers.
Torres, L. G. , Read, A. J. , & Halpin, P. (2008) Fine-scale habitat modeling of a top marine predator: do prey data improve predictive capacity? Ecological Applications, 18, 1702–1717.
Townsend, P. A. & Walsh, S. J. (2001) Remote sensing of forested wetlands: application of multitemporal and multispectral satellite imagery to determine plant community composition and structure in southeastern USA. Plant Ecology, 157, 129–149.
Traill, L. W. & Bigalke, R. C. (2006) A presence-only habitat suitability model for large grazing African ungulates and its utility for wildlife management. African Journal of Ecology, 45, 347–354.
Trivedi, M. R. , Berry, P. M. , Morecroft, M. D. , & Dawson, T. P. (2008) Spatial scale affects bioclimate model projections of climate change impacts on mountain plants. Global Change Biology, 14, 1089–1103.
Tsoar, A. , Allouche, O. , Steinitz, O. , Rotem, D. , & Kadmon, R. (2007) A comparative evaluation of presence-only methods for modelling species distribution. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 397–405.
Tucker, C. J. (1979) Red and infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation. Remote Sensing of Environment, 8, 127–150.
Tucker, K. , Rushton, S. P. , Sanderson, R. A. , Martin, E. B. , & Blaiklock, J. (1997) Modelling bird distributions – a combined GIS and Bayesian rule-based approach. Landscape Ecology, 12, 77–93.
Tukey, J. W. (1977) Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Turner, J. C. , Douglas, C. L. , Hallam, C. R. , Krausman, P. R. , & Ramey, R. R. (2004) Determination of critical habitat for the endangered Nelson's bighorn sheep in southern California. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 32, 427–448.
Turner, M. G. & Gardner, R. H. (1991) Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology: The Analysis and Interpretation of Landscape Heterogeneity, New York, Springer-Verlag.
Turner, M. G. , Gardner, R. H. , & O'Neill, R. V. (2001) Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Turner, W. , Spector, S. , Gardiner, N. , Fladeland, M. , Sterling, E. , & Steininger, M. (2003) Remote sensing for biodiversity science and conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 306–314.
Tyre, A. J. , Tenhumberg, B. , Field, S. A. , Niejalke, D. , Parris, K. , & Possingham, H. P. (2003) Improving precision and reducing bias in biological surveys: estimating false-negative error rates. Ecological Applications, 13, 1790–1801.
Underwood, E. C. , Klinger, R. , & Moore, P. E. (2004) Predicting patterns of non-native plant invasions in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Diversity and Distributions, 10, 447–459.
Unitt, P. (2004) San Diego County Bird Atlas: San Diego, California: San Diego Natural History Museum.
US Fish and Wildlife Service (1981) Standards for the development of habitat suitability index models. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Ecological Services.
Valavanis, V. D. , Georgakarakos, S. , Kapantagakis, A. , Palialexis, A. , & Katara, I. (2004) A GIS environmental modelling approach to essential fish habitat designation. Ecological Modelling, 178, 417–427.
Vallecillo, S. , Brotons, L. , & Thuiller, W. (2009) Dangers of predicting bird species distributions in response to land cover changes. Ecological Applications, 19, 538–549.
van Horne, B. (1983) Density is a misleading indicator of habitat quality. Journal of Wildlife Management, 47, 893–901.
van Manen, F. T. , Clark, J. D. , Schlarbaum, S. E. , Johnson, K. , & Taylor, G. (2002) A model to predict the occurrence of surviving butternut trees in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting Species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 491–497.
Van Niel, K . & Laffan, S. W. (2003) Gambling with randomness: the use of pseudo-random number generators in GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 17, 49–68.
Van Niel, K. P. & Austin, M. P. (2007) Predictive vegetation modeling for conservation: impact of error propagation from digital elevation data. Ecological Applications, 17, 266–280.
Van Niel, K. P. , Laffan, S. W. , & Lees, B. G. (2004) Effect of error in the DEM on environment variables for predictive vegetation modelling. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15, 747–756.
Vaughan, I. P. & Ormerod, S. J. (2005) The continuing challenge of testing species distribution models. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 720–730.
Vayssiéres, M. P. , Plant, R. E. , & Allen-Diaz, B. H. (2000) Classification trees: an alternative non-parametric approach for predicting species distributions. Journal of Vegetation Science, 11, 679–694.
Vaz, S. , Martin, C. S. , Eastwood, P. D. et al. (2008) Modelling species distributions using regression quantiles. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 204–217.
Venables, W. M. & Ripley, B. D. (1994) Modern Applied Statistics with S-Plus. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Venier, L. A. & Pearce, J. L. (2007) Boreal forest landbirds in relation to forest composition, structure, and landscape: implications for forest management. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37, 1214–1226.
Ver Hoef, J. M. , Cressie, N. , Fisher, R. N. , & Case, T. J. (2001) Uncertainty and spatial linear models for ecological data. In Hunsaker, C. T. , Goodchild, M. F. , Friedl, M. A. , & Case, T. J. (Eds.) Spatial Uncertainty in Ecology: Implications for Remote Sensing and GIS Applications. New York: Springer, pp. 214–237.
Verbyla, D. L. & Litaitis, J. A. (1989) Resampling methods for evaluating classification accuracy of wildlife habitat models. Environmental Management, 13, 783–787.
Verner, J. , Morrison, M. L. & Ralph, C. J. (1986) Wildlife 2000: Modeling Habitat Relationships of Terrestrial Vertebrates. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Vernier, P. R. , Schmiegelow, F. K. A. , & Cumming, S. G. (2002) Modeling bird abundance from forest inventory data in the boreal mixed-wood forests of Canada. In Scott, J. M. , Heglund, P. J. , Morrison, M. L. et al. (Eds.) Predicting species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 559–572.
Vincent, P. J. & Haworth, J. M. (1983) Poisson regression models of species abundance. Journal of Biogeography, 10, 153–160.
Virkkala, R. , Luoto, M. , Heikkinen, R. K. , & Leikola, N. (2005) Distribution patterns of boreal marshland birds: modelling the relationships to land cover and climate. Journal of Biogeography, 32, 1957–1970.
Wade, P. R. (2000) Bayesian methods in conservation biology. Conservation Biology, 14, 1308–1316.
Wagner, H. H. & Fortin, M. J. (2005) Spatial analysis of landscapes: Concepts and statistics. Ecology, 86, 1975–1987.
Walker, P. A. & Cocks, K. D. (1991) HABITAT: a procedure for modeling a disjoint environmental envelope for a plant or animal species. Global Ecology & Biogeography Letters, 1, 108–118.
Walker, P. A. (1990) Modelling wildlife distributions using a geographic information system: kangaroos in relation to climate. Journal of Biogeography, 17, 279–289.
Walker, P. A. , & Moore, D. (1988) SIMPLE: An inductive modelling and mapping tool for spatially-oriented data. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 2, 347–363.
Walther, G. R. , Post, E. , Convey, P. et al. (2002) Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature, 416, 389–395.
Wang, Q. , Tenhunen, J. D. , Schmidt, M. G. , Kolcun, O. , Droesler, M. , & Reichstein, M. (2006) Estimation of total, direct and diffuse PAR under clear skies in complex alpine terrain of the National Patk Berchtesgaden, Germany. Ecological Modelling, 196, 149–162.
Ward, D. F. (2007) Modelling the potential geographic distribution of invasive ant species in New Zealand. Biological Invasions, 9, 723–735.
Waring, R. H. , Coops, N. C. , Fan, W. , & Nightingale, J. M. (2006) MODIS enhanced vegetation index predicts tree species richness across forested ecoregions in the contiguous USA. Remote Sensing of Environment, 103, 218–226.
Warren, T. L. , Betts, M. G. , Diamond, A. W. , & Forbes, G. J. (2005) The influence of local habitat and landscape composition on cavity-nesting birds in a forested mosaic. Forest Ecology and Management, 214, 331–343.
Waser, L. T. & Schwarz, M. (2006) Comparison of large-area land cover products with national forest inventories and CORINE land cover in the European Alps. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 8, 196–207.
Waser, L. T. , Stofer, S. , Schwarz, M. , Kuechler, M. , Ivits, E. , & Scheidegger, C. (2004) Prediction of biodiversity – regression of lichen species richness on remote sensing data. Community Ecology, 5, 121–133.
Watrous, K. S. , Donovan, T. M. , Mickey, R. M. , Darling, S. R. , Hicks, A. C. , & Von Oettingen, S. L. (2006) Predicting minimum habitat characteristics for the Indiana bat in the Champlain Valley. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70, 1228–1237.
Webb, T., III (1992) Past changes in vegetation and climate: lessons for the future. In Peters, R. L. & Lovejoy, T. E. (Eds.) Global Warming and Biological Diversity. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Weibel, R. & Heller, M. (1991) Digital terrain modeling. In Maguire, D. J. , Goodchild, M. F. , & Rhind, D. W. (Eds.) Geographic Information Systems. Harlow, UK: Longman, pp. 269–297.
Weins, J. A. (1989) Spatial scale in ecology. Functional Ecology, 3, 311–332.
Wessels, K. J. & van Jaarsveld, A. S. (1998) An evaluation of the gradsect biological survey method. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7, 1093–1121.
Whaley, S. D. , Burd, J. J. , & Robertson, B. A. (2007) Using estuarine landscape structure to model distribution patterns in nekton communities and in juveniles of fishery species. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 330, 83–99.
Whittaker, R. H. (1956) Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecological Monographs, 26, 1–80.
Whittaker, R. H. (1960) Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California. Ecological Monographs, 30, 279–338.
Whittaker, R. H. (1965) Dominance and diversity in land plant communities. Science, 147, 250–260.
Whittaker, R. H. (1967) Gradient analysis of vegetation. Biological Review, 42, 207–264.
Whittaker, R. H. (1970) Communities and Ecosystems. London: The Macmillan Company.
Whittaker, R. H. , Levin, S. A. , & Root, R. B. (1973) Niche, habitat and ecotope. The American Naturalist, 107, 321–338.
Wiegland, C. L. , Richardson, A. J. , & Nixon, P. R. (1986) Spectral components analysis: a bridge between spectral observations and agrometeorological crop models. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, GE-24, 83–89.
Wiens, J. J. & Graham, C. H. (2005) Niche conservatism: integrating evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 36, 519–539.
Wiens, J. J. (2004) Speciation and ecology revisited: phylogenetic niche conservatism and the origin of species. Evolution, 58, 193–197.
Wilby, R. L. & Schimel, D. S. (1999) Scales of interaction in eco-hydrological relations. In Baird, A. J. & Wilby, R. L. (Eds.) Eco-Hydrology: Plants And Water in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments. London: Routledge, pp. 39–77.
Williams, N. S. G. , Hahs, A. K. , & Morgan, J. W. (2008) A dispersal-constrained habitat suitability model for predicting invasion of alpine vegetation. Ecological Applications, 18, 347–359.
Wilson, J. & Gallant, J. (2000) Terrain Analysis: Principles and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Wilson, J. P. , Inskeep, W. P. , Wraith, J. M. , & Snyder, R. D. (1996) GIS-based solute transport modeling applications: Scale effects of soil and climate data input. Journal of Environmental Quality, 25, 445–453.
Wilson, K. A. , Westphal, M. I. , Possingham, H. P. , & Elith, J. (2005) Sensitivity of conservation planning to different approaches to using predicted species distribution data. Biological Conservation, 122, 99–112.
Wintle, B. A. & Bardos, D. C. (2006) Modeling species-habitat relationships with spatially autocorrelated observation data. Ecological Applications, 16, 1945–1958.
Wintle, B. A. , Elith, J. , & Potts, J. M. (2005) Fauna habitat modelling and mapping: a review and case study in the Lower Hunter Central Coast region of NSW. Austral Ecology, 30, 719–738.
Wintle, B. A. , McCarthy, M. A. , Parris, K. M. , & Burgman, M. A. (2004) Precision and bias of methods for estimating point survey detection probabilities. Ecological Applications, 14, 703–712.
Wintle, B. A. , McCarthy, M. A. , Volinsky, C. T. , & Kavanagh, R. P. (2003) The use of Bayesian model averaging to better represent uncertainty in ecological models. Conservation Biology, 17, 1579–1590.
Wisz, M. S. , Dendoncker, N. , Madsen, J. et al. (2008a) Modelling pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) wintering distributions for the year 2050: potential effects of land-use change in Europe. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 721–731.
Wisz, M. S. , Hijmans, R. J. , Li, J. , Peterson, A. T. , Graham, C. H. , & Guisan, A. (2008b) Effect of sample size on the performance of species distribution models. Diversity and Distributions 14, 763–773.
Wollan, A. K. , Bakkestuen, V. , Kauserud, H. , Gulden, G. , & Halvorsen, R. (2008) Modelling and predicting fungal distribution patterns using herbarium data. Journal of Biogeography, 35, 2298–2310.
Wolter, P. T. , Mladenoff, D. J. , Host, G. E. , & Crow, T. R. (1995) Improved forest classification in the Northern Lake States using multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 61, 1129–1143.
Wood, S. N. (2006) Generalized Additive Models: An Introduction with R. New York: CRC Press.
Woodward, F. I. & Williams, B. G. (1987) Climate and plant distribution at global and local scales. Vegetatio, 69, 189–197.