Human-Machine Reconfigurations

Plans and Situated Actions

Human-Machine Reconfigurations

This 2007 book considers how agencies are currently figured at the human-machine interface, and how they might be imaginatively and materially reconfigured. Contrary to the apparent enlivening of objects promised by the sciences of the artificial, the author proposes that the rhetorics and practices of those sciences work to obscure the performative nature of both persons and things. The question then shifts from debates over the status of human-like machines, to that of how humans and machines are enacted as similar or different in practice, and with what theoretical, practical and political consequences. Drawing on scholarship across the social sciences, humanities and computing, the author argues for research aimed at tracing the differences within specific sociomaterial arrangements without resorting to essentialist divides. This requires expanding our unit of analysis, while recognizing the inevitable cuts or boundaries through which technological systems are constituted.


 Reviews:

"As Margules challenges traditional evolutionary biology, and as symbiogenesis challenges the Darwinian notion of descent with modification, so Suchman positions herself to challenge both the old human-tech dichotomy and the rhetorical device of the cyborg. She gives us a beginning place for a new discourse...." - Brenda Laurel and Rob Tow, Science

Cognitive Science (1993). Volume 17, No. 1 Special Issue: Situated Action, pp. 1–117.
Aanestad, Margunn (2003). The camera as an actor: Design-in-use of Telemedicine Infrastructure in Surgery. Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12: 1–20.
Adam, Alison (1998). Artificial knowing: Gender and the thinking machine. New York: Routledge.
Agre, Philip (1995). Conceptions of the user in computer systems design. In P. Thomas (ed.)., The social and interactional dimensions of human–computer interfaces (pp. 67–106). Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Agre, Philip (1997). Computation and human experience. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Agre, Philip , and Chapman, David (1987). Pengi: An implementation of a theory of activity. Proceedings of AAAI 87: 268–272.
Agre, Philip, and Chapman, David (1990). What are plans for? In Pattie Maes (ed.), Designing autonomous agents: Theory and practice from biology to engineering and back (pp. 17–34). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original version: Philip E. Agre and David Chapman, What are plans for?, A. I. Memo 1050a, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT, 1989.)
Ahmed, Sara (1998). Differences that matter: Feminist theory and postmodernism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ahmed, Sara (2000). Strange encounters: Embodied others in post-coloniality. London/New York: Routledge.
Ahmed, Sara , Kilby, Jane , Lury, Celia , McNeil, Maureen , and Skeggs, Beverly (2000). Transformations: Thinking through feminism. London/New York: Routledge.
Akrich, Madeleine (1992). The de-scription of technical objects. In W. Bijker and J. Law (eds.), Shaping technology/building society (pp. 205–224). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Allen, James (1983). Recognizing intentions from natural language utterances. In M. Brady and R. Berwick (eds.), Computational models of discourse (Chapter 2). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Allen, James (1984). Towards a general theory of action and time. Artificial Intelligence 23: 123–154.
Amerine, Ronald , and Bilmes, Jack (1990). Following instructions. In M. Lynch and S. Woolgar (eds.), Representation in scientific practice (pp. 323–335). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Anderson, John , Boyle, C. , and Reiser, B. (1985). Intelligent tutoring systems. Science 228: 456–462.
Anscombe, George (1957). Intentions. Oxford: Blackwell.
Appelt, Douglas (1985). Planning English referring expressions. Artificial Intelligence 26: 1–33.
Ashmore, Malcolm , Wooffitt, Robin , and Harding, Stella (1994). Humans and others: The concept of ‘agency’ and its attribution. American Behavioral Scientist 37(6): 733–738.
Atkinson, John , and Drew, Paul (1979). Order in court: The organization of verbal interaction in judicial settings. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities.
Austin, John L. (1962). How to do things with words. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Bødker, Susanne (1991). Through the interface: A human activity approach to user interface design. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Balsamo, Anne (1996). Technologies of the gendered body: Reading cyborg women. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Balsamo, Anne (in press). Designing culture: A work of the technological imagination. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Bannon, Liam (1991). From human factors to human actors: The role of psychology and human–computer interaction studies in system design. In J. Greenbaum and M. Kyng (eds.), Design at work: Cooperative design of computer systems (pp. 25–44). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Banta, Martha (1993). Taylored lives: Narrative productions in the age of Taylor, Veblen and Ford. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Barad, Karen (1996). Meeting the universe halfway: Ambiguities, discontinuities, quantum subjects, and multiple positionings in feminism and physics. In L. H. Nelson and J. Nelson (eds.), Feminism, science, and the philosophy of science: A dialog (pp. 161–194). Norwell, MA: Kluwer.
Barad, Karen (1998). Getting real: Technoscientific practices and the materialization of reality. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 10: 88–128.
Barad, Karen (2003). Posthumanist performativity: Toward an understanding of how matter comes to matter. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 28: 801–831.
Bardram, Jakob (1997). Plans as situated action: An activity theory approach to workflow systems. Proceedings of ECSCW 97, Lancaster, UK.
Barfield, Woodrow , and Caudell, Thomas (2000). Fundamentals of wearable computers and augumented reality. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Barley, Stephen (1986). Technology as an occasion for structuring: Evidence from observations of CT scanners and the social order of radiology departments. Administrative Science Quarterly 31: 78–108.
Barley, Stephen , and Bechky, Beth (1993). In the back rooms of science: The work of technicians in science labs. Work and Occupations 21: 85–126.
Barley, Stephen , and Orr, Julian (eds.). (1997). Between craft and science: Technical work in U.S. settings. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Barwise, Jon , and Perry, John (1985). Situations and attitudes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bates, Elizabeth (1976). Language and context: The acquisition of pragmatics. New York: Academic Press.
Bates, Joseph (1994). The role of emotion in believable agents. Communications of the ACM 37: 122–125.
Beck, Eevi (1995). Changing documents/documenting changes: Using computers for collaborative writing over a distance. In S. Leigh Star (ed.), Cultures of computing (pp. 53–68). Oxford: Blackwell.
Beckman, Howard , and Frankel, Richard (1983). Who hides the agenda: The impact of physician behavior on the collection of data. Paper presented at the Fourth Annual SREPCIM Task Force on Interviewing, Washington, DC.
Beninger, James (1986). The control revolution: Technological and economic origins of the information society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Berg, Anna Jorunn (1994). A gendered socio-technical construction: The smart house. In D. Mackenzie and J. Wajcman (eds.), The social shaping of technology (pp. 301–313). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Berg, Marc (1997). Rationalizing medical work decision-support techniques and medical practices. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Berg, Marc, and Timmermans, Stefan (2000). Order and their others: On the constitution of universalities in medical work. Configurations 8 (1): 31–61.
Berners-Lee, Tim, Hendler, James, and Lassila, Ora (2001). The Semantic Web. Scientific American, May: 36–43.
Berreman, Gerald (1966). Anemic and emetic analyses in social anthropology. American Anthropologist 68(2): 346–354.
Bhabha, Homi (1994). The location of culture. London: Routledge.
Birdwhistell, Raymond (1970). Kinesics and context: Essays on body motion communication. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Bjerknes, Gro , Ehn, Pelle , and Kyng, Morten (eds.). (1987). Computers and democracy: A Scandinavian challenge. Aldershot, UK: Avebury.
Bleecker, Julian (1995). Urban crisis: Past, present and virtual. Socialist Review 24(1–2): 189–221.
Blomberg, Jeanette , Suchman, Lucy , and Trigg, Randall (1996). Reflections on a work-oriented design project. Human–Computer Interaction 11: 237–265.
Bloomfield, Brian (1991). The role of information systems in the UK National Health Service: Action at a distance and the fetish of calculation. Social Studies of Science 21: 701–734.
Blumer, Herbert (1969). Symbolic interactionism. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bobrow, Daniel , Kaplan, Ron , Kay, Martin , Norman, Donald , Thompson, Henry , and Winograd, Terry (1977). GUS: A frame-driven dialogue system. Artificial Intelligence 8: 155–173.
Boden, Margaret (1973). The structure of intentions. Journal of Theory of Social Behavior 3: 23–46.
Bowers, John (2002). Improvising machines: Ethnographically informed design for improvised electro-acoustic music. Norwich, UK, and Stockholm, Sweden: University of East Anglia and Royal Institute of Technology.
Bowers, John , Button, Graham , and Sharrock, Wes (1995). Workflow from within and without. In H. Marmolin, Y. Sundblad, and K. Schmidt (eds.), Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (pp. 51–66) Dordrecht: The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bowker, Geoffrey (1993). How to be universal: Some cybernetic strategies, 1943–1970. Social Studies of Science 23: 107–127.
Bowker, Geoffrey , and Star, Susan Leigh (1999). Sorting things out: Classification and its consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Brady, Michael , and Berwick, Robert (eds.) (1983). Computational models of discourse. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Braidotti, Rosi (1994). Nomadic subjects. New York: Columbia University Press.
Braidotti, Rosi (2002). Metamorphoses: Towards a materialist theory of becoming. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell.
Brook, James , and Boal, Iain (eds.). (1995). Resisting the virtual life: The culture and politics of information. San Francisco: City Lights.
Brooks, Rodney (1999). Cambrian intelligence: The early history of the new AI. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Brooks, Rodney (2002). Flesh and machines: How robots will change us. New York: Pantheon Books.
Brooks, Rodney , and Steels, Luc (1995). The artificial life route to artificial intelligence: Building embodied, situated agents. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brown, Barry , Green, Nicola , and Harper, Richard (eds.). (2001). Wireless world: Social and interactional implications of wireless technology. London: Springer-Verlag.
Brown, John Seely , and Newman, Susan (1985). Issues in cognitive and social ergonomics: From our house to Bauhaus. Human–Computer Interaction 1: 359–391.
Brown, John Seely , Rubenstein, R. , and Burton, R. (1976). Reactive learning environment for computer assisted electronics instruction. (BBN Report 3314). Cambridge, MA: Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.
Bruce, Bertram (1981). Natural communication between person and computer. In W. Lehnert and M. Ringle (eds.), Strategies for natural language processing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bruner, Jerome (1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Burke, Julie (1982). An analysis of intelligibility and practical activity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Burton, Richard , and Brown, John Seely (1982). An investigation of computer coaching for informal learning activities. In D. Sleeman and J. S. Brown (eds.), Intelligent tutoring systems (pp. 79–98). London: Academic Press.
Butler, Judith (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of “sex.” New York: Routledge.
Button, Graham (1990). Going up a blind alley: Conflating conversation analysis and computational modeling. In P. Luff, N. Gilbert, and D. Frolich (eds.), Computers and conversation (pp. 67–90). London: Academic Press.
Button, Graham (1993). Technology in working order: Studies of work, interaction, and technology. London/New York: Routledge.
Button, Graham , Coulter, Jeff , Lee, John R. , and Sharrock, Wes (1995). Computers, minds, and conduct. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Callon, Michel (1999). Actor-network theory: The market test. In J. Law and J. Hassard (eds.), Actor network theory and after (pp. 181–195). Oxford: Blackwell.
Cambrosio, Alberto , and Keating, Peter (1995). Exquisite specificity: The monoclonal antibody revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.
Carbonell, Jaime (1971). Mixed-intiative man–computer dialogues. (Technical Report 1970). Cambridge, MA: Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.
Carey, Susan (1985). Conceptual change in childhood. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carroll, John M. (2000). Making use: Scenario-based design of human–computer interactions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carroll, John M. (2003). Situated action in the zeitgeist of human–computer interaction. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 12 (2): 273–278.
Casper, Monica (1994). Reframing and grounding nonhuman agency: What makes a fetus an agent? American Behavioral Scientist 37: 839–856.
Casper, Monica (1998). The making of the unborn patient: A social anatomy of fetal surgery. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Cassell, Justine , Sullivan, Joseph , Prevost, Scott , and Churchill, Elizabeth (eds.). (1996). Embodied conversational agents. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Castañeda, Claudia (2001). Robotic skin: The future of touch? In S. Ahmed and J. Stacey (eds.), Thinking through the skin (pp. 223–236). London: Routledge.
Castañeda, Claudia (2002). Figurations: Child, bodies, worlds. Durham, NC/ London: Duke University Press.
Castañeda, Claudia, and Suchman, Lucy (forthcoming). Robot Visions. In Sharon Ghamari-Tabrizi (ed.), Companions with Haraway: Thinking together.
Chasin, Alexandra (1995). Class and its close relations: Identities among women, servants, and machines. In J. Halberstram and I. Livingston (eds.), Posthuman bodies (pp. 73–96). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Cherny, Lynn , and Reba Weise, Elizabeth (eds.). (1996). Wired women: Gender and new realities in cyberspace. Seattle, WA: Seal.
Chesher, Chris (2004). Invocation, evocation and avocation in new media art. Unpublished manuscript, University of Sydney, Australia.
Churchland, Paul (1984). Matter and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Clancey, William (1997). Situated cognition: On human knowledge and computer representations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Clark, Andy (1997). Being there: Putting brain, body, and world together again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Clark, Andy (2001). Mindware: An introduction to the philosophy of cognitive science. New York: Oxford University Press.
Clark, Andy (2003). Natural-born cyborgs: Minds, technologies, and the future of human intelligence. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
Clarke, Adele , and Fujimura, Joan (eds.). (1992). The right tools for the job: At work in twentieth-century life sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Clement, Andrew (1993). Looking for the designers: Transforming the ‘invisible’ infrastructure of computerized office work. AI & Society 7: 323–344.
Clement, Andrew (1994). Computing at work: Empowering action by ‘low-level’ users. Communications of the ACM 37: 53–63.
Clement, Andrew , and Van den Besselaar, Peter (1993). A retrospective look at PD projects. Communications of the ACM 36: 29–37.
Cohen, John (1966). Human robots in myth and science. London: Allen and Unwin.
Cohen, Paul (n. d.). Pragmatics, speaker-reference, and the modality of communication. Unpublished manuscript, Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence, Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp, Palo Alto, CA.
Cohen, Paul , and Perrault, C. Ray (1979). Elements of a plan-based theory of speech acts. Cognitive Science 3: 177–212.
Colby, Kenneth , Hilf, Franklin , Weber, Sylvia , and Kraemer, Helena (1972). Turing-like indistiguishability tests for the validation of a computer simulation of paranoid processes. Artificial Intelligence 3: 199–221.
Collins, Harry M. (1985). Changing order: Replication and induction in scientific practice. London/Beverly Hills: Sage.
Collins, Harry M. (1990). Artificial experts: Social knowledge and intelligent machines. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Collins, Harry M. , and Kusch, Martin (1998). The shape of actions: What humans and machines can do. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Coombs, Michael , and Alty, James (1984). Expert systems: An alternative paradigm. International Journal of Man–Machine Studies 20: 21–43.
Cooper, Greg , and Bowers, John (1995). Representing the user: Notes on the disciplinary rhetoric of human–computer interaction. In P. Thomas (ed.), Social and interactional dimensions of human–computer interfaces (pp. 48–66). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Coulter, Jeff (1979). The social construction of mind. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.
Coulter, Jeff (1983). Rethinking cognitive theory. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1983). More work for mother: The ironies of household technology from the open hearth to the microwave. New York: Basic Books.
Crist, Eileen (2000). Images of animals: Anthropomorphism and animal mind. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Crist, Eileen (2004). Can an insect speak?: The case of the honeybee dance. Social Studies of Science 34: 7–43.
Crutzen, Cecile (1005). Intelligent ambience between heaven and hell: A salvation? Information, Communication Ethics and Society (ICES) 4.
Cussins, Charis (1998). Ontological choreography: Agency for women patients in an infertility clinic. In M. Berg and A.-M. Mol (eds.), Differences in medicine (pp. 166–201). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
de Certeau, Michel (1988). The practice of everyday life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
de La Mettrie, Julien Offray (1748 (1994)). Man a machine and man a plant. Trans. Richard A. Watson and Maya Rybaka . Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., Inc.
de Laet, Marianne , and Mol, Annemarie (2000). The Zimbabwe bush pump: Mechanics of a fluid technology. Social Studies of Science 30: 225–263.
Dehn, Doris , and van Mulken, Susanne (2000). The impact of animated interface agents: A review of empirical research. International Journal of Human–Computer Studies 52: 1–22.
Dennett, Daniel (1978). Brainstorms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dennett, Daniel (1994). The practical requirements for making a conscious robot. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 349: 133–146.
di Leonardo, Micaela (1998). Exotics at home: Anthropologies, others, American modernities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dourish, Paul (2001). Where the action is: The foundations of embodied interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Downey, Gary , and Dumit, Joseph (eds.). (1997). Cyborgs and citadels: Anthropological interventions in emerging sciences and technologies. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research.
Doyle, Richard (1997). On beyond living: Rhetorical transformations of the life sciences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Doyle, Richard (2003). Wetwares: Experiments in postvital living. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Dreyfus, Hubert (1991). Being-in-the-world: A commentary on Heidegger's being and time, division 1. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dreyfus, Hubert (1992). What computers still can't do. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dreyfus, Hubert (ed.). (1982). Husserl, intentionality and cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dror, Otniel (1999). Scientific image of emotion: Experience and technologies of inscription. Configurations 7: 355–401.
Dror, Otniel (2001). Counting the affects: Discoursing in numbers. Social Research 68 (2): 357–378.
Dumit, Joseph (2004). Picturing personhood: Brain scans and biomedical identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Duncan, Starkey Jr. , (1974). On the structure of speaker–auditor interaction during speaking turns. Language in Society 3: 161–180.
Durkheim, Emile (1938). The rules of the sociological method. New York: The Free Press.
Edwards, Derek (1994). Imitation and artifice in apes, humans, and machines. American Behavioral Scientist 37: 754–772.
Edwards, Paul (1996). The closed world: Computers and the politics of discourse in Cold War America. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Ehn, Pelle (1988). Work-oriented design of computer artifacts. Stockholm: Arbetslivscentrum.
Erickson, Frederick (1982). Money tree, lasagna bush, salt and pepper: Social construction of topical cohesion in a conversation among Italian-Americans. In D. Tannen (ed.), Georgetown University roundtable on language and linguistics: Analyzing discourse: Text and talk. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Erickson, Frederick (1982). The counselor as gatekeeper. New York: Academic Press.
Farrell, Robert , Anderson, John , and Reiser, Brian (1984). An interactive computer-based tutor for LISP. In Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 106–111. Menlo Park, Calif.: AAAI Press.
Featherstone, Mike , and Burrows, Roger (1995). Cyberspace, cyberbodies, cyberpunk: Cultures of technological embodiment. London: Sage.
Feitelson, J. , and Stefik, Mark (1977). A case study of reasoning in a genetics experiment. (Heuristic Programming Project, Working Paper 77–18). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Fikes, Richard , and Nilsson, Neils (1971). STRIPS: A new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving. Artificial Intelligence 2: 189–205.
Fitter, Mike (1979). Towards more ‘natural’ interactive systems. International Journal of Man–Machine Studies 11: 339–349.
Fodor, Jerome (1983). The modularity of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Frankel, Richard (1984). From sentence to sequence: Understanding the medical encounter through microinteractional analysis. Discourse Processes 7: 135–170.
Franklin, Sarah (1995). Science as culture, cultures of science. Annual Reviews of Anthropology 24: 163–184.
Franklin, Sarah (2000). Life itself: Global nature and the genetic imaginary. In S. Franklin, C. Lury, and J. Stacey (eds.), Global nature, global culture (pp. 188–227). London: Sage.
Franklin, Sarah , and Ragone, Helen (eds.). (1998). Reproducing reproduction: Kinship, power and technological innovation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Franklin, Sarah , Lury, Celia , and Stacey, Jackie (2000). Global nature, global culture. London: Sage.
Frazer, James (1900). The golden bough: A study in magic and religion. London: Macmillan. (Reprinted 1980.)
Fujimura, Joan (1992). Crafting science: Standardized packages, boundary objects and “translation.” In A. Pickering (ed.), Science as practice and culture (pp. 168–211). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fujimura, Joan (1996). Crafting science: A sociohistory of the quest for the genetics of cancer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Galaty, James (1981). Models and metaphors: On the semiotic explanation of segmentary systems. In L. Holy and M. Stuchlik (eds.), The structure of folk models (pp. 63–92). New York: Academic Press.
Galison, Peter (1987). How experiments end. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Galison, Peter (1997). Image and logic: A material culture of microphysics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gardner, Howard (1985). The mind's new science. New York: Basic Books.
Garfinkel, Harold (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Garfinkel, Harold (1972). Remarks on ethnomethodology. In J. Gumperz and D. Hymes (eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication (pp. 301–324). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Garfinkel, Harold (2002). Ethnomethodology's programme: Working out Durkheim's aphorism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. P. 23.
Garfinkel, Harold , and Rawls, Anne (2002). Ethnomethodology's program: Working out Durkeim's aphorism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Garfinkel, Harold , and Sacks, Harvey (1970). On formal structures of practical actions. In J. McKinney and E. Tiryakian (eds.), Theoretical sociology: Perspectives and development (pp. 337–366). New York: Appleton Century Crofts.
Garfinkel, Harold , Lynch, Michael , and Livingston, Eric (1981). The work of a discovering science construed with materials from the optically discovered pulsar. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 111: 131–159.
Geertz, Clifford (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
Gell, Alfred (1998). Art and agency: An anthropological theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gilbert, Nigel , and Heath, Christian (eds.). (1985). Social action and artificial intelligence. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK/Brookfield, VT: Gower.
Gladwin, Thomas (1964). Culture and logical process. In W. Goodenough (ed.), Explorations in cultural anthropology (pp. 167–177). New York: McGraw–Hill.
Gladwin, Thomas (1970). East is a big bird: Navigation and logic on Puluwat Atoll. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goffman, Erving (1975). Replies and responses. Language in Society 5: 257–313.
Gonzalez, Jennifer (2000). Envisioning cyborg bodies: Notes from current research. In G. E. A. Kirkup (ed.), The gendered cyborg (pp. 58–73). New York/London: Routledge.
Goodwin, Charles (1981). Conversational organization: Interaction between speakers and hearers. New York: Academic Press.
Goodwin, Charles (1994). Professional vision. American Anthropologist 96: 606–633.
Goodwin, Charles (1995a). Seeing in depth. Social Studies of Science 25: 237–274.
Goodwin, Charles (1995b). Co-constructing meaning in conversations with an aphasic man. Research on Language and Social Interaction 28: 233–260.
Goodwin, Charles (1997). The blackness of black: Color categories as situated practice. In L. Resnick, R. Saljo, C. Pontecorvo, and B. Burge (eds.), Discourse, tools and reasoning (pp. 111–142). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Goodwin, Charles (2003). The body in action. In J. Coupland and R. Gwyn (eds.), Discourse, the body and identity (pp. 19–42). NY: Palgrave/Macmillan.
Goodwin, Charles , and Goodwin, Marjorie Harness (1992). Context, activity and participation. In P. Lauer and A. di Luzio (eds.), The contextualization of language (pp. 77–99). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Goodwin, Charles , and Goodwin, Marjorie Harness (1996). Seeing as situated activity: Formulating planes. In Y. Engestrom and D. Middleton (eds.), Cognition and communication at work (pp. 61–95). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Goodwin, Charles , and Goodwin, Marjorie Harness (1997). Contested vision: The discursive constitution of Rodney King. In B.-L. Gunnarsson, P. Linell, and B. Nordberg (eds.), The construction of professional discourse (pp. 292–316). New York: Longman.
Goodwin, Dawn (2004). Acting in anaesthesia: Agency, participation, and legitimation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University.
Goodwin, Marjorie Harness (1980). Processes of mutual monitoring implicated in the production of description sequences. Sociological Inquiry 50: 303–317.
Grand, Steve (2003). Growing up with Lucy: How to build an android in twenty easy steps. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
Green, Nicola (2002). On the move: Technology, mobility, and the mediation of social time and space. The Information Society 18: 281–292.
Greenbaum, Joan , and Kyng, Morten (1991) (eds.). Design at work: Cooperative design of computer systems (pp. ⅹ, 294). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gregory, Judith (2000). Sorcerer's apprentice: Creating the electronic health record, re-inventing medical records and patient care. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Communications, University of California, San Diego.
Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In P. Cole and J. Morgan (eds.), Syntax and semantics: Vol 3. Speech acts (pp. 41–58). New York: Academic Press.
Grint, Keith , and Woolgar, Steve (1997). The machine at work: Technology, work, and organization. Cambridge, UK/Malden, MA: Polity.
Grosz, Barbara (1981). Focusing and description in natural language dialogues. In A. Joshi, B. Webber, and I. Sag (eds.). Elements of discourse understanding. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Grosz, Elizabeth (1994). Volatile bodies: Toward a corporeal feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Grudin, Jonathan (1990). The computer reaches out: The historical continuity of interface design. In J. C. Chew and J. Whiteside (eds.), Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Press, pp. 261–268.
Gumperz, John (1982a). Discourse strategies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gumperz, John (1982b). The linguistic bases of communicative competence. In D. Tannen (ed.)., Georgetown University roundtable on language and linguistics: Analyzing discourse: Text and talk (pp. 323–334). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Gumperz, John , and Tannen, Deborah (1979). Individual and social differences in language use. In C. Fillmore et al. (eds.), Individual differences in language ability and language behavior. New York: Academic Press.
Gupta, Akhil , and Ferguson, James (1997). Anthropological locations: Boundaries and grounds of a field science. Berkeley: University of California.
Halberstam, Judith (1991). Automating gender: Postmodern feminism in the age of the intelligent machines. Feminist Studies 17: 439–460.
Halberstam, Judith , and Livingston, Ira (eds.). (1995). Posthuman bodies. Bloomington/Indianapolis: Indiana University.
Hales, Mike (1994). Where are designers? Styles of design practice, objects of design, and views of users in CSCW. In D. Rosenberg and C. Hutchison (eds.), Design issues in CSCW (pp. 151–177). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Haraway, Donna (1985/1991). Manifesto for cyborgs: Science, technology and socialist feminisim in the 1980s. In Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature. New York: Routledge. (Originally published in Socialist Review (1985) 80: 65–108.)
Haraway, Donna (1991). Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature. New York: Routledge.
Haraway, Donna (1997). Modest _Witness @Second_Millenium.FemaleMan_Meets_OncoMouse™: Feminism and Technoscience. New York: Routledge.
Haraway, Donna (2003). The companion species manifesto: Dogs, people and significant others. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press.
Harding, Sandra (1986). The science question in feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Harding, Sandra (1991). Whose science? Whose knowledge?: Thinking from women's lives. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hayes, Patrick (1981). A construction-specific approach to focused interaction in flexible parsing. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (pp. 149–152). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Hayes, Patrick , and Reddy, Raj (1983). Steps toward graceful interaction in spoken and written man–machine communication. International Journal of Man–Machine Studies 19: 231–284.
Hayles, N. Katherine (1999). How we became posthuman: Virtual bodies in cybernetics, literature, and informatics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Hayles, N. Katherine (2002). Flesh and metal: Reconfiguring the mindbody in virtual environments. Configurations 10: 297–320.
Hayles, N. Katherine (2005). Computing the human. Theory, Culture & Society 22: 131–151.
Heap, James (1980). Description in ethnomethodology. Human Studies 3: 87–106.
Heath, Christian (1986). Body movement and speech in medical interaction. Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Heath, Christian , and Luff, Paul (1992). Collaboration and control: Crisis management and multimedia technology in London Undergound line control rooms. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1(1): 69–94.
Heath, Christian , and Luff, Paul (2000). Technology in action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Heath, Christian , Svensson, Marcus , Hindmarsh, Jon , Luff, Paul , and Vom Lehn, Dirk (2002). Configuring awareness. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11: 317–347.
Hedberg, Sara Reese (2000). After desktop computing: A progress report on smart environments research. IEEE Intelligent Systems and Their Applications 15: 7–9.
Helmreich, Stefan (1998). Silicon second nature: Culturing artificial life in a digital world. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Henderson, Kathryn (1999). On line and on paper: Visual representations, visual culture, and computer graphics in design engineering. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hendrix, Gary (1977). Human engineering for applied natural language processing. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (pp. 183–191). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Heritage, John (1984). Garfinkel and ethnomethodology. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Hirschauer, Stefan (1991). The manufacture of bodies in surgery. Social Studies of Science 21(2): 279–319.
Hirsh, Haym (1999). Roomservice, AI-style. IEEE Intelligent Systems and Their Applications March/April: 8–10.
Hogle, Linda (1999). Recovering the nation's body: Cultural memory, medicine, and the politics of redemption. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Hughes, John , Randall, David , and Shapiro, Dan (1993). From ethnographic record to system design: Some experiences from the field. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1: 123–141.
Hutchins, Edwin (1983). Understanding Micronesian navigation. In D. Gertner and A. Stevens (eds.), Mental models (pp. 191–225). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hutchins, Edwin (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hymes, Dell H. (1974). Reinventing anthropology. New York: Random House.
Ingold, Tim (2000). The perception of the environment: Essays in livelihood, dwelling and skill. London/New York: Routledge.
Ito, Mimi , Okabe, Daisuke , and Matsuda, Misa (2005). Personal, portable, pedestrian: Mobile phones in Japanese life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jain, Sarah (1999). The prosthetic imagination: Enabling and disabling the prosthesis trope. Science, Technology and Human Values 24: 31–54.
Jain, Sarah (2006). Injury: The politics of product design and safety law in the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Jefferson, Gail (1972). Side sequences. In D. Sudnow (ed.), Studies in social interaction (pp. 294–338). New York: Free Press.
Jefferson, Gail (1983). Issues in the transcription of naturally occurring talk: Caricature versus capturing pronunciational particulars. (Tilburg Papers in Language and Literature, no. 34). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Tilburg University.
Jeremijenko, Natalie (2004). If things can talk, what do they say? In N. Waldrip-Fruin and P. Harrigan (eds.), First person: New media as story, performance, and game (pp. 262–287). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jordan, Brigitte , and Fuller, Nancy (1975). On the non-fatal nature of trouble sense-making and sense-managing in Lingua Franca talk. Semiotica 13: 1–31.
Jordan, Kathleen , and Lynch, Michael (1992). The sociology of a genetic engineering technique: Ritual and rationality in the performance of the ‘plasmid prep.’ In A. Clarke and J. Fujimura (eds.), The right tools for the job: At work in twentieth-century life sciences (pp. 77–114). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Joshi, Arvon , Webber, Bonnie , and Sag, Ivan (eds.) (1981). Elements of discourse understanding. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kantrowitz, Barbara (1994, January 17). The butlers of the digital age will be just a keystroke away. Newsweek, p. 58.
Keller, Evelyn Fox (2002a). Making sense of life: Explaining biological development with models, metaphors and machines. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Keller, Evelyn Fox (2002b). Marrying the premodern to the postmodern: Computers and organisms after WWII. In D. Tofts, A. Jonson, and A. Cavallaro (eds.), Prefiguring cyberculture (pp. 52–65). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Keller, Evelyn Fox (2007). Booting up baby. In J. Riskin (ed.), The Sistine gap. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Kember, Sarah (1998). Virtual anxiety: Photography, new technologies and subjectivity. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Kember, Sarah (2003). Cyberfeminism and artificial life. London/New York: Routledge.
Kirby, Vicki (1997). Telling flesh: The substance of the corporeal. New York: Routledge.
Knorr Cetina, Karin (1999). Epistemic cultures: How the sciences make knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Knorr Cetina, Karin , and Mulkay, Michael (eds.). (1983). Science observed: Perspectives on the social study of science. London: Sage.
Knorr, Karin (1981). The manufacture of knowledge: An essay on the constructivist and contextual nature of science. Oxford/New York: Pergamon.
Koschmann, Timothy (ed.). (2003). Plans and situated actions: A retro-review. Books & Ideas, Journal of the Learning Sciences 12(2): 257–306.
Kubrick, Stanley, and Clarke, Arthur C. (1968). 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Landauer, Thomas (1995). The trouble with computers: Usefulness, usability, and productivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Latour, Bruno (1986). Visualization and cognition: Thinking with eyes and hands. Knowledge and Society 6: 1–40.
Latour, Bruno (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, Bruno (1988). The pasteurization of France. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, Bruno (1992). Where are the missing masses: The sociology of a few mundane artifacts. In W. Bijker and J. Law (eds.), Shaping technology/building society (pp. 225–258). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Latour, Bruno (1993). We have never been modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, Bruno (1999). Pandora's hope: Essays on the reality of science studies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, Bruno , and Woolgar, Steve (1979). Laboratory life: The social construction of scientific facts. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Lave, Jean (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Law, John (1987). Technology and heterogeneous engineering: The case of Portuguese expansion. In W. Bijker, T. Hughes, and T. Pinch (eds.), The social construction of technological systems (pp. 111–134). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Law, John (1994). Organizing modernity. Oxford, UK/Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Law, John (1996). Organizing accountabilities: Ontology and the mode of accounting. In R. Munro and J. Mouritsen (eds.), Accountability: Power, ethos and the technologies of managing (pp. 283–306). London: International Thomas Business Press.
Law, John (2002). Aircraft stories: Decentering the object in technoscience. Durham, NC/London: Duke University Press.
Law, John (2004). After method: Mess in social science research. London/New York: Routledge.
Law, John , and Mol, Annemarie (eds.) (2002). Complexities: Social studies of knowledge practices. Durham, NC/London: Duke University Press.
Lee, Nick , and Brown, Steve (1994). Otherness and the actor network: The undiscovered continent. American Behavioral Scientist 37: 772–790.
Lenoir, Tim (2002). Embracing the posthuman. Configurations 10: 203–220.
Levinson, Stephen (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lewis, David (1972). We, the navigators. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
Lieberman, Henry (1997). Autonomous interface agents. Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 67–74). New York: ACM Press.
Lock, Margaret M. (2002). Twice dead: Organ transplants and the reinvention of death. Berkeley: University of California Press.
London, Bob, and Clancey, William (1982). Plan recognition strategies in student modeling: Prediction and description. Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 335–338. Menlo Park, Calif.: AAAI Press.
Luff, Paul , Gilbert, Nigel , and Frohlich, David (eds.). (1990). Computers and conversation. London/San Diego: Academic Press.
Luff, Paul , Hindmarsh, Jon , and Heath, Christian (eds.). (2000). Workplace studies: Recovering work practice and informing system design. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lynch, Michael (1982). Technical work and critical enquiry: Investigation in a scientific laboratory. Social Studies of Science 12: 499–533.
Lynch, Michael (1985a). Art and artifact in laboratory science: A study of shop work and shop talk in a research laboratory. London/Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Lynch, Michael (1985b). Discipline and the material form of images: An analysis of scientific visibility. Social Studies of Science 15: 37–66.
Lynch, Michael (1988). The externalized retina: Selection and mathematization in the visual documentation of objects in the life sciences. Human Studies 11: 201–234.
Lynch, Michael (1991a). Laboratory space and the technological domplex: An investigation of topical contextures. Science in Context 4: 51–78.
Lynch, Michael (1991b). Ordinary and scientific measurement as ethnomethodological phenomena. In G. Button (ed.), Ethnomethodology and the human sciences (pp. 77–108). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lynch, Michael (1993). Scientific practice and ordinary action: Ethnomethodology and social studies of science. Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lynch, Michael (2001). Ethnomethodology and the logic of practice. In T. Schatzki, K. K. Cetina, and E. Von Savigny (eds.), The practice turn in contemporary theory (pp. 131–148). London/New York: Routledge.
Lynch, Michael , and Jordan, Kathleen (1995). Instructed action in, of, and as molecular biology. Human Studies 18: 227–244.
Lynch, Michael , and Jordan, Kathleen (2000). Patents, promotions and protocols: Mapping and claiming scientific territory. Mind, Culture & Activity 7: 124–146.
Lynch, Michael , and Woolgar, Steve (eds.). (1990). Representation in scientific practice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lynch, Michael , Livingston, Eric , and Garfinkel, Harold (1983). Temporal order in laboratory work. In K. Knorr and M. Mulkay (eds.), Science observed (pp. 205–238). London: Sage.
M'charek, Amade (2005). The Human genome diversity project: An ethnography of scientific practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Macbeth, Douglas (1996). The discovery of situated worlds: Analytic commitments, or moral orders? Human Studies 19: 267–287.
MacKay, D. (1962). The use of behavioral language to refer to mechanical processes. British Journal of Philosophical Science 13: 89–103.
Malinowski, Bronislaw (1935). Coral gardens and their magic. London: Allen & Unwin.
Mann, Steve , and Niedzviecki, Hal (2001). Cyborg: Digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. Doubleday Canada.
Marcus, George (1995). Ethnograpy in/of the world system: The emergence of multi-sited ethnography. Annual Reviews of Anthropology 24: 95–117.
Marcus, George (ed.). (1999). Critical anthropology now: Unexpected contexts, shifting constituencies, changing agendas. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research.
Marcus, George , and Fischer, Michael (1986). Anthropology as cultural critique: An experimental moment in the human sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Marks, Laura U. (2002). Touch: Sensuous theory and multisensory media. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Markussen, Randi (1995). Constructing easiness – Historical perspectives on work, computerization, and women. In S. L. Star (ed.), Cultures of computing (pp. 158–180). Oxford: Blackwell.
Mauss, Marcel (1902). A general theory of magic. New York: Norton.
Mauss, Marcel (1954). The gift. London: Cohen & West.
McCorduck, Pamela (1979). Machines who think. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.
McDermott, Ray (1976). Kids make sense: An ethnographic account of the itneractional management of success and failure in one first-grade classroom. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.
McNeil, Maureen (ed.) (1987). Gender and expertise. London: Free Association Books.
Mead, George H. (1934). Mind, self and society from the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Menzel, Peter , and D'Aluisio, Faith (2000). Robo sapiens. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Merritt, Marilyn (1977). On questions following questions in service encounters. Language in Society 5: 315–357.
Mialet, Helene (2003). Reading Hawking's presence: An interview with a self-effacing man. Critical Inquiry 29: 571–598.
Middleton, David , and Brown, Steven (2005). Net-working on a neonatl intensive care unit: The baby as a virtual object. In B. Czarniiawska and T. Hernes (eds.), Actor-network theory and organizing (pp. 307–328). Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.
Miller, George A. , Galanter, Eugene , and Pribram, Karl H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Mills, C. Wright (1940). Situated actions and vocabularies of motive. American Sociological Review 5: 904–913.
Mol, Annemarie (2002). The body multiple: Ontology in medical practice. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Moore, C. L. (1975). No woman born. In T. Scortia and G. Zebrowski (eds.), Human-machines: An anthology of stories about cyborgs (pp. 63–118). New York: Vintage.
Mort, Maggie , Goodwin, Dawn , Smith, Andrew , and Pope, Catherine (2005). Safe asleep? Human–machine relations in medical practice. Social Science & Medicine 61: 2027–2037.
Mulcahy, Dianne (1999). Working bodies and representations: Tales from a training field. Science, Technology and Human Values 24: 80–104.
Newell, Allen , and Simon, Herbert (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Newman, Susan (1998). Here, there, and nowhere at all: Distribution, negotiation, and virtuality in postmodern ethnography and engineering. Knowledge and Society 11: 235–267.
Nickerson, Ray (1976). On conversational interaction with computers. In Proccedings of ACM SIGGRAPH workshop, October 14–15, pp. 101–113, Pittsburgh, PA.
Nilsson, Neils (1973). A hierarchical robot planning and execution system. (Technical Note 76). Menlo Park, CA: SRI Artificial Intelligence Center.
Noble, David (1984). Forces of production. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Oberquelle, Horst , Kupka, I. , and Maass, S. (1983). A view of human–machine communication and cooperation. International Journal of Man–Machine Studies 19: 309–333.
Ochs, Eleanor (1979). Planned and unplanned discourse. In T. Givon (ed.), Syntax and semantics: Vol. 12. Discourse and syntax (pp. 51–78). New York: Academic Press.
Orr, Julian (1996). Talking about machines: An ethnography of a modern job. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.
Oudshoorn, Nelly , and Pinch, Trevor (eds.). (2003). How users matter: The co-construction of users and technologies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Peachey, D. , and McCalla, G. (1986). Using planning techniques in intelligent tutoring systems. International Journal of Man–Machine Studies 24: 77–98.
Pedersen, Elin Rønby , and Sokoler, Thomas (1997). AROMA – Abstract representation of mediated presence supporting mutual awareness. Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 51–58). New York: ACM Press.
Peirce, Charles (1933). In C. Hartshorne and P. Weiss (eds.), Collected papers (Vol. 11). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Picard, Rosalind (1997). Affective computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Pickering, Andrew (1984). Constructing quarks: A sociological history of particle physics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Pickering, Andrew (1995). The mangle of practice: Time, agency and science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Pickering, Andrew (2002). Cybernetics and the mangle. Social Studies of Science 32: 413–438.
Pickering, Andrew (ed.). (1992). Science as practice and culture. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.
Piller, Charles (2001, May 13). A step toward creating thoughtful machines. Greenwich Times, A8.
Prentice, Rachel (2005). Swimming in the joint: Surgery, technology, perception. Unpublished manuscript.
Price, Janet , and Shildrick, Magrit (eds.). (1999). Feminist theory and the body: A reader. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Pylyshyn, Zenon (1974). Minds, machines and phenomenology: Some reflections on Dreyfus' What Computers Can't Do. Cognition 3: 57–77.
Pylyshyn, Zenon (1984). Computation and cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Rawls, Anne (1996). Durkheim's epistemology: The neglected argument. American Journal of Sociology 102(2): 430–482.
Rawls, Anne (2002). Editor's introduction. In Ethnomethodology's programme: Working out Durkheim's aphorism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Pp. 1–76.
Reid, Roddey , and Traweek, Sharon (eds.). (2000). Doing Science + Culture: How cultural and interdisciplinary studies are changing the way we look at science and medicine. New York: Routledge.
Riecken, Douglas (1994). A conversation with Marvin Minsky about agents. Communications of the ACM 37: 23–29.
Risan, Lars (1997). Artificial life: A technoscience leaving modernity? An anthropology of subjects and objects. Retrieved August 10, 2005, from http://anthrobase.com/Txt/R/Risan_L_05.htm.
Riskin, Jessica (2003a). The defecating duck, or, the ambiguous origins of artificial life. Critical Inquiry 20: 599–633.
Riskin, Jessica (2003b). Eighteenth century wetware. Representations 83: 97–125.
Riskin, Jessica (ed.). (2007). The Sistine gap: Essays in the history and philosophy of artificial life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Robertson, Toni (2002). The public availability of actions and artefacts. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11: 299–316.
Rogers, Yvonne , Sharp, Helen , and Preece, Jennifer (2002). Interaction design: Beyond human–computer interaction. New York: Wiley.
Rubin, Andrea (1980). A theoretical taxonomy of the differences between oral and written languge. In R. Spiro et al. (eds.), Theoretical issues in reading comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sacerdoti, Earl (1975). The nonlinear nature of plans. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
Sacerdoti, Earl (1977). A structure for plans and behavior. New York: Elsevier.
Sack, Warren (1997). Artificial human nature. Design Issues 13: 55–64.
Sacks, Harvey (1963). On sociological description. Berkeley Journal of Sociology 8: 1–16.
Sacks, Harvey (1974). An analysis of the course of a joke's telling in converstion. In R. Bauman and J. Scherzer (eds.), Explorations in the ethnography of speaking (pp. 337–53). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Sacks, Harvey , Schegloff, Emanuel , and Jefferson, Gail (1978). A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking in conversation. In J. Schenkein (ed.), Studies in the organization of conversational interaction (pp. 7–55). New York: Academic Press.
Sandoval, Chela (1999). New sciences: Cyborg feminism and the methodology of the oppressed. In J. Wolmark (ed.), Cybersexualities (pp. 247–263). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Sawyer, R. Keith (2003). Improvised dialogues: Emergence and creativity in conversation. Westport, CT: Ablex.
Schaffer, Simon (1999). Enlightened automata. In W. Clark, J. Golinski, and S. Shaffer (eds.), The sciences in enlightened Europe (pp. 126–165). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Schank, Robert , and Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans and knowledge. In P. Johson-Laird and P. Wason (eds.), Thinking: Readings in cognitive science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Scheflen, Albert (1974). How behavior means. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.
Schegloff, Emanuel (1972). Sequencing in conversational openings. In J. Gumperz and D. Hymes (eds.)., Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication (pp. 346–380). New York: Academic Press.
Schegloff, Emanuel (1982). Discourse as an interactional achievement: Some uses of “uh huh” and other things that come between sentences. In D. Tannen (ed.), Georgetown University roundtable on language and linguistics: Analyzing discourse and talk (pp. 71–93). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Schegloff, Emanuel (1998). Body torque. Social Research 65: 535–596.
Schegloff, Emanuel , and Sacks, Harvey (1973). Opening up closings. Semiotica 7: 289–327.
Schiebinger, Londa (ed.). (2000). Feminism & the body. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schmidt, C. , Sridharan, N. , and Goodson, J. (1978). The plan recognition problem. Artificial Intelligence 11: 45–83.
Schmidt, Kjeld , and Wagner, Ina (2004). Ordering systems: Coordinative practices and artifacts in architectural design and planning. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 13: 349–408.
Schuler, Douglas , and Namioka, Aki (eds.). (1993). Participatory design: Principles and practices. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Schull, Natasha (2005). Digital gambling: The coincidence of desire and design. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 597: 65–81.
Schull, Natasha (in press). Machine life: Control and compulsion in Las Vegas. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Schutz, Alfred (1962). Collected papers I: The problem of social reality. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Searle, John (1969). Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Searle, John (1979). Expression and meaning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Searle, John (1980). The intentionality of intention and action. Cognitive Science 4: 47–70.
Sengers, Phoebe (2004). The autonomous agency of STS: Boundary crossings between STS and artificial intelligence. Unpublished manuscript. (Submitted to Social Studies of Science.)
Shapin, Steve (1989). The invisible technician. American Scientist 77: 553–563.
Shapin, Steven , and Schaffer, Simon (1985). Leviathan and the air-pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sharrock, Wes , and Button, Graham (2003). Plans and situated actions ten years on. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 12(2): 259–264.
Shrager, Jeff and Finin, Tom (1982). An expert system that volunteers advice. Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 339–340. Menlo Park, Calif.: AAAI Press.
Sidner, Candace (1979). Towards a computational theory of definite anaphora comprehension in English discourse. (Technical Report TR-537). Cambridge, MA: MIT AI Laboratory.
Simon, Herbert (1969). The sciences of the artificial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Singleton, Vicky (1998). Stabilizing instabilities: The laboratory in the UK Cervical Screening Program. In M. Berg and A. Mol (eds.), Differences in medicine (pp. 86–104). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Smith, Brian Cantwell (1996). On the origin of objects. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Smith, Dorothy E. (1987). The everyday world as problematic: A feminist sociology. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Spender, Dale (1996). Nattering on the net: Women, power and cyberspace. Toronto: Garamond.
Standage, Tom (2002). The Turk: The life and times of the famous eighteenth-century chess-playing machine. New York: Walker & Co.
Star, Susan Leigh (1989a). Regions of the mind: Brain research and the quest for scientific certainty. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Star, Susan Leigh (1989b). Layered space, formal representations and long distance control: The politics of information. Fundamenta Scientiae 10: 125–155.
Star, Susan Leigh (1991). Invisible work and silenced dialogues in knowledge representation. In I. Eriksson, B. Kitchenham, and K. Tijdens (eds.), Women, work and computerization (pp. 81–92). Amsterdam: North Holland.
Star, Susan Leigh (ed.). (1995). The cultures of computing. Oxford, UK/Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Star, Susan Leigh , and Griesemer, James (1989). Institutional ecology, ‘translations’ and boundary objects: Amateurs and professionals in Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. Social Studies of Science 19: 387–420.
Stelarc (2004). Prosthetic head: Intelligence, awareness and agency. Unpublished manuscript, University of Melbourne.
Stich, Stephen (1983). From folk psychology to cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Strathern, Marilyn (1988). The gender of the gift: Problems with women and problems with society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Strathern, Marilyn (1992). Reproducing the future: Essays on anthropology, kinship, and the new reproductive technologies. New York: Routledge.
Strathern, Marilyn (1996). Cutting the network. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 2: 517–535.
Strathern, Marilyn (1999). Property, substance, and effect: Anthropological essays on persons and things. London/New Brunswick, NJ: Athlone Press.
Strathern, Marilyn (ed.). (2000). Audit cultures: Anthropological studies in accountability, ethics, and the academy. London/New York: Routledge.
Streeck, Jurgen (1980). Speech acts in interaction: A critique of Searle. Discourse Processes 3: 133–154.
Suchman, Lucy (1982). Toward a sociology of human–machine interaction: Pragmatics of instruction following. (CIS Working Paper, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center). Palo Alto, CA: Author.
Suchman, Lucy (1987). Plans and situated actions: The problem of human–machine communication. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Suchman, Lucy (1993a). Response to Vera and Simon's ‘Situated action: A symbolic interpretation.’ Cognitive Science 17(1): 71–76.
Suchman, Lucy (1993b). Technologies of accountability: On lizards and airplanes. In G. Button (ed.), Technology in working order (pp. 113–126). London: Routledge.
Suchman, Lucy (1994a). Working relations of technology production and use. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2: 21–39.
Suchman, Lucy (1994b). Do categories have politics? The language-action perspective reconsidered. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2: 177–190.
Suchman, Lucy (1995). Making work visible. Communications of the ACM 38(9): 56–64.
Suchman, Lucy (1999). Working relations of technology production and use. In D. Mackenzie and J. Wajcman (eds.), The social shaping of technology, 2nd ed. (pp. 258–268). Buckingham, UK/Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Suchman, Lucy (2000). Embodied practices of engineering work. Mind, Culture & Activity 7: 4–18.
Suchman, Lucy (2001). Building bridges: Practice-based ethnographies of contemporary technology. In M. Schiffer (ed.), Anthropological perspectives on technology (pp. 163–177). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Suchman, Lucy (2002a). Located accountabilities in technology production. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems 14: 91–105.
Suchman, Lucy (2002b). Practice-based design: Notes from the hyper-developed world. The Information Society 18: 1–6.
Suchman, Lucy (2003). Writing and reading: A response to comments on plans and situated actions: The problem of human–machine communication. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 12 (2): 299–306.
Suchman, Lucy (2005). Affiliative objects. Organisation 12(3): 379–399.
Suchman, Lucy , and Jordan, Brigitte (1989). Computerization and women's knowledge. In K. Tijdens, M. Jennings, I. Wagner, and M. Weggelaar (eds.), Women, work and computerization (pp. 153–160). Amsterdam: North Holland. (Reprinted in P. Agre and D. Schuler (eds.) (1997). Reinventing technology, rediscovering community: Critical explorations in computing as a social practice (pp. 97–105). Greenwich, CT: Ablex.)
Suchman, Lucy , Blomberg, Jeanette , Orr, Julian , and Trigg, Randall (1999). Reconstructing technologies as social practice. American Behavioral Scientist 43: 392–408.
Suchman, Lucy, Trigg, Randall, and Blomberg, Jeanette (2002). Working artefacts: Ethnomethods of the prototype. British Journal of Sociology 53: 163–179.
Taussig, Michael (1993). Mimesis and alterity: A particular history of the senses. London: Routledge.
Terry, Jennifer , and Calvert, Melodie (eds.). (1997). Processed lives: Gender and technology in everyday life. London/New York: Routledge.
Thomas, Frank , and Johnston, Ollie (1981). Disney animation: The illusion of life. New York: Abbeville.
Thomas, Peter J. (1995). The social and interactional dimensions of human–computer interfaces. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Thompson, Charis (2005). Making parents: The ontological choreography of reproductive technologies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Timmermans, Stefan (1999). Sudden death and the myth of CPR. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Timmermans, Stefan , and Berg, Marc (1997). Standardization in action: Achieving local universality through medical protocols. Social Studies of Science 27: 273–305.
Timmermans, Stefan , and Berg, Marc (2003). The gold standard: The challenge of evidence-based medicine and standardization in health care. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Traweek, Sharon (1988). Beamtimes and lifetimes: The world of high energy physicists. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Trigg, Randall , Blomberg, Jeanette , and Suchman, Lucy (1999). Moving document collections online. In Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW): (pp. 331–350). Copenhagen: Kluwer Academic Press.
Turing, Alan (1950). Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind 59(236): 433–461.
Turkle, Sherry (1984). The second self: Computers and the human spirit. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Turkle, Sherry (1995). Life on the screen: Identity in the age of the Internet. New York/Toronto: Simon & Schuster.
Turnbull, David (1990). Mapping the world in the mind: A case study of the unwritten knowledge of the micronesian navigators. Deakin University School of Humanities. Geelong: Deakin University Press.
Turnbull, David (1993). Maps are territories, science is an atlas: A portfolio of exhibits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Turnbull, David (2000). Masons, tricksters and cartographers: Comparative studies in the sociology of scientific and indigenous knowledge. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic.
Turner, Ralph (1962). Words, utterances and activities. In Ethnomethodology: Selected readings (pp. 197–215). Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
Tylor, Edward (1875). Primitive culture. London: Murray.
Varela, Francisco , Thompson, Evan , and Rosch, Eleanor (1991). The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Vera, Alonso (2003). By the seat of our pants: The evolution of research on cognition and action. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 12(2): 279–284.
Vera, Alonso , and Simon, Herbert (1993). Situated action: A symbolic interpretation. Cognitive Science 17(1): 7–48.
Verran, Helen (1998). Re-imagining land ownership in Australia. Postcolonial Studies 1: 237–254.
Verran, Helen (2001). Science and an African logic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Viseu, Ana (2003). Simulation and augmentation: Issues of wearable computers. Ethics and Information Technology 5: 17–26.
Viseu, Ana (2005). Augmented bodies: The visions and realities of wearable computers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto.
Wakeford, Nina (2000). Gender and the landscapes of computing in an Internet cafe. In G. Kirkup, L. Janes, K. Woodward, and F. Hovenden (eds.), The gendered cyborg (pp. 291–304). London/New York: Routledge.
Watt, W. C. (1968). Habitability. American Documentation 19(3): 338–351.
Wei, Sha Xin (2002). Resistance is fertile: Gesture and agency in the field of responsive media. Configurations 10: 439–472.
Weizenbaum, Joseph (1983). eliza: A computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. Communications of the ACM, 25th Anniversary Issue 29(1): 23–27. (Reprinted from Communications of the ACM 26(1): 36–45, January 1966).
Wells, Gordon (2003). Lesson plans and situated learning-and-teaching. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 12(2): 265–272.
Wenger, Etienne (1987). Artificial intelligence and tutoring systems: Computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge. Los Altos, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Wilkinson, Barry (1983). The shopfloor politics of new technology. London: Heinemann.
Wilson, Thomas (1970). Conceptions of interaction and forms of sociological explanation. American Sociological Review 35: 697–709.
Winograd, Terry , and Flores, Fernando (1986). Understanding computers and cognition: A new foundation for design. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Wise, J. Macgregor (1998). Intelligent agency. Cultural Studies 12: 410–428.
Wodehouse, P. G. (1999/1923). The inimitable Jeeves. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
Wolmark, Jenny (ed.). (1999). Cybersexualities: A reader on feminist theory, cyborgs and cyberspace. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Wood, Gaby (2002). Living dolls: A magical history of the quest for mechanical life. London: Faber & Faber.
Woolf, Beverly and McDonald, David (1983). Human–computer discourse in the design of a PASCAL tutor. Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 230–234). New York: ACM Press.
Woolgar, Steve (1991). Configuring the user: The case of usability trials. In J. Law (ed.), A sociology of monsters: Essays on power, technology and domination. London: Routledge.
Yates, JoAnne (1989). Control through communication: The rise of system in American management. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Zimmerman, Donald (1970). The practicalities of rule use. In J. Douglas (ed.)., Understanding everyday life (pp. 221–238). Chicago, IL: Aldine.
Zuboff, Shoshana (1988). In the age of the smart machine: The future of work and power. New York: Basic Books.