The Environment and International Relations


The Environment and International Relations

This exciting new textbook introduces students to the ways in which the theories and tools of International Relations can be used to analyse and address global environmental problems. Kate O'Neill develops an historical and analytical framework for understanding global environmental issues, and identifies the main actors and their roles, allowing students to grasp the core theories and facts about global environmental governance. She examines how governments, international bodies, scientists, activists and corporations address global environmental problems including climate change, biodiversity loss, ozone depletion and trade in hazardous wastes. The book represents a new and innovative theoretical approach to this area, as well as integrating insights from different disciplines, thereby encouraging students to engage with the issues, to equip themselves with the knowledge they need, and to apply their own critical insights. This will be invaluable for students of environmental issues both from political science and environmental studies perspectives.


 Reviews:

“An extraordinarily important book presenting, in one place, a comprehensive review of the key themes and controversies governing the environment and international relations…must reading for students, scholars, practitioners, and anyone who cares about the future of our planet.”
Ben Cashore, Environmental Governance and Political Science, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University

The Environment and International Relations provides a clear, intellectually coherent introduction to one of the key issues of our times. This will be a very useful text for undergraduate students and those who want to understand the political complexities of environmental challenges.”
Lorraine Elliott, Senior Fellow in International Relations, Australian National University

“How can we grasp the unprecedented challenges posed by environmental issues to the world as we know it? Kate O’Neill steers us with a firm hand through such questions, providing a series of robust analytical frameworks that bring clarity to a subject-matter so complex it can sometimes seem intractable. This is a precious guide for students, policy-makers, and anyone interested in either the environment or international relations.”
Charlotte Epstein, Department of Government and International Relations, The University of Sydney

“O’Neill provides a thorough and easily accessible tour d’horizon of global environmental politics. She provides theoretical, historical and critical insights into how well the international community is coping with problems of global and transboundary environmental threats, and the prospects for a broader shift to a more sustainable future. If readers don’t come away far better informed and concerned about global environmental threats they simply weren’t paying attention.”
Peter M. Haas, Department of Political Science, University of Massachusetts

“Comprehensive, authoritative and accessible, with this book Kate O'Neill deftly manages to guide the reader, whether new to the area or not, through the dense maze of literature on the environment and International Relations. It deserves to be widely read.”
Peter Newell, Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University and School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia

“An accessible and up to date introduction, designed to invite further reading and research. Readers will be indebted to Kate O'Neill for the way in which she has read and summarised such a wide range of literature. In my view there is nothing available that gives such comprehensive coverage.”
John Vogler, School of Politics, International Relations & Philosophy, Keele University

'… an excellent text for studying the mainstream of global environmental politics …' Acta Politica

Reference Title: Suggestions for further reading

Reference Type: further-reading

Betsill, Michele M. , Kathryn Hochstetler , and Dimitris Stevis , eds. International Environmental Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006: an overview from multiple perspectives of the evolution of and new trends in international environmental politics.
Conca, Ken. “Environmental Governance after Johannesburg: From Stalled Legalization to Environmental Human Rights?” Journal of International Law & International Relations 1.1–2 (2005), pp. 121–38: an article that traces out a particular narrative arc of international environmental politics, emphasizing a shift towards contentious politics.
Haas, Peter M. , Robert O. Keohane , and Marc A. Levy , eds. Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993: an early and influential study of effective institution building for the environment; relies on detailed and authoritative empirical case studies.
Paterson, Matthew. Understanding Global Environmental Politics: Domination, Accumulation, Resistance. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001: a critical theory approach to global environmental politics that focuses on global power structures, and draws on green political theory.
Rowlands, Ian H. “Classical Theories of International Relations.” International Relations and Global Climate Change. Eds. Urs Luterbacher and Detlef F. Sprinz . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001: a highly accessible introduction to the primary theoretical perspectives in mainstream international relations theory and their application to climate change. For a more advanced approach, see Hasenclever, Andreas, Peter Mayer, and Volker Rittberger. Theories of International Regimes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Simmons, P. J. , and Chantal de Jonge Oudraat , eds. Managing Global Issues: Lessons Learned. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2001: an excellent introduction to global governance that covers a variety of issues, from the global environment to security, trade, human rights, and others.
Speth, James Gustave. Red Sky at Morning: America and the Crisis of the Global Environment. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004: a leading, and very readable, critique from a highly regarded practitioner-academic of the way that global environmental governance has been managed to date.
Young, Oran R. International Governance: Protecting the Environment in a Stateless Society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994: another early classic, from one of the most prolific authors in the field. The book covers the emergence of global environmental problems, and efforts to solve them, including an early and influential discussion of effectiveness.

Reference Title: Suggestions for further reading

Reference Type: further-reading

Dessler, Andrew E. , and Edward A. Parson . The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A Guide to the Debate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006: an excellent introduction to the problem of climate change, covering both policy and scientific angles.
Diamond, Jared . Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking Press, 2005: a best-selling (and prize-winning) sweeping account of the rise and fall of civilizations, based on utilization and availability of natural resources.
Helm, Dieter , and David Pearce . “Economic Policy Towards the Environment.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 7.4 (1990), pp. 1–16: a highly accessible introduction to externalities and public goods at local and transboundary levels, from a microeconomic theory perspective.
Jasanoff, Sheila . “Image and Imagination: The Formation of Global Environmental Consciousness.” Changing the Atmosphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance. Eds. Clark A. Miller and Paul N. Edwards . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001: discusses how the image of the earth from space and the “spaceship earth” metaphor have been framed and used in political and cultural discourse.
Princen, Thomas , Michael F. Maniates , and Ken Conca , eds. Confronting Consumption. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2002: this collection of essays explores the dynamics of consumption and the global environment, discussing why consumption is the “third rail” of international environmental politics.
Sachs, Wolfgang . Planet Dialectics: Explorations in Environment and Development. London: Zed Books, 1999: essays from a leading development theorist that dissect and critique the notion of sustainable development and its uses.
Takacs, David . The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996: a collection of interviews and discussions with leading conservation biologists and others that examines how “biodiversity” emerged as a framing concept.
United Nations Environment Programme . GEO 4: Environment for Development. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2007, available at www.unep.org/geo/yearbook: one of the most authoritative sources of data and analysis on the state of the global environment and future trends. The website gives free access to all available editions.

Reference Title: Suggestions for further reading

Reference Type: further-reading

Díez, Jordi , and O. P. Dwivedi , eds. Global Environmental Challenges: Perspectives from the South. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2007: this volume examines southern perspectives on the global environment; its strength are the case studies on environmental politics in eleven southern countries.
Guha, Ramachandra. Environmentalism: A Global History. New York: Longman, 2000: a truly global perspective on the emergence of environmentalism in different parts of the world.
Karliner, Joshua. The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in the Age of Globalization. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1997: a strong and well-argued critique of the role of corporations in causing environmental harm and obstructing environmental regulation.
Karns, Margaret P. , and Karen A. Mingst . International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. Boulder CO: Lynne Reinner, 2004: a highly accessible text on intergovernmental organizations and their role.
Leiserowitz, Anthony A ., Robert W. Kates , and Thomas M. Parris . “Sustainability Values, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Review of Multinational and Global Trends.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31 (2006), pp. 413–44: one of the best overviews to date on public opinion, values, and sustainable development.
Martello, Marybeth Long. “Local Knowledge: Global Change Science and the Arctic Citizen.” Science and Public Policy 31.2 (2001), pp. 107–15: covers both how particular communities – here, Arctic communities – are especially vulnerable to global environmental harm, and how “local knowledge” is playing an increasingly important role in global policy deliberations.
Spruyt, Hendrik. “The Origins, Development and Possible Decline of the Modern State.” Annual Review of Political Science 5 (2002), pp. 127–49: covers why the modern territorial state emerged as the central actor in the international system, and why it is currently under threat.
Wapner, Paul . Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics. Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1996: this book focuses on the emergence of global civil society and “politics above and below the state”; includes a case study of Greenpeace International.

Reference Title: Suggestions for further reading

Reference Type: further-reading

Agarwal, Anil , Sunita Narain , and Anju Sharma , eds. Green Politics. New Delhi: Center for Science and Environment, 1999: international environmental cooperation from the perspective of a highly influential southern NGO.
Betsill, Michele M. , and Elisabeth Corell , eds. NGO Diplomacy: The Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental Negotiations. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2007: an edited volume with several case studies that focuses on identifying and assessing NGOs' influence on international environmental negotiations.
Haas, Peter M. “Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination.” International Organization 46.1 (1992), pp. 1–35: this entire special issue of International Organization is devoted to discussions of epistemic communities in international politics, covering a range of issue area.
Levy, David L. , and Peter J. Newell , eds. The Business of Global Environmental Governance. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2005: the essays in this volume cover private sector engagement in international environmental politics at all levels, from a range of theoretical perspectives.
Mitchell, Ronald B. “International Environmental Agreements: A Survey of Their Features, Formation and Effects.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28 (2003), pp. 429–61: Mitchell's survey article examines the factors that explain why we get the environmental regimes that we do, and their impacts.
Najam, Adil. “Developing Countries and Global Environmental Governance: From Contestation to Participation to Engagement.” International Environmental Agreements 5 (2005), pp. 303–21: Adil Najam is a leading author on the role of the South in international environmental politics; this piece traces the changing attitudes of developing countries to the agenda of global environmental governance.
O'Neill, Kate , Jörg Balsiger , and Stacy VanDeveer . “Actors, norms and impact: Recent international cooperation theory and the influence of the agent-structure debate.” Annual Review of Political Science 7 (2004), pp. 149–75: a review of the study of international cooperation in international relations theory, and new directions it is taking; a particularly authoritative and accessible discussion of the concepts of agency and structure and related debates (written by Balsiger).
Parson, Edward A. Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003: a detailed narrative case study of the ozone regime that challenges some conventional wisdom as to why that regime has proven so successful.
Susskind, Lawrence E. Environmental Diplomacy: Negotiating More Effective Global Environmental Agreements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994: a critique, with prescriptions for reform, of existing modes of negotiating multilateral agreements; remains the most authoritative study of this subject.

Reference Title: Suggestions for further reading

Reference Type: further-reading

Bernauer, Thomas. “The effect of international environmental institutions: How we might learn more.” International Organization 49.2 (1995), pp. 351–77: this article describes the conceptual and methodological challenges in measuring the effectiveness of environmental regimes.
Clapp, Jennifer. “The illegal CFC trade: An unexpected wrinkle in the ozone protection regime.” International Environmental Affairs 9.4 (1997), pp. 259–73: an insight into an unintended consequence of the Montreal Protocol.
Clémençon, Raymond. “What future for the global environment facility?” Journal of Environment and Development 15.1 (2006), pp. 50–74: an overview of the history, activities, and future prospects of the leading international finance institution for the global environment.
Gupta, Aarti , and Robert Falkner . “The influence of the Cartagena protocol on biosafety: Comparing Mexico, China and South Africa.” Global Environmental Politics 6.4 (2006), pp. 23–5: this article examines how the Cartagena protocol has influenced domestic policies on genetically modified organisms across three countries, and the ways in which it has exerted this influence.
Mitchell, Ronald B. Intentional Oil Pollution at Sea: Environmental Policy and Treaty Compliance. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1994: an exploration of why regime design matters for effective compliance with environmental treaties.
Sagar, Ambuj D. “Capacity development for the environment: A view for the South, a view for the North.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25 (2000), pp. 377–439: a comprehensive overview of work on capacity development for the environment that examines its ideological underpinnings, its effectiveness in practice, and recommendations for future capacity building efforts.
Weiss, Edith Brown , and Harold K. Jacobson , eds. Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1998: a classic study of compliance that examines state behavior across five treaties and ten countries.
Young, Oran R. , ed. The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes: Causal Connections and Behavioral Mechanisms. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1999: as with Weiss and Jacobson, a qualitative comparative analysis of regime effectiveness that identifies causal pathways through which regimes may exert a range of influences, with a good range of empirical cases.

Reference Title: Suggestions for further reading

Reference Type: further-reading

Clapp, Jennifer , and Peter Dauvergne . Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2005: a highly accessible and thorough text on the relationship between economic globalization and the environment that assesses these debates from four different perspectives.
Gilpin, Robert . Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001: a classic international relations text that covers the evolution of international political economy since World War Two, applying a range of theoretical approaches.
Gore, Charles . “The rise and fall of the Washington Consensus as a paradigm for developing countries.” World Development 28.5 (2000), pp. 789–804: an influential article about the impact of the Washington Consensus on the theory and practice of global development.
Liverman, Diana M ., and Silvina Vilas . “Neoliberalism and the environment in Latin America.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31 (2006): an excellent survey on what we know and how we know it about the impact of neoliberal globalization across different resource sectors in Latin America.
Murphy, Dale D . “The tuna-dolphin wars.” Journal of World Trade 40.4 (2006), pp. 597–617: perhaps the last word on the tuna–dolphin dispute; an in-depth analysis of the political economy of the tuna industry, the GATT's decision, and its impacts.
Stiglitz, Joseph E . Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2002: from a Nobel Prize-winning economist, why the IMF went so wrong in the 1990s, and a strong critique of neoliberal globalization.
Vogel, David . Trading Up: Consumer and Environmental Regulation in a Global Economy. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1995: a very influential argument as to why free trade could lead to a “ratcheting up,” rather than a dismantling, of environmental regulations.

Reference Title: suggestions for Further reading

Reference Type: further-reading

Bartley, Tim . “Certifying Forests and Factories: States, Social Movements, and the Rise of Private Regulation in the Apparel and Forest Products Fields.” Politics and Society 31.3 (2003), pp. 433–64: a theoretical explanation of the emergence of non-state environmental governance, comparing apparel and forest products, and focusing on the institutional context enabling the emergence of these new forms of governance.
Cashore, Benjamin , Graeme Auld , and Deanna Newsom . Governing through Markets: Forest Certification and the Emergence of Non-State Authority. New Haven CO: Yale University Press, 2004: a prizewinning book that examines factors explaining where and how FSC standards are taken up in different developed countries, with a critical discussion of issues of legitimacy and authority in non-state market driven governance.
Garcia-Johnson, Ronie . Exporting Environmentalism: U.S. Multinational Chemical Corporations in Brazil and Mexico. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2000: Garcia-Johnson's path-breaking study of when multinational corporations are able to improve environmental performance in the countries where they locate, comparing Mexico and Brazil.
Hall, Rodney Bruce , and Thomas J. Biersteker , eds. The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002: a theoretical examination of all forms of private authority in the international system – from certification schemes to privatized security.
Ottaway, Marina . “Corporatism goes global: International organizations, nongovernmental organization networks, and transnational business.” Global Governance 7 (2001), pp. 265–92: a critique of the partnership approach to global governance, specifically the World Commission on Dams.
Prakash, Aseem , and Matthew Potoski . “Racing to the bottom? Trade, environmental governance, and ISO 14001.” American Journal of Political Science 50.2 (2006), pp. 350–64: an empirical examination of when ISO 14001 rules make a positive difference in environmental quality.
Princen, Thomas . “Distancing: Consumption and the severing of feedback.” Confronting Consumption, edited by Thomas Princen , Michael F. Maniates , and Ken Conca . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2002: a chapter that examines why, in a globalized world, effective regulation of investment and production is so difficult.

Reference Title: suggestions for Further reading

Reference Type: bibliography

Bernstein, Steven. “Legitimacy in Global Environmental Governance.” Journal of International Law & International Relations 1,1 (2005), pp. 139–66: a discussion of the concept of legitimacy as applied to global environmental governance: what it is, what forms it takes on, why it might be missing, and how it could be achieved.
Biermann, Frank , and Steffen Bauer , eds. A World Environment Organization: Solution or Threat for Effective International Environmental Governance? London: Ashgate Publishing, 2005: a collection of essays from all sides of the debate over a WEO.
Conca, Ken. Governing Water: Contentious Transnational Politics and Global Institution Building. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2006: this book begins by unpacking the concept of international regimes, exploring why international cooperation has worked in some issue areas but not in others, and how new global and transnational–local initiatives are forming around problems related to water.
Jasanoff, Sheila , and Marybeth Long Martello , eds. Earthly Politics: Local and Global in Environmental Governance. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2004: this edited volume explores connections between the local and global in environmental politics, based on the production, dissemination, and use of knowledge.
Vogler, John. “In Defense of International Environmental Cooperation.” The State and the Global Ecological Crisis, edited by John Barry and Robyn Eckersley . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2005: an argument as to why state-led global environmental governance remains of central significance in contemporary international environmental politics.
Wapner, Paul. “World Summit on Sustainable Development: Toward a Post-Jo'burg Environmentalism.” Global Environmental Politics 3,1 (2003), pp. 1–10: a discussion of the changing nature of environmentalism – in particular, how southern environmentalism appears to be becoming more like northern environmentalism, and vice versa. Also, a timely reminder that the environment may not always be at the top of international agendas.

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