This exciting new textbook introduces students to the ways in which the theories and tools of International Relations can be used to analyse and address global environmental problems. Kate O'Neill develops an historical and analytical framework for understanding global environmental issues, and identifies the main actors and their roles, allowing students to grasp the core theories and facts about global environmental governance. She examines how governments, international bodies, scientists, activists and corporations address global environmental problems including climate change, biodiversity loss, ozone depletion and trade in hazardous wastes. The book represents a new and innovative theoretical approach to this area, as well as integrating insights from different disciplines, thereby encouraging students to engage with the issues, to equip themselves with the knowledge they need, and to apply their own critical insights. This will be invaluable for students of environmental issues both from political science and environmental studies perspectives.
“An extraordinarily important book presenting, in one place, a comprehensive review of the key themes and controversies governing the environment and international relations…must reading for students, scholars, practitioners, and anyone who cares about the future of our planet.”
Ben Cashore, Environmental Governance and Political Science, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University
“The Environment and International Relations provides a clear, intellectually coherent introduction to one of the key issues of our times. This will be a very useful text for undergraduate students and those who want to understand the political complexities of environmental challenges.”
Lorraine Elliott, Senior Fellow in International Relations, Australian National University
“How can we grasp the unprecedented challenges posed by environmental issues to the world as we know it? Kate O’Neill steers us with a firm hand through such questions, providing a series of robust analytical frameworks that bring clarity to a subject-matter so complex it can sometimes seem intractable. This is a precious guide for students, policy-makers, and anyone interested in either the environment or international relations.”
Charlotte Epstein, Department of Government and International Relations, The University of Sydney
“O’Neill provides a thorough and easily accessible tour d’horizon of global environmental politics. She provides theoretical, historical and critical insights into how well the international community is coping with problems of global and transboundary environmental threats, and the prospects for a broader shift to a more sustainable future. If readers don’t come away far better informed and concerned about global environmental threats they simply weren’t paying attention.”
Peter M. Haas, Department of Political Science, University of Massachusetts
“Comprehensive, authoritative and accessible, with this book Kate O'Neill deftly manages to guide the reader, whether new to the area or not, through the dense maze of literature on the environment and International Relations. It deserves to be widely read.”
Peter Newell, Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University and School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia
“An accessible and up to date introduction, designed to invite further reading and research. Readers will be indebted to Kate O'Neill for the way in which she has read and summarised such a wide range of literature. In my view there is nothing available that gives such comprehensive coverage.”
John Vogler, School of Politics, International Relations & Philosophy, Keele University
'… an excellent text for studying the mainstream of global environmental politics …'
Betsill, Michele M. , Kathryn Hochstetler , and Dimitris Stevis , eds. International Environmental Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006: an overview from multiple perspectives of the evolution of and new trends in international environmental politics.
Conca, Ken. “Environmental Governance after Johannesburg: From Stalled Legalization to Environmental Human Rights?” Journal of International Law & International Relations 1.1–2 (2005), pp. 121–38: an article that traces out a particular narrative arc of international environmental politics, emphasizing a shift towards contentious politics.
Haas, Peter M. , Robert O. Keohane , and Marc A. Levy , eds. Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993: an early and influential study of effective institution building for the environment; relies on detailed and authoritative empirical case studies.
Paterson, Matthew. Understanding Global Environmental Politics: Domination, Accumulation, Resistance. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001: a critical theory approach to global environmental politics that focuses on global power structures, and draws on green political theory.
Rowlands, Ian H. “Classical Theories of International Relations.” International Relations and Global Climate Change. Eds. Urs Luterbacher and Detlef F. Sprinz . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001: a highly accessible introduction to the primary theoretical perspectives in mainstream international relations theory and their application to climate change. For a more advanced approach, see Hasenclever, Andreas, Peter Mayer, and Volker Rittberger. Theories of International Regimes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Simmons, P. J. , and Chantal de Jonge Oudraat , eds. Managing Global Issues: Lessons Learned. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2001: an excellent introduction to global governance that covers a variety of issues, from the global environment to security, trade, human rights, and others.
Speth, James Gustave. Red Sky at Morning: America and the Crisis of the Global Environment. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004: a leading, and very readable, critique from a highly regarded practitioner-academic of the way that global environmental governance has been managed to date.
Young, Oran R. International Governance: Protecting the Environment in a Stateless Society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994: another early classic, from one of the most prolific authors in the field. The book covers the emergence of global environmental problems, and efforts to solve them, including an early and influential discussion of effectiveness.
Dessler, Andrew E. , and Edward A. Parson . The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A Guide to the Debate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006: an excellent introduction to the problem of climate change, covering both policy and scientific angles.
Diamond, Jared . Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking Press, 2005: a best-selling (and prize-winning) sweeping account of the rise and fall of civilizations, based on utilization and availability of natural resources.
Helm, Dieter , and David Pearce . “Economic Policy Towards the Environment.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 7.4 (1990), pp. 1–16: a highly accessible introduction to externalities and public goods at local and transboundary levels, from a microeconomic theory perspective.
Jasanoff, Sheila . “Image and Imagination: The Formation of Global Environmental Consciousness.” Changing the Atmosphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance. Eds. Clark A. Miller and Paul N. Edwards . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001: discusses how the image of the earth from space and the “spaceship earth” metaphor have been framed and used in political and cultural discourse.
Princen, Thomas , Michael F. Maniates , and Ken Conca , eds. Confronting Consumption. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2002: this collection of essays explores the dynamics of consumption and the global environment, discussing why consumption is the “third rail” of international environmental politics.
Sachs, Wolfgang . Planet Dialectics: Explorations in Environment and Development. London: Zed Books, 1999: essays from a leading development theorist that dissect and critique the notion of sustainable development and its uses.
Takacs, David . The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996: a collection of interviews and discussions with leading conservation biologists and others that examines how “biodiversity” emerged as a framing concept.
United Nations Environment Programme . GEO 4: Environment for Development. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2007, available at www.unep.org/geo/yearbook: one of the most authoritative sources of data and analysis on the state of the global environment and future trends. The website gives free access to all available editions.
Díez, Jordi , and O. P. Dwivedi , eds. Global Environmental Challenges: Perspectives from the South. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 2007: this volume examines southern perspectives on the global environment; its strength are the case studies on environmental politics in eleven southern countries.
Karliner, Joshua. The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in the Age of Globalization. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1997: a strong and well-argued critique of the role of corporations in causing environmental harm and obstructing environmental regulation.
Karns, Margaret P. , and Karen A. Mingst . International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. Boulder CO: Lynne Reinner, 2004: a highly accessible text on intergovernmental organizations and their role.
Leiserowitz, Anthony A ., Robert W. Kates , and Thomas M. Parris . “Sustainability Values, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Review of Multinational and Global Trends.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31 (2006), pp. 413–44: one of the best overviews to date on public opinion, values, and sustainable development.
Martello, Marybeth Long. “Local Knowledge: Global Change Science and the Arctic Citizen.” Science and Public Policy 31.2 (2001), pp. 107–15: covers both how particular communities – here, Arctic communities – are especially vulnerable to global environmental harm, and how “local knowledge” is playing an increasingly important role in global policy deliberations.
Spruyt, Hendrik. “The Origins, Development and Possible Decline of the Modern State.” Annual Review of Political Science 5 (2002), pp. 127–49: covers why the modern territorial state emerged as the central actor in the international system, and why it is currently under threat.
Wapner, Paul . Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics. Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1996: this book focuses on the emergence of global civil society and “politics above and below the state”; includes a case study of Greenpeace International.
Agarwal, Anil , Sunita Narain , and Anju Sharma , eds. Green Politics. New Delhi: Center for Science and Environment, 1999: international environmental cooperation from the perspective of a highly influential southern NGO.
Betsill, Michele M. , and Elisabeth Corell , eds. NGO Diplomacy: The Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental Negotiations. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2007: an edited volume with several case studies that focuses on identifying and assessing NGOs' influence on international environmental negotiations.
Haas, Peter M. “Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination.” International Organization 46.1 (1992), pp. 1–35: this entire special issue of International Organization is devoted to discussions of epistemic communities in international politics, covering a range of issue area.
Levy, David L. , and Peter J. Newell , eds. The Business of Global Environmental Governance. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2005: the essays in this volume cover private sector engagement in international environmental politics at all levels, from a range of theoretical perspectives.
Mitchell, Ronald B. “International Environmental Agreements: A Survey of Their Features, Formation and Effects.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28 (2003), pp. 429–61: Mitchell's survey article examines the factors that explain why we get the environmental regimes that we do, and their impacts.
Najam, Adil. “Developing Countries and Global Environmental Governance: From Contestation to Participation to Engagement.” International Environmental Agreements 5 (2005), pp. 303–21: Adil Najam is a leading author on the role of the South in international environmental politics; this piece traces the changing attitudes of developing countries to the agenda of global environmental governance.
O'Neill, Kate , Jörg Balsiger , and Stacy VanDeveer . “Actors, norms and impact: Recent international cooperation theory and the influence of the agent-structure debate.” Annual Review of Political Science 7 (2004), pp. 149–75: a review of the study of international cooperation in international relations theory, and new directions it is taking; a particularly authoritative and accessible discussion of the concepts of agency and structure and related debates (written by Balsiger).
Parson, Edward A. Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003: a detailed narrative case study of the ozone regime that challenges some conventional wisdom as to why that regime has proven so successful.
Susskind, Lawrence E. Environmental Diplomacy: Negotiating More Effective Global Environmental Agreements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994: a critique, with prescriptions for reform, of existing modes of negotiating multilateral agreements; remains the most authoritative study of this subject.
Bernauer, Thomas. “The effect of international environmental institutions: How we might learn more.” International Organization 49.2 (1995), pp. 351–77: this article describes the conceptual and methodological challenges in measuring the effectiveness of environmental regimes.
Clapp, Jennifer. “The illegal CFC trade: An unexpected wrinkle in the ozone protection regime.” International Environmental Affairs 9.4 (1997), pp. 259–73: an insight into an unintended consequence of the Montreal Protocol.
Clémençon, Raymond. “What future for the global environment facility?” Journal of Environment and Development 15.1 (2006), pp. 50–74: an overview of the history, activities, and future prospects of the leading international finance institution for the global environment.
Gupta, Aarti , and Robert Falkner . “The influence of the Cartagena protocol on biosafety: Comparing Mexico, China and South Africa.” Global Environmental Politics 6.4 (2006), pp. 23–5: this article examines how the Cartagena protocol has influenced domestic policies on genetically modified organisms across three countries, and the ways in which it has exerted this influence.
Mitchell, Ronald B. Intentional Oil Pollution at Sea: Environmental Policy and Treaty Compliance. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1994: an exploration of why regime design matters for effective compliance with environmental treaties.
Sagar, Ambuj D. “Capacity development for the environment: A view for the South, a view for the North.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25 (2000), pp. 377–439: a comprehensive overview of work on capacity development for the environment that examines its ideological underpinnings, its effectiveness in practice, and recommendations for future capacity building efforts.
Weiss, Edith Brown , and Harold K. Jacobson , eds. Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1998: a classic study of compliance that examines state behavior across five treaties and ten countries.
Young, Oran R. , ed. The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes: Causal Connections and Behavioral Mechanisms. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1999: as with Weiss and Jacobson, a qualitative comparative analysis of regime effectiveness that identifies causal pathways through which regimes may exert a range of influences, with a good range of empirical cases.
Clapp, Jennifer , and Peter Dauvergne . Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2005: a highly accessible and thorough text on the relationship between economic globalization and the environment that assesses these debates from four different perspectives.
Gilpin, Robert . Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001: a classic international relations text that covers the evolution of international political economy since World War Two, applying a range of theoretical approaches.
Gore, Charles . “The rise and fall of the Washington Consensus as a paradigm for developing countries.” World Development 28.5 (2000), pp. 789–804: an influential article about the impact of the Washington Consensus on the theory and practice of global development.
Liverman, Diana M ., and Silvina Vilas . “Neoliberalism and the environment in Latin America.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31 (2006): an excellent survey on what we know and how we know it about the impact of neoliberal globalization across different resource sectors in Latin America.
Murphy, Dale D . “The tuna-dolphin wars.” Journal of World Trade 40.4 (2006), pp. 597–617: perhaps the last word on the tuna–dolphin dispute; an in-depth analysis of the political economy of the tuna industry, the GATT's decision, and its impacts.
Stiglitz, Joseph E . Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2002: from a Nobel Prize-winning economist, why the IMF went so wrong in the 1990s, and a strong critique of neoliberal globalization.
Vogel, David . Trading Up: Consumer and Environmental Regulation in a Global Economy. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1995: a very influential argument as to why free trade could lead to a “ratcheting up,” rather than a dismantling, of environmental regulations.
Bartley, Tim . “Certifying Forests and Factories: States, Social Movements, and the Rise of Private Regulation in the Apparel and Forest Products Fields.” Politics and Society 31.3 (2003), pp. 433–64: a theoretical explanation of the emergence of non-state environmental governance, comparing apparel and forest products, and focusing on the institutional context enabling the emergence of these new forms of governance.
Cashore, Benjamin , Graeme Auld , and Deanna Newsom . Governing through Markets: Forest Certification and the Emergence of Non-State Authority. New Haven CO: Yale University Press, 2004: a prizewinning book that examines factors explaining where and how FSC standards are taken up in different developed countries, with a critical discussion of issues of legitimacy and authority in non-state market driven governance.
Garcia-Johnson, Ronie . Exporting Environmentalism: U.S. Multinational Chemical Corporations in Brazil and Mexico. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2000: Garcia-Johnson's path-breaking study of when multinational corporations are able to improve environmental performance in the countries where they locate, comparing Mexico and Brazil.
Hall, Rodney Bruce , and Thomas J. Biersteker , eds. The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002: a theoretical examination of all forms of private authority in the international system – from certification schemes to privatized security.
Ottaway, Marina . “Corporatism goes global: International organizations, nongovernmental organization networks, and transnational business.” Global Governance 7 (2001), pp. 265–92: a critique of the partnership approach to global governance, specifically the World Commission on Dams.
Prakash, Aseem , and Matthew Potoski . “Racing to the bottom? Trade, environmental governance, and ISO 14001.” American Journal of Political Science 50.2 (2006), pp. 350–64: an empirical examination of when ISO 14001 rules make a positive difference in environmental quality.
Princen, Thomas . “Distancing: Consumption and the severing of feedback.” Confronting Consumption, edited by Thomas Princen , Michael F. Maniates , and Ken Conca . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2002: a chapter that examines why, in a globalized world, effective regulation of investment and production is so difficult.
Bernstein, Steven. “Legitimacy in Global Environmental Governance.” Journal of International Law & International Relations 1,1 (2005), pp. 139–66: a discussion of the concept of legitimacy as applied to global environmental governance: what it is, what forms it takes on, why it might be missing, and how it could be achieved.
Biermann, Frank , and Steffen Bauer , eds. A World Environment Organization: Solution or Threat for Effective International Environmental Governance? London: Ashgate Publishing, 2005: a collection of essays from all sides of the debate over a WEO.
Conca, Ken. Governing Water: Contentious Transnational Politics and Global Institution Building. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2006: this book begins by unpacking the concept of international regimes, exploring why international cooperation has worked in some issue areas but not in others, and how new global and transnational–local initiatives are forming around problems related to water.
Jasanoff, Sheila , and Marybeth Long Martello , eds. Earthly Politics: Local and Global in Environmental Governance. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2004: this edited volume explores connections between the local and global in environmental politics, based on the production, dissemination, and use of knowledge.
Vogler, John. “In Defense of International Environmental Cooperation.” The State and the Global Ecological Crisis, edited by John Barry and Robyn Eckersley . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2005: an argument as to why state-led global environmental governance remains of central significance in contemporary international environmental politics.
Wapner, Paul. “World Summit on Sustainable Development: Toward a Post-Jo'burg Environmentalism.” Global Environmental Politics 3,1 (2003), pp. 1–10: a discussion of the changing nature of environmentalism – in particular, how southern environmentalism appears to be becoming more like northern environmentalism, and vice versa. Also, a timely reminder that the environment may not always be at the top of international agendas.
Andonova, Liliana B. , and Marc A. Levy . “Franchising Global Governance: Making Sense of the Johannesburg Type Ii Partnerships.” Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 2003/04. Edited by Olav Schram Stokke and Øystein B. Thommessen . London: Earthscan, 2004.
Bernstein, Steven , and Benjamin Cashore . “Nonstate Global Governance: Is Forest Certification a Legitimate Alternative to a Global Forest Convention?” Hard Choices, Soft Law: Voluntary Standards in Global Trade, Environment and Social Governance. Edited by John J. Kirton and Michael J. Trebilcock . London: Ashgate, 2004.
Betsill, Michele M. , and Harriet Bulkeley . “Transnational Networks and Global Environmental Governance: The Cities for Climate Protection Program.” International Studies Quarterly 48 (2004), pp. 471–93.
Bhagwati, Jagdish. “Trade and the Environment: A False Conflict?” Trade and the Environment: Law, Economics and Policy. Edited by D. Zaelke , P. Orbuch , and R. F. Housman . Washington: Island Press, 1993.
Birnie, Patricia. “International Environmental Law: Its Adequacy for Present and Future Needs.” The International Politics of the Environment: Actors, Interests, Institutions. Edited by Andrew Hurrell and Benedict Kingsbury . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
Boulding, Kenneth. “The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth.” The Earthscan Reader in Environmental Economics. Edited by Anil Markandya and Julie Richardson . London: Earthscan Publications, Ltd., 1992.
Brinkerhoff, Jennifer M. “Partnership as a Social Network Mediator for Resolving Global Conflict: The Case of the World Commission on Dams.” International Journal of Public Administration 25.11 (2002), pp. 1281–1310.
Brockmann, Karl L. , Jens Hemmelskamp , and Olav Hohmeyer . Certified Tropical Timber and Consumer Behavior: The Impact of a Certification Scheme for Tropical Timber from Sustainable Forest Management on German Demand. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag, 1996.
Buttel, Frederick H. , Ann. P. Hawkins , and Alison. G. Power . “From Limits to Growth to Global Change: Constraints and Contradiction in the Evolution of Environmental Science and Ideology.” Global Environmental Change 1.1 (1990), pp. 57–66.
Cashore, Benjamin. “Legitimacy and the Privatization of Environmental Governance: How Non-State Market Driven (NSMD) Governance Systems Gain Rule-Making Authority.” Governance: An International Journal of Policy and Administration 15.4 (2002), pp. 503–29.
Cashore, Benjamin , Graeme Auld , and Deanna Newsom . “Forest Certification (Eco-Labeling) Programs and Their Policy-Making Authority: Explaining Divergence among North American and European Case Studies.” Forest Policy and Economics 5 (2003), pp. 225–47.
Cavanagh, John , and Jerry Mander , eds. Alternatives to Economic Globalization: A Better World Is Possible; a Report of the International Forum on Globalization. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002.
Clapp, Jennifer “ISO Environmental Standards: Industry's Gift to a Polluted Globe or the Developed World's Competition-Killing Strategy?” Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 2001/2002. Eds. Olav Schram Stokke and Øystein B. Thommessen . London: Earthscan, 2001.
Coicaud, Jean-Marc. “Reflections on International Organizations and International Legitimacy: Constraints, Pathologies, and Possibilities.” International Social Science Journal 53.170 (2001), pp. 523–36.
Conca, Ken “Old States in New Bottles? The Hybridization of Authority in Global Environmental Politics.” The State and the Global Ecological Crisis. Edited by John Barry and Robyn Eckersley . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2005b.
Cox, Robert W “Structural Issues of Global Governance: Implications for Europe.” Gramsci, Historical Materialism and International Relations. Edited by Stephen Gill . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Crane, Barbara B. “International Population Institutions: Adaptation to a Changing World Order.” Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Edited by Peter Haas , Robert O. Keohan , and Marc A. Levy . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1993.
Cutler, A. Claire. “Private International Regimes and Interfirm Cooperation.” The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance. Edited by Rodney Bruce Hall and Thomas J. Biersteker . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
DeSombre, Elizabeth R. , and Joanne M. Kauffman . “The Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund: Partial Success Story.” Institutions for Environmental Aid. Edited by Robert O. Keohane and Marc A. Levy . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1996.
Downie, David , Jonathan Krueger , and Henrik Selin . “Global Policy for Hazardous Chemicals.” Global Environmental Politics, Second Edition . Edited by Norman J. Vig , Regina S. Axelrod , and David Downie . Washington: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2005.
Downie, David Leonard . “Global Environmental Policy: Governing through Regimes.” The Global Environment: Institutions, Law and Policy. Edited by Regina S. Axelrod , David Leonard Downie , and Norman J. Vig . Washington: CQ Press, 2005.
[ENB] Earth Negotiations Bulletin . “Summary of the Thirteenth Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and Third Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.” Earth Negotiations Bulletin (IISD Reporting Services) 12.354 (2007).
Eckersley, Robyn “Greening the Nation-State: From Exclusive to Inclusive Sovereignty.” The State and the Global Ecological Crisis. Edited by Robyn Eckersley and John Barry . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2005.
Edwards, Paul N. “Representing the Global Atmosphere: Computer Models, Data, and Knowledge About Climate Change.” Changing the Atmosphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance. Eds. Clark A. Miller and Paul N. Edwards . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001.
Esty, Daniel C. “Environment and the Trading System: Picking up the Post-Seattle Pieces.” The WTO after Seattle. Edited by Jeffrey J. Schott . Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2000.
Fairman, David. “The Global Environment Facility: Haunted by the Shadow of the Future.” Institutions for Environmental Aid. Edited by Robert O. Keohane and Marc A. Levy . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1996.
Farrell, Alexander E. , and Jill Jäger , eds. Assessments of Regional and Global Environmental Risks: Designing Processes for the Effective Use of Science in Decisionmaking. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Faure, Michael , and Jürgen Lefevere . “Compliance with Global Environmental Policy.” The Global Environment: Institutions, Law, and Policy. Edited by Regina S. Axelrod , David Leonard Downie , and Norman J. Vig . Washington DC: CQ Press, 2005.
Fisher, Dana R. , and Jessica F. Green . “Understanding Disenfranchisement: Civil Society and Developing Countries' Influence and Participation in Global Governance for Sustainable Development.” Global Environmental Politics 4.3 (2004), pp. 65–84.
Flitner, Michael. “Biodiversity: Of Local Commons and Global Commodities.” Privatizing Nature: Political Struggles for the Global Commons. Edited by Michael Goldman . New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1998.
Greene, Owen. “The System for Implementation Review in the Ozone Regime.” The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments: Theory and Practice. Edited by David G. Victor , Kal Raustiala , and Eugene B. Skolnikoff . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1998.
Gulbrandsen, Lars H. , and Steinar Andresen . “NGO Influence in the Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol: Compliance, Flexibility Mechanisms, and Sinks.” Global Environmental Politics 4.4 (2004), pp. 54–75.
Gupta, Aarti. “When Global Is Local: Negotiating Safe Use of Biotechnology.” Earthly Politics: Local and Global in Environmental Governance. Edited by Sheila Jasanoff and Marybeth Long Martello . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2004.
Haas, Peter M “Scientific Communities and Multiple Paths to Environmental Management.” Saving the Seas: Values, Scientists and International Governance. Edited by L. Anathea Brooks and Stacy D. VanDeveer . College Park: Maryland Sea Grant, 1997.
Haas, Peter M “Environment: Pollution.” Managing Global Issues: Lessons Learned. Edited by P. J. Simmons and Chantal de Jonge Oudraat . Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2001a.
Haas, Peter M. , and David McCabe . “Amplifiers or Dampeners: International Institutions and Social Learning in the Management of Global Environmental Risks.” Learning to Manage Global Environmental Risks, Vol. 1. Edited by The Social Learning Group. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001.
Haufler, Virginia . “Self-Regulation and Business Norms: Political Risk, Political Activism.” Private Authority and International Affairs. Edited by A. Claire Cutler , Virginia Haufler , and Tony Porter . Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999.
Haufler, Virginia “New Forms of Governance: Certification Regimes as Social Regulations of the Global Market.” Social and Political Dimensions of Forest Certification. Edited by Errol E. Meidinger , Chris Elliott , and Gerhard Oesten . Remagen: www.forstbuch.de, 2003.
Hindery, Derrick. “Social and Environmental Impacts of World Bank/IMF-Funded Economic Restructuring in Bolivia: An Analysis of Enron and Shell's Hydrocarbons Projects.” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 25.3 (2004), pp. 281–303.
Hochstetler, Kathryn , and Melinda Laituri . “Methods in International Environmental Politics.” Palgrave Guide to International Environmental Politics. Edited by Michele M. Betsill , Kathryn Hochstetler , and Dimitris Stevis , 2004.
Horta, Korinna , Robin Round , and Zoe Young . The Global Environment Facility: The First Ten Years – Growing Pains or Inherent Flaws? Washington DC and Ottawa: Environmental Defense Fund / Halifax Initiative, 2002.
Hovi, Jon , Detlef F. Sprinz , and Arild Underdal . “The Oslo-Potsdam Solution to Measuring Regime Effectiveness: Critique, Response, and the Road Ahead.” Global Environmental Politics 3.3 (2003a), pp. 74–96.
Howse, Robert , and Kalypso Nicolaidis . “Enhancing WTO Legitimacy: Constitutionalization or Global Subsidiarity?” Governance: An International Journal of Policy and Administration 16.1 (2003), pp. 73–94.
Hunter, David. “The World Bank: A Lighter Shade of Green?” Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 2001/2002. Edited by Olav Schram Stokke and Øystein B. Thommessen . London: Earthscan Publications, 2001.
Jakobeit, Cord. “Non-State Actors Leading the Way: Debt-for-Nature Swaps.” Institutions for Environmental Aid: Pitfalls and Promise. Edited by Robert O. Keohane and Marc A. Levy . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1996.
Jasanoff, Sheila. “Compelling Knowledge in Public Decisions.” Saving the Seas: Values, Scientists and International Governance. Edited by L. Anathea Brooks and Stacy VanDeveer . College Park: Maryland Sea Grant, 1997.
Jasanoff, Sheila “Contingent Knowledge: Implications for Implementation and Compliance.” Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. Edited by Edith Brown Weiss and Harold K. Jacobson . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1998.
Jasanoff, Sheila “Image and Imagination: The Formation of Global Environmental Consciousness.” Changing the Atmosphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance. Edited by Clark A. Miller and Paul N. Edwards . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001.
Jasanoff, Sheila “Heaven and Earth: The Politics of Environmental Images.” Earthly Politics: Local and Global in Environmental Governance. Edited by Sheila Jasanoff and Marybeth Long Martello . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2004.
Jasanoff, Sheila , and Brian Wynne . “Science and Decisionmaking.” Human Choice and Climate Change Volume 1: The Societal Framework. Edited by Steven Rayner and Elizabeth L. Malone . Columbus: Battelle Press, 1998.
Jenkins, Leesteffy. “Trade Sanctions: Effective Enforcement Tools.” Improving Compliance with International Environmental Law. Edited by James Cameron , Jacob Werksman , and Peter Roderick . London: Earthscan, 1995.
Joyner, Christopher C. “Global Commons: The Oceans, Antarctica, the Atmosphere and Outer Space.” Managing Global Issues: Lessons Learned. Edited by P. J. Simmons and Chantal de Jonge Oudraat . Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2001.
Karlsson, Sylvia. “The North-South Knowledge Divide: Consequences for Global Environmental Governance.” Global Environmental Governance: Options and Opportunities. Edited by Daniel C. Esty and Maria H. Ivanova . New Haven CT: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 2002.
Kaufmann, Joanne M. “Domestic and International Linkages in Global Environmental Politics: A Case Study of the Montreal Protocol.” The Internationalization of Environmental Protection. Edited by Miranda A. Schreurs and Elizabeth Economy . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Koehn, Peter H. “Underneath Kyoto: Emerging Subnational Government Initiatives and Incipient Issue-Bundling Opportunities in China and the United States.” Global Environmental Politics 8.1 (2008), pp. 53–77.
Kysar, Douglas A. “Some Realism About Environmental Skepticism: The Implications of Bjorn Lomborg's the Skeptical Environmentalist for Environmental Law and Policy.” Ecology Law Quarterly 30 (2003), pp. 223–78.
Lanchbery, John . “Long Term Trends for Implementation Review in International Agreements on Fauna and Flora.” The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements: Theory and Practice. Edited by David G. Victor , Kal Raustiala , and Eugene B. Skolnikoff . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1998.
Levy, Marc A. “European Acid Rain: The Power of Tote-Board Diplomacy.” Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Edited by Peter M. Haas , Robert O. Keohane , and Marc A. Levy . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1993.
Lipschutz, Ronnie D. , and Cathleen Fogel . “‘Regulation for the Rest of Us?’ Global Civil Society and the Privatization of International Relations.” The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance. Edited by Rodney Bruce Hall and Thomas J. Biersteker . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Maniates, Michael F. “Individualization: Buy a Bike, Plant a Tree, Save the World?” Confronting Consumption. Edited by Thomas Princen , Michael F. Maniates , and Ken Conca . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2002.
Martello, Marybeth Long , and Alastair Iles . “Making Climate Change Impacts Meaningful: Framing, Methods, and Process in Coastal Zone and Agriculture Assessments.” Assessments of Regional and Global Environmental Risks: Designing Processes for the Effective Use of Science in Decisionmaking. Edited by Alexander E. Farrell and Jill Jäger . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2006.
McAdam, Doug , John D. McCarthy , and Mayer N. Zald , eds. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
McCormick, John . “The Role of Environmental NGOs in International Regimes.” The Global Environment: Institutions, Law and Policy. Edited by Norman J. Vig and Regina Axelrod . Washington: CQ Press, 1999.
McDermott, Constance L , Emily Noah , and Benjamin Cashore . “Differences That ‘Matter’? A Framework for Comparing Environmental Certification Standards and Government Policies.” Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 10.1 (2008), pp. 47–70.
Meidinger, Errol E. , Chris Elliott , and Gerhard Oesten . “The Fundamentals of Forest Certification.” Social and Political Dimensions of Forest Certification. Edited by Errol E. Meidinger , Chris Elliott , and Gerhard Oesten . Remagen: www.forstbuch.de, 2003.
Miller, Clark A. “Scientific Internationalism in American Foreign Policy: The Case of Meteorology, 1947–1958.” Changing the Atmosphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance. Edited by Clark A. Miller and Paul N. Edwards . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001.
Mitchell, Ronald B “Institutional Aspects of Implementation, Compliance and Effectiveness.” International Relations and Climate Change. Edited by Urs Luterbacher and Detlef F. Sprinz . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001.
Mitchell, Ronald B. , et al. “International Vessel-Source Pollution.” The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes: Causal Connections and Behavioral Mechanisms. Edited by Oran R. Young . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1999.
Najam, Adil “The View from the South: Developing Countries in Global Environmental Politics.” The Global Environment: Institutions, Law and Policy. Edited by Regina S. Axelrod , David Leonard Downie , and Norman J. Vig . Washington: CQ Press, 2005a.
O'Neill, Kate , Jörg Balsiger , and Stacy VanDeveer . “Actors, Norms and Impact: Recent International Cooperation Theory and the Influence of the Agent-Structure Debate.” Annual Review of Political Science 7 (2004), pp. 149–75.
O'Neill, Kate , and William C. G. Burns . “Trade Liberalization and Global Environmental Governance: The Potential for Conflict.” Handbook of Global Environmental Governance. Edited by Peter Dauvergne . Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2005.
O'Neill, Kate , and Stacy VanDeveer . “Transnational Environmental Activism after Seattle: Between Emancipation and Arrogance.” Charting Transnational Democracy: Beyond Global Arrogance. Edited by Janie Leatherman and Julie A. Webber . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Oberthür, Sebastian , and Thomas Gehring . “Institutional Interaction in Global Environmental Governance: The Case of the Cartagena Protocol and the World Trade Organization.” Global Environmental Politics 6.2 (2006), pp. 1–31.
Paterson, Matthew “Theoretical Perspectives on International Environmental Politics.” International Environmental Politics. Edited by Michele M. Betsill , Kathryn Hochstetler , and Dimitris Stevis . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Paterson, Matthew , David Humphreys , and Lloyd Pettiford . “Conceptualizing Global Environmental Governance: From Interstate Regimes to Counter-Hegemonic Struggles.” Global Environmental Politics 3.2 (2003), pp. 1–10.
Peluso, Nancy Lee. “Coercing Conservation: The Politics of State Resource Control.” The State and Social Power in Global Environmental Politics. Edited by Ronnie D. Lipschutz and Ken Conca . New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Princen, Thomas. “Ivory, Conservation and Environmental Transnational Coalitions.” Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures and International Institutions. Edited by Thomas Risse-Kappen . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Pulver, Simone , and Stacy VanDeveer . “Futurology and Futurizing: A Research Agenda on the Practice and Politics of Global Environmental Scenarios.” Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. Amsterdam, 2007.
Raines, Susan Summers . “Perceptions of Legitimacy and Efficacy in International Environmental Management Standards: The Impact of the Participation Gap.” Global Environmental Politics 3.3 (2003), pp. 47–73.
Risse, Thomas . “The Power of Norms Versus the Norms of Power: Transnational Civil Society and Human Rights.” The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society. Edited by Ann M. Florini . Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2000.
Rosendal, G. Kristin . “Overlapping International Regimes: The Case of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF) between Climate Change and Biodiversity.” International Environmental Agreements 1 (2001a), pp. 447–68.
Ruggie, John Gerard . “International Regimes, Transactions and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order.” International Regimes. Edited by Stephen D. Krasner . Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.
Sandford, Rosemary . “International Treaty Secretariats: Stage-Hands or Actors?” Green Globe Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 1994. Edited by Helge Ole Bergesen and Georg Parmann . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Sands, Philippe , and Jacqueline Peel . “Environmental Protection in the 21st Century: Sustainable Development and International Law.” The Global Environment: Institutions, Law, Policy. Edited by Regina S. Axelrod , David Leonard Downie , and Norman J. Vig . Washington DC: CQ Press, 2005.
Sassen, Saskia . “Embedding the Global in the National: Implications for the Role of the Nation State.” States and Sovereignty in the Global Economy. Edited by David A. Smith , Dorothy J. Solinger , and Steven C. Topik . London: Routledge, 1999.
Schepers, Donald H. , and S. Prakash Sethi . “Do Socially Responsible Funds Actually Deliver What They Promise? Bridging the Gap between the Promise and Performance of Socially Responsible Funds.” Business and Society Review 108.1 (2003), pp. 11–32.
Scholz, Astrid . “Merchants of Diversity: Scientists as Traffickers of Plants and Institutions.” Earthly Politics: Local and Global in Environmental Governance. Edited by Sheila Jasanoff and Marybeth Long Martello . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2004.
Sears, Robin R. , Liliana M. Davalos , and Gonçalo Ferraz . “Missing the Forest for the Profits: The Role of Multinational Corporations in the International Forest Regime.” Journal of Environment and Development 10.4 (2001), pp. 345–64.
Sell, Susan K “Multinational Corporations as Agents of Change: The Globalization of Intellectual Property Rights.” Private Authority and International Affairs. Edited by A. Claire Cutler , Virginia Haufler , and Tony Porter . Albany: SUNY Press, 1999.
Seyfang, Gill , and Andrew Jordan . “The Johannesburg Summit and Sustainable Development: How Effective Are Environmental Mega-Conferences?” Yearbook of International Environmental Cooperation on Environment and Development. Edited by Olav Schram Stokke and Øystein B. Thommessen . London: Earthscan, 2002.
Siebenhüner, Bernd . “Can Assessments Learn, and If So, How? A Study of the IPCC.” Assessments of Regional and Global Environmental Risks: Designing Processes for the Effective Use of Science in Decisionmaking. Edited by Alexander E. Farrell and Jill Jäger . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Skjaerseth, Jon Birger , Olav Schram Stokke , and Jorgen Wettestad . “Soft Law, Hard Law, and Effective Implementation of International Environmental Norms.” Global Environmental Politics 6.3 (2006), pp. 104–20.
Smythe, Elizabeth , and Peter J. Smith . “Legitimacy, Transparency, and Information Technology: The World Trade Organization in an Era of Contentious Trade Politics.” Global Governance 12 (2006), pp. 31–53.
Spector, Bertram I. , and Anna R. Korula . “Problems of Ratifying International Environmental Agreements: Overcoming Initial Obstacles in the Post-Agreement Negotiation Process.” Global Environmental Change (1993), pp. 369–81.
Thomas, Caroline , and Peter Wilkin . “Still Waiting after All These Years: ‘The Third World’ on the Periphery of International Relations.” British Journal of Political Science and International Relations 6 (2004), pp. 241–2.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) . World Investment Report 2006: FDI from Developing and Transition Economies: Implications for Development. New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2006.
VanDeveer, Stacy . “Sea Changes and State Sovereignty.” Saving the Seas: Values, Scientists, and International Governance. Edited by L. Anathea Brooks and Stacy VanDeveer . College Park MD: Maryland Sea Grant, 1997.
VanDeveer, Stacy D. , and Ambuj D. Sagar . “Capacity Development for the Environment: North and South.” Furthering Consensus: Meeting the Challenges of Sustainable Development Beyond 2002. Edited by Elisabeth Corell , Angela Churie Kallhauge , and Gunnar Sjöstedt . London: Greenleaf Press, 2005.
Wade, Robert H. “What Strategies Are Viable for Developing Countries Today? The World Trade Organization and the Shrinking of ‘Development Space’.” Review of International Political Economy 10.4 (2003), pp. 621–44.
Wapner, Paul “The Normative Promise of Non-State Actors: A Theoretical Account of Global Civil Society.” Principled World Politics: The Challenge of Normative International Relations. Edited by Paul Wapner and Edwin J. Ruiz . Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.
Watson, Robert T. , et al. Protecting Our Planet, Securing Our Future: Linkages among Global Environmental Issues and Human Needs. Washington DC: United Nations Environment Program, US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, The World Bank, 1998.
Watts, Michael . “Petro-Violence: Community, Extraction, and Political Ecology of a Mythic Commodity.” Violent Environments. Edited by Nancy Lee Peluso and Michael Watts . Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.
Weinthal, Erika , and Yael Parag . “Two Steps Forward, One Step Backward: Societal Capacity and Israel's Implementation of the Barcelona Convention and the Mediterranean Action Plan.” Global Environmental Politics 3.1 (2003), pp. 51–72.
Young, Oran R. , and Marc A. Levy . “The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes.” The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes: Causal Connections and Behavioral Mechanisms. Edited by Oran R. Young . Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1999.