Sequence Organization in Interaction

A Primer in Conversation Analysis Volume 1

Sequence Organization in Interaction
  • By Emanuel A. Schegloff

  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

    Online Publication Date:September 2012

    Online ISBN:9780511791208

    Hardback ISBN:9780521825726

    Paperback ISBN:9780521532792

  • Book DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791208

    Subjects: Sociolinguistics

Much of our daily lives are spent talking to one another, in both ordinary conversation and more specialized settings such as meetings, interviews, classrooms, and courtrooms. It is largely through conversation that the major institutions of our society - economy, religion, politics, family and law - are implemented. This book Emanuel Schegloff, the first in a series and first published in 2007, introduces the findings and theories of conversation analysis. Together, the volumes in the series constitute a complete and authoritative 'primer' in the subject. The topic of this first volume is 'sequence organization' - the ways in which turns-at-talk are ordered and combined to make actions take place in conversation, such as requests, offers, complaints, and announcements. Containing many examples from real-life conversations, it will be invaluable to anyone interested in human interaction and the workings of conversation.


 Reviews:

'… Schegloff's analysis of multiple redoings of first pair parts … is one of the most fascinating CA analyses I have read for some time. Throughout the analysis, Schegloff shows what may happen and how it may happen when one does not want to accept an offer. … Schegloff's examples are also available as audio and video files at the Cambridge University Press website, which is a great bonus for those who want to watch, listen and analyze the extracts alongside the analyses in the book.' Journal of Sociolinguistics

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Atkinson, J. M. 1992. Displaying Neutrality: Formal Aspects of Informal Court Proceedings. In P. Drew and J. Heritage (eds.) Talk at Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 199–211.
Austin, J. L. 1962. How to do Things with Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Austin, J. L. 1979. Philosophical Papers. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Beach, W. A. 1993. Transitional Regularities for “Casual” “Okay” Usages. Journal of Pragmatics 19: 325–52.
Brazil, D., Coulthard, M., and Johns, C. 1980. Discourse Intonation and Language Teaching. London: Longman.
Brown, P. and Levinson, S. C. 1978. Universals of Language Usage: Politeness Phenomena. In E. N. Goody (ed.) Questions and Politeness Strategies in Social Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 56–311.
Brown, P. and Levinson, S. C. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Button, G. 1988/89. Topic initiation: business at hand. Research on Language and Social Interaction 22: 61–92.
Button, G. and Casey, N. 1984. Generating Topic: The Use of Topic Initial Elicitors. In J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.) Structures of Social Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 167–90.
Button, G. and Casey, N. 1985. Topic Nomination and Topic Pursuit. Human Studies 8: 3–55.
Coulthard, M. 1977. An Introduction to Discourse Analysis. London: Longman.
Couper-Kuhlen, E. 2004. Prosody and Sequence Organization in English Conversation: The Case of New Beginnings. In E. Couper-Kuhlen and C. E. Ford (eds.) Sound Patters in Interaction: Cross-Linguistic Studies from Conversation, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 335–76.
Davidson, J. 1984. Subsequent Versions of Invitations, Offers, Requests, and Proposals Dealing with Potential or Actual Rejection. In J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.) Structures of Social Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 102–28.
Davidson, J. A. 1990. Modifications of Invitations, Offers and Rejections. In G. Psathas (ed.) Interaction Competence. Washington: International Institute for Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis and University Press of America, pp. 149–80.
Drew, P. 1984. Speakers' Reportings in Invitation Sequences. In J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.) Structures of Social Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 152–64.
Drew, P. and Heritage, J. 1992b. Analyzing Talk at Work: An Introduction. In P. Drew and J. Heritage (eds.) Talk at Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–65.
Drew, P. and Heritage, J. (eds.) 1992a. Talk at Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Drew, P. and Holt, E. 1998. Figures of Speech: Figurative Expressions and the Management of Topic Transition in Conversation. Language in Society 27: 495–523.
Egbert, M. M. 1997. Some Interactional Achievements of Other-Initiated Repair in Multi-Person Conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 27: 611–34.
Gardner, R. 1997. The Conversation Object Mm: A Weak and Variable Acknowledging Token. Research on Language and Social Interaction 30(2): 131–56.
Gardner, R. 2002. When Listeners Talk. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Goffman, E. 1955. On Face-Work: An Analysis of Ritual Elements in Social Interaction. Psychiatry 18(3): 213–31. Reprinted in E. Goffman, Interaction Ritual: Essays in Face to Face Behavior. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor, pp. 5–45.
Goffman, E. 1963. Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social Organization of Gathering. New York: Free Press.
Goffman, E. 1964. The Neglected Situation. In The Ethnography of Communication, John J. Gumperz and Dell Hymes (eds.), Special issue of American Anthropologist 66 (6), part 2: 133–36.
Goffman, E. 1969. Strategic Interaction. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Goffman, E. 1978. Response Cries. Language 54: 787–815.
Goldberg, J. A. 1978. Amplitude Shift: A Mechanism for the Affiliation of Utterances in Conversational Interaction. In J. Schenkein (ed.) Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction. New York: Academic Press, pp. 199–218.
Goodwin, C. 1979. The Interactive Construction of a Sentence in Natural Conversation. In G. Psathas (ed.) Everyday Language: Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Irvington Publishers, pp. 97–121.
Goodwin, C. , 1980. Restarts, Pauses, and the Achievement of Mutual Gaze at Turn-Beginning. Sociological Inquiry 50:272–302.
Goodwin, C. 1981. Conversational Organization: Interaction Between Speakers and Hearers. New York: Academic Press.
Goodwin, M. H. 1983. Searching for a Word as an Interactive Activity. In J. N. Deely and M. D. Lenhart (eds.) Semiotics 1981. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 129–38.
Goodwin, M. H. and Goodwin, C. 1986. Gesture and Coparticipation in the Activity of Searching for a Word. Semiotica 62(1/2): 51–75.
Heritage, J. 1984a. Garfinkel and Ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Heritage, J. C. 1984b. A Change-of-State Token and Aspects of Its Sequential Placement. In J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.) Structures of Social Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 299–345.
Heritage, J. C. 1985. Analyzing News Interviews: Aspects of the Production of Talk for an Overhearing Audience. In T. A. Dijk (ed.) Handbook of Discourse Analysis, vol. III. New York: Academic Press, pp. 95–119.
Heritage, J. C. 1988. Explanations as Accounts: A Conversation Analytic Perspective. In C. Antaki (ed.) Understanding Everyday Explanation: A Casebook of Methods. Beverly Hills: Sage, pp. 127–44.
Heritage, J. C. 1998. Oh-Prefaced Responses to Inquiry. Language in Society 27: 291–334.
Heritage, J. 2002. The Limits of Questioning: Negative Interrogatives and Hostile Question Content. Journal of Pragmatics 34: 1427–46.
Heritage, J. C. and Roth, A. L. 1995. Grammar and Institution: Questions and Questioning in the Broadcast News Interview. Research on Language and Social Interaction 28(1): 1–60.
Heritage, J. C. and Sorjonen, M.-L. 1994. Constituting and Maintaining Activities Across Sequences: And-Prefacing as a Feature of Question Design. Language in Society 1: 1–29.
Hopper, R. , Doany, N. , Johnson, M. , and Drummond, K. 1990/91. Universals and Particulars in Telephone Openings. Research on Language and Social Interaction 24: 369–87.
Hopper, R. and Koleilat-Doany, N. 1989. Telephone Openings and Conversational Universals: A Study in Three Languages. In S. Ting-Toomey and F. Kevizing (eds.) Language, Communication and Culture. Newbury Park: Sage, pp. 157–79.
Houtkoop-Steenstra, H. 1991. Opening Sequences in Dutch Telephone Conversations. In D. Boden and D. H. Zimmerman (eds.) Talk and Social Structure: Studies in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 232–50.
Jefferson, G. 1972. Side Sequences. In D. Sudnow (ed.) Studies in Social Interaction. New York: Free Press, pp. 294–338.
Jefferson, G. 1978a. Sequential Aspects of Storytelling in Conversation. In J. Schenkein (ed.) Studies in the Organization of Coversational Interaction. New York: Academic Press, pp. 219–48.
Jefferson, G. 1978b. What's In a “Nyem”? Sociology 1(1): 135–39.
Jefferson, G. 1980. On “Trouble-Premonitory” Response to Inquiry. Sociological Inquiry 50(34): 153–85.
Jefferson, G. 1981. The Abominable “Ne?”: A Working Paper Exploring the Phenomenon of Post-Response Pursuit of Response. Occasional Paper no. 6, Department of Sociology, University of Manchester, England.
Jefferson, G. 1983a. An Exercise in the Transcription and Analysis of Laughter. Tilburg Papers in Language and Literature 35.
Jefferson, G. 1983b. Issues in the Transcription of Naturally-Occurring Talk: Caricature versus Capturing Pronunciational Particulars. Tilburg Papers in Language and Literature 34.
Jefferson, G. 1984. On Stepwise Transition from Talk About a Trouble to Inappropriately Next-Positioned Matters. In J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.) Structures of Social Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 191–221.
Jefferson, G. 1985. An Exercise in the Transcription and Analysis of Laughter. In T. A. Dijk (ed.) Handbook of Discourse Analysis, vol. III. New York: Academic Press, pp. 25–34.
Jefferson, G. 1990. List Construction as a Task and Interactional Resource. In G. Psathas (ed.) Interaction Competence. Washington: International Institute for Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis and University Press of America, pp. 63–92.
Jefferson, G. 1996. A Case of Transcriptional Stereotyping. Journal of Pragmatics, 26: 159–70.
Jefferson, G. 2004. Glossary of Transcript Symbols with an Introduction. In G. H. Lerner (ed.) Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 13–31.
Jefferson, G. and Schenkein, J. 1978. Some Sequential Negotiations in Conversation: Unexpanded and Expanded Versions of Projected Action Sequences. In J. Schenkein (ed.) Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction. New York: Academic Press, pp. 155–72.
Koshik, I. 2002. A Conversation Analytic Study of Yes/No Questions Which Convey Reversed Polarity Assertions. Journal of Pragmatics 34: 1851–77.
Lazaraton, A. L. 1991. A Conversation Analysis of Structure and Interaction in the Language Interview. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of TESL and Applied Linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles.
Lazaraton, A. 1997. Preference Organization in Oral Proficiency Interviews: The Case of Language Ability Assessments. Research on Language and Social Interaction 30: 53–72.
Lerner, G. H. 2002. Practice Does Not Make Perfect: Intervening Actions in the Selection of Next Speaker. Plenary Address at the Conference on Language, Interaction and Culture, University of California, Los Angeles.
Lerner, G. H. 2003. Selecting Next Speaker: The Context-Sensitive Operation of a Context-Free Organization. Language in Society 32: 177–201.
Lerner, G. (ed.). 2004a. Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Lerner, G. H. 2004b. The Collaborative Turn Sequence. In G. H. Lerner (ed.) Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 225–56.
Levinson, S. 1979. Activity Types and Language. Linguistics 17: 365–99. Reprinted in P. Drew and J. Heritage. 1992a. Talk at Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–100.
Levinson, S. C. 1980. Speech Act Theory: The State of the Art. Language and Linguistic Teaching: Abstracts 13(1): 5–24.
Levinson, S. C. 1981. The Essential Inadequacies of Speech Act Models of Dialogue. In H. Parret , M. Sbisa , and J. Verschueren (eds.) Possibilities and Limitations of Pragmatics: Proceedings of the Conference on Pragmatics at Urbino, July 8–14, 1979. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 473–92.
Levinson, S. C. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lindström, A. K. B. 1994. Identification and Recognition in Swedish Telephone Conversation Openings. Language in Society 22(2): 231–52.
Lindström, A. K. B. 1997. Designing Social Actions: Grammar, Prosody, and Interaction in Swedish Conversation. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles.
Maynard, D. W. 2003. Bad News, Good News: Conversational Order in Everyday Talk and Clinical Settings. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mehan, H. 1979. Learning Lessons. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mehan, H. 1985. The Structure of Classroom Discourse. In T. A. Dijk (ed.) Handbook of Discourse Analysis, vol. III. New York: Academic Press, pp. 120–31.
Merritt, M. 1976. On Questions Following Questions in Service Encounters. Language in Society 5(3): 315–57.
Nagel, E. 1961. The Structure of Science: Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Onions, C. T. , (ed. and rev.) 1984. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edition, 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Park, Y.-Y. 2002. Recognition and Identification in Japanese and Korean Telephone Conversation Openings. In K. K. Luke , and T.-S. Pavlidou (eds.) Telephone Calls: Unity and Diversity in Conversational Structure Across Languages and Cultures. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 25–47.
Peyrot, M. 1994. Therapeutic Preliminaries: Conversational Context and Process in Psychotherapy. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Sociological Association, Los Angeles, CA.
Pomerantz, A. 1978. Compliment Responses: Notes on the Co-operation of Multiple Constraints. In J. Schenkein (ed.) Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction. New York: Academic Press, pp. 79–112.
Pomerantz, A. 1984. Agreeing and Disagreeing with Assessments: Some Features of Preferred/Dispreferred Turn Shapes. In J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (ed.) Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 57–101.
Psathas, G. 1991. The Structure of Direction-Giving in Interaction. In D. Boden and D. H. Zimmerman (eds.) Talk and Social Structure: Studies in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 195–216.
Raymond, G. 2000. The Structure of Responding: Type-Conforming and Non-Conforming Responses to Yes/No Interrogatives. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles.
Raymond, G. 2003. Grammar and Social Organization: Yes/No Interrogatives and the Structure of Responding. American Sociological Review 68: 939–67.
Raymond, G. 2004. Prompting Action: The Stand-Alone “So” in Ordinary Conversation. Reseasrch on Language and Social Interaction 37(2): 185–218.
Roth, A. and Olsher, D. 1997. Some Standard Uses of “What About”-Prefaced Interrogatives in the Broadcast News Interview. Issues in Applied Linguistics 8(1): 3–25.
Sacks, H. 1974. An Analysis of the Course of a Joke's Telling in Conversation. In R. Bauman and J. Sherzer (eds.) Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 337–53.
Sacks, H. 1975. Everyone Has to Lie. In M. Sanches and B. G. Blount (eds.) Sociocultural Dimensions of Language Use. New York: Academic Press, pp. 57–80.
Sacks, H. 1987 [1973]. On the Preferences for Agreement and Contiguity in Sequences in Conversation. In G. Button and J. R. E. Lee (eds.) Talk and Social Organisation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, pp. 54–69.
Sacks, H. 1992a. Lectures on Conversation, vol: II, ed. Gail Jefferson , introduction by Emanuel A. Schegloff. Oxford: Blackwell.
Sacks, H. 1992b. Lectures on Conversation, vol. II, ed. Gail Jefferson, introduction by Emanuel A. Schegloff.
Sacks, H. and Schegloff, E. A. 1979. Two Preferences in the Organization of Reference to Persons and Their Interaction. In G. Psathas (ed.) Everyday Language: Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Irvington Publishers, pp. 15–21.
Sacks, H. , Schegloff, E. A. , and Jefferson, G. 1974. A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-Taking for Conversation. Language 50: 696–735.
Scheflen, A. E. 1961. A Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia: Direct Analysis. Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas.
Schegloff, E. A. 1968. Sequencing in Conversational Openings. American Anthropologist 70: 1075–95.
Schegloff, E. A. 1972. Notes on a Conversational Practice: Formulating Place. In D. N. Sudnow (ed.) Studies in Social Interaction. New York: Free Press, pp. 75–119.
Schegloff, E. A. 1979. Identification and Recognition in Telephone Openings. In G. Psathas (ed.) Everyday Language: Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Erlbaum, pp. 23–78.
Schegloff, E. A. 1980. Preliminaries to Preliminaries: “Can I Ask You a Question.” Sociological Inquiry 50: 104–52.
Schegloff, E. A. 1986. The Routine as Achievement. Human Studies 9: 111–51.
Schegloff, E. A. 1987. Analyzing Single Episodes of Interaction: An Exercise in Conversation Analysis. Social Psychology Quarterly 50(2): 101–14.
Schegloff, E. A. 1988a. Goffman and the Analysis of Conversation. In P. Drew and A. Wootton (eds.) Erving Goffman: Exploring the Interaction Order. Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 89–135.
Schegloff, E. A. 1988b. On an Actual Virtual Servo-Mechanism for Guessing Bad News: A Single Case Conjecture. Social Problems 35(4): 442–57.
Schegloff, E. A. 1988c. Presequences and Indirection: Applying Speech Act Theory to Ordinary Conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 12: 55–62.
Schegloff, E. A. 1988/89. From Interview to Confrontation: Observations on the Bush/Rather Encounter. Research on Language and Social Interaction 22: 215–40.
Schegloff, E. A. 1990. On the Organization of Sequences as a Source of “Coherence” in Talk-in-Interaction. In B. Dorval (ed.) Conversational Organization and its Development. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Co., pp. 51–77.
Schegloff, E. A. 1992a. Introduction. In G. Jefferson (ed.) Harvey Sacks: Lectures on Conversation, vol. II. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. ix–lxII.
Schegloff, E. A. 1992b. On Talk and Its Institutional Occasions. In P. Drew and J. Heritage (eds.) Talk at Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 101–34.
Schegloff, E. A. 1992c. To Searle on Conversation: A Note in Return. In John R. Searle et al. (eds.) (On) Searle on Conversation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 113–28.
Schegloff, E. A. 1995. Discourse as an Interactional Achievement III: The Omnirelevance of Action. Research on Language and Social Interaction 28(3): 185–211.
Schegloff, E. A. 1996a. Confirming Allusions: Toward an Empirical Account of Action. American Journal of Sociology 104(1): 161–216.
Schegloff, E. A. 1996b. Issues of Relevance for Discourse Analysis: Contingency in Action, Interaction and Co-Participant Context. In E. H. Hovy and D. Scott (eds.) Computational and Conversational Discourse: Burning Issues – An Interdisciplinary Account. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 3–38.
Schegloff, E. A. 1996c. Some Practices for Referring to Persons in Talk-in-Interaction: A Partial Sketch of a Systematics. In B. A. Fox (ed.) Studies in Anaphora. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 437–85.
Schegloff, E. A. 1996d. Turn Organization: One Intersection of Grammar and Interaction. In E. Ochs , E. A. Schegloff , and S. A. Thompson (eds.) Interaction and Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 52–133.
Schegloff, E. A. 1998. Body Torque. Social Research 65(3): 535–96.
Schegloff, E. A. 2001. Getting Serious: Joke → Serious “No.” Journal of Pragmatics 33(12): 1947–55.
Schegloff, E. A. 2002a [1970]. Opening Sequencing. In J. E. Katz and M. Aakhus (eds.) Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 321–85.
Schegloff, E. A. 2002b. Reflections on Research on Telephone Conversation: Issues of Cross-Cultural Scope and Scholarly Exchange, Interactional Import and Consequences. In K. K. Luke and T. S. Pavlidon (eds.) Telephone Calls: Unity and Diversity in Conversational Structure Across Languages and Cultures. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 249–81.
Schegloff, E. A. 2003. Conversation Analysis and Communication Disorders. In C. Goodwin (ed.) Conversation and Brain Damage. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 21–55.
Schegloff, E. A. 2004a [1970]. Answering the Phone. In G. H. Lerner (ed.) Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 63–107.
Schegloff, E. A. 2004b. Putting the Interaction Back into Dialogue (Commentary on Pickering and Garrod: “Toward a Mechanistic Psychology of Dialogue”). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27(2): 207–08.
Schegloff, E. A. 2005. On Integrity in Inquiry … of the Investigated, not the Investigator. Discourse Studies 7(45): 455–80.
Schegloff, E. A. 2006 [frth]. Interaction: The Infrastructure for Social Institutions, the Natural Ecological Niche for Language, and the Arena in Which Culture is Enacted. In N. J. Enfield and S. C. Levinson (eds.) Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, cognition and interaction. London: Berg.
Schegloff, E. A. and Sacks, H. 1973. Opening Up Closings. Semiotica 8: 289–327.
Schegloff, E. A. , Jefferson, G. , and Sacks, H. 1977. The Preference for Self-Correction in the Organization of Repair in Conversation. Language 53(2): 361–82.
Searle, J. R. 1969. Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Searle, J. R. 1975. Indirect Speech Acts. In P. Cole and J. L. Morgan (eds.) Syntax and Semantics, vol. III. New York: Academic Press, pp. 59–82.
Searle, J. R. 1976. The Classification of Illocutionary Acts. Language in Society 5: 1–24.
Searle, J. R. and Vanderveken, D. 1985. Foundations of Illocutionary Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sinclair, J. M. and Coulthard, R. M. 1975. Towards an Analysis of Discourse: The English Used by Teachers and Pupils. London: Oxford University Press.
Tarplee, C. 1991. Working on Talk: Interactions Between Adults and Young Children During Picture Book Labelling Sequences. Paper presented at a Conference on Current Work in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis, Amsterdam.
ten Have, P. 1991. Talk and Institution: A Reconsideration of the “Asymmetry” of Doctor–Patient Interaction. In D. Boden and D. H. Zimmerman (eds.) Talk and Social Structure: Studies in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 138–63.
Terasaki, A. 2004. Pre-Announcement Sequences in Conversation. In G. H. Lerner (ed.) Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 174–223. First appeared as Social Science Working Paper 99, School of Social Sciences, Irvine, CA, 1976.
West, C. and Zimmerman, D. H. 1983. Small Insults: A Study of Interruptions in Cross-Sex Conversations between Unacquainted Persons. In B. Thorne , C. Kramarae , and N. Henley (eds.) Language, Gender and Society. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, pp. 102–17.
Whalen, M. and Zimmerman, D. H. 1987. Sequential and Institutional Contexts in Calls for Help. Social Psychology Quarterly 50: 172–85.
Zimmerman, D. H. 1984. Talk and Its Occasion: The Case of Calling the Police. In D. Schiffrin (ed.) Meaning, Form, and Use in Context: Linguistic Applications. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 210–28.