Cognitive-behavioral Therapy with Adults

A Guide to Empirically-informed Assessment and Intervention

Cognitive-behavioral Therapy with Adults

Cognitive-behavioural therapy has developed hugely over the past 30 years and is the branch of psychotherapy which has most successfully transferred into the mainstream of treating mental health problems. In this volume, readers will be provided with an integrated, systematic approach for conceptualizing and treating disorders commonly encountered in clinical practice. A strong emphasis is placed on empirically supported approaches to assessment and intervention while offering readers hands-on recommendations for treating common mental disorders, grounded in evidence-based medicine. Practical chapters written by a variety of international experts include numerous case studies demonstrating the specific techniques and addressing common problems encountered and how to overcome them. Cognitive-behavioural Therapy with Adults is an essential guide for practising clinicians and students of cognitive-behavioural therapy as well as educated consumers and those interested in psychotherapy for common mental disorders.

Öhman A , Flykt A , Esteves F . Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass. J Exp Psychol 2001; 130: 466–78.
Öst LG , Fellenius J , Sterner U . Applied tension, exposure in vivo, and tension-only in the treatment of blood phobia. Behav Res Ther 1991; 29: 561–74.
Öst LG , Johansoon J , Jerremalm A . Individual response patterns and the effects of different behavioral methods in the treatment of claustrophobia. Behav Res Ther 1982; 20: 445–60.
Öst LG . Blood and injection phobia: background and cognitive, physiological, and behavioral variables. Behav Res Ther 1992; 101: 68–74.
Öst LG . Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Behav Res Ther 2008; 46: 296–321.
Öst LG . One-session group treatment for spider phobia. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 707–15.
Öst LG . One-session treatment of specific phobias in youths: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2001; 69: 814–24.
www.abct.org (Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies)
www.academyofct.org (Academy of Cognitive Therapy)
www.adaa.org/GettingHelp/AnxietyDisorders/SocialPhobia.asp (Anxiety Disorders Association of America)
www.nimh.nih.gov/HealthInformation/socialphobiamenu.cfm (National Institute of Mental Health)
www.nmha.org/go/information/get-info/anxiety-disorders/social-phobias (National Mental Health Association)
www.paruresis.com (International Paruresis Association)
www.socialphobia.org (Social Anxiety/Social Phobia Association)
www.temple.edu/phobia (Adult Anxiety Clinic of Temple University)
Abramowitz JS , Foa EB , Franklin ME . Exposure and ritual prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of intensive versus twice-weekly sessions. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71: 394–8.
Abramowitz JS , Franklin ME , Foa EB . Empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analytic review. Rom J Cogn Behav Psychother 2002; 2: 89–104.
Abramowitz JS , Franklin ME , Street GP , Kozak MJ , Foa EB . Effects of comorbid depression on response to treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behav Ther 2000; 31: 517–28.
Abramson LY , Alloy LB , Hankin BL , et al. Cognitive vulnerability-stress models of depression in a self-regulatory and psychobiological context. In Gotlib IH , Hammen CL , eds. Handbook of Depression. New York: Guilford Press. 2002, pp. 268–94.
Academy of Cognitive Therapy www.academyofct.org
Allen LB , McHugh RK , Barlow DH . Emotional disorders: a unified protocol. In Barlow DH , ed. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-step Treatment Manual. New York: Guilford Press. 2008, pp. 216–49.
Allen LB , McHugh RK , Barlow DH . Emotional disorders: a unified protocol. In Barlow DH , ed., Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-step Treatment Manual. New York: Guildford Press. 2008, pp. 216–49.
Allison D , Casey D . Antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a review of the literature. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62: 22–31.
Alloy LB , Abramson LY , Safford SM , Gibb BE . The cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) project: current findings and future directions. In Alloy LB , Riskind JH , eds. Cognitive Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 2006, pp. 33–61.
Altabe M , O'Garo KN . Hispanic body images. In Cash TF , Pruzinsky T , eds., Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research and Clinical Practice. New York: Guilford Press. 2002, pp. 250–6.
Altabe MN . Issues in the assessment and treatment of body image disturbance in culturally diverse populations. In Thompson JK , ed., Body Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity: An Integrative Guide for Assessment and Treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2001, pp. 129–47.
American Psychiatric Association . (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. Washington, DC: APA.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn. Washington DC: APA, 1980.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. text revision. Washington, DC: APA, 2000.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington DC: APA, 1994.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 2000.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. Washington, DC: APA, 1994.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. Washington, DC: APA, 2000.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. Washington, DC: APA, 2000.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. Washington, DC: APA, 2000.
American Psychiatric Association . Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revision. Washington, DC: APA. 2000, p. 456.
American Psychiatric Association . Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder (revision). Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 1–50.
American Psychiatric Association . Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155(5 suppl): 1–34.
Ansseau M , Dierick M , Buntinkx F , et al. High prevalence of mental disorders in primary care. J Affect Disord 2004; 78: 49–55.
Antony MM , Barlow DH . Specific phobias. In Barlow DH , ed. Anxiety and its Disorders: The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2002, pp. 380–417.
Antony MM , Brown TA , Barlow DH . Heterogeneity among specific phobia types in DSM-IV. Behav Res Ther 1997; 35: 1089–100.
Antony MM , Brown TA , Barlow DH . Response to hyperventilation and 5.5% CO2 inhalation of subjects with types of specific phobia, panic disorder, or no mental disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154: 1089–95.
Antony MM , Craske MG , Barlow DH . Mastering Your Fears and Phobias (Client Workbook), 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Antony MM , Craske MG , Barlow DH . Mastering Your Fears and Phobias (Client Workbook), 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Antony MM , McCabe RE . Overcoming Animal and Insect Phobias: How to Conquer Fear of Dogs, Snakes, Rodents, Bees, Spiders, and More. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2005.
Antony MM , McCabe RE . Overcoming Animal and Insect Phobias: How to Conquer Fear of Dogs, Snakes, Rodents, Bees, Spiders, and More. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2005.
Antony MM , Moras K , Meadows EA , et al. The diagnostic significance of the functional impairment and subjective distress criterion: an illustration with the DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 1994; 16: 253–62.
Antony MM , Rowa K . Overcoming Fear of Heights: How to Conquer Acrophobia and Live a Life Without Limits. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2007.
Antony MM , Swinson RP . Phobic Disorders and Panic in Adults: A Guide to Assessment and Treatment. Washington: American Psychological Association, 2000.
Antony MM , Swinson RP . Phobic Disorders and Panic in Adults: A Guide to Assessment and Treatment. Washington: American Psychological Association, 2000.
Antony MM , Watling MA . Overcoming Medical Phobias: How to Conquer Fear of Blood, Needles, Doctors, and Dentists. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2006.
Antony MM , Watling MA . Overcoming Medical Phobias: How to Conquer Fear of Blood, Needles, Doctors, and Dentists. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2006.
Antony MM . Specific phobia: a brief overview and guide to assessment. In Antony MM , Orsillo SM , Roemer L , eds. Practitioner's Guide to Empirically Based Measures of Anxiety. New York: Springer, 2001. pp. 127–32.
Anxiety Disorders Association of America . Treat it, don't repeat it: break free from OCD. www.adaa.org/treatOCD/index.html
Anxiety Disorders Association of British Columbia . Adult self-help section. www.anxietybc.com/resources/introduction.php
Arch JJ , Craske MG . Acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: different treatments, similar mechanisms? Clin Psychol Sci Prac 2008; 15: 263–79.
Arkowitz H , Westra HA , Miller WR , Rollnick S (eds.) Motivational Interviewing in the Treatment of Psychological Problems. New York: Guilford Press, 2008.
Arntz A , Lavy E , Van den Berg G , Van Rijsoort S . Negative beliefs of spider phobics: a psychometric evaluation of the Spider Phobia Beliefs Questionnaire. Adv Behav Res Ther 1993; 15: 257–77.
Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies www.abct.org
Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies www.abct.org
Astin MC , Rothbaum BO . Exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. National Center for PTSD Clinical Quarterly, 2000; 9: 49–54.
Avenevoli S , Knight E , Kessler RC , Merikangas KR. Epidemiology of depression in children and adolescents. In Abela JRZ , Hankin BL , eds. Handbook of Depression in Children and Adolescents. New York: Guilford. 2008, pp. 6–32.
Bach P , Hayes SC . The use of acceptance and commitment therapy to prevent the rehospitalization of psychotic patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2002; 70: 1129–39.
Baer RA , Smith GT , Allen KB . Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment 2004; 11: 191–206.
Baer RA , Smith GT , Hopkins J , Krietemeyer J , Toney L . Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment 2006; 13: 27–45.
Baker A , Bucci S , Lewin TJ , et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for substance use disorders in people with psychotic disorders: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188(5): 439–48.
Bandelow B , Stein DJ (eds). Social Anxiety Disorder. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004.
Bandura A , Blahard EB , Ritter B . Relative efficacy of desensitization and modeling approaches for inducing behavioral, affective, and attitudinal changes. J Pers Soc Psychol 1969; 13: 173–99.
Barlow DH , Allen LB , Choate ML . Towards a unified treatment for emotional disorders. Behav Ther 2004; 35: 205–30.
Barlow DH , Gorman JM , Shear MK , Woods SW . Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000; 283: 2529–36.
Barlow DH . Anxiety and its Disorders: The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2002.
Barlow DH . Anxiety and its Disorders: the Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford, 2002.
Barlow DH. Anxiety and its Disorders, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford Press, 2002.
Barrowclough C , Haddock G , Lobban F , et al. Group cognitive-behavioural therapy for schizophrenia. Randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 189: 527–32.
Barrowclough C , Haddock G , Lowens I , et al. Psychosis and drug and alcohol problems. In Baker A , Velleman R , eds., Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Problems. London: Routledge. 2007, pp. 218–40.
Barrowclough C , Haddock G , Tarrier N , et al. Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing, cognitive behavior therapy, and family intervention for patients with comorbid schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158(10): 1706–13.
Barrowclough C , Tarrier N. Families of Schizophrenic Patients: A Cognitive-behavioural Intervention. London: Chapman & Hall, 1992. (Reprinted in 1997; Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.)
Bauer M , McBride L , Chae C , Sachs G , Shea N . Manual-based group psychotherapy for bipolar disorder: a feasibility study. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59: 449–55.
Bauer, M. S . An evidence-based review of psychosocial treatments for bipolar disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull 2001; 35: 109–34.
Bebbington P , Wilkins S , Jones P , et al. Life events and psychosis: initial results from the Camberwell Collaborative Psychosis Study. Br J Psychiatry 1993; 162: 72–9.
Beck AT , Alford BA . Depression: Causes and Treatment, 2nd edn. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.
Beck AT , Emery G , Greenberg R. Anxiety Disorder and Phobias: A Cognitive Perspective. New York: Basic Books, 1985.
Beck AT , Rush AJ , Shaw BF , Emery G . Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press, 1979.
Beck AT , Rush AJ , Shaw BF , Emery G . Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press, 1979.
Beck AT , Rush AJ , Shaw BF , Emery G. Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press, 1979.
Beck AT , Steer RA , Brown GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, 1996.
Beck AT , Weishaar ME . Cognitive therapy. In Corsini RJ , Wedding D , eds. Current Psychotherapies, 8th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson. 2008, pp. 263–94.
Beck AT . Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1967.
Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research www.beckinstitute.org
Beck JS . Cognitive Therapy for Challenging Problems: What to Do When the Basics Don't Work. New York: Guilford Press, 2005.
Beck JS . Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond. New York: Guilford Press, 1995.
Beck JS . Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond. New York: Guilford Press, 1995.
Becker CB , Zayfert C , Anderson E . A survey of psychologists' attitudes towards and utilization of exposure therapy for PTSD. Behav Res Ther 2004; 42(3): 277–92.
Benton T , Staab J , Evans DL . Medical comorbidity in depressive disorders. Ann Clin Psychiatry 2007; 19: 289–303.
Biederman J , Faraone SV , Marrs A , et al. Panic disorder and agoraphobia in consecutively referred children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36: 214–23.
Biederman J , Rosenbaum JF , Hirshfeld DR , et al. Psychiatric correlates of behavioral inhibition in young children of parents with and without psychiatric disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; 47: 21–6.
Bieling PJ , Antony MM. Ending the Depression Cycle: A Step-by-step Guide for Preventing Relapse. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger, 2003.
Bieling PJ , McCabe RE , Antony MM . Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Groups: Structure and Process. New York: Guilford Press, 2006.
Bienvenu OJ , Samuels JF , Riddle MA , et al. The relationship of obsessive–compulsive disorder to possible spectrum disorders: results from a family study. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 48: 287–93.
Birchwood M , Meaden A , Trower P , Gilbert P , Plaistow J . The power and omnipotence of voices: subordination and entrapment by voices and significant others. Psychol Med 2000; 30(2): 337–44.
Birchwood MJ , MacMillan F . Early intervention. In Birchwood MJ , Tarrier N , eds., Psychological Management of Schizophrenia. Chichester: Wiley. 1994, p. 77–108.
Bishop , Lau M , Shapiro S , et al. Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clin Psychol (New York) 2004; 11: 230–41.
Blackburn IM , Davidson K . Cognitive Therapy for Depression and Anxiety. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Bogels SM , Tarrier N . Unexplored issues and future directions in social phobia research. Clin Psychol Rev 2004; 24(7): 731–6.
Bohn K , Fairburn CG . Clinical impairment assessment questionnaire (CIA 3.0). In Fairburn CG , Eating Disorders and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. New York: Guildford Press, 2008.
Bohne A , Keuthen NJ , Wilhelm S , Deckersbach T , Jenike MA . Prevalence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder and its correlates: a cross-cultural comparison. Psychosomatics 2002; 43: 486–90.
Boland RJ , Keller MB . Course and outcome of depression. In Gotlib IH , Hammen CL , eds. Handbook of Depression, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford. 2009, pp. 23–43.
Bonanno GA . Loss, trauma, and human resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? Am Psychol 2004; 59(1): 20–8.
Bond FW , Bunce D . Mediators of change in emotion-focused and problem-focused worksite stress management interventions. J Occup Health Psychol 2000; 5: 156–63.
Borkovec TD , Newman M , Pincus A , Lytle R. A component analysis of cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder and the role of interpersonal problems. J Consult Clin Psychol 2002; 70(2): 288–98.
Borkovec TD , Newman MG , Castonguay LG . Cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder with integrations from interpersonal and experiental therapies. CNS Spectr 2003; 8(5): 382–9.
Borkovec TD , Robinson E , Pruzinsky T , DePree JA. Preliminary exploration of worry: some characteristics and processes. Behav Res Ther 1983; 21: 9–16.
Borkovec TD , Ruscio A . Psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62 (suppl 11): 37–42.
Boscarino JA . Posttraumatic stress disorder and physical illness: results from clinical and epidemiologic studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004; 1032: 141–53.
Bouton ME , King DA . Contextual control of the extinction of conditioned fear: tests for the associative value of the context. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav 1983; 9: 248–65.
Bouton ME , Mineka S , Barlow DH . A modern learning-theory perspective on the etiology of panic disorder. Psychol Rev 2001; 108: 4–32.
Bowden C , Asnis G , Ginsberg L , et al. Safety and tolerability of lamotrigine for bipolar disorder. Drug Saf 2002; 27: 173–84.
Bradley R , Greene J , Russ E , Dutra L , Westen D . A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162(2): 214–27.
Brady K , Castro S , Lydiard R , Malcolm R , Arana G. Substance abuse in an inpatient psychiatric sample. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1991; 17: 389–97.
Breslau N , Davis GC , Andreski P , Peterson E . Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991; 48(3): 216–22.
Brewin CR , Andrews B , Valentine JD . Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000; 68: 748–66.
Brewin CR . Cognitive change processes in psychotherapy. Psychol Rev 1989; 96: 379–94.
Brewin CR . Cognitive processing of adverse experiences. Int Rev Psychiatry 1996; 8(4); 333–9.
Brown D . Flying Without Fear. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 1996.
Brown G , Beck A , Steer R , Grisham J . Risk factors for suicide in psychiatric outpatients: a 20-year prospective study. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000; 68: 371–7.
Brown KW , Ryan RM , Creswell JD . Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary Effects. Psychol Inq 2007; 18: 211–37.
Brown KW , Ryan RM . The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol 2003; 84: 822–48.
Brown TA , Campbell LA , Lehman CL , Grisham JR , Mancill RB . Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. J Abnorm Psychol 2001; 110: 49–58.
Brown TA , Campbell LA , Lehman CL , Grisham JR , Mancill RB . Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. J Abnorm Psychol 2001; 110: 585–99.
Brozovich F , Heimberg RG . An analysis of post-event processing in social anxiety disorder. Clin Psychol Rev 2008; 28: 891–903.
Buhlmann U , Cook LM , Fama JM , Wilhelm S. Perceived teasing experiences in body dysmorphic disorder. Body Image 2007; 4: 381–5.
Buhlmann U , Etcoff NL , Wilhelm S. Facial attractiveness ratings and perfectionism in body dysmorphic disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Anxiety Disord 2008; 22: 540–7.
Butler AC , Chapman JE , Forman EM , Beck AT . The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Clin Psychol Rev 2006; 26(1): 17–31.
Butler AC , Chapman JE , Forman EM , Beck AT . The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Clin Psychol Rev 2006; 26: 17–31.
Butler AC , Jason E , Chapman B , et al. The empirical status of cognitive–behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Clin Psychol Rev 2006; 26: 17–31.
Butler G , Cullington A , Munby M , Amies P , Gelder M . Exposure and anxiety management in the treatment of social phobia. J Consult Clin Psychol 1984; 52: 642–50.
Byrne S , Birchwood M , Trower P , Meaden A . A Casebook of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Command Hallucinations: A Social Rank Theory Approach. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Calabrese J , McFadden W , McCoy R , et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine in bipolar depression. Abstract presented at APA 2004, NYC, USA. 2004.
Calamari JE , Cohen RJ , Rector NA , et al. Dysfunctional belief-based obsessive-compulsive disorder subgroups. Behav Res Ther 2006; 44: 1347–60.
Callahan M , Bauer M . Psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1999; 22: 675–88.
Campbell-Sills L , Barlow DH , Brown TA , Hofmann SG . Effects of suppression and acceptance on emotional responses of individuals with anxiety and mood disorders. Behav Res Ther 2006; 44: 1251–63.
Cansever A , Uzun O , Donmez E , Ozsahin A . The prevalence and clinical features of body dysmorphic disorder in college students: a study in a Turkish sample. Compr Psychiatry 2003; 44: 60–4.
Cardaciotto L , Herbert JD , Forman EM , Moltra E , Farrow V . The assessment of present-moment awareness and acceptance: the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Assessment 2008; 15: 204–23.
Carpenter D , Clarkin J , Glick I , Wilner P. Personality pathology among married adults with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 1995; 34: 269–74.
Carr AT . Compulsive neurosis: a review of the literature. Psychol Bull 1974; 81: 311–18.
Carter T , Mundo E , Parikh S , Kennedy J . Early age at onset as a risk factor for poor outcome of bipolar disorder. J Psychiatr Res 2003; 37: 297–303.
Carver LJ , Vaccaro BG . 12-month-old infants allocate increased neural resources to stimuli associated with negative adult emotion. Dev Psychol 2007; 43: 54–69.
Chambless DL , Baker MJ , Baucom DH , et al. Update on empirically validated therapies, II. The Clinical Psychologist 1998; 51(1): 3–14.
Chambless DL , Gillis MM. Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol 1993; 61(2): 248–60.
Chambless DL , Ollendick TH . Empirically supported psychological interventions: controversies and evidence. Ann Rev of Psychol 2001; 52: 685–716.
Chambless DL , Ollendick TH . Empirically supported psychological interventions: controversies and evidence. Ann Rev Psychol 2001; 52: 685–716.
Chambless DL , Tran GQ , Glass CR . Predictors of response to cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia. J Anx Dis 1997; 11: 221–40.
Chapman TF , Mannuzza S , Fyer AJ . Epidemiology and family studies of social phobia. In: Heimberg RG , Liebowitz MR , Hope DA , Schneier FR , eds. Social Phobia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Treatment. New York, Guilford Press. 1995, 21–40.
Chen Y , Dilsaver, S . Lifetime rates of suicide attempts among subjects with bipolar and unipolar disorders relative to subjects with other Axis I disorders. Biol Psychiatry 1996; 39: 896–9.
Chorpita BF , Barlow DH . The development of anxiety: the role of control in the early environment. Psychol Bull 1998; 124: 3–21.
Chowdhury AN . The definition and classification of koro. Cult Med Psychiatry 1996; 20: 41–65.
Choy Y , Fyer AJ , Lipsitz JD . Treatment of specific phobia in adults. Clin Psychol Rev 2007; 27: 266–86.
Clark DA , Beck AT , Alford BA . Scientific Foundations of Cognitive Theory and Therapy of Depression. New York: Wiley, 1999.
Clark DA , Beck AT , Alford BA. Scientific Foundations of Cognitive Theory and Therapy of Depression. Philadelphia: Wiley, 1999.
Clark DA , Purdon C . New perspectives for a cognitive theory of obsessions. Aust Psychol 1993; 28: 161–7.
Clark DM , Ehlers A , Hackmann A , et al. Cognitive therapy versus exposure and applied relaxation in social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2006; 74: 568–78.
Clark DM , Ehlers A , McManus F , et al. Cognitive therapy versus fluoxetine in generalized social phobia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71: 1058–67.
Clark DM , Wells A . A cognitive model of social phobia. In: Heimberg RG , Liebowitz MR , Hope DA , Schneier FR , eds. Social Phobia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Treatment. New York, Guilford Press. 1995, pp. 69–93.
Clark DM . A cognitive approach to panic. Behav Res Ther 1986; 24: 461–70.
Clarkin J , Carpenter D , Hull J , Wilner P , Glick I . Effects of a psychoeducational intervention for married patients with bipolar disorder and their spouses. Psychiatr Serv 1998; 49: 531–3.
Cloitre M , Heffernan K , Cohen L , Alexander L . STAIR/MPE: A Phase-based Treatment for the Multiply-traumatized. Unpublished manual, 2001.
Cochran, S . Preventing medical noncompliance in the outpatient treatment of bipolar affective disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol 1984; 52: 873–8.
Cohen DC . Comparison of self-report and overt behavioral procedures for assessing acrophobia. Behav Ther 1977; 8: 17–23.
Colom F , Vieta E , Daban C , Pacchiarotti I , Sánchez-Moreno J . Clinical and therapeutic implications of predominant polarity in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2006; 93: 13–17.
Colom F , Vieta E , Martinez-Aran A , et al. A randomized trial on the efficacy of group psychoeducation in the prophylaxis of recurrences in bipolar patients whose disease is in remission. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 402–7.
Conroy M , Menard W , Fleming-Ives K , Modha P , Phillips KA . Prevalence and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder in an adult inpatient setting. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2008; 30: 67–72.
Cook M , Mineka S . Observational conditioning of fear to fear-relevant versus fear-irrelevant stimuli in rhesus monkeys. J Abnorm Psychol 1989; 98: 448–59.
Cooper Z , Stewart A . Younger patients. In Fairburn CG , Eating Disorders and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. New York: Guildford Press, 2008.
Coryell W , Akiskal HS , Leon AC , et al. The time course of nonchronic major depressive disorder: uniformity across episodes and samples. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51: 405–10.
Covin R , Ouimet AJ , Seeds PM , Dozois DJA . A meta-analysis of CBT for pathological worry among clients with GAD. J Anxiety Disord 2008; 22(1): 108–16.
Coyne JC , Pepper CM , Flynn H . Significance of prior episodes of depression in two patient populations. J Consult Clin Psychol 1999; 67: 76–81.
Craske MG , Antony MM , Barlow DH . Mastering Your Fears and Phobias (Therapist Guide), 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Craske MG , Brown TA , Barlow DH . Behavioral treatment of panic disorder: a two-year follow-up. Behav Ther 1991; 22: 289–304.
Craske MG , DeCola JP , Sachs AD , Pontillo DC . Panic control treatment of agoraphobia. J Anxiety Disord 2003; 17: 321–33.
Craske MG , Farchione TJ , Allen LB , et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder and comorbidity: more of the same or less of more? Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 1095–109.
Craske MG , Kircanski K , Zelikowsky M , et al. Optimizing inhibitory learning during exposure therapy. Behav Res Ther 2008; 46: 5–27.
Craske MG , Mystkowski JL . Exposure therapy and extinction: clinical studies. In Craske MG , Hermans D , Vansteenwegen D , eds. Fear and Learning: From Basic Processes to Clinical Implications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2006, pp. 217–33.
Craske MG , Poulton R , Tsao JCI , Plotkin D . Paths to panic disorder/agoraphobia: an exploratory analysis from age 3 to 21 in an unselected birth cohort. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001; 40: 556–63.
Crerand CE , Phillips KA , Menard W , Fay C . Non-psychiatric medical treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics 2005; 46: 549–55.
Crerand CE , Sarwer DB , Magee L , et al. Rate of body dysmorphic disorder among patients seeking facial cosmetic procedures. Psychiat Ann 2004; 34: 958–65.
Crozier WR , Alden LE (eds). The Essential Handbook of Social Anxiety for Clinicians. Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
Curtis GC , Hill EM , Lewis JA . Heterogeneity of DSM-III-R simple phobia and the simple phobia/agoraphobia boundary: evidence from the ECA study. Proceedings of the DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders Work-group. Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan, 1990.
Curtis GC , Magee WJ , Eaton WW , Wittchen HU , Kessler RC . Specific fears and phobias: epidemiology and classification. Br J Psychiatry 1998; 173: 212–17.
Cutshall C , Watson D . The Phobic Stimuli Response Scales: a new self-report measure of fear. Behav Res Ther 2004; 42: 1193–201.
Dadds MR , Bovbjerg D , Redd WH , Cutmore T . Imagery and human classical conditioning. Psychol Bull 1997; 121: 89–103.
Dahl J , Wilson KG , Nilsson A . Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and the treatment of persons at risk for long-term disability resulting from stress and pain symptoms: a preliminary randomized trial. Behav Ther 2004; 35: 785–801.
Dalle Grave R , Bohn K , Hawker D , Fairburn CG . Inpatient, day patient, and two forms of out patient CBT-E. In Fairburn CG , Eating Disorders and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. New York: Guildford Press, 2008.
Dalle Grave R , Calugi S . Eating disorder not otherwise specified on an inpatient unit. Eur Eat Disord Rev 2007; 15: 340–9.
Dalrymple KL , Herbert JD . Acceptance and commitment therapy for generalized social anxiety disorder: a pilot study. Behav Modif 2007; 31: 543–68.
Dalton J , Cate-Carter T , Mundo E , Parikh S , Kennedy J . Suicide risk in bipolar patients: the role of comorbid substance use disorders. Bipolar Disord 2003; 5: 58–61.
Dannon PN , Gon-Usishkin M , Gelbert A , Lowengrub K , Grunhaus L . Cognitive behavioral group therapy in panic disorder patients: the efficacy of CGBT versus drug treatment. Ann Clin Psychiatry 2004; 16: 41–6.
Davey GCL . ‘Nonspecific’ rather than ‘nonassociative’ pathways to phobias: a commentary on Poulton and Menzies. Behav Ther Res 2002; 40: 151–8.
Davey GCL . Classical conditioning and the acquisition of human fears and phobias: a review and synthesis of the literature. Advan Behav Res Ther 1992; 14: 29–66.
Davidson JR , Hughes D , Blazer DG , George LK . Post-traumatic stress disorder in the community: an epidemiological study. Psychol Med 1991; 21(3): 713–21.
Davidson JRT , Foa EB , Huppert J , et al. Fluoxetine, comprehensive cognitive behavioral therapy, and placebo in generalized social phobia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 1005–13.
Davis M , Walker D , Myers K . Role of the amygdala in fear extinction measured with potentiated startle. Ann NY Acad Sci 2003; 985: 218–32.
Davis M . Role of NMDA receptors and MAP kinase in the amygdala in extinction of fear: clinical implications for exposure therapy. Eur J Neurosci 2002; 16: 395–8.
Deckersbach T , Savage CR , Phillips KA , et al. Characteristics of memory dysfunction in body dysmorphic disorder. J Int Neuropsych Soc 2000; 6: 673–81.
DeRubeis RJ , Gelfand LA , Tang TZ , Simons AD . Medications versus cognitive behavior therapy for severely depressed outpatients: mega-analysis of four randomized comparisons. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 1007–13.
DeRubeis RJ , Siegle GJ , Hollon SD . Cognitive therapy versus medication for depressions: treatment outcomes and neural mechanisms. Nat Rev Neurosci 2008; 9: 788–96.
DeRubeis RJ , Webb CA , Tang TZ , Beck AT . Cognitive therapy. In Dobson KS , ed. Handbook of Cognitive-behavioral Therapies, 3rd edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2010, pp. 277–316.
Di Nardo P , Brown TA , Barlow DH . Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Di Nardo P , Brown TA , Barlow DH . Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Fourth Edition (ADIS-IV). New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Diaz SF , Grush LR , Sichel DA , Cohen LS . Obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnancy and the puerperium. In Dickstein LJ , Riba MB , Oldham JM , eds. Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 16). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1998.
Dimidjian S , Hollon SD , Dobson KS , et al. Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 2006; 74: 658–70.
Dimidjian S , Linehan MM . Defining an agenda for future research on the clinical application of mindfulness practice. Clin Psychol (New York) 2003; 10: 166–71.
Dobson D , Dobson KS . Evidence-based Practice of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. New York: Guilford Press, 2009.
Dobson D , Dobson KS . Evidence-based Practice of Cognitive-behavioral Therapy. New York: Guilford Press, 2009.
Dollard J , Miller NL. Personality and Psychotherapy: An Analysis in Terms of Learning, Thinking and Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950.
Dozois DJA , Beck AT . Cognitive schemas, beliefs and assumptions. In Dobson KS , Dozois DJA , eds. Risk Factors in Depression. Oxford, England: Elsevier/Academic Press. 2008, pp. 121–43.
Dozois DJA , Beck AT . Cognitive schemas, beliefs and assumptions. In Dobson KS , Dozois DJA , eds. Risk Factors in Depression. Oxford, England: Elsevier/Academic. 2008, pp. 121–43.
Dozois DJA , Bieling PJ , Patelis-Siotis I , et al. Changes in self-schema structure in cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2009; 77: 1078–88.
Dozois DJA , Dobson KS . A longitudinal investigation of information processing and cognitive organization in clinical depression: stability of schematic interconnectedness. J Consult Clin Psychol 2001; 69: 914–25.
Dozois DJA , Dobson KS . Depression. In Antony MM , Barlow DH , eds. Handbook of Assessment and Treatment Planning for Psychological Disorders, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford Press, 2010.
Dozois DJA , Seeds PM , Collins KA . Transdiagnostic approaches to the prevention of depression and anxiety. J Cogn Psychother 2009; 23: 44–59.
Dozois DJA , Westra HA . The development of the Anxiety Change Expectancy Scale (ACES) and validation in college, community, and clinical samples. Behav Res Ther 2005; 43: 1655–72.
Dozois DJA . Stability of negative self-structures: a longitudinal comparison of depressed, remitted, and nonpsychiatric controls. J Clin Psychol 2007; 63: 319–38.
Dubi K , Rapee RM , Emerton JL , Schniering CA . Maternal modeling and the acquisition of fear and avoidance in toddlers: Influence of stimulus preparedness and child temperament. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2008; 36: 499–512.
Dugas MJ , Gagnon F , Ladouceur R , Freeston MH . Generalized anxiety disorder: a preliminary test of a conceptual model. Behav Res Ther 1998; 36(2): 215–26.
Dugas MJ , Ladoucer R , Leger E , et al. Group cognitive-behavioural therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71(4): 821–5.
Dunayevich E , Sax K , Keck P , et al. Twelve-month outcome in bipolar patients with and without personality disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61: 134–9.
Edelmann RE , Chambless DL . Adherence during session and homework in cognitive-behavioral group treatment of social phobia. Behav Res Ther 1995; 33: 537–77.
Egliston K-A , Rapee R . Inhibition of fear acquisition in toddlers following modeling by their mothers. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 1871–82.
Ehlers A , Clark DM . A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 2000; 38(4): 319–45.
Ehlers A , Hofmann SG , Herda CA , Roth WT . Clinical characteristics of driving phobia. J Anxiety Disord 1994; 8: 323–39.
Ellicott A , Hammen C , Gitlin M , Brown G , Jameson K . Life events and the course of bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147: 1194–8.
Ellis A , Grieger R . Handbook of Rational-Emotive Therapy. New York: Springer, 1977.
Emmelkamp P , Krijin M , Hulsbosch AM , et al. Virtual reality treatment versus exposure in vivo: a comparative evaluation in acrophobia. Behav Res Ther 2002; 40: 509–16.
Epp A , Dobson KS . The evidence base for cognitive-behavioral therapy. In Dobson KS , ed. Handbook of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies, 3rd edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2010, pp. 39–73.
Erwin BA , Heimberg RG , Juster HR , Mindlin M . Comorbid anxiety and mood disorders among persons with social phobia. Behav Res Ther 2002; 40: 19–35.
Fagelson MA . The association between tinnitus and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Audiol 2007; 16(2), 107–17.
Fairburn CG (ed.) Eating Disorders and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. New York: Guildford Press, 2008. (A comprehensive and practical guide to a leading empirically supported cognitive behavioural treatment for the full range of eating disorders.)
Fairburn CG , Beglin S . Eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q6.0). In Fairburn CG , Eating Disorders and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. New York: Guildford Press, 2008.
Fairburn CG , Bohn K . Eating disorder NOS (EDNOS): an example of the troublesome “not otherwise specified” (NOS) category in DSM-IV. Behav Res Ther 2005; 43: 691–701.
Fairburn CG , Cooper Z , Bohn K , et al. The severity and status of eating disorder NOS: implications for DSM-V. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45 (8): 1705–15.
Fairburn CG , Cooper Z , Bohn K , et al. The severity and status of eating disorder NOS: implications for DSM-V. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45(8): 1705–15.
Fairburn CG , Cooper Z , Cooper P . The clinical features and maintenance of bulimia nervosa. In Brownwell KD , Foreyt JP , eds. Physiology, Psychology and Treatment of Eating Disorders. New York: Basic Books. 1986, 389–404.
Fairburn CG , Cooper Z , Doll HA , et al. Transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with eating disorders: a two-site trial with 60-week follow-up. Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166: 311–19.
Fairburn CG , Cooper Z , Shafran R , et al. Enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the core protocol. In Fairburn CG , Eating Disorders and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. New York: Guildford Press, 2008.
Fairburn CG , Cooper Z , Shafran R , Bohn K , Hawker D . Clinical perfectionism, core low self-esteem and interpersonal problems. In Fairburn CG , Eating Disorders and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. New York: Guildford Press, 2008.
Fairburn CG , Cooper Z , Shafran R . Cognitive behavior therapy for eating disorders: a “transdiagnostic” theory and treatment. Behav Res Ther 2003; 41: 509–28.
Fairburn CG , Cooper Z , Waller D . “Complex patients” and comorbidity. In Fairburn CG , ed., Eating Disorders and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. New York: Guildford Press, 2008.
Fairburn CG , ed. Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders. New York: Guildford Press, 2008.
Fairburn CG , Harrison PJ . Eating disorders. Lancet 2003; 361: 407–16.
Fairburn CG , Marcus MD , Wilson GT . Cognitive behaviour therapy for binge eating and bulimia nervosa: a comprehensive treatment manual. In Fairburn CG , Wilson GT , eds. Binge Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York, Guildford Press. 1993, pp. 361–404.
Fairburn CG , Marcus MD , Wilson GT . Cognitive behaviour therapy for binge eating and bulimia nervosa: a comprehensive treatment manual. In Fairburn CG , Wilson GT , eds. Binge Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guildford Press. 1993, pp. 361–404.
Fairburn CG . Evidence-based treatment of anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord 2005; 37: S26–S30.
Fairburn CG . Overcoming Binge Eating. New York: Guildford Press, 1995.
Faravelli C , Salvatori S , Galassi F , et al. Epidemiology of somatoform disorders: a community survey in Florence. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 1997; 32: 24–9.
Fava GA , Ruini C . Development and characteristics of a well-being enhancing psychotherapeutic strategy: well-being therapy. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2003; 34: 45–63.
Feldman G , Hayes A , Kumar S , Greeson J , Laurenceau J . Mindfulness and emotion regulation: the development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). J Psychopathol Behav Assess 2007; 29: 177–90.
Feldner MT , Zvolensky MJ , Eifert GH , Spira AP . Emotional avoidance: an experimental test of individual differences and response suppression using biological challenge. Behav Res Ther 2003; 41: 403–11.
Fenton WS , Stover ES . Mood disorders: cardiovascular and diabetes comorbidity. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2006; 19: 421–7.
Feske U , Frank E , Mallinger A , et al. Anxiety as a correlate of response to the acute treatment of bipolar I disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 956–62.
Feusner JD , Townsend J , Bystritsky A , Bookheimer S . Visual information processing of faces in body dysmorphic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 1417–25.
Field AP , Lawson J , Banerjee R . The verbal threat information pathway to fear in children: the longitudinal effects on fear cognitions and the immediate effects on avoidance behavior. J Abnorm Psychol 2008; 117: 214–24.
Field AP . Is conditioning a useful framework for understanding the development and treatment of phobias? Clin Psychol Rev 2006; 26: 857–75.
First MB , Spitzer RL , Gibbon M , Williams JB. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Patient Edition. (SCID-I/P). New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 2002.
First MB , Spitzer RL , Gibbon MM , Williams JBW . Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder – Patient Edition (SCID-I/P Version 2.0). New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1996.
Fisher PL , Durham RC . Recovery rates in generalised anxiety disorder following psychological therapy: an analysis of clinically significant change in STAI-T across outcome studies since 1990. Psychol Med 1999; 29: 1425–34.
Fisher PL. The effectiveness of psychological treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. In Davey G , Wells A , eds. Worry and Psychological Disorders: Assessment and Treatment. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
Foa EB , Davidson JRT , Frances A , et al. The expert consensus guideline series: treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60(Suppl 16): 4–76.
Foa EB , Hembree EA , Cahill SP , et al. Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder with and without cognitive restructuring: outcome at academic and community clinics. J Consult Clin Psychol 2005; 73(5): 953–64.
Foa EB , Hembree EA , Rothbaum BO . Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional Processing of Traumatic Experiences. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Foa EB , Hembree EA , Rothbaum BO . Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional Processing of Traumatic Experiences: Therapist Guide. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Foa EB , Huppert JD , Cahill SP . Emotional processing theory: an update. In B. O. Rothbaum , ed. The nature and treatment of pathological anxiety. New York: Guilford. 2006, pp. 3−24.
Foa EB , Jameson JS , Turner RM , Payne LL . Massed vs. spaced exposure sessions in the treatment of agoraphobia. Behav Res Ther 1980; 18: 333–8.
Foa EB , Keane TM , Friedman MJ . Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2000.
Foa EB , Kozak MJ . Emotional processing of fear: exposure to corrective information. Psychol Bull 1986; 99: 20–35.
Foa EB , Riggs DS , Massie ED , Yarczower M . The impact of fear activation and anger on the efficacy of exposure treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Ther 1995; 26(3): 487–99.
Foa EB , Rothbaum BO . Treating the Trauma of Rape. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.
Foa EB , Rothbaum BO . Treating the Trauma of Rape: Cognitive-behavioral Therapy for PTSD. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1998.
Foa EB , Steketee G , Rothbaum BO . Behavioral/cognitive conceptualizations of post-traumatic stress disorder. Behav Ther 1989; 20(2): 155–76.
Foa EB , Zoellner LA , Feeny NC , Hembree EA , Alvarez-Conrad J . Does imaginal exposure exacerbate PTSD symptoms? J Consult Clin Psychol 2002; 70(4): 1022–8.
Follette VM , Ruzek JI . Cognitive-behavioral Therapies for Trauma, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2006.
Follette VM , Ruzek JI . Cognitive-behavioral Therapies for Trauma, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2006.
Fontenelle LF , Telles LL , Nazar BP , et al. A sociodemographic, phenomenological, and long-term follow-up study of patients with body dysmorphic disorder in Brazil. Int J Psychiatry Med 2006; 36: 243–59.
Forbes D , Bennett N , Biddle D , et al. Clinical presentations and treatment outcomes of peacekeeper veterans with PTSD: preliminary findings. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162(11): 2188–90.
Forbes D , Creamer M , Hawthorne G , Allen N , McHugh T . Comorbidity as a predictor of symptom change after treatment in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 2003; 191(2): 93–9.
Forman EM , Herbert JD , Moitra E , Yeomans PD , Geller PA . A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for anxiety and depression. Behav Modif 2007; 31: 772–99.
Forman EM , Hoffman KL , McGrath KB , et al. A comparison of acceptance- and control-based strategies for coping with food cravings: an analog study. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 2372–86.
FR Schneier , Johnson J , Hornig CD , Liebowitz MR , Weissman MM. Social phobia: comorbidity and morbidity in an epidemiologic sample. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49: 282–8.
Frank E , Hlastala S , Ritenour A , et al. Inducing lifestyle regularity in recovering bipolar disorder patients: results from the maintenance therapies in bipolar disorder protocol. Biol Psychiatry 1997; 41: 1165–73.
Frank E , Kupfer D , Perel J , et al. Three year outcomes for maintenance therapy in recurrent depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; 47: 1093–9.
Frank E , Kupfer D. Thase M , et al. Two-year outcomes for interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in individuals with bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 996–1004.
Franklin ME , Foa EB. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. In Barlow DH , ed. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-step Treatment Manual. New York: Guildford, 2008.
Fredrikson M , Annas P , Fischer H , Wik G . Gender and age differences in the prevalence of specific fears and phobias. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 33–9.
Freedland KE , Carney RM . Depression and medical illness. In Gotlib IH , Hammen CL , eds. Handbook of Depression, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2008, pp. 113–41.
Freeston MH , Ladouceur R , Rhéaume J , Letarte H. Images and doubts in intrusive cognitive activity. Behav Cogn Psychother 1994; 22: 189–98.
Freeston MH , Rhéaume J , Ladouceur R . Correcting faulty appraisals of obsessional thoughts. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 433–46.
Furukawa TA , Watanabe N , Churchill R . Psychotherapy plus antidepressant for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 305–12.
Fyer AJ , Mannuzza S , Gallops MS , et al. Familial transmission of simple phobias and fears. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; 47: 252–6.
Gao K , Gajwani P , Elhaj O , Calabrese J. Typical and atypical antipsychotics in bipolar depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66: 1376–85.
Gao K , Ganocy S , Gajwani P , et al. A review of sensitivity and tolerability of antipsychotics in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia: focus on somnolence. J Clin Psychiatry 2008; 69: 302–9.
Gao K , Kemp D , Ganocy S , et al. Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic review. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2008 28, 203–9.
Garber J , Flynn C . Predictors of depressive cognitions in young adolescents. Cogn Ther Res 2001; 25: 353–76.
Garety PA , Kuipers E , Fowler D , Freeman D , Bebbington PE . A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychol Med 2001; 31(2): 189–95.
Garland A , Scott J . The obstacle is the path: overcoming blocks to homework assignments in a complex presentation of depression. Cogn Behav Pract 2007; 14: 278–88.
Garratt G , Ingram RE , Rand KL , Sawalani G . Cognitive processes in cognitive therapy: evaluation of the mechanisms of change in the treatment of depression. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 2007; 14: 224–39.
Gaston JE , Abbott NJ , Rapee RM , Neary SA . Do empirically supported treatments generalize to private practice? A benchmark study of a cognitive-behavioural group treatment programme for social phobia. Br J Clin Psychol 2006; 45: 33–48.
Gaudiano BA , Herbert JD . Acute treatment of inpatients with psychotic symptoms using acceptance and commitment therapy: pilot results. Behav Res Ther 2006; 44: 415–37.
Gaudiano BA , Herbert JD . Believability of hallucinations as a potential mediator of their frequency and associated distress in psychotic inpatients. Behav Cog Psychother 2006; 34: 497–502.
Geer JH . The development of a scale to measure fear. Behav Res Ther 1965; 3: 45–53.
Gelenberg A , Kane J , Keller M , et al. Comparison of standard and low serum levels of lithium for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 1489–93.
Gibb BE , Abramson LY , Alloy LB . Emotional maltreatment from parents, verbal victimization, and cognitive vulnerability to depression. Cognit Ther Res 2004; 28: 1–21.
Gifford E , Kohlenberg BS , Hayes SC , et al. Acceptance-based treatment for smoking cessation. Behav Ther 2004; 35: 689–705.
Gijsman H , Gedses J , Rendell J , Nolen W , Goodwin, G . Antidepressants for bipolar depression: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161: 1537–47.
Gillespie K , Duffy M , Hackmann A , Clark DM . Community-based cognitive therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder following the Omagh bomb. Behav Res Ther 2002; 40(4): 345–57.
Gitlin M , Swendsen J , Heller T , Hammen C. Relapse and impairment in bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152: 1635–40.
Gloaguen, V ., Cottraux, J. , Cucherat, M , Blackburn, I. A meta-analysis of the effects of cognitive therapy in depression. J Affect Disord 1998; 49: 59–72.
Goisman RM , Allsworth J , Rogers MP , et al. Simple phobia as a comorbid anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety 1998; 7: 105–12.
Goldberg J , Garno J , Leon A , Kocsis J , Portera L . A history of substance abuse complicates remission from acute mania in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60: 733–40.
Goldberg JF , Perlis RH , Bowden CL , et al. Manic symptoms during depressive episodes in 1,380 patients with bipolar disorder: findings from the STEP-BD. Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166: 173–81.
Goldfried MR. Systematic desensitization as training in self control. J Consult Clin Psychol 197; 137: 228–34.
Goodman WK , Price LH , Ramussen SA , et al. The Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: I. Development, use and reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989; 46: 1006–11.
Goodwin F , Jamison K. Manic-Depressive Illness: Bipolar Disord and Recurrent Depression, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Goodwin RD , Fergusson DM , Horwood LJ . Early anxious/withdrawn behaviors predict later internalising disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2004; 45: 874–83.
Gotlib IH , Lewinsohn PM , Seeley JR. Symptoms versus a diagnosis of depression: differences in psychosocial functioning. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995; 63: 90–100.
Gould R , Otto M , Pollack M , Yap L. Cognitive behavioural and pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a preliminary meta- analysis. Behav Ther 1997; 28: 285–305.
Grabe HJ , Ruhrmann S , Spitzer C , et al. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychopathology 2008; 41(2): 129–34.
Grant JE , Kim SW , Crow SJ . Prevalence and clinical features of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescent and adult psychiatric inpatients. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62: 517–22.
Grant JE , Menard W , Phillips KA. Pathological skin picking in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. Gen Psychiatry 2006; 28: 487–93.
Gratz KL , Tull MT , Gunderson JG . Preliminary data on the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and borderline personality disorder: the role of experiential avoidance. J Psychiatr Res 2008; 42: 550–9.
Greenberg PE , Sisitsky T , Kessler RC , et al. The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60: 427–35.
Greenberger D , Padesky CA . Mind Over Mood: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think. New York: Guilford Press, 1995.
Greenberger D , Pasesky CA. Mind Over Mood: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think. New York: Guilford Press, 1995.
Gregg JA Callaghan GM , Hayes SC , Glenn-Lawson JL . Improving diabetes self-management through acceptance, mindfulness, and values: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2007; 75: 336–43.
Grilo CM , Money R , Barlow DH , et al. Pretreatment patient factors predicting attrition from a multicenter randomized controlled treatment study for panic disorder. Compr Psychiatry 1998; 39: 323–32.
Grilo CM. Eating and Weight Disorders. NewYork: Psychology Press, 2006. (An authoritative research based overview of eating and weight disorders.)
Groesz LM , Levine MP , Murnen SK . The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: a meta-analytic review. Int J Eat Disord 2002; 31: 1–16.
Grossman P , Niemann L , Schmidt S , Walach H . Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res 2004; 57: 35–43.
Gunstad J , Phillips KA. Axis I comorbidity in body dysmorphic disorder. Compr Psychiatr 2003; 44: 270–6.
Hall PH , Tarrier N . The cognitive-behavioural treatment of low self-esteem in psychotic patients: a pilot study. Behav Res Ther 2003; 41: 317–32.
Hankin BL , Abramson LY , Moffitt TE , et al. Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. J Abnor Psychol 1998; 107: 128–40.
Hanna GL . Demographic and clinical features of obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995; 34: 19–27.
Harvey A , Watkins E , Mansell W , Shafran R . Cognitive Behavioural Processes Across Psychological Disorders: A Transdiagnostic Approach to Research and Treatment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Haug T , Brenne L , Johnsen BH , et al. The three-systems analysis of fear of flying: a comparison of a consonant vs. a non-consonant treatment method. Behav Res Ther 1987; 25: 187–94.
Hayes S . Climbing our hills: a beginning conversation on the comparison of acceptance and commitment therapy and traditional cognitive behavioral therapy. Clin Psychol Sci Prac 2008; 15: 263–79.
Hayes SA , Hope DA , VanDyke M , Heimberg RG . Working alliance for clients with social anxiety disorder: relationship with session helpfulness and within-session habituation. Cognitive Behav Ther 2007; 36: 34–42.
Hayes SC , Bissett R , Roget N , et al. The impact of acceptance and commitment training and multicultural training on the stigmatizing attitudes and professional burnout of substance abuse counselors. Behav Ther 2004; 35: 821–35.
Hayes SC , Luoma J , Bond F , Masuda A , Lillis J . Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes, and outcomes. Behav Res Ther 2006; 44: 1–25.
Hayes SC , Strosahl K , Wilson KG . Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Experiential Approach to Behavior Change. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.
Hayes SC , Strosahl KD , Wilson KG . Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Experiential Approach to Behavior Change. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1999.
Hayes SC , Wilson KG . Mindfulness: method and process. Clin Psychol (New York) 2003; 10: 161–5.
Hayes SC . Acceptance, mindfulness and science. Clin Psychol (New York) 2002; 9: 101–6.
Hayward C , Killen JD , Kraemer HC , Taylor CB . Predictors of panic attacks in adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000; 39: 1–8.
Healy D , Williams J . Dysthymia, dysphoria and depression: the interaction of learned helplessness and circadian dysthymia in the pathogenesis of depression. Psychol Bull 1988; 103: 163–78.
Healy D , Williams J . Moods, misattributions and mania: an interaction of biological and psychological factors in the pathogenesis of mania. Psychiatr Dev 1989; 1: 49–70.
Healy H , Barnes-Holmes Y , Barnes-Holmes D , et al. An experimental test of a cognitive defusion exercise: coping with negative and positive self-statements. Psychol Rec 2008; 58: 623–40.
Heimberg RG , Becker RE. Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Phobia: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Strategies. New York: Guilford Press, 2002.
Heimberg RG , Dodge CS , Hope DA , et al. Cognitive-behavioral group treatment of social phobia: comparison to a credible placebo control. Cognit Ther Res 1990; 14: 1–23.
Heimberg RG , Salzman DG , Holt CS , et al. Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for social phobia: effectiveness at five-year follow-up. Cognit Ther Res 1993; 17: 325–39.
Heimberg RG . Cognitive and behavioral treatments for social phobia: a critical analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 1989; 9: 187–228.
Heimberg RG. , Liebowitz MR , Hope DA , et al. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy versus phenelzine in social phobia: 12-week outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55: 1133–41.
Helbig S , Fehm L . Problems with homework in CBT: rare exception or rather frequent? Behav Cogn Psychother 2004; 32: 291–301.
Hellström K , Öst LG . Prediction of outcome in the treatment of specific phobia: a cross-validation study. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 403–11.
Hembree EA , Foa EB , Dorfan NM , et al. Do patients drop out prematurely from exposure therapy for PTSD? J Trauma Stress 2003; 16(6): 555–62.
Henry C , Van den Bulke D , Bellivier F , et al. Anxiety disorders in 318 bipolar patients: prevalence and impact on illness severity and response to mood stabilizer. J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64: 331–5.
Herbert JD (ed.) Special issue on empirically supported treatments. Behav Modif 2003; 27: 287–430.
Hettema JM , Neale MC , Kendler KS . A review and meta-analysis of the genetic epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2001 158: 1568–78.
Hettema JM , Neale MC , Myers JM , Prescott CA , Kendler KS . A population-based twin study of the relationship between neuroticism and internalizing disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 857–64.
Himle MB , Franklin ME “The more you do it, the easier it gets”: Exposure and response prevention for OCD. Cogn Behav Pract 2009; 16: 29–39.
Hitzeroth V , Wessels C , Zungu-Dirwayi N , Oosthuizen P , Stein DJ . Muscle dysmorphia: a South African sample. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001; 55: 521–3.
Hofmann S , Asmundson GJ . Acceptance and mindfulness-based therapy: new wave or old hat? Clin Psychol Rev 2008; 28: 1–16.
Hofmann S . Acceptance and commitment therapy: new wave or morita therapy? Clin Psychol Sci Prac 2008; 15: 263–79,
Hofmann SG , Pollack MH , Otto MW . Augmentation treatment of psychotherapy for anxiety disorders with d-cycloserine. CNS Drug Rev 2006; 12: 208–17.
Hofmann SG , Sawyer AT , Witt AA , Oh D . The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol 2010; 78(2): 169–83.
Hofmann SG , Sawyer AT , Witt AA , Oh D . The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol 2010; 78:169–83.
Hofmann SG , Smits JAJ . Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry 2008; 69: 621–32.
Hofmann SG , Smits JAJ . Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry 2008; 69(4): 621–32.
Hofmann SG , Smits JAJ . Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry 2008; 69: 621–32.
Hofmann SG , Suvak M . Treatment attrition during group therapy for social phobia. J Anxiety Disorders 2006; 20: 961–72.
Hofmann SG . Cognitive factors that maintain social anxiety disorder: a comprehensive model and its treatment implications. Cogn Behav Ther 2007; 36: 193–209.
Hofmann SG . Cognitive processes during fear acquisition and extinction in animals and humans: implications for exposure therapy of anxiety disorders. Clin Psychol Rev 2008; 28: 199–210.
Hofmann SG . Enhancing exposure-based therapy from a translational research perspective. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 1987–2001.
Hollander E , Allen A , Kwon J , et al. Clomipramine vs desipramine crossover trial in body dysmorphic disorder: selective efficacy of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor in imagined ugliness. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56: 1033–9.
Hollon SD , DeRubeis RJ , Shelton RC , et al. Prevention of relapse following cognitive therapy vs. medications in moderate to severe depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 417–22.
Hollon SD , Dimidjian S . Cognitive and behavioral treatment of depression. In Gotlib IH , Hammen CL , eds. Handbook of Depression, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2009, pp. 586–603.
Hollon SD , Thase ME , Markowitz JC . Treatment and prevention of depression. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 2002; 3: 39–77.
Hook JN , Valentiner DP. Are specific and generalized social phobias qualitatively distinct? Clin Psy Sci Prac 2002; 9: 379–95.
Hope DA , Heimberg RG , Bruch MA . Dismantling cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia. Behav Res Ther 1995; 33: 637–50.
Hope DA , Heimberg RG , Juster H , Turk CL. Managing Social Anxiety: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Approach (Client Workbook, 2nd edn). New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Hope DA , Heimberg RG , Juster, H , Turk CL . Managing Social Anxiety: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Approach (Client Workbook). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation, 2000.
Hope DA , Heimberg RG , Turk CL. Managing Social Anxiety: A Cognitive-behavioral Therapy Approach (Therapist Guide). New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Hope DA , Heimberg RG , Turk CL. Managing Social Anxiety: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Approach (Therapist Guide, 2nd edn). New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Hope DA , Van Dyke M , Heimberg RG , Turk CL , Fresco DM . Cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder: Therapist adherence scale. Unpublished manuscript, Available from Heimberg RG , Temple University, 2002.
Hunot V , Churchill R , Teixeira V , Silva De Lima M . Psychological therapies for generalised anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 1: CD001848.
Hunt C , Issakidis C , Andrews G. DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder in the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. Psychol Med 2002; 32: 649–59.
Hunt M , Bylsma L , Brock J , et al. The role of imagery in the maintenance and treatment of snake fear. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2006; 37: 283–98.
Hunt M , Fenton M . Imagery rescripting versus in vivo exposure in the treatment of snake fear. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2007; 38: 329–44.
Ingram RE , Miranda J , Segal ZV . Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.
International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies www.istss.org
Jacobson E. Progressive Relaxation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1938.
Jacobson NS , Truax P . Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991; 59(1): 12–19.
Jaycox LH , Foa EB , Morral AR . Influence of emotional engagement and habituation on exposure therapy for PTSD. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998; 66(1): 185–92.
Johnson J , Gooding P , Tarrier N . Suicide risk in schizophrenia: explanatory models and clinical implications: the Schematic Appraisal Model of Suicide (SAMS). Psychol Psychother 2008; 81: 55–77.
Johnson R , McFarland B. Lithium use and discontinuation in a health maintenance organization. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 993–1000.
Johnson S , Miller I . Negative life events and time to recovery from episodes of bipolar disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 1997; 106: 449–57.
Joiner TE Jr , Metalsky GI , Lew A , Klocek J . Testing the causal mediation component of Beck's theory of depression: evidence for specific mediation. Cogn Ther Res 1999; 23: 401–12.
Joiner TE Jr . Depression's vicious scree: self-propagating and erosive processes in depression chronicity. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 2000; 7: 203–18.
Judd LL , Akiskal HS , Schettler PJ , et al. The comparative clinical phenotype and long term longitudinal episode course of bipolar I and II: A clinical spectrum or distinct disorders? J Affect Disord 2003; 73: 19–32.
Judd LL , Akiskal HS , Schettler PJ , et al. The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002; 59: 530–7.
Judd LL , Akiskal HS , Zeller PJ , et al. Psychosocial disability during the long-term course of unipolar major depressive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 375–80.
Kabat-Zinn J . Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. New York: Dell Publishing, 1990.
Kabat-Zinn J . Wherever You Go, There You are. New York: Hyperion, 1994.
Kagan J , Snidman N . Early childhood predictors of adult anxiety disorders. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46: 1536–41.
Karno MG , Golding M , Sorensen SB , Burnam, A . The epidemiology of OCD in five U.S. communities. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45: 1094–9.
Katzelnick DJ , Kobak KA , DeLeire T , et al. Impact of generalized social anxiety disorder in managed care. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 1999–2007.
Kawamura KY. Asian American body images. In Cash TF , Pruzinsky T , eds., Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research and Clinical Practice. New York: Guilford Press. 2002, pp. 243–9.
Kazantzis N , Deane FP , Ronan KR . Homework assignments in cognitive and behavioral therapy: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Sci Prac 2000; 7: 189–202.
Kazantzis N , Whittington C , Dattilio F . Meta-analysis of homework effects in cognitive and behavioral therapy: a replication and extension. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 2010; 17: 144–56.
Keane TM , Barlow DH . Posttraumatic stress disorder. In Barlow DH , ed. Anxiety and its Disorders. New York: Guilford Press. 2002; pp. 418–53.
Keane TM , Kaloupek DG . Imaginal flooding in the treatment of a posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol 1982; 50(1): 138–40.
Keane TM , Zimering RT , Caddell JM . A behavioral formulation of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Behavior Therapist 1985; 8(1): 9–12.
Keck P , McElroy S , Strakowski S , et al. Factors associated with pharmacologic noncompliance in patients with mania. J Clin Psychiatry 1996; 57: 292–7.
Keck P , McElroy S , Strakowski S , et al. Twelve-month outcome of patients with bipolar disorder following hospitalization for a manic or mixed episode. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 646–52.
Keijsers GPJ , Kampman M , Hoogduin CAL . Dropout prediction in cognitive behavior therapy for panic disorder. Behav Ther 2001; 32: 739–49.
Keijsers GPJ , Schapp CPDR , Hoogduin CAL , Lammers, MW . Patient-therapist interaction in the behavioral treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Behav Modif 1995; 19: 491–517.
Keijsers GPJ , Schapp CPDR , Hoogduin CAL . The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy. Behav Modif 2000; 24: 264–97.
Keller M , Lavori P , Coryell W , et al. Differential outcome of pure manic, mixed/cycling, and pure depressive episodes in patients with bipolar illness. JAMA 1986; 255: 3138–42.
Keller MB , Boland RJ . Implications of failing to achieve successful long-term maintenance treatment of recurrent unipolar major depression. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 44: 348–60.
Kendler KS , Karkowski LM , Prescott CA . Causal relationship between stressful life events and the onset of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 837–41.
Kendler KS , Karkowski LM , Prescott CA . Fear and phobias: reliability and heritability. Psychol Med 1999; 29: 539–53.
Kendler KS , Myers J , Prescott CA , Neale MC . The genetic epidemiology of irrational fears and phobias in men. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 58: 257–65.
Kenny MA , Williams JM . Treatment-resistant depressed patients show a good response to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 617–25.
Kessing L . Recurrence in affective disorder: II. Effect of age and gender. Br J Psychiatry 1998; 172: 29–34.
Kessler R , Chiu W , Demler O , Walters E . Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 617–27.
Kessler R , Crum R , Warner L , et al. Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence with other psychiatric disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997; 54: 313–21.
Kessler R , McGonagle K , Zhao S , et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51: 8–19.
Kessler RC , Berglund P , Demler O , et al. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 593–602.
Kessler RC , Berglund P , Demler O , et al. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 593–602.
Kessler RC , Berglund P , Demler O , et al. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 593–602.
Kessler RC , Berglund P , Demler O , et al. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 593–602.
Kessler RC , Berglund P , Demler O , Jin R , Walters EE . Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 593–602.
Kessler RC , Chiu WT , Demler O , Merikangas K , Walters EE . Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 617–27.
Kessler RC , Chiu WT , Demler O , Walters EE . Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 617–27.
Kessler RC , Chiu WT , Jin R , et al. The epidemiology of panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63: 415–24.
Kessler RC , Dupont RL , Berglund P , Wittchen HU . Impairments in pure and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and major depression at 12 months in two national surveys. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156, 1915–23.
Kessler RC , Nelson CB , McGonagle KA , et al. Comorbidity of DSM-III-R major depressive disorder in general population: results from the US National Comorbidity Survey. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 168: 17–30.
Kessler RC , Sonnega A , Bromet E , Hughes M , Nelson CB . Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995; 52(12): 1048–60.
Kilpatrick DG , Ruggiero KJ , Acierno R , et al. Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: results from the National Survey of Adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71(4): 692–700.
Kingston T , Dooley B , Bates A , Lawlor E , Malone, K . Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for residual depressive symptoms. Psychol Psychother 2007; 80: 193–203.
Kleinknecht RA , Thorndike RM , Walls MM . Factorial dimensions and correlates of blood, injury, injection and related medical fears: cross validation of the Medical Fear Survey. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 323–31.
Kleinknecht RA . Comments on non-associative fear acquisition: a review of the evidence from retrospective and longitudinal research. Behav Res Ther 2002; 40: 159–63.
Klerman G , Weissman M , Rounsaville B , Chevron E. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1984.
Klorman R , Hastings J , Weerts T , et al. Psychometric description of some specific-fear questionnaires. Behav Ther 1974; 5: 401–9.
Kuipers E , Garety P , Fowler D , et al. Cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis: refining cognitive behavioral therapy for persistent positive symptoms. Schizophr Bull 2006; 32 Suppl 1: S24–31.
Kutcher S , Maton P , Korenblum, M. Adolescent bipolar illness and personality disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1990; 29: 355–8.
Kuyken W , Padesky CA , Dudley R . Collaborative Case Conceptualization: Working Effectively With Clients in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy. New York: Guilford Press, 2009.
Lam D , Bright J , Jones S , et al. Cognitive therapy for bipolar illness: a pilot study of relapse prevention. Cognit Ther Res 2000; 24: 503–20.
Lam D , Watkins E , Hayward P , et al. A randomized controlled study of cognitive therapy for relapse prevention for bipolar affective disorder: outcome of the first year. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 145–52.
Lang PJ . A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology 1979; 16: 495–512.
Lappalainen R , Lehtonin T , Skarp E , et al. The impact of CBT and ACT models using psychology trainee therapists: a preliminary controlled effectiveness trial. Behav Modif 2007; 31: 488–511.
Lau MA , Bishop SR , Segal ZV , et al. The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: development and validation. J Clin Psychol 2006; 62: 1445–67.
Lazarus AA . Crucial procedural factors in desensitization therapy. Behav Res Ther 1964; 2: 63–70.
Leahy RL . Overcoming Resistance in Cognitive Therapy. New York: Guilford Press, 2001.
Ledley DR , Heimberg RG. Social anxiety disorder. In Antony MM , Ledley DR , Heimberg RG , eds. Improving Outcomes and Preventing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. New York: Guilford Press. 2005, pp. 38–76.
Ledley DR , Huppert JD , Foa EB , et al. Impact of depressive symptoms on the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety 2005; 22: 161–7.
Lehman AF , Kreyenbuhl J , Buchanan RW , et al. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment recommendations 2003. Schizophr Bull 2004; 30(2): 193–217.
Lehman CL , Patterson MD , Brown TA , et al. Lifetime alcohol use disorders in patients with anxiety or mood disorders. Proceedings of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy; 1998, November: Washington DC.
Leverich G , Altshuler L , Frye M , et al. Risk of switch in mood polarity to hypomania or mania in patients with bipolar depression during acute and continuation trials of venlafaxine, sertraline, and bupropion as adjuncts to mood stabilizers. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 232–9.
Levitt JT , Brown TA , Orsillo SM , Barlow DH . The effects of acceptance versus suppression of emotion on subjective and psychophysiological response to carbon dioxide challenge in patients with panic disorder. Behav Ther 2004; 35: 747–66.
Lewinsohn PM , Joiner TE , Rohde P . Evaluation of cognitive diathesis-stress models in predicting major depressive disorder in adolescents. J Abnorm Psychol 2001; 110: 203–15.
Liebowitz MR , Heimberg RG , Schneier FR , et al. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy versus phenelzine in social phobia: long-term outcome. Depress Anxiety 1999; 10: 89–98.
Lillis J , Hayes SC , Bunting K , Masuda A . Teaching acceptance and mindfulness to improve the lives of the obese: a preliminary test of a theoretical model. Ann Behav Med 2009; 37(1): 58–69.
Lincoln TM , Rief W , Hahlweg K , et al. Effectivenness of an empirically supported treatment for social phobia in the field. Behav Res Ther 2003; 41: 1251–69.
Linehan MM , Comtois KA , Murray AM , et al. Two-year randomized controlled trial and follow-up of dialectical behavior therapy vs therapy by experts for suicidal behaviors and borderline personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63: 757–66.
Linehan MM . Cognitive–Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. New York: Guilford Press, 1993.
Linehan MM . Skills Training Manual for Treating Borderline Personality Disorder. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1993.
Lipsitz JD , Barlow DH , Mannuzza S , Hofmann SG , Fyer JA . Clinical features of four DSM-IV-specific phobia subtypes. J Nerv Ment Dis 2002; 190: 471–8.
Lish J , Dime-Meenan S , Whybrow P , Price R , Hirschfeld R .The National Depressive and Manic-depressive Association (DMDA) survey of bipolar members. J Aff Disord 1994; 31: 281–94.
Litz BT , Blake D , Gerardi R , Keane TM . Decision making guidelines for the use of direct therapeutic exposure in the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The Behavior Therapist 1990; 13: 91–3.
Litz BT , Bryant R . Early intervention for trauma in adults: cognitive-behavioral therapy. In Foa E , Friedman M , Keane T , Cohen J , eds. Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2008, pp. 117–35.
Lock J , le Grange D , Agras WS , Dare C . Treatment Manual for Anorexia Nervosa: A Family-based Approach. New York: Guildford Press, 2001.
Lumley MN , Harkness KL . Childhood maltreatment and depressotypic cognitive organization. Cognit Ther Res 2009; 33: 511–22.
Lundgren T , Dahl J , Hayes SC . Evaluation of mediators of change in the treatment of epilepsy with acceptance and commitment therapy. J Behav Med 2008; 31: 221–35.
Lundgren T , Dahl J , Melin L , Kies B . Evaluation of acceptance and commitment therapy for drug refractory epilepsy: a randomized controlled trial in South Africa – a pilot study. Epilepsia 2006; 47: 2173–9.
Lynch TR , William TT , Salsman N , Linehan MM . Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2007; 3: 181–205.
MA Bruch , Fallon M , Heimberg RG. Social phobia and difficulties in occupational functioning. J Counseling Psychol 2003; 50: 109–17.
Ma SH , Teasdale JD . Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: replication and exploration of differential relapse prevention effects. J Consult Clin Psychol 2004; 72: 31–40.
Machado PP , Machado BC , Gonçalves S , et al. The prevalence of eating disorder not otherwise specified. Int J Eat Disord 2007; 40(3): 212–17.
Macritchie K , Geddes J , Scott J , Haslam D , Goodwin, G . Valproic acid, valproate and divalproex in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 3: CD003196.
Magee WJ , Eaton WW , Wittchen H-U , McGonagle KA , Kessler RC . Agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1996; 53: 159–68.
Maier W , Gansicke M , Freyberger HJ , et al. Generalized anxiety disorder (ICD-10) in primary care from a cross-cultural perspective: a valid diagnostic entry? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2000; 101: 29–36.
Maj M , Akiskal HS , López-Ibor JJ , Okasha A . Phobias. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2004.
Mallik K , Reeves RJ , Dellario DJ . Barriers to community integration for people with severe and persistent psychiatric disabilities. Psychiatr Rehabil J 1998; 22(2): 175–80.
March J , Frances A , Carpenter D , Kahn D . The expert consensus guideline series: treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58 (Suppl. 4): 1–16.
Marcks BA , Woods DW . Role of thought-related beliefs and coping strategies in the escalation of intrusive thoughts: an analog to obsessive–compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 2640–51.
Marks IM , Mathews AM . Brief standard self-rating for phobic patients. Behav Res Ther 1979; 17: 263–7.
Marques L , Greenberg JL , Wilhelm S. Adapting CBT for Ethnic Minorities, Children and Adolescents with BDD. Proceedings of the 15th Annual OCF Conference; 2008 Aug 1–3; Boston, MA.
Marshall WL . An examination of reciprocal inhibition and counterconditioning explanations of desensitization therapy. Eur J Behav Anal Mod 1975; 1: 74–86.
Masedo AI , Rosa Esteve M . Effects of suppression, acceptance and spontaneous coping on pain tolerance, pain intensity and distress. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 199–209.
Masi G , Perugi G , Toni C , et al. Predictors of treatment nonresponse in bipolar children and adolescents with manic or mixed episodes. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2004; 14: 395–404.
Masuda A , Hayes SC , Sackett CF , Twohig MP . Cognitive defusion and self-relevant negative thoughts: examining the impact of a ninety year old technique. Behav Res Ther 2004; 42: 477–85.
Mazzucchelli T , Kane R , Rees C . Behavioral activation treatments for depression in adults: a meta-analysis and review. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 2009; 16: 383–411.
McCabe RE , Antony MM . Anxiety disorders: social and specific phobias. In Psychiatry, 3rd edn. Tasman A , Kay A , Lieberman JA , First MB , Maj M , eds. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.
McCracken L , MacKichan F , Eccleston C . Contextual cognitive-behavioral therapy for severely disabled chronic pain sufferers: effectiveness and clinically significant change. Eur J Pain 2007; 11: 314–22.
McElroy S , Altshuler L , Suppes T , et al. Axis I psychiatric comorbidity and its relationship to historical illness variables in 288 patients with bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 420–6.
McEvoy PM . Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural group therapy for social phobia in a community clinic: a benchmarking study. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 3030–40.
McFall ME , Wollersheim JP. Obsessive-compulsive neurosis: a cognitive-behavioral formulation and approach to treatment. Cognit Ther Res 1979; 3: 333–48.
McKay D , Todaro J , Neziroglu F , et al. Body dysmorphic disorder: a preliminary evaluation of treatment and maintenance using exposure with response prevention. Behav Res Ther 1997; 35: 67–70.
McLean PD , Whittal ML , Thordarson DS , et al. Cognitive versus behavior therapy in the group treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol, 2001; 69: 205–14.
McMullen J , Barnes-Holmes D , Barnes-Holmes Y , et al. Acceptance versus distraction: brief instructions, metaphors and exercises in increasing tolerance for self-delivered electric shocks. Behav Res Ther 2008; 46: 122–9.
Mennin DS , Heimberg RG . The impact of comorbid mood and personality disorders in the cognitive-behavioral treatment of panic disorder. Clin Psychol Rev 2000; 20: 339–57.
Menzies RG , Clarke JC . A comparison of in vivo and vicarious exposure in the treatment of childhood water phobia. Behav Res Ther 1993; 31: 9–15.
Merikangas KR , Akiskal HS , Angst J , et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalance of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 65: 543–52.
Merikangas KR , Angst J. Comorbidity and social phobia: evidence from clinical, epidemiologic, and genetic studies. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995; 244: 297–303.
Meuret AE , Wilhelm FH , Ritz T , Roth WT . Breathing training for treating panic disorder. Behav Modif 2003; 27: 731–54.
Meyer TJ , Miller ML , Metzger RL , Borkovec TD . Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behav Res Ther 1990; 28: 487–95.
Miklowitz D , George E , Richards J , Simoneau T , Suddath, R . A randomized study of family-focused psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy in the outpatient management of bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 904–12.
Miklowitz D , Goldstein M , Nuechterlein K , Snyder K , Mintz J . Family factors and the course of bipolar affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45: 225–31.
Miklowitz D , Goodwin GM , Bauer MS , Geddes JR . Common and specific elements of psychosocial treatments for bipolar disorder: a survey of clinicians participating in randomized trials. J Psychiatr Pract 2008; 14: 77–85.
Miklowitz D , Otto M , Frank E , et al. A 1-year randomized trial from the systematic treatment enhancement program. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 419–26.
Miklowitz D , Otto M . New psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder: a review of the literature and introduction of the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program. J Cogn Psychother 2006; 20: 215–30.
Miklowitz, D . A review of evidence-based psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67: 28–33.
Milos G , Spindler A , Schnyder U , Fairburn CG . Instability of eating disorder diagnoses: prospective study. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 187: 573–8.
Mineka S , Ohman A . Born to fear: non-associative versus associative factors in the etiology of phobias. Behav Res Ther 2002; 40: 173–84.
Mitte K . A meta-analysis of the efficacy of psycho- and pharmacotherapy in panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. J Affect Disord 2005; 88: 27–45.
Mitte K. Meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatments for generalized anxiety disorder: a comparison with pharmacotherapy. Psychol Bull 2005; 131(5): 785–95.
Mogg K , Bradley BP . Time course of attentional bias for fear-relevant pictures in spider-fearful individuals. Behav Res Ther 2006; 44: 1241–50.
Mojtabai R , Rosenheck RA , Wyatt RJ , Susser ES . Use of VA aftercare following military discharge among patients with serious mental disorders. Psychiatr Serv 2003; 54(3): 383–8.
Moller H , Grunze H . Have some guidelines for the treatment of acute bipolar depression gone too far in the restriction of antidepressants? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2000; 250: 57–68.
Moller H , Nasrallah H . Treatment of bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64: 9–16.
Monson CM , Schnurr PP , Resick PA , et al. Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. Special Issue: Benefit-Finding 2006; 74(5): 898–907.
Morrison AP . Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. In Tarrier N , Wells A , Haddock G , eds. Treating Complex Cases: The Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Approach. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 1998, pp. 195–216.
Morrison AP . The interpretation of intrusions in psychosis: an integrative cognitive approach to hallucinations and delusions. Behav Cogn Psychother 2001; 29(3): 257–76.
Moscovitch DA , Antony MM , Swinson RP . Exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders: theory and process. In Antony MM , Stein MB , eds. Oxford Handbook of Anxiety and Related Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Moscovitch DA , Hofmann SG , Suvak M , In-Albon T . Mediation of changes in anxiety and depression during treatment for social phobia. J Consult Clin Psychol 2005; 75: 945–52.
Mowrer OH . Learning Theories and Behavior. New York: Wiley, 1960.
Mowrer OH . Stimulus response theory of anxiety. Psychol Rev 1939; 46: 553–65.
Mowrer, OH. A stimulus–response analysis of anxiety and its role as a reinforcing agent. Psychol Rev 1939; 46: 553–65.
Mueser KT , Goodman LB , Trumbetta SL , et al. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998; 66(3): 493–9.
Mystkowski JL , Craske MG , Echiverri AM . Treatment context and return of fear in spider phobia. Behav Ther 2002; 33: 399–416.
Mystkowski JL , Mineka S , Vernon LL , Zinbarg RE . Changes in caffeine states enhance return of fear in spider phobia. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71: 243–50.
National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression www.narsad.org
National Center for PTSD www.ncptsd.va.gov
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health . Eating Disorders: Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders. London: British Psychological Society and Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2004.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence . Anxiety (amended): management of anxiety (panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder) in adults in primary, secondary or community care. NICE Clinical Guideline 22 (amended). London: NICE, 2007.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence . Eating Disorders – Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders. NICE Clinical Guidance No. 9. London: NICE, 2004. www.nice.org.uk
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence www.nice.org.uk (see depression treatment guidelines)
National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence . Schizophrenia: core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in primary and secondary care. Clinical guidelines CG1. UK: NICE, 2002.
Nemeroff C , Evans D , Gyulai L , et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of imipramine and paroxetine in the treatment of bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 906–12.
Newcomer J. Second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review. CNS Drugs 2005; 19: 1–93.
Newman DL , Moffitt TE , Caspi A , et al. Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996; 64: 552–62.
Newth S , Rachman S . The concealment of obsessions. Behav Res Ther 2001; 39: 457–64.
Neziroglu F , McKay D , Todaro J , Yaryura-Tobias JA . Effects of cognitive behavior therapy on persons with body dysmorphic disorder and comorbid axis II diagnoses. Behav Ther 1996; 27: 67–77.
Nierenberg A , Miyahara S , Spencer T , et al. Clinical and diagnostic implications of lifetime attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbidity in adults with bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 STEP-BD participants. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57: 1467–73.
Nierenberg AA , Phillips KA , Peterson TJ , Kelly , et al. Body dysmorphic disorder in outpatients with major depression. J Affect Disord 2002; 69: 141–8.
Norberg MM , Wetterneck CT , Woods DW , Conelea CA . Experiential avoidance as a mediator of relationships between cognitions and hair-pulling severity. Behav Modif 2007; 31: 367–81.Unlinked
Norton PJ , Price EC . A meta-analytic review of adult cognitive-behavioral treatment outcome across the anxiety disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 2007; 195(6): 521–31.
Nuechterlein KH . Vulnerability models for schizophrenia. State of the art. In Hafner H , Gattaz WF , Janzarik W , eds., Search for the Cause of Schizophrenia. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. 1987, pp. 297–316.
O'Connell R , Mayo J , Flatlow L , Cuthbertson B , O'Brien B . Outcome of bipolar disorder on long-term treatment with lithium. Br J Psychiatry 1991; 159: 123–9.
Obsessive Compulsive Foundation . www.ocfoundation.org
Offord DR , Boyle MH , Campbell D , et al. One year prevalence of psychiatric disorder in Ontarians 15 to 64 years of age. Can J Psychiatry 1996; 41: 559–63.
Olfson M , Fireman B , Weissman MM , et al. Mental disorders and disability among patients in a primary care group practice. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154: 1734–40.
Oquendo M , Mann J. Identifying and managing suicide risk in bipolar patients. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62: 31–4.
Oquendo M , Waternaux C , Brodsky B , et al. Suicidal behavior in bipolar mood disorder: clinical characteristics of attempters and nonattempters. J Affect Disord 2000; 59: 107–17.
Orr SP , Milad MR , Metzger LJ , et al. Effects of beta blockade, PTSD diagnosis, and explicit threat on the extinction and retention of an aversively conditioned response. Biol Psychol 2006; 73(3): 262–71.
Ost L. Applied relaxation: description of a coping technique and review of controlled studies. Behav Res Ther 1987; 25: 397–409.
Otto M , Basden SL , Leyro TM , McHugh RK , Hofmann S . Clinical perspectives on the combination of D-Cycloserine and cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders. CNS Spectr 2007; 12: 59–61.
Otto M , Miklowitz D . The role and impact of psychotherapy in the management of bipolar disorder. CNS Spectr 2004; 9: 27–32.
Otto M , Simon N , Wisniewski S , et al. Prospective 12-month course of bipolar disorder in outpatients with and without comorbid anxiety disorders. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 189: 20–5.
Otto MW , Applebaum AJ . The nature and treatment of bipolar disorder and the bipolar spectrum. In Barlow DH , ed. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Otto MW , Powers MB , Stathopoulou G , Hofmann SG . Panic disorder and social phobia. In Whisman MA , ed. Adapting Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Managing Complexity and Comorbidity. New York: Guilford Press. 2008, pp. 185–208.
Otto MW , Reilly-Harrington NA , Knauz RO , et al. Living with Bipolar Disorder. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Otto MW , Reilly-Harrington NA , Kogan J , et al. Managing Bipolar Disorder: A Cognitive-behavioral Approach (Therapist Guide). New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Otto MW , Reilly-Harrington NA , Kogan JN , et al. Managing Bipolar Disorder: A Cognitive-behavioral Approach (Workbook). New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Otto MW , Wilhelm S , Cohen LS , Harlow BL . Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in a community sample of women. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 2061–3.
Owens GP , Pike JL , Chard KM . Treatment effects of cognitive processing therapy on cognitive distortions of female child sexual abuse survivors. Behav Ther 2001; 32(3): 413–24.
Ozer EJ , Best SR , Lipsey TL , Weiss DS . Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 2003; 129(1): 52–73.
Páez-Blarrina M , Luciano C , Gutierrez-Martinez O , et al. The role of values with personal examples in altering the functions of pain: comparison between acceptance-based and cognitive-control-based protocols. Behav Res Ther 2008; 46: 84–97.
Perkonigg A , Pfister H , Stein MB , et al. Longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162(7): 1320–7.
Perlis R , Miyahara S , Marangell L , et al. Long-term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). Biol Psychiatry 2004; 55: 875–81.
Perlis R , Sachs G , Lafer B , et al. Effect of abrupt change from standard to low serum lithium levels: a reanalysis of double-blind lithium maintenance data. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 1155–9.
Perry A , Tarrier N , Morriss R , McCarthy E , Limb, K . Randomized controlled trial of efficacy of teaching patients with bipolar disorder to identify early warning signs or relapse and obtain treatment. Br Med J 1999; 318: 149–53.
Perugi G , Giannotti D , Di Vaio S , et al. Fluvoxamine in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder (dysmorphophobia). Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1996; 11: 247–54.
Phillips KA , Albertini RS , Rasmussen SA . A randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in body dysmorphic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002; 59: 381–8.
Phillips KA , Coles ME , Menard W , et al. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in body dysmorphic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66: 717–25.
Phillips KA , Diaz SF . Gender differences in body dysmorphic disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 1997; 185: 570–7.
Phillips KA , Didie ER , Menard W . Clinical features and correlates of major depressive disorder in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. J Affect Disord 2007; 97: 129–35.
Phillips KA , Dufresne RG , Wilkel C , Vittorio C . Rate of body dysmorphic disorder in dermatology patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42: 436–41.
Phillips KA , Dwight MM , McElroy SL . Efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine in body dysmorphic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59: 165–71.
Phillips KA , Grant J , Siniscalchi J , Albertini RS. Surgical and nonpsychiatric medical treatment of patients with body dysmorphic disorder.Psychosomatics 2001; 42: 504–10.
Phillips KA , Hollander E , Rasmussen SA , et al. A severity rating scale for body dysmorphic disorder: development, reliability, and validity of a modified version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Psychopharmacol Bull 1997; 33: 17–22.
Phillips KA , Hollander E. Treating body dysmorphic disorder with medication: evidence, misconceptions, and a suggested approach. Body Image. Int Journal Res 2008; 5: 13–27.
Phillips KA , McElroy SL , Keck PE , et al. A comparison of delusional and nondelusional body dysmorphic disorder in 100 cases. Psychopharmacol Bull 1994; 30: 179–86.
Phillips KA , McElroy SL , Keck PE Jr , Pope HG , Hudson JI . Body dysmorphic disorder: 30 cases of imagined ugliness. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150: 302–8.
Phillips KA , Menard W , Fay C , Weisberg R. Demographic characteristics, phenomenology, comorbidity, and family history in 200 individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics 2005; 46: 317–25.
Phillips KA , Menard W , Fay C. Gender similarities and differences in 200 individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. Compr Psychiatr 2006; 47: 77–87.
Phillips KA , Menard W. Suicidality in body dysmorphic disorder: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 1280–2.
Phillips KA , Najjar F . An open-label study of citalopram in body dysmorphic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64: 715–20.
Phillips KA , Taub SL . Skin picking as a symptom of body dysmorphic disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31: 279–88.
Phillips KA . An open-label study of escitalopram in body dysmorphic disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2006; 21: 177–9.
Phillips KA . Quality of life for patients with body dysmorphic disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 2000; 188: 170–5.
Phillips KA. Body dysmorphic disorder: recognizing and treating imagined ugliness. World Psychiatry 2004; 3: 12–17.
Phillips KA. Psychosis in body dysmorphic disorder. J Psychiatr Res 2004; 38: 63–72.
Phillips KA. Suicidality in body dysmorphic disorder. Prim Psychiatry 2007; 14: 58–66.
Phillips KA. The Broken Mirror: Understanding and Treating Body Dysmorphic Disorder (revised and expanded edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Pierce KA , Kirkpatrick DR . Do men lie on fear surveys? Behav Res Ther 1992; 30: 415–18.
Pine DS , Cohen P , Brook J . Adolescent fears as predictors of depression. Biol Psychiatry 2001; 50, 721–4.
Pitman RK , Orr SP , Altman B , Longpre RE . Emotional processing and outcome of imaginal flooding therapy in Vietnam Veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Compr Psychiatry 1996; 37(6): 409–18.
Pope CG , Pope HG , Menard W , et al. Clinical features of muscle dysmorphia among males with body dysmorphic disorder. Body Image 2005; 2: 395–400.
Poulton R , Menzies RG . Fears born and bred: toward a more inclusive theory of fear acquisition. Behav Res Ther 2002; 40: 197–208.
Poulton R , Menzies RG . Non-associative fear acquisitions: a review of the evidence from retrospective and longitudinal research. Behav Res Ther 2002; 40: 127–49.
Priebe S , Wildgrube C , Muller-Oerlinghausen B. Lithium prophylaxis and expressed emotion. Br J Psychiatry 1989; 154: 396–9.
Prochaska JO . Change at differing stages. In Snyder CR , Ingram RE , eds. Handbook of Psychological Change: Psychotherapy Processes and Practices for the 21st Century. New York: Wiley. 2000, pp. 109–27.
Purdon C , Clark D. A . The need to control thoughts. In Frost RO , Steketee G , eds. Cognitive Approaches to Obsessions and Compulsions: Theory, Assessment and Treatment. Oxford: Elsevier. 2002, pp. 29–44.
Rachman S , Cuk M . Fearful distortions. Behav Res Ther 1992; 30: 583–9.
Rachman S , de Silva P. Abnormal and normal obsessions. Behav Res Ther 1978; 16: 233–48.
Rachman S , Hodgson RJ. Obsessions and Compulsions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980.
Rachman S , Radomsky AS , Shafran R . Safety behavior: a reconsideration. Behav Res Ther 2008; 46: 163–73.
Rachman S . A cognitive theory of compulsive checking. Behav Res Ther 2002; 40: 625–39.
Rachman S . Neoconditioning and the classical theory of fear acquisition. Clin Psychol Rev 1991; 11: 155–73.
Rachman S . The conditioning theory of fear-acquisition: a critical examination. Behav Res Ther 1977; 15: 375–87.
Rachman S . The determinants and treatment of simple phobias. Adv Behav Res Ther 1990; 12: 1–30.
Rachman S . The passing of the two-stage theory of fear and avoidance: fresh possibilities. Behav Res Ther 1976; 14: 125–31.
Rachman S . The return of fear. Behav Res Ther 1979; 17: 164–5.
Rachman S . The return of fear: review and prospect. Clin Psychol Rev 1989; 9: 147–68.
Rachman S. Fear of Contamination: Assessment and Treatment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Rachman SJ , Radomsky AS , Shafran R. Safety behaviour: a reconsideration. Behav Res Ther 2008; 46: 163–73.
Rachman, S . A cognitive theory of obsessions. Behav Res Ther 1997; 35: 793–802.
Rachman, S . A cognitive theory of obsessions: elaborations. Behav Res Ther 1998; 36: 385–401.
Radomsky AS , Rachman S , Thordarson DS , et al. The Claustrophobia Questionnaire. J Anxiety Disord 2001; 15: 287–97.
Rapee RM , Heimberg RG . A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behav Res Ther 1997; 35: 741–56.
Rapee RM , Melville LF . Recall of family factors in social phobia and panic disorder: comparison of mother and offspring reports. Depress Anxiety 1997; 5: 7–11.
Rapee RM , Sanderson WC , Barlow DH . Social phobia features across the DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. J Psychopathology Behav Assess 1998; 10: 287–99.
Rasmussen SA , Eisen JL . Epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1990; 51: 10–14.
Rasmussen SA , Eisen JL . Phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical subtypes, heterogeneity, and coexistence. In Zohar J , Insel J , Rasmussen S , eds. Psychobiology of Obsessive–compulsive Disorder. New York: Springer-Verlag. 1991, pp. 743–58.
Rasmussen SA , Tsuang MT . Clinical characteristics and family history in DSM III obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1986; 143: 317–82.
Rea M , Tompson M , Miklowitz D , et al. Family-focused treatment versus individual treatment for bipolar disorder: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71: 482–92.
Ree MJ , Craigie MA . Outcomes following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a heterogeneous sample of adult outpatients. Behav Change 2007; 24: 70–86.
Regier D , Farmer M , Rae D , et al. Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. JAMA 1990; 264: 2511–18.
Reich L , Davies R , Himmelhoch J. Excessive alcohol use in manic-depressive illness. Am J Psychiatry 1974; 131: 83–6.
Reiss S , Peterson RA , Gursky DM , McNally RJ . Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Behav Res Ther 1986; 24: 1–8.
Reiss S , Silverman WK , Weems CF. Anxiety sensitivity. In Vasey MW , Dadds MR , eds. The Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2001, pp. 92–111.
Renshaw KD , Steketee G , Chambless DL . Involving family members in the treatment of OCD. Cogn Behav Ther 2005; 34: 164–75.
Resick PA , Monson CM , Chard KM . Cognitive Processing Therapy: Veteran/Military Version. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs, 2007.
Resick PA , Nishith P , Griffin MG . How well does cognitive-behavioral therapy treat symptoms of complex PTSD? An examination of child sexual abuse survivors within a clinical trial. CNS Spectr 2003; 8(5): 351–5.
Resick PA , Nishith P , Weaver TL , Astin MC , Feuer CA . A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. J Consult Clin Psychol 2002; 70(4): 867–79.
Resick PA , Schnicke M . Cognitive Processing Therapy for Rape Victims: A Treatment Manual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc, 1993.
Resick PA , Schnicke M . Cognitive Processing Therapy for Rape Victims: A Treatment Manual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc, 1993.
Ressler KJ , Rothbaum BO , Tannenbaum L , et al. Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: use of d-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 1136–44.
Rethink: the National Schizophrenia Fellowship www.rethink.org
Rhéaume J , Freeston MH , Dugas M , Letarte H , Ladouceur R. Perfectionism, responsibility and obsessive compulsive symptoms. Behav Res Ther 1995; 33: 785–94.
Rhebergen D , Beekman ATF , de Graaf R , et al. The three-year naturalistic course of major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder and double depression. J Affect Disord 2009; 115: 450–9.
Richelle MN . B.F. Skinner: A Reappraisal. London: Psychology Press, 1995.
Rief W , Buhlmann U , Wilhelm S , et al. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder: a population-based survey. Psychol Med 2006; 36: 877–85.
Riskind JH , Kelly K , Moore R , Harman W , Gaines H . The looming danger: does it discriminate focal phobia and general anxiety from depression? Cognit Ther Res 1992; 16: 1–20.
Rodebaugh TL , Holaway RM , Heimberg RG . The treatment of social anxiety disorder. Clin Psychol Rev 2004; 24: 883–908.
Rohde P , Beevers CG , Stice E , O'Neil K . Major and minor depression in female adolescents: onset, course, symptom presentation, and demographic associations. J Clin Psychol 2009; 65: 1339–49.
Rosas JM , Bouton ME . Renewal of a conditioned taste aversion upon return to the conditioning context after extinction in another one. Learn Motiv 1997, 28: 216–29.
Rosen CS , Chow HC , Finney JF , et al. VA practice patterns and practice guidelines for treating posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress 2004; 17(3): 213–22.
Rosen JC , Reiter J , Orosan P . Cognitive–behavioral body image therapy for body dysmorphic disorder. J Consult Clin Psych 1995; 63: 263–9.
Rosen JC. Cognitive–behavioral body image therapy. In Garner DM , Garfinkel PE , eds. Handbook of Treatment for Eating Disorders, 2nd edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2007, p. 188.
Rothbaum BO , Foa EB , Riggs DS , Murdock T , Walsh W . A prospective examination of post-traumatic stress disorder in rape victims. J Trauma Stress, 1992; 5(3): 455–75.
Rothbaum BO , Hodges L , Kooper R . Virtual reality exposure therapy. J Psychother Pract Res 1997; 6: 219–26.
Rothbaum BO , Hodges LF , Smith S , Lee JH , Price L . A controlled study of virtual reality exposure therapy for the fear of flying. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000; 68: 1020–6.
Rowa K , McCabe RE , Antony MM . Specific phobia and social phobia. In Hunsley J , Mash EJ , eds. A Guide to Assessments that Work. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008, pp. 207–28.
Rowa K , McCabe RE , Antony MM . Specific phobias. In Andrasik F ed. Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology, Volume 2: Adult Psychopathology. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons. 2006, 154–68.
Roy-Byrne PP , Craske MG , Stein MB , et al. A randomized effectiveness trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication for primary care panic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 290–8.
Roy-Byrne PP , Stein MB , Russo J . Panic disorder in the primary care setting: comorbidity, disability, service utilization, and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60: 492–9.
Ruscio AM , Borkovec TD. Experience and appraisal of worry among high worriers with and without generalized anxiety disorder. Behav Res Ther 2004; 42: 1469–82.
Ruscio AM , Brown TA , Chiu WT , et al. Social fears and social phobia in the USA: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychol Med 2008; 38: 15–28.
Ruscio AM , Holohan DR . Applying empirically supported treatments to complex cases: ethical, empirical, and practical considerations. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 2006; 13: 146–62.
Sachs G , Nierenberg A , Calabrese , et al. Effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant treatment for bipolar depression. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 1711–22.
Safren SA , Heimberg RG , Brown EJ , Holle C . Quality of life in social phobia. Depress Anxiety 1997; 4: 126–33.
Safren SA , Heimberg RG , Juster HR . Client expectancies and their relationship to pretreatment symtomatology and outcome of cognitive-behavioral group treatment for social phobia. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997; 65: 694–8.
Salkovskis P , Shafran R , Rachman S , Freeston MH . Multiple pathways to inflated responsibility beliefs in obsessional problems: possible origins and implications for therapy and research. Behav Res Ther 1999; 37: 1055–72.
Salkovskis PM , Clark DM , Hackmann A , Wells A , Gelder MG . An experimental investigation of the role of safety-seeking behaviours in the maintenance of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Behav Res Ther 1999; 37: 559–74.
Salkovskis PM , Harrison J. Abnormal and normal obsessions: a replication. Behav Res Ther 1984; 22: 549–52.
Salkovskis PM. Obsessional-compulsive problems: a cognitive-behavioural analysis. Behav Res Ther 1985; 23: 571–83.
Sanderson WC , Bruce TJ . Causes and management of treatment-resistant panic disorder and agoraphobia: a survey of expert therapists. Cogn Behav Pract 2007; 14: 26–35.
Sanderson WC , DiNardo PA , Rapee RM , Barlow DH. Syndrome comorbidity in patients diagnosed with a DSM-III-R anxiety disorder. J Abnormal Psychol 1990; 99: 308–12.
Sarwer DB , Crerand CE. Body dysmorphic disorder and appearance enhancing medical treatments. Body Image 2008; 5: 50–8.
Sarwer DB , Wadden TA , Pertschuk MJ , Whitaker LA . The psychology of cosmetic surgery: a review and reconceptualization. Clin Psychol Rev 1998; 18: 1–22.
Sawchuk CN , Lohr JM , Tolin DF , Lee TC , Kleinknecht RA . Disgust sensitivity and contamination fears in spider and blood-injection-injury phobias. Behav Res Ther 2000; 38: 753–62.
Saxena S , Feusner JD . Toward a neurobiology of body dysmorphic disorder. Prim Psychiatry 2006; 13: 41–8.
Schatzberg AF , Samson JA , Rothschild AJ , et al. McLean hospital depression research facility: early-onset phobic disorders and adult-onset major depression. Br J Psychiatry 1998; 173: 29–34.
Scheel MJ , Hanson WE , Razzhavaikina TI . The process of recommending homework in psychotherapy: a review of therapist delivery methods, client acceptability, and factors that affect compliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 2004; 41: 38–55.
Scher CD , Ingram RE , Segal ZV . Cognitive reactivity and vulnerability: empirical evaluation of construct activation and cognitive diatheses in unipolar depression. Clin Psychol Rev 2005; 25: 487–510.
Schmidt NB , McCreary BT , Trakowski J , et al. Effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment on physical health status in patients with panic disorder. Behav Ther 2003; 34: 49–63.
Schmidt NB , Woolaway-Bickel K . The effects of treatment compliance on outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder: quality versus quantity. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000; 68: 13–18.
Schneck C , Miklowitz D , Calabrese J , et al. Phenomenology of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: data from the first 500 participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161: 1902–8.
Schneier FR , Erwin BA , Heimberg RG , et al. Social anxiety disorder and specific phobias. In: Gabbard GO , ed. Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc. 2007, 495–506.
Schneier FR , Heckelman LR , Garfinkel R , et al. Functional impairment in social phobia. J Clin Psychiatry 1994; 55: 322–31.
Schnurr PP , Friedman MJ , Foy DW , et al. Randomized trial of trauma-focused group therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: results from a Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60(5): 481–9.
Schultz LT , Heimberg RG . Attentional focus in social anxiety disorder: potential for interactive processes. Clin Psychol Rev 2008; 28(7): 1206–21.
Schulz PM , Resick PA , Huber LC , Griffin MG . The effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy for PTSD with refugees in a community setting. Cogn Behav Pract 2006; 13(4): 322–31.
Schwalberg MD , Barlow DH , Alger SA , Howard LJ . Comparison of bulimics, obese binge eaters, social phobics and individuals with panic disorder on comorbidity across the DSM-III-R anxiety disorders. J Abnorm Psychol 1992; 101: 675–81.
Scott J , Garland A , Moorhead, S . A pilot study of cognitive therapy in bipolar disorders. Psychol Med 2001; 31: 459–67.
Scott J , Paykey E , Morriss , et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for severe and recurrent bipolar disorders. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 313–20.
Scott J , Pope M. Nonadherence with mood stabilizers: prevalence and predictors. J Clin Psychiatry 2002; 65: 384–90.
Segal ZV , Gemar M , Williams S . Differential cognitive response to a mood challenge following successful cognitive therapy or pharmacotherapy for unipolar depression. J Abnorm Psychol 1999; 108: 3–10.
Segal ZV , Williams JM , Teasdale JD , Gemar M . A cognitive science perspective on kindling and episode sensitization in recurrent affective disorder. Psychol Med 1996; 26: 371–80.
Segal ZV , Williams JM , Teasdale JD . Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: a New Approach to Preventing Relapse. New York: Guilford Press, 2002.
Segal ZV , Williams JMG , Teasdale JD . Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: A New Approach to Preventing Relapse. New York: Guilford Press, 2002.
Seligman MEP . On the generality of the laws of learning. Psychol Rev 1970; 77: 406–18.
Seligman MEP Phobias and preparedness. Behav Ther 1971; 2: 307–20.
Shafran R , Thordarson DS , Rachman S. Thought-action fusion in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Anxiety Disord 1996; 10: 379–91.
Simon N , Otto M , Weiss R , et al. Pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder and comorbid conditions: baseline data from STEP-BD. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2004; 24: 512–20.
Simon N , Otto M , Wisniewski S , et al. Anxiety disorder comorbidity in bipolar disorder: data from the first 500 STEP-BD participants. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161: 2222–9.
Simoneau T , Miklowitz D , Richards J , Saleem R , George, E . Bipolar disorder and family communication: effects of a psychoeducational treatment program. J Abnorm Psychol 1999; 108: 588–97.
Simons DJ , Chabris CF . Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception 1999; 28: 1059–74.
Skoog G , Skoog I . A 40-year follow-up of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56: 121–7.
Skre I , Onstad S , Torgersen S , Lygren S , Kringlen E . The heritability of common phobic fears: a twin study of a clinical sample. J Anxiety Disord 2000; 14: 549–62.
Solomon DA , Keller MB , Leon AC , et al. Multiple recurrences of major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 229–33.
Spielberger CD , Gorsuch RL , Lushene R , Vagg PR , Jacobs GA . Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y Self-evaluation Questionnaire). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1983.
Stein MB , Chartier MJ , Hazen AL , et al. A direct-interview family study of generalized social phobia. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 90–7.
Stein MB , Fuetsch M , Muller N , et al. Social anxiety disorder and the risk of depression: a prospective community study of adolescents and young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 158: 251–6.
Steketee G , Eisen J , Dyck I , Warshaw M , Rasmussen S . Predictors of course in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 1999; 89: 229–38.
Stinson FS , Dawson DA , Chou SP , et al. The epidemiology of DSM-IV specific phobia in the USA: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Psychol Med 2007; 37: 1047–59.
Stouthard MEA , Mellenbergh GJ , Hoogstraten J . Assessment of dental anxiety: a facet approach. Anx Stress Coping 1993; 6: 89–105.
Strober M , DeAntonio M , Schmidt-Lackner S , et al. Early childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predicts poorer response to acute lithium therapy in adolescent mania. J Affect Disord 1998; 51: 145–51.
Suominen K , Mantere O , Valtonen H , et al. Early age at onset of bipolar disorder is associated with more severe clinical features but delayed treatment seeking. Bipolar Disord 2007; 9: 698–705.
Suppes T , Leverich G , Keck P , et al. The Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcome Network. II. Demographics and illness characteristics of the first 261 patients. J Affect Disord 2001; 67: 45–59.
Suzuki K , Takei N , Kawai M , Minabe Y , Mori N . Is taijin kyofusho a culture-bound syndrome? Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 1358.
Swinson RP , Antony MM , Bleau P , et al. Clinical practice guidelines: management of anxiety disorders. Can J Psychiatry 2006; 51(8 Suppl 2): 1S–92S.
Szymanski J , O'Donohue W . Fear of Spiders Questionnaire. J Behav Ther and Exp Psychiatry 1995; 26: 31–4.
Tarrier N , Barrowclough C , Andrews B , Gregg L . Risk of non-fatal suicide ideation and behaviour in recent onset schizophrenia: the influence of clinical, social, self-esteem and demographic factors. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2004; 39(11): 927–37.
Tarrier N , Calam R . New developments in cognitive-behavioural case formulation. Epidemiological, systemic and social context: an integrative approach. Cogn Behav Psychother 2002; 30: 311–28.
Tarrier N , Sommerfield C , Pilgrim H , Faragher B . Factors associated with outcome of cognitive-behavioural treatment of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Behav Res Ther 2000; 38(2): 191–202.
Tarrier N , Wykes T . Is there evidence that cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for schizophrenia? A cautious or cautionary tale? Behav Res Ther 2004; 42(12): 1377–401.
Tarrier N . A cognitive-behavioural case formulation approach to the treatment of schizophrenia. In Tarrier N , ed. Case Formulation in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: The Treatment of Challenging and Complex Cases. London: Routledge. 2006, pp. 167–87.
Tarrier N . A cognitive-behavioural case formulation approach to the treatment of schizophrenia. In Tarrier N , ed., Case Formulation in Cognitive Behavior Therapy: The Treatment of Challenging and Complex Cases. New York: Routledge. 2006, pp. 167–87.
Tarrier N . Cognitive-behavior therapy for schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. In Barlow DH , ed. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-step Treatment Manual, 4th edn. New York: Guilford Press, 2007.
Tarrier N . Cognitive-behavior therapy for schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. In Barlow DH , ed., Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-step Treatment Manual, 4th edn. New York: Guilford Press, 2007.
Tarrier N . Cognitive-behaviour therapy for schizophrenia: a review of development, evidence and implementation. Psychother Psychosom 2005; 74: 136–44.
Taylor L , Ingram RE . Cognitive reactivity and depressotypic information processing in children of depressed mothers. J Abnorm Psychol 1999; 108: 202–10.
Taylor S , Thordarson DS , Maxfield L , et al. Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71(2): 330–8.
Taylor S . Meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatments for social phobia. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 1996; 27: 1–9.
Teachman BA , Stefanucci JK , Clerkin EM , Cody MW , Proffitt DR . A new mode of fear expression: perceptual bias in height fear. Emotion 2008; 2: 296–301.
Teasdale JD , Segal VS , Williams JMG . Mindfulness training and problem formulation. Clin Psychol Sci Prac 2003; 10: 157–60.
Teasdale JD , Segal ZV , Williams JMG , et al. Reducing risk of recurrence of major depression using mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000; 68: 615–23.
Telch MJ , Schmidt NB , Jaimez L , Jacquin K , Harrington, P . The impact of cognitive-behavioral therapy on quality of life in panic disorder patients. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995; 63: 823–30.
Thase M , Macfadden W , Weisler R , et al. Efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy in bipolar I and II depression: a double blind, placebo-controled study (the BOLDER II study). J Clin Psychopharmacol 2006; 26: 600–9.
Thase ME , Callan JA . The role of homework in cognitive behavior therapy of depression. J Psychother Integr 2006; 16: 162–77.
The National Institute of Mental Health www.nimh.nih.gov
Thorpe SJ , Salkovskis PM . Selective attention to real phobic and safety stimuli. Behav Res Ther 1998; 36: 471–81.
Tignol J , Biraben-Gotzamanis L , Martin-Guehl C , Grabot D , Aouizerate B . Body dysmorphic disorder and cosmetic surgery: evolution of 24 subjects with a minimal defect in appearance 5 years after their request for cosmetic surgery. Eur Psychiatry 2007; 22: 520–4.
Timmons KA , Joiner TE Jr . Reassurance seeking and negative feedback seeking. In Dobson KS , Dozois DJA , eds. Risk Factors in Depression. San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press. 2008, pp. 429–46.
Tohen M , Greenfield S , Weiss R , Zarate C , Vagge L . The effect of comorbid substance use disorders on the course of bipolar disorder: a review. Harv Rev Psychiatry 1998; 6: 133–41.
Tohen M , Vieta E , Calabrese J , et al. Efficacy of olanzapine and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination in the treatment of bipolar I depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 1079–88.
Tohen M , Waternaux C , Tsuang M . Outcome in mania: a 4-year prospective follow-up of 75 patients utilizing survival analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; 47: 1106–11.
Triffitt J . Back in the Driver's Seat: Understanding, Challenging, and Managing Fear of Driving. Tasmania, Australia: Dr. Jacqui Triffitt (www.backinthedriversseat.com.au), 2003.
Tsai S , Chen C , Kuo C , et al. 15-year outcome of treated bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2001; 63: 215–20.
Tull MT , Jakupcak M , Paulson A . The role of emotional inexpressivity and experiential avoidance in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and aggressive behavior among men exposed to interpersonal violence. Anxiety Stress Coping 2007; 20: 337–51.
Turk CL , Heimberg RG , Magee L. Social anxiety disorder. In Barlow DH , ed. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders, 4th edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2008, 123–63.
Ung EK , Fones CS , Ang AW. Muscle dysmorphia in a young Chinese male. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2000; 29: 135–7.
Ursano RJ , Sonnenberg SM , Lazar SG . Concise Guide to Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: Principles and Techniques of Brief, Intermittent, and Long-term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2004.
Valentiner DP , Telch MJ , Petruzzi DC , Bolte MC . Cognitive mechanisms in claustrophobia: an examination of Reiss and McNally's expectancy model and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Cognit Ther Res 1996; 20: 593–612.
van Oppen P , Arntz A . Cognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther 1994; 32: 79–88.
van Oppen P , de Haan E , van Balkom AJLM , et al. Cognitive therapy and exposure in vivo in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther 1995; 33: 379–90.
Veale D , Boocock A , Gournay K , et al. Body dysmorphic disorder: a survey of fifty cases. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 169: 196–201.
Veale D , Gournay K , Dryden W , et al. Body dysmorphic disorder: a cognitive behavioural model and pilot randomized controlled trial. Behav Res Ther 1996; 34: 717–29.
Verburg C , Griez E , Meijer JA . 35% carbon dioxide challenge in simple phobias. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1994; 90: 420–3.
Vowles KE , McNeil DW , Gross RT , et al. Effects of pain acceptance and pain control strategies on physical impairment in individuals with chronic low back pain. Behav Ther 2007 38: 412–25.
Vriends N , Becker E , Meyer A , et al. Recovery from social phobia in the community and its predictors: data from a longitudinal epidemiological study. J Anx Dis 2007; 21: 320–37.
Walach H , Buchheld N , Buttenmuller V , Kleinknecht N , Schmidt S . Measuring mindfulness: the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Pers Individ Dif 2006; 40: 1543–55.
Wampold BE , Minami T , Baskin TW , Tierney SC . A meta-(re)analysis of the effects of cognitive therapy versus ‘other therapies’ for depression. J Affect Disord 2002; 68: 159–65.
Warren CS , Gleaves DH , Cepeda-Benito A , del Carmen Fernandez M , Rodriguez-Ruiz S . Ethnicity as a protective factor against internalization of a thin ideal and body dissatisfaction. Int J Eat Disord 2005; 37: 241–9.
Weathers F , Litz L , Huska J , Keane T . PTSD Checklist (PCL) for DSM-IV. Boston, MA: National Center for PTSD – Behavioral Science Division, 1994.
Weissman MM , Bland R , Canino G , et al. The cross-national epidemiology of obsessive compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1994; 55: 5–10.
Welch SS , Rizvi S , Dimidjian S . Mindfulness in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder. In Baer RA , ed. Mindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and Applications. Burlington: Academic Press. 2006; pp. 117–39.
Wells A , Matthews, G . Attention and Emotion: A Clinical Perspective. Hove UK: Erlbaum, 1994.
Wells A , Morrison T. Qualitative dimensions of normal worry and normal obsessions: a comparative study. Behav Res Ther 1994; 32: 867–70.
Wells A , Welford M , King P , et al. A pilot randomized trial of metacognitive therapy vs applied relaxation in the treatment of adults with generalized anxiety disorder. Behav Res Ther 2010; doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.11.013.
Wells A . Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders: A Practice Manual and Conceptual Guide. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 1997.
Wells A . Metacognitive Therapy for Anxiety and Depression. New York: Guilford Press, 2008.
Wells A . The metacognitive model of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. In Davey GCL , Wells A , eds. Worry and its Psychological Disorders: Theory, Assessment and Treatment. Chichester, UK: Wiley. 2006, pp. 179–99.
Wells A. A metacognitive model and therapy for generalised anxiety disorder. Clin Psychol Psychother 1999; 6: 86–96.
Wells A. Meta-cognition and worry: a cognitive model of generalised anxiety disorder. Behav Cogn Psychother 1995; 23: 301–20.
Westen D , Morrison K . A multidimensional meta-analysis of treatments for depression, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder: an empirical examination of the status of empirically supported therapies. J Consult Clin Psychol 2001; 69: 875–99.
Westen D , Morrison, K. A multi-dimensional meta-analysis of treatments for depression, panic and generalized anxiety disorder: an empirical examination of the status of empirically supported therapies. J Consult Clin Psychol 2001; 69: 875–99.
Westen D , Novotny CM , Thompson-Brenner H . The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychol Bull 2004; 130: 631–63.
Westra HA , Dozois DJA . Preparing clients for cognitive behavioral therapy: a randomized pilot study of motivational interviewing for anxiety. Cogn Ther Res 2006; 30: 481–98.
Westra, HA , Dozois DJA , Marcus M . Early improvement, expectancy for change, homework compliance, and outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety. J Consult Clin Psychol 2007; 75: 363–73.
Whittal ML , Robichaud M , Thordarson DS , McLean PD . Group and individual treatment of OCD using cognitive therapy and exposure plus response prevention: a two-year follow-up of 2 randomized trials. J Consult Clin Psychol 2008; 76: 1003–14.
Whittal ML , Thordarson DS , McLean PD . Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure and response prevention. Behav Res Ther 2005; 43: 1559–76.
Wilhelm S , Otto MW , Lohr B , Deckersbach T . Cognitive behavior group therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a case series. Behav Res Ther 1999; 37: 71–5.
Wilhelm S , Otto MW , Zucker BG , Pollack MH . Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in patients with anxiety disorders. J Anxiety Disord 1997; 11: 499–502.
Wilhelm S , Phillips KA , Steketee G. A Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Manual for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. New York: Guilford Press, in press.
Wilhelm S. Feeling Good about the Way You Look: A Program for Overcoming Body Image Problems. New York: Guilford Press, 2006.
Williams J , Hadjistavropoulos T , Sharpe D . A meta-analysis of psychological and pharmacological treatments for body dysmorphic disorder. Behav Res Ther 2006; 44: 99–111.
Wilson GT , Grilo CM , Vitousek KM . Psychological treatment of eating disorders. Am Psychol 2007; 62(3): 199–216.
Wilson GT , Grilo CM , Vitousek KM . Psychological treatment of eating disorders. Am Psychol 2007; 62(3): 199–216.
Wilson GT . Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders: progress and problems. Behav Res Ther 1999; 37: S79–S95.
Wittchen HU , Zhaos S , Kessler R , Eaton W. DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51: 355–64.
Wolitzky-Taylor KB , Horowitz JD , Powers M , Telch MJ . Psychological approaches in the treatment of specific phobias: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 2008; 28: 1021–37.
Wolpe J , Lang PJ . A Fear Survey Schedule for use in behaviour therapy. Behav Res Ther 1964; 2: 27–30.
Wolpe J , Lang PJ . Fear Survey Schedule. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service; 1969.
Wolpe J , Lang PJ . Manual for the Fear Survey Schedule (revised). San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service, 1977.
Wolpe J , Lazarus A . Behavior Therapy Techniques. New York: Pergamon Press, 1966.
Wolpe J . Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1958.
Woody SR , Adessky RS . Therapeutic alliance, group cohesion, and homework compliance during cognitive-behavioral group treatment of social phobia. Behav Ther 2002; 35: 5–27.
Wykes T , Steel C , Everitt B , Tarrier N . Cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: effect sizes, clinical models, and methodological rigor. Schizophr Bull 2008; 34(3): 523–37.
Yatham LN , Kauer-Sant'anna M , Bond DJ , Lam RW , Torres I . Course and outcome after the first manic episode in patients with bipolar disorder: prospective 12-month data from the systematic treatment optimization program for early mania project. Can J Psychiatry 2009; 54: 105–12.
Yiend J , Paykel E , Merritt R , et al. Long term outcome of primary care depression. J Affect Disord 2009; 118: 79–86.
Yonkers K , Dyck I , Warshaw M , Keller M. Factors predicting the clinical course of generalised anxiety disorder. Br J Psychiatry 2000; 176: 544–9.
Yonkers K , Massion A , Warshaw M , Keller M. Phenomenology and course of generalised anxiety disorder. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 168: 308–13.
Yonkers KA , Bruce SE , Dyck, IR , Keller, MB . Chronicity, relapse, and illness – course of panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder: findings in men and women from 8 years of follow-up. Depress Anxiety 2003; 17: 173–9.
Young JE , Rygh JL , Weinberger AD , Beck AT . Cognitive therapy for depression. In Barlow DH , ed. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-step Treatment Manual, 4th edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2008, pp. 250–305.
Young JE , Rygh JL , Weinberger AD , Beck AT . Cognitive therapy for depression. In Barlow DH , ed. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-step Treatment Manual, 4th edn. New York: Guilford Press. 2008, pp. 250–305.
Zaretsky A , Lancee W , Miller C , Harris A , Parikh SV . Is cognitive-behavioral therapy more effective than psychoeducation in bipolar disorder? Can J Psychiatry 2008; 53: 441–8.
Zayfert C , DeViva JC , Becker CB , et al. Exposure utilization and completion of cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD in a “real world” clinical practice. J Trauma Stress 2005; 18(6): 637–45.
Zettle RD , Hayes SC . Component and process analysis of cognitive therapy. Psychol Rep 1987; 61: 939–53.
Zettle RD , Hayes SC . Dysfunctional control by client verbal behavior: the context of reason giving. Anal Verbal Behav 1986; 4: 30–8.
Zettle RD , Rains JC . Group cognitive and contextual therapies in treatment of depression. J Clin Psychol 1989; 45: 438–45.
Zettle RD . Acceptance and commitment therapy vs. systematic desensitization in treatment of mathematics anxiety. Psychol Rec 2003; 53: 197–215.
Zlotnick C , Warshaw M , Shea MT , et al. Chronicity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of course of comorbid PTSD in patients with anxiety disorders. J Trauma Stress 1999; 12(1): 89–100.
Zoellner LA , Craske MG . Interoceptive accuracy and panic. Behav Res Ther 1999; 37: 1141–58.