River Discharge to the Coastal Ocean

A Global Synthesis

River Discharge to the Coastal Ocean

Rivers provide the primary link between land and sea. Utilizing the world's largest database, this book presents a detailed analysis and synthesis of the processes affecting fluvial discharge of water, sediment and dissolved solids. The ways in which climatic variation, episodic events, and anthropogenic activities - past, present and future - affect the quantity and quality of river discharge are discussed in the final two chapters. The book contains 26 tables and more than 165 figures - many in full color - including global and regional maps. The book's extensive appendix presents the 1534-river database as a series of 44 tables and 132 maps that provide quantitative data regarding the discharge of water, sediment and dissolved solids. The complete database is also presented within a GIS-based package available online at www.cambridge.org/milliman. River Discharge to the Coastal Ocean provides an invaluable resource for researchers, professionals and graduate students in hydrology, oceanography, geology, geomorphology and environmental policy.


 Reviews:

“The writing style is clear, direct and informal, and the examples are nicely balanced around the world. ... Anyone interested in continental- to global-scale particle and dissolved fluxes from the continents to the world ocean will benefit from having this material close at hand.” - Chris Paola, Oceanography

"For university libraries and many research institutions dealing with global and regional change, this reference work is indispensable. To the best of my knowledge, this is the only public global reference database on river discharge to the coastal ocean. The authors who must have put an incredible amount of time and dedication into this work deserve great respect and thanks." - Environmental Earth Science Journal

“This is a very good book, both timely and much needed. If you are interested in rivers, how they reflect the way earth systems behave, and how we influence them, then I recommend that you buy this book: you will not be disappointed.” - Philip N. Owens, Progress in Physical Geography

“This reference work is indispensable... The authors ... deserve great respect and thanks.” - Jörg Matschullat, Environmental Earth Science

(Swedish) Yearbook of Environmental Statistics, 1986–1987, Stockholm, Sweden.
Gleick. P. H. (1999). The World's Water, 1998/99, Island Press, Washington D.C., 307pp.
Syvitski, J. P. M. (1992).
Syvitski, J. P. M. et al. (2009).
Winchester, S. (2008). The Man Who Loved China. Harper Perennial, New York. 316 pp.
Young, R. A. (1995). Coping with a severe sustained drought on the Colorado River: introduction and overview. Water Resour. Res., 31, 779–788.
Aalto, R. , T. Dunne & J. L. Guyot (2006). Geomorphic control on Andean denudation rates. J. Geol., 114, 85–99.
Aalto, R. et al. (2003). Episodic sediment accumulation on Amazonian flood plains influenced by El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Nature, 425, 493–497.
Abdul Rahmin, N. (1988). Water yield changes after forest conversion to agriculture land use in peninsular Malaysia. J. Trop. For. Sci., 1, 67–84.
Adam, J. C. et al. (2009). Implications of global climate change for snowmelt hydrology in the twenty-first century. Hydrol. Proc., 23, 962–972.
Adel, M. M. (2001). Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges Basin. J. Environ. Qual., 30, 356–368.
Ahnert, F. (1970). Functional relationships between denudation, relief, and uplift in large mid-latitude drainage basins. Am. J. Sci., 268, 243–263.
Akbulut, N. E. et al. (2009). Rivers of Turkey, in Rivers of Europe, eds. K. Tockner , C. T. Robinson & U. Uehlinger , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 643–672.
Akrasi, S. A. & N. B. Ayibotele (1984). An appraisal of sediment transport measurement in Ghanian rivers. IAHS Publ., 144, 301–312.
Aldrian, E. , C. T. A. Chen & S. Adi (2008). Spatial and seasonal dynamics of riverine carbon fluxes of the Brantas catchment in East Java. J. Geophys. Res., 113 doi: 10.1029/2007JG000626Sep 2008.
Alexander, R. B. et al. (1996). Data from Selected US Geological Survey National Stream Water Quality Monitoring Networks (WQN); USGS Digital Data Series DDS-37.
Algan, O. et al. (1997). Riverine Fluxes into the Black and Marmara Seas. CIESM Workshop Monographs, 30, 47–53.
Allen, G. P. , D. Laurier & J. Thouvenin (1979). Etude sédimentologique du Delta de la Mahakam, in Notes et Mémoires No. 15, Paris: Compagnie Francaise des Petroles, p. 156.
Allen, P. A. & N. Hovius (2000). Sediment supply from landslide-dominated catchments: implications for basin-margin fans. Basin Res., 10, 19–35.
Alt-Epping, U. et al. (2007). Provenance of organic matter and nutrient conditions on a river-and upwelling influenced shelf: a case study from the Portuguese margin. Mar. Geol., 243, 169–179.
Alverson, K. D. , R. S. Bradley & T. F. Pedersen (eds.) (2003). Paleoclimate, Global Change and the Future, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Amarasekera, K. N. et al. (1997). ENSO and the natural ­variability in the flow of tropical rivers. J. Hydrol., 200, 24–39.
Amery, H. A. (1993). The Litani River of Lebanon. Geogr. Rev., 83, 229–237.
Amoitte Suchet, P. , J.-L. Probst & W. Ludwig (2003). Worldwide distribution of continental rock lithology: Implications for the atmospheric/soil CO2 uptake by continental weathering and alkalinity river transport to the oceans. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17, 1–13.
Anchukaitis, K. J. et al. (2006). Forward modeling of regional scale tree-ring patterns in the southeastern United States and the recent influence of summer drought. Geophys. Res. Lett, 33, L04705.
Anderson, S. P. (2005). Glaciers show direct linkage between erosion rate and chemical weathering fluxes. Geomorph., 67, 147–157.
Anderson, S. P. , J. I. Drever & N. F. Humphrey (1997). Chemical weathering in glacial environments. Geology, 25, 399–402.
Anderson, S. P. , W. E. Dietrich & G. H. J. Brimhall (2002). Weathering profiles, mass-balance analysis, and rates of solute loss: linkages between weathering and erosion in a small steep catchment. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 114, 1143–1158.
Andrews, E. D. et al. (2004). Influence of ENSO on flood frequency along the California coast. J. Clim., 17, 337–348.
Andrews, J. T. & J. P. M. Syvitski (1994). Sediment fluxes along high latitude glaciated continental margins: Northeast Canada and eastern Greenland, in Global Sedimentary Geofluxes, ed. W. W. Hay , National Academy of Sciences Press, pp. 99–115.
Anthony, E. J. & M. Julian (1997). The 1979 Var Delta landslide on the French Riviera; a retrospective analysis. J. Coast. Res., 13, 27–35.
Antweiler, R. C. , D. A. Goolsby & H. E. Taylor (1995). Nutrients in the Mississippi River, in R. H. Meade (ed.), Contaminants in the Mississippi River, 1987–1992. US Geological Survey Circular 1133, pp. 73–86.
Aquater (1982). Regione Marche: Studio general per la difesa della costa primera fase: San Lorenzo in Campo.
Arboleda, R. A. & M. L. Martinez (1992). Lahars in the Pasig–Potrero River system, in Fire and mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, eds. C. G. Newhall & R. S. Punongbayan , Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Arnborg, L. , H. J. Walker & J. Peippo (1967). Suspended load in the Colville River, Alaska, 1962. Geogr. Ann., 49A, 131–144.
Arnell, N. (1996). Global Warming, River Flows and Water Resources, Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, p. 224.
Artinyan, E. et al. (2008). Modeling the water budget and the riverflows of the Maritsa basin in Bulgaria. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 475–521.
Asselman, N. E. M. & H. Middlelkoop (1995). Floodplain sedimentation: quantities, patterns and processes. Earth Surface Proc. Landforms. Earth Surf. Processes Landforms, 20, 481–499.
Atwater, B. F. (1987). Status of glacial Lake Columbia during the last floods from glacial Lake Missoula. Quat. Res., 27, 182–201.
Audley-Charles, M. G. , J. R. Curray & G. Evans (1977). Location of major deltas. Geology, 5, 3341–3344.
Aulenbach, B. T. , H. T. Buxton , W. A. Battaglin & R. H. Coupe (2007). Streamflow and Nutrient Fluxes of the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River Basin and Subbasins for the Period of Record Through 2005. USGS Open-file Report 2007–1080.
Australian Water Resources Council (1978). Variability of runoff in Australia, p. 44.
Awadallah, R. M. & M. E. Soltan (1995). Chemical survey of the Rile Nile from Aswan into the outlet. J. Environ. Sci. Heal. A, 30, 1647–1658.
Axtmann, E. V. & R. F. Stallard (1995). Chemical weathering in the South Cascade Glacier basin, comparison of subglacial and extra-glacial weathering. IAHS Publ., 228, 431–438.
Ayibotele, N. B. & T. Tuffour-Darko (1979). Sediment loads in the southern rivers of Ghana, Water Resources Research Unit - CSIR, 44.
Baade, J. & R. Hesse (2008). An overlooked sediment trap in arid environments: ancient irrigation agriculture in the coastal desert of Peru. IAHS Publ. 325, 375–382.
Bailey, R. C. (2005). Yukon River Basin, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 774–802.
Baker, P. A. et al. (2001). The history of South American tropical precipitation for the past 25,000 years. Science, 291, 640–643.
Baker, V. R. & R. C. Bunker (1985). Cataclysmic late Pleistocene flooding from Glacial Lake Missoula: A review. Quat. Sci. Rev., 4, 1–41.
Baker, V. R. (2002). High-energy megafloods: planetary settings and sedimentary dynamics. Flood and Megaflood Processes and Deposits: Recent and Ancient Examples, pp. 3–15.
Baker, V. R. et al. (1992). Channels and valley networks, in Mars, eds. H. H. Kieffer , B. Jakosky & C. Snyder , Tucson: University of Arizona Press, pp. 493–522.
Baker, V. R. et al. (1995). Late Quaternary paleohydrology of arid and semi-arid regions, in Global Continental Paleohydrology, eds. K. J. Gregory , L. Starkel & V. R. Baker , Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 203–231.
Balamurugan, S. (1991). Tin mining and sediment supply in Peninsular Malaysia with special reference to the Kelang River basin. The Environmentalist, 11, 281–291.
Balamurugun, S. Bergstrom & G. Lindstrom (1999). Floods in regulated rivers and physical planning in Sweden. Contribution to ICOLD Workshop on Benefits and Concerns About Dams, Antalya, Turkey, p. 11.
Baldwin, C. K. & U. Lall (1999). Seasonality of streamflow: the upper Mississippi River. Water Resour. Res., 35, 1143–1154.
Balogh-Brunstad, Z. et al. (2008). Chemical weathering and chemical denudation dynamics through ecosystem development and disturbance. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22 doi:10.1029/2007GB002957.
Bangladesh Water Development Board (1983). Basic consideration on the morphology and land accretion potentials in the estuary of the Lower Meghna River, 39 pp.
Bar-Matthews, M. et al. (2003). Sea–land oxygen isotopic ­relationships from planktonic foraminifera and speleothems in the Eastern Mediterranean region and their implication for paleorainfall during interglacial intervals. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 67, 3181–3199.
Bard, E. , B. Hamelin & R. G. Fairbanks (1990). U-Th ages obtained by mass spectrometry in corals from Barbados: sea level during the past 130,000 years. Nature, 346, 456–458.
Barnett, T. P. & D. W. Pierce (2008). When will Lake Mead go dry? Water Resour. Res., 44, W3201.
Barnett, T. P. et al. (2008). Human-induced changes in the hydrology of the western United States. Science, 319, 1080.
Barrow, C. J. (1991). Land Degradation: Development and Breakdown of Terrestrial Environments, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bartolini, C. , R. Caputo & M. Pieri (1996). Pliocene–Quaternary sedimentation in the northern Apennine foredeep and related denudation. Geol. Mag., 133, 255–273.
Baumgartner, A. & E. Reichel (1975). The World Water Balance. Mean Annual Global, Continental and Maritime Precipitation, Evaporation and Run-off, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Bayley, S. E. et al. (1992). Effects of multiple fires on nutrient yields from streams draining boreal forest and fen watersheds: nitrogen and phosphorus. Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci., 49, 584–596.
Becker, A. et al. (2004). Responses of hydrological processes to environmental change at small catchment scales, in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: A New Perspective on an Interactive System, eds. P. Kabat et al., Springer-Verlag, pp. 301–338.
Beckinsale, R. P. (1969). River regimes, in Water, Earth and Man, ed. R. J. Chorley , London: Methuen, pp. 176–192.
Begueria, S. (2006). Changes in land cover and shallow landslide activity: A case study in the Spanish Pyrenees. Geomorph., 74, 196–206.
Bellotti, P. et al. (1994). Sequence stratigraphy and depositional setting of the Tiber Delta – integration of high resolution seismics, well logs and archeological data. J. Sed. Res., B64, 416–432.
Belperio, A. P. (1979). The combined use of washload and bed material load rating curves for the calculation of the total load, an example from the Burdekin River, Australia. Catena, 6, 317–329.
Belperio, A. P. (1983). Terrigenous sedimentation in the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon; a model from the Burdekin region. BMR J. Aust. Geol. Geoph., 8, 179–190.
Beltaos, S. & B. C. Burrell (2002). Extreme ice jam floods along the Saint John River, New Bruswick, Canada. IAHS Publ. 271, 9–14.
Beltaos, S. (1999). Climatic effects on the changing ice-breakup regime of the Saint John River, in Proc. 10th Workshop on River Ice Winnipeg, CA, pp. 252–264.
Benito, G. & J. E. O'Connor (2003). Number and size of last-glacial Missoula floods in the Columbia River valley between the Pasco Basin, Washington, and Portland, Oregon. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 115, 624.
Berner, E. L. & R. A. Berner (1987). The Global Water Cycle: Geochemistry and Environment, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Berner, R. A. (1994). GEOCARB II: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. Amer. J. Sci., 294, 56–91.
Berner, R. A. (2004). The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle: CO2 and O2, New York: Oxford University Press.
Berner, R. A. et al. (2003). Phanerozoic atmospheric oxygen. Ann. Rev. Earth lPanet. Sci., 31.
Best, D. W. (1995). History of timber harvest in the Redwood Creek basin, northwestern California, USGS Prof. Paper 1454, C1-C7.
Beusen, A. H. W. et al. (2005). Estimation of global river transport of sediments and associated C, N, and P. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19.
Bianchi, T. S. et al. (2008). Controlling hypoxia on the US Louisiana shelf: beyond the nutrient-centric view. EOS, 89, 26.
Biksham, G. & V. Subramanian (1988). Sediment transport of the Godavari River basin and its controlling factors. J. Hydrol., 101, 275–290.
Billi, P. & M. Rinaldi (1997). Human impact on sediment yield and channel dynamics in the Arno River basin (central Italy). IAHS Publ. 245, 301–311.
Binda, G. G. , T. J. Day & J. P. M. Syvitski (1986). Terrestrial sediment transport into the marine environment of Canada, Environment Canada, p. 85.
Biswas, A. K. (1994). International Waters of the Middle East: From Euphrates–Tigris to Nile, Oxford University Press.
Bjørnsson, H. (1979). Glaciers in Iceland. Jokull, 29, 74–79.
Bjørnsson, H. (1992). Jokulhlaups in Iceland: prediction characteristics and simulation. Ann. Glaciol. Soc., 16, 95–106.
Bjørnsson, H. (1995). Exursion Roadlog, in AGS International Symposium on Glacial Erosion and Sedimentation Rekkvjk, Iceland.
Blair, N. E. et al. (2003). The persistence of memory: the fate of ancient sedimentary organic carbon in a modern sedimentary system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 67, 63–73.
Blong, R. J. (1991). The magnitude and frequency of large landslides in the Ok Tedi catchment. Report, Ok Tedi Mining, Ltd, Tabubil, Papua New Guinea.
Blum, M. D. & H. H. Roberts (2009). Drowning of the Mississippi Delta due to insufficient sediment supply and global sea-level rise. Nat. Geosci., 2, 488–491.
Bluth, G. J. S. & L. R. Kemp (1994). Lithologic and climatologic controls on river chemistry. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 2341–2359.
Bobrovitskaya, N. N. (1996). Long-term variations in mean erosion and sediment yield from rivers of the former Soviet Union. IAHS Publ. 236, 407–413.
Boesch, D. F. et al. (2009). Nutrient enrichment drives Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. EOS, 90, 117–118.
Bogdanova, E. G. et al. (2002). A new model for bias correction of precipitation measurements, and its application to polar regions of Russia. Russ. Meteorol. Hydrol., 10, 68–94.
Bogen, J. (1996). Erosion and sediment yield in Norwegian Rivers. IAHS Publ. 236, 73–84.
Bohannon, J. (2010). The Nile's Delta's shrinking future. Science,
Bonell, M. , M. M. Hufschmidt & J. S. Gladwell (eds.) (1993). Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Borchet, G. & S. Kempe (1985). A Zambezi Aqueduct, in Transport of Carbon Minerals in Major World Rivers, pt. 3, eds. E. T. Degens , S. Kempe & R. Herrera , Hamburg: Mitt. Geol.-Palaont. Inst. Univ., pp. 443–457.
Bork, H. R. et al. (1998). Landschaftsentwicklung in Mitteleuropa, Klett-Perthes Gotha.
Borland, W. M. (1973). Pa Mong Phase II: Supplement to the Main Report (Hydraulics and Sediment Studies),US Bureau Recl.
Boufous, L. (1982). Definition des mesures contre l'envasement de la retenue sur l'Oued Nekur au Maroc, in 14th Congress CIBG, Rio De Janeiro, pp. 11–20.
Bourgoin, L. M. et al. (2007). Temporal dynamics of water and sediment exchanges between the Curuai floodplain and the Amazon River, Brazil. J. Hydrol., 335, 140–156.
Bowling, L. C. & D. P. Lettenmaier (2001). The effects of forest roads and harvest on catchment hydrology in a mountainous maritime environment. Water Sci. Appl., 2, 145–164.
Brabets, T. P. , B. Wang & R. H. Meade (2000). Environmental and hydrologic overview of the Yukon River basin, Alaska and Canada, US Geol. Survey, 106.
Braconnot, P. et al., (2004). Evaluation of PMIP coupled ­ocean–atmosphere simulations of the mid-Holocene. In R. W. Battarbee, F. Gasse and C. E. Stickley (eds.), Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa. Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research, 6. Springer, Dordrecht.
Brardinoni, F. , M. A. Hassan & H. O. Slaymaker (2003). Complex mass wasting response of drainage basins to forest management in coastal British Columbia. Geomorph., 49, 109–124.
Bresson, L.-M. & C. V. Valentin (1994). Soil surface crust formation: contribution of micromorphology, in Soil Micromorphology: Studies in Management and Genesis, eds. A. J. Ringoses-Voase & G. S. Humphreys , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 737–762.
Bretz, J. H. (1930). Lake Missoula and the Spokane flood. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 41, 461–468.
Bretz, J. H. (1969). The Lake Missoula floods and the channeled scabland. J. Geol., 77, 505–543.
Bridge, J. S. (2003). Rivers and Floodplains, Wiley-Blackwell.
Brittain, J. E. et al. (2009). Arctic rivers, in Rivers of Europe, eds. K. Tockner , C. T. Robinson & U. Uehlinger , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 337–379.
Broecker, W. S. (1989). Routing of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Shelf during the younger Dryas cold episode. Nature, 341, 318–321.
Brookfield, H. et al. (1992). Borneo and the Malay Peninsula, in The Earth as Transformed by Human Action, eds. B. L. Turner , II et al., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 495–512.
Brooks, D. (1999). Bobos in Paradise, New York: Simon and Schuster.
Brown, G. W. & J. T. Krygier (1971). Clear-cut logging and sediment production in the Oregon Coast Range. Water Resour. Res., 7.
Brown, W. M. & J. R. Ritter (1971). Sediment transport and turbidity in the Eel River basin, California, US Geol. Survey Open-File Rept., 67pp.
Brown, W. M. (1973). Streamflow, sediment, and turbidity in the Mad River basin, Humboldt and Trinity Counties, California. USGS Water-Resour. Invest. Rept. 73–36.
Brownlie, W. R. & B. D. Taylor (1981). Sediment management for the southern California mountains, coastal plains, and shoreline, Part C: Coastal sediment delivery by major rivers in southern California. California Institute of Technology, Environ. Qual. Lab Rep, 17-C.
Brummett, R. E. & G. G. Teugels (2004). Rivers of the Lower Guinean rainforest: Biogeography and sustainable exploitation, FAO Regional Rept. 007, 149–171.
Brunner, C. A. et al. (1999). Deep-sea sedimentary record of the late Wisconsin cataclysmic floods from the Columbia River. Geology, 27, 463–466.
Brush, G. S. (2001). Natural and anthropogenic changes in Chesapeake Bay during the last 1000 years. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess, 7, 1283–1296.
Bryce, S. , P. Larcombe & P. V. Ridd (1998). The relative importance of landward-directed tidal sediment transport versus freshwater flood events in the Normanby River estuary, Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Mar. Geol., 149, 55–78.
Budyko, M. I. (1974). Climate and Life (translated from Russian by D. H. Miller), San Diego: Academic Press.
Bue, C. D. (1970). Streamflow from the United States into the Atlantic Ocean during 1931–1960, U.S. Geol. Survey open-File Rept., 36 pp.
Burman, J.-O. (1983). Element transports in suspended and dissolved phases in the Kalix River. Environ. Biogeochem. Ecol. Bull., 35, 99–113.
Burn, D. A. et al. (2003). The geochemical evolution of riparian ground water in a forested piedmont catchment. Ground Water, 41, 913–925.
Burns, D. A. et al., (1998). Base cation concentrations in subsurface flow from a forested hillslope: The role of flushing frequency. Water Resour. Res., 34, 3535–3544.
Burt, T. P. (1992). The hydrology of headwater catchments, in The Rivers Handbook, eds. P. Calow & G. E. Petts , Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 3–28.
Burz, J. (1977). Suspended load discharge in the semiarid region of the northern Peru. IAHS Publ. 122, 269–277.
Butler, D. R. & G. P. Malanson (2005). The geomorphic influences of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams. Geomorph., 71, 48–60.
Butler, D. R. (1995). Zoogeomorphology – Animals as Geomorphic Agents, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Butler, D. R. (2006). Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems. Geomorph., 79, 448–459.
Cañon, J. , J. Gonzalvev & J. Valdes (2007). Precipitation in the Colorado River Basin and its low frequency associations with PDO and ENSO signals. J. Hydrol., 333, 252–264.
Canadian National Committee (1972). Discharge of Selected Rivers of Canada, Ottawa: Canadian National Committee for the International Hydrological Decade.
Canton, Y. et al. (2001). Hydrological and erosion response of a badlands system in semiarid SE Spain. J. Hydrol., 252, 65–84.
Carling, P. A. et al. (2002). Late Quaternary catastrophic flooding in the Altai Mountains of south-central Siberia: a synoptic overview and introduction to flood deposit sedimentology. Flood and megaflood processes and deposits: recent and ancient examples, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific, pp. 17–35.
Carter, J. L. & V. H. Resh (2005). Pacific coast rivers of the conterminous United States, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 540–589.
Carvalho, N. O. & S. B. Cunha (1998). Estimata da carga solida do Rio Amazonas e seus principas tributarios para a foz e oceano: uma retrospectiva. A Agua em Revista, CPRM, 6, 44–58.
Carvalho, N. O. (2008). Hidrossedimentologia Pratica (2nd edn.), Rio de Janeiro: Editoria Interciencia.
Cattaneo, A. (1995). The rivers of Italy, in River and Stream Ecosystems, eds. C. E. Cushing , K. W. Cummins & G. W. Minshall , Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Cayan, D. R. & R. H. Webb (1992). El Niño/Southern Oscillation and streamflow in the western United States, in El Niño. Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation, eds. H. F. Diaz & V. Markgraf , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 58–68.
Center for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport ( UN) (1978). Register of International Rivers, UN.
Cerdà, A. & T. Lasanta (2005). Long-term erosional responses after fire in the central Spanish Pyrenees 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59–80.
Chang, J. & O. Slaymaker (2002). Frequency and spatial distribution of landslides in a mountainous drainage basin: Western Foothills, Taiwan. Catena, 46, 285–307.
Chaperon, P. , J. Danloux & L. Ferry (1993). Rivers of Madagascar, Monogr. Hydrol., ORSTOM, Paris.
Chatwin, S. C. & R. B. Smith (1992). Reducing soil erosion associated with forestry operations through integrated research: an example for coastal British Columbia, Canada. IAHS Publ. 209, 377–385.
Chen, C. T. A. (2000). The Three Gorges Dam: reducing the upwelling and thus productivity in the East China Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 381–383.
Chen, C. T. A. , J. T. Liu & B. J. Tsuang (2004). Island-based catchment – The Taiwan example. Reg. Environ. Change, 4, 39–48.
Chen, J. , D. He & S. Cui (2003). The response of river water quality and quantity to the development of irrigated agriculture in the last 4 decades in the Yellow River Basin, China. Water Resour. Res., 39, 1047.
Chen, X. et al. (2001). Human impacts on the Changjiang (Yangtze) River basin, China, with special reference to the impacts on the dry season water discharges into the sea. Geomorph., 41, 111–123.
Chen, Y. (2009). Did the reservoir impoundment trigger the Wenchuar earthquake? Science in China D. Earth Sci. 52, 431–433.
Chen, Z. et al. (2001). Yangtze River of China: historical analysis of discharge variability and sediment flux. Geomorph., 41, 77–91.
Chin, A. (2006). Urban transformation of river landscapes in a global context. Geomorph., 79, 460–487.
Choudhury, A. M. (1978). Bangladesh floods, cyclones and ENSO. IAEA-UNESCO Int. Centre for Theoretical Physics, 8.
Church, T. M. (1996). An underground route for the water cycle. Nature, 380, 579–580.
Ciavola, P. et al. (1999). Relation between river dynamics and coastal changes in Albania: an assessment integrating satellite imagery with historical data. Int. J. Remote Sens., 20, 561–584.
Clague, J. J. et al. (2003). Paleomagnetic and tephra evidence for tens of Missoula floods in southern Washington. Geology, 31, 247–250.
Clair, T. A. , T. L. Pollock & J. M. Ehrman (1994). Exports of carbon and nitrogen from river basins in Canada's Atlantic Provinces. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8, 441–450.
Clark, J. J. & P. R. Wilcock (2000). Effects of land-use change on channel morphology in northeastern Puerto Rico. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 112, 1763–1777.
Clarke, F. W. (1924a). The composition of the river and lake waters of the United States, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 135.
Clarke, F. W. (1924b). The data of geochemistry, US Geo. Surv. Bull. 770.
Clarke, G. K. C. , W. H. Mathews & R. T. Pack (1984). Outburst floods from Glacial Lake Missoula. Quat. Res., 22, 289–299.
Claussen, M. & H.-J. Bolle (2004). The Sahara, in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: A New Perspective on an Interactive System, eds. P. Kabat , M. Claussen & P. A. Dirmeyer , Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 42–44.
COHMAP Members (1988). Climatic changes of the last 18000 years: observations and model simulations. Science, 241, 1043–1052.
Colin, C. et al. (2010). Impact of the East Asian monsoon rainfall changes on the erosion of the Mekong River basin over the past 25,000 yr. Marine Geol., 271, 84–92.
Colinvaux, P. , J. E. de Oliveira & M. Patino (1999). Amazon Pollen Manual and Atlas/Manual e Atlas Palinologico da Amazonia, Amsterdam: Hardwood Academic Publishing.
Collins, B. D. & T. Dunne (1986). Erosion of tephra from the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 97, 896–905.
Collins, D. N. (1996). Sediment transport from glacierized basins in the Karakoram mountains. IAHS Publ. 236, 85–96.
Collins, M. B. (1981). Sediment yield studies of headwater catchments in Sussex, S.E. England. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 6, 517–539.
Collins, R. O. (2002). The Nile, Yale University Press.
Colman, S. M. & J. F. Bratton (2003). Anthropogenically induced changes in sediment and biogenic silica fluxes in Chesapeake Bay. Geology, 31, 71–74.
Coltorti, M. (1997). Human impact in the Holocene fluvial and coastal evolution of the Marche region, Central Italy. Catena, 30, 311–335.
Combe, M. (1968). Resources en Eau du Maroc et Pourcetage d'Utilisation Etat des Connaissances, Direction de l'Hydraulique.
Comision Nacional del Agua (1990). Datos hidrometricos de Mexico, 1937–1985. CD-ROM.
Conley, D. J. et al. (2000). The transport and retention of dissolved silicate by rivers in Sweden and Finland. Limnol. Oceanogr., 45, 1850–1853.
Cook, E. R. et al. (2004). Long-term aridity changes in the western United States. Science, 306, 1015–1018.
Cook, E. R. et al. (2007). North American drought: reconstructions, causes, and consequences. Earth Sci. Rev., 81, 93–134.
Correggiari, A. , A. Cattaneo & F. Trincardi (2005). The modern Po Delta system: Lobe switching and asymmetric prodelta growth. Mar. Geol., 222, 49–74.
Costa, J. E. & L. Schuster (1988). The formation and failure of natural dams. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 100, 1054–1068.
Cowan, E. A. , P. R. Carlson & R. D. Powell (1996). The marine record of the Russell Fiord outburst flood, Alaska, USA. Ann. Glaciol., 22, 194–199.
Craig, R. G. (1987). Dynamics of a Missoula flood, in Catastrophic Flooding, eds. L. Mayer & D. Nash , Boston: Allen & Unwin, pp. 305–332.
Crossland, C. J. et al. (eds.) (2005). Coastal Fluxes in the Anthropocene: Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Crutzen, P. J. & E. F. Stoermer (2000). The “Anthropocene”, in IGBP Newsletter, pp. 17–18.
Culp, J. M. , T. D. Prowse & E. A. Luiker (2005). Mackenzie River Basin, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, 804–850.
Cunjak, R. A. & R. W. Newbury (2005). Atlantic coast rivers of Canada, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, 938–980.
Curtis, W. F. , J. K. Culbertson & E. B. Chase (1973). Fluvial-Sediment Discharge to the Oceans from the Conterminous United States, US Geol. Surv. Circular, 17 pp.
Czaya, E. (1981). Rivers of the World, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
Déry, S. J. & E. F. Wood (2004). Teleconnection between the Arctic Oscillation and Hudson Bay river discharge. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, 18.
Dadson, S. J. et al. (2004). Earthquake-generated increase in sediment delivery from an active mountain belt. Geology, 32, 733–736.
Dadson, S. J. et al. (2005). Hyperpycnal river flows from an active mountain belt. J. Geophys. Res., 110, f04016.
Dahm, D. H. , R. J. Edwards & F. P. Gelwick (2005). Gulf Coast rivers of the Southwestern United States, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, 180–228.
Dai, A. , K. E. Trenberth & T. T. Qian (2004). A global dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870–2002: relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. J. Hydromet., 5, 1117–1130.
Dai, A. G. & K. E. Trenberth (2002). Estimates of freshwater discharge from continents: latitudinal and seasonal variations. J. Hydrometeorol., 3, 660–687.
Dai, F. C. et al. (2005). The 1786 earthquake-triggered landslide dam and subsequent dam-break flood on the Dadu River, southwestern China. Geomorphology, 65, 205–221.
Dai, S. B. , S. L. Yang & A. M. Cai (2008). Impacts of dams on the sediment flux of the Pearl River, southern China. Catena, 76, 36–43.
Dai, S. B. , S. L. Yang & M. Li (2009). The sharp decrease in suspended sediment supply from China's rivers to the sea: anthropogenic and natural causes. Hydrol. Sci., 54, 135–146.
Datta, D. K. & V. Subramanian (1997). Texture and mineralogy of sediments from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river system in the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh and their environmental implications. Environ. Geol., 30, 181–188.
Dauta, A. et al. (2009). The Adour–Garonne basin, in Rivers of Europe, eds. K. Tockner , C. T. Robinson & U. Uehlinger , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 182–198.
De Bartolo, S. G. , S. Gabriele & R. Gaudio (2000). Multifractal behaviour of river networks. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 4, 105–112.
de Vente, J. et al. (2007). The sediment delivery problem revisited. Prog. Phys. Geog., 31, 155–178.
de Villiers, M. (2000). Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
de Wit, M. (1999). Modeling nutrient fluxes from source to river load: a macroscopic analysis applied to the Rhine and Elbe basins. Hydrobiologia, 410, 123–130.
Dearing, J. A. & R. T. Jones (2003). Coupling temporal and spatial dimensions of global sediment flux through lake and marine sediment records. Global Planet. Change, 39, 147–168.
Dedkov, A. P. & V. I. Mozzherin (1992). Erosion and sediment yield in mountain regions of the world. IAHS Publ. 209, 29–36.
Degens, E. T. & D. A. Ross (1972). Chronology of the Black Sea over the last 25,000 years. Chem. Geol., 10, 1–16.
Degens, E. T. , S. Kempe & J. E. Richey (eds.) (1991). Biogeo­chemistry of major world rivers, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Dellapenna, J. W. (1996). Rivers as legal structures: the examples of the Jordan and the Nile. Nat. Resour. J., 36, 217–250.
Demissie, M. (1996). Patterns of erosion and sedimentation in the Illinois River basin. IAHS Publ. 236, 483–490.
Depetris, P. J. & A. M. L. Lenardon (1982). Particulate and dissolved phases in the Parana River. Mitt. Geol. -Palaont. Inst. University of Hamburg, 52, 385–395.
Depetris, P. J. & G. Irion (1996). Clay-size mineralogy of the suspend load from two Patagonian rivers: The Negro and The Colorado. Actas del Trigésimo Congreso Geológico Argentino, 3, 275–280.
Depetris, P. J. & J. E. Paolini (1991). Biogeochemical aspects of South American rivers The Parana and the Orinoco, in Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers, eds. E. T. Degens , S. Kempe & J. E. Richey , Chinchester: Wiley, pp. 105–126.
Depetris, P. J. et al. (1996). ENSO-controlled flooding in the Parana River (1904–1991). Naturwissenschaften, 83, 127–129.
Depetris, P. J. et al. (2005). Biogeochemical output and typology of rivers draining Patagonia's Atlantic seaboard. J. Coast. Res., 21, 835–844.
Deser, C. (2000). On the teleconnectivity of the “Arctic Oscillation”. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 779–782.
Deser, C. , A. S. Phillips & J. W. Hurrell (2004). Pacific interdecadal climate variability: Linkages between the tropics and North Pacific during boreal winter since 1900. J. Climatol., 17, 3109–3124.
Dettinger, M. D. & H. F. Diaz (2000). Global characteristics of stream flow seasonality and variability. J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 289–310.
Deverel, S. J. and Rojstaczer, S. (1996). Subsidence of agricultural lands in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California: role of aqueous and gaseous carbon fluxes. Water. Reour. Res, 32, 2359–2367.
Dhanio, L. L. et al. (2008). Changes in sediment discharge after the collapse of Mount Bawakaraeng in south Sulawesi, Indonesia. IAHS Publ. 325, 607–611.
Dietrich, W. E. , G. Day & G. Parker (1999). The Fly River, Papua New Guinea: inferences about river dynamics, floodplain sedimentation and fate of sediment, in Varieties of Fluvial Form, eds. A. J. Miller & A. Gupta , Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 345–376.
Dilley, M. & B. N. Heyman (1995). ENSO and disaster: droughts, floods and El Nino/Southern Oscillation warm events. Disasters, 19, 181–193.
Dinehart, R. L. (1997). Sediment transport at gauging stations near Mount St. Helens, Washington, 1980–90: data collection and analysis, US Geological Survey., 105 pp.
Dixon, T. H. et al. (2006). Subsidence and flooding in New Orleans. Nature, 441, 587–588.
Dole, R. & H. Stabler (1909). Denudation, US Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 234, pp. 78–93.
Donnelly, J. P. et al. (2005). Catastrophic meltwater discharge down the Hudson Valley: a potential trigger for the Intra-Allerod cold period. Geology, 33, 89–92.
Dorsey, R. J. (1988). Provenance evolution and unroofing history of a modern arc-continent collision: evidence from petrography of Plio-Pleistocene sandstones, eastern Taiwan. J. Sediment. Petrol., 58, 208–218.
Dosseto, A. et al. (2006). Time scale and conditions of weathering under tropical climate: study of the Amazon basin with U-series. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70, 71–89.
Douglas, I. & T. Spencer (1985). Environmental change and tropical geomorphology, Allen & Unwin Australia.
Douglas, I. (1967). Man, vegetation, and the sediment yield of rivers. Nature, 215, 925–928.
Douglas, I. (1968). Erosion in the Sungei Gombak catchment – Selangor Malaysia. J. Tropic. Geog., 26, 1–16.
Douglas, I. (1996). The impact of land-use changes, especially logging, shifting cultivation, mining and urbanization on sediment yields in humid tropical Southeast Asia: a review with special reference to Borneo. IAHS Publ. 236, 463–471.
Dowidar, N. M. (1988). Effect of Aswan High Dam on the biological productivity of southeastern Mediterranean, in Natural and Man-made Hazards, eds. M. E. El-Sabh & T. S. Murty , Dordrecht: D. Reidel, pp. 477–498.
Drago, E. E. & M. L. Amsler (1988). Suspended sediment at a cross section of the Middle Parana River: concentrations, granulometry and influence of the main tributaries, in Sediment Budgets, IAHS Publ. 174, 381–396.
Drake, D. E. , R. Kolpack & P. J. Fischer (1972). Sediment transport on Santa Barbara–Oxnard shelf, Santa Barbara Channel, California, in Shelf Sediment Transport: Processes and Pattern, eds. D. J. P. Swift , D. B. Duane & O. H. Pilkey , Stroudsburg, PA: Dowdon, Hutchinson and Ross, pp. 307–332.
Drenzek, N. J. et al. (2009). A new look at old carbon in active margin sediments. Geology, 37, 239.
Drever, J. I. (1994). The effect of landplants on weathering rates of silicate minerals. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 2325–2333.
Duncan, M. J. (1992). Flow regimes of New Zealand rivers, in Waters of New Zealand, ed. M. P. Mosley , NZ Hydrol. Soc., pp. 13–27.
Dunne, T. & W. E. Dietrich (1980). Experimental study of Horton overland flow on tropical hillslopes. Z. Geomorphol. Suppl., 35, 40–59.
Dunne, T. (1978). Rates of chemical denudation of silicate rocks in tropical catchments. Nature, 274, 244–246.
Dunne, T. (2001). Problems in measuring and modeling the influence of forest management on hydrologic and geomorphic processes, in Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorpholgy in Urban and Forest Areas, eds. M. S. Wigmosta & S. J. Burges , Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, pp. 77–84.
Dunne, T. et al. (1998). Exchanges of sediment between the floodplain and channel of the Amazon River in Brazil. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 110, 450–470.
Dupré, B. et al. (2003). Rivers, chemical weathering and Earth's climate. C.R. Geosci., 335, 1141–1160.
Dynesius, M. & C. Nilsson (1994). Fragmentation and flow regulation of river systems in the northern third of the world. Science, 266, 753–762.
Dzhamalov, R. G. & T. I. Safronova (2002). On estimating chemical discharge into the world ocean with groundwater. Water Resour. Res., 29, 680–686.
Dzhaoshvili, W. (1986). River sediments and formation of beaches on Georgia Black Sea shore (in Russian), Tbilisi: Sabchota Sakartvelo (cited in Meybeck and Ragu, 1997).
ECLAC (1990). Latin America and the Caribbean: Inventory of Water Resources and Their Use, Santiago, Chile: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).
Edmond, J. M. & Y.-S. Huh (1997). Chemical weathering yields from basement and orogen terrains in hot and cold ­climates, in Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change, ed. W. F. Ruddiman , New York: Plenum Press, pp. 329–351.
Edmond, J. M. et al. (1995). The fluvial geochemistry and denudation rate of the Guayana Shield in Venezuela, Colombia, and Brazil. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59, 3301–3325.
Edwards, T. K. & G. D. Glysson (1999). Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment, US Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation, Book 3, chapter C2, 118.
Eisma, D. , G. C. Cadee & R. Laane (1982). Supply of suspended matter and particulate and dissolved organic carbon from the Rhine to the coastal North Sea, in Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers, SCOPE-42, eds. E. T. Degens , S. Kempe & J. E. Richey , Chichester: Wiley and Sons, pp. 297–322.
Eisma, D. L. , L. Kalf & S. J. Van der Gaast (1978). Suspended matter in the Zaire estuary and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. Neth. J. Sea Res., 12, 382–406.
Eittreim, S. L. , R. Anima & A. J. Stevenson (2002). Seafloor geology of the Monterey Bay area continental shelf. Mar. Geol., 181, 3–34.
Ekholm, P. (1992). Reversibly adsorbed phosphorus in agriculturally loaded rivers in southern Finland. Aqua Fennica, 22, 35–41.
El-Etr, H. A. et al. (1999). Regional study of the drainage basins of Sinai and eastern desert of Egypt, with a preliminary assessment of their flash flood potential. Ann. Geo. Survey Egypt, 22, 335–356.
El-Sayed, R. (1993). The River Nile: Geology, Hydrology and Utilization, Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Eldridge, D. J. (1998). Trampling of microphytic crusts on calcareous soils, and its impact on erosion under rain-impacted flow. Catena, 33, 221–239.
Emanual, K. A. (2005). Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature, 436, 686–688.
Emanuel, K. A. (1987). The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate. Nature, 326, 483–485.
Embrey, S. S. & L. M. Frans (2003). Surface-water quality of the Skokomish, Nooksack and Green-Duwamish rivers and Thornton Creek, Puget Sound basin, Washington, 1995–1998, USGS Water Res. Invest. Rept. 4190.
Emile-Gray, J. et al. (2007). ENSO as a mediator for the solar influence on climate. Paleoceanogr, 22, PA3210, doi:10.1029/2006PA1304, 2007.
Emiliani, C. et al. (1975). Paleoclimatological analysis of late Quaternary cores from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Science, 189, 1083–1088.
Environment Canada (1984).
Enzel, Y. et al. (1999). High-resolution Holocene environmental changes in the Thar Desert northwestern India. Science, 284, 125–128.
Erlingsson, U. L. F. (2008). A Jokulhlaup from a Laurentian-captured ice shelf to the Gulf of Mexico could have caused the Bølling warming. Geog. Ann. Ser. A Phys. Geog., 90, 125–140.
Ermini, L. & N. Casagli (2003). Prediction of the behavior of landslide dams using a geomorphological dimensionless index. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 28, 31–47.
Erskine, W. D. & R. Warner (1999). Significance of river bank erosion as a sediment source in the altering of flood regimes of south-eastern Australia, in Fluvial Processes and Environmental Change, eds. A. G. Brown & T. A. Quine , New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 139–163.
Esser, G. & G. H. Kohlmaier (1991). Modeling terrestrial sources of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and organic carbon to rivers, in Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers, eds. E. T. Degens , S. Kempe & J. E. Richey , Chichester: Wiley, pp. 297–322.
Etchanchu, D. & J. L. Probst (1988). Evolution of the chemical composition of the Garrone River water during the period 1971–1984. Hydrol. Sci. J., 33, 243–256.
Eurosion (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe; sediment and space for sustainabliity. Part II: Maps and Statistics, DG Environment EC.
Fairbanks, R. G. (1989). A 17, 000-year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation. Nature, 342, 637–642.
Fang, X. et al. (2001). Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949–1998. Science, 292, 2320–2322.
Fanos, A. M. (1996). The impact of human activities on the erosion and accretion of the Nile delta coast. J. Coast. Res., 11, 821–833.
FAO (1997). Irrigation potential in Africa: a basin approach, Rome: FAO, Water Resources.
FAO (1999). State of world's forests, Rome: FAO, Forestry Department.
FAO/AGL (http://www.fao.org/landwater/aglw/sediment/default.asp).
FAP 24 (1994). Morphological Studies Phase I: Available Data and Characteristics, Government of Bangladesh.
Farnsworth, K. L. & J. D. Milliman (2003). Effects of climatic and anthropogenic change on small mountainous rivers: the Salinas River example. Global Planet. Change, 39, 53–64.
Favier, V. et al. (2009). Interpreting discrepancies between discharge and precipitation in high-altitude area of Chile's Norte Chico region (26–32° S). Water Resour. Res., 45, W02424, doi:10.1029/2008WR006802.
Fekete, B. M. , C. J. Vörösmarty & W. Grabs (1999). Global, Composite Runoff Fields Based on Observed River Discharge and Simulated Water Balances, Koblenz, Germany:WMO-Global Runoff Data Center Report #22.
Fekete, B. M. , C. Vörösmarty & W. Grabs (2002). High-resolution fields of global runoff combining observed river discharge and simulated water balances. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, 1042, doi:10.1029/1999GB001254.
Fettweis, M. , M. Sas & J. Monbaliu (1998). Seasonal, neap-spring and tidal variation of cohesive sediment concentration in the Scheldt estuary, Belgium. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 47, 21–36.
Fierro, P. , Jr. & E. K. Nyer (2007). The Water Encyclopedia (3rd edition), Boca Raton, Fla: CRC, Taylor and Francis.
Finlayson, B. L. & T. A. McMahon (1988). Australia vs. the world: a comparative analysis of streamflow characteristics, in Fluvial Geomorphology of Australia, ed. R. F. Warner , Sydney: Academic Press, pp. 17–40.
Fisk, H. N. (1947). Fine-grained alluvial deposits and their effects on Mississippi River activity, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, 82 pp.
Florsheim, J. L. , Keller, E.A. and Best, D.W. (1991). Fluvial sediment transport in response to moderate storm flows following chaparral wildfire, Ventura County, southern California. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 103, 504–511.
Foley, J. A. et al. (2002). El Nino-Southern oscillation and the climate, ecosystems and rivers of Amazonia. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, 1–17.
Foley, J. A. et al. (2005). Global consequences of land use. Science, 309, 570–574.
Forbes, D. L. (1981). Babbage River Delta and lagoon: Hydrology and sedimentology of an Arctic estuarine system, Unpubl. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 554 p.
Foucart, A. & Stanley, D. J. (1989). Late Quaternary paleoclimatic oscillations in east Africa recorded by heavy minerals in the Nile Delta. Nature 229, 44–46.
Fournier, F. (1949). Les factuer climatiques de l'erosion du sol. Assoc. Geog. Francais Bull., 203, 97–103.
Fournier, F. (1960). Climat et Erosion, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Framji, K. K. & I. K. Mahajan (1969). Irrigation and Drainage in the World; a Global Review, 2nd edn. Inter­national Commission on Irrigation & Drainage. New Delhi. 2 v.
Francou, J. & J. Rodier (1967). Essai de classification des crues maximales observées dans le monde. Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Hydrol, IV.
Frangipane, A. & E. Paris (1994). Long-term variability of sediment transport in the Ombrone River Basin (Italy). IAHS Publ. 224, 317–324.
Fraser, A. S. , M. Meybeck & E. D. Ongley (1995). Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS): Water Quality of World River Basins, UNEP Environment Library.
Frihy, O. E. , E. A. Debes & W. R. El Sayed (2003). Processes reshaping the Nile delta promontories of Egypt: pre-and post-protection. Geomorph., 53, 263–279.
Fu, C. B. & H. L. Yuan (2001). A virtual numerical experiment to understand the impacts of recovering natural vegetation on summer climate and environmental conditions in East Asia. Chin. Sci. Bull., 46, 1199–1203.
Fuggle, R. & W. T. Smith (2000). Experience with Dams in Water and Energy Resource Development in the People's Republic of China, World Comm. Dams Country Review Paper.
Fuller, C. C. et al. (1990). Distribution and transport of sediment-bound metal contaminants in the Río Grande de Tárcoles, Costa Rica (Central America). Water Res., 24, 805–812.
Fuller, C. W. et al. (2003). Erosion rates for Taiwan mountain basins: new determinations from suspended sediment records and a stochastic model of their temporal variation. J. Geol., 111, 71–87.
Furuichi, T. , Z. Win & R. J. Wasson (2009). Discharge and suspended sediment transport in the Ayeyarwady River, Myanmar: centennial and decadal changes. Hydrol. Process., 23, 1631–1641.
Gabet, E. J. & S. M. Mudd (2009). A theoretical model coupling chemical weathering rates with denudation rates. Geology, 37, 151.
Gac, J. Y. & A. Kane (1986). Le fleuve Sénégal: II. Flux continentaux de matières dissoutes à l'embouchure. Sciences Géol. Bull., 39, 151–172.
Gagan, M. K. et al. (2004). Post-glacial evolution of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Quat. Int., 118/119, 127–143.
Gaillardet, J. et al. (1997). Chemical and physical denudation in the Amazon River Basin. Chem. Geol., 142, 141–173.
Gaillardet, J. et al. (1999). Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of large rivers. Chem. Geol., 159, 3–30.
Galewsky, J. et al. (2006). Tropical cyclone triggering of sediment discharge in Taiwan. J. Geophys. Res., 11 doi:10.1029/2005JF000428.
Galster, J. C. et al. (2006). Effects of urbanization on watershed hydrology: the scaling of discharge with drainage area. Geology, 34, 713.
Galy, A. & C. France-Lanord (2001). Higher erosion rates in the Himalaya: geochemical constraints on riverine fluxes. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 29, 23–26.
Gamage, N. and V. Smakhtin (2009). Do river deltas in east India retreat? A case of the Krishna Delta. Geomorph. 108, 533–540.
Garbarino, J. R. et al. (1995). Heavy metals in the Mississippi River. US Geol. Surv. Circular 1133, pp. 53–72.
Garcia-Ruiz, J. M. (2010). The effects of land uses on soil erosion in Spain: a review. Catena, 81, 1–11.
Gasse, F. (2000). Hydrological changes in the African tropics since the Last Glacial Maximum. Quat. Sci. Rev., 19, 189–211.
Gay, G. R. et al. (1998). Evolution of cutoffs across meander necks in Powder River, Montana, USA. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 23.
Ge, S.-M. et al. (2009). Did the Zipingpu Reservoir trigger the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake? Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L20315, doi:10.1029/2009GL040349.
GEMS (1983). GEMS/WATER Data Summary, Burlington, Ontario: WHO Collaborating Centre for Inland Waters.
Gerten, D. et al. (2008). Causes of change in 20th century global river discharge. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20405.
Gibbs, R. (1967). The geochemistry of the Amazon River system. Part 1. The factors that control the salinity and composition and concentration of the suspended solids. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 78, 1203–1232.
Gilbert, G. K. (1917). Hydraulic-mining debris in the Sierra Nevada: US, US Geological Survey Prof. Paper 105, 154 pp.
Gillett, N. P. , T. D. Kell & P. D. Jones (2006). Regional climate impacts of the Southern Annular Mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23704.
Gilluly, J. (1955). Geologic contrasts between continents and ocean basins. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper, 62, 7–18.
Giresse, P. A. , A. Wiewiora & B. Lacka (1998). Processes of Holocene Ferromanganese-coated grains in the nearshore shelf of Cameroon. J. Sediment. Res., 68, 20–36.
Gleick, P. H. (1993). Water in Crisis, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gleick, P. H. (2000a). The changing water paradigm. A look at twenty-first century water resources development. Water Int., 25, 127–138.
Gleick, P. H. (2000b). The World's Water. 2000–2001, Washington, DC: Island Press.
Gleick, P. H. (ed.) (2002). The World's Water 2002–2003: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources, Washington, DC: Island Press.
Gleick, P. H. et al. (2000). Water: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. A Report of the National Water Assessment Group, US Global Change Research Program, US Geol. Surv. and Pac. Inst. Stud. in Devel., Environ., Secur., Oakland, California.
Gleick, P. H. et al. (2006). The World's Water, 2006–2007, Island Press, Washington D.C., 368pp.
Goldenberg, S. B. et al. (2001). The recent increase in Atlantic hurreane activity: causes and implications. Science, 293, 474–479.
Goldsmith, S. T. et al. (2008). Extreme storm events, landscape denudation, and carbon sequestration: Typhoon Mindulle, Choshui River, Taiwan. Geology, 36, 483–486.
Golosov, V. N. et al. (2008). Response of a small arable catchment sediment budget to introduction of soil conservation measures. IAHS Publ. 425, 106–113.
Gong, G.-Y. & J.-X. Xu (1987). Environmental effects of human activities on rivers in the Huanghe-Huaihe-Haihe plain, China. Geogr. Ann., 69, 181–188.
Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C. et al. (2009). Contribution of the largest events to suspended sediment transport across the USA. Land Degrad. Develop., doi: 10.1002/ldr.897.
Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C. and J. L. Peña-Monné (2007). A review of daily erosion in Western Mediterranean areas. Catena, 71, 193–199.
Goodbred, S. L. (2003). Response of the Ganges dispersal system to climate change: a source-to-sink view since the last interstade. Sediment. Geol., 162, 83–104.
Goodbred, S. L. , Jr. & S. A. Kuehl (1998). Floodplain processes in the Bengal Basin and the storage of Ganges-Brahmaputra River sediment; an accretion study using 137Cs and 210Pb geochronology. Sediment. Geol., 121, 239–258.
Goodbred, S. L. , Jr. & S. A. Kuehl (2000). The significance of large sediment supply, active tectonism, and eustasy on margin sequence development: Late Quaternary stratigraphy and evolution of the Ganges–Brahmaputra delta. Sediment. Geol., 133, 227–248.
Goolsby, D. A. & W. A. Battaglin (2001). Long-term changes in concentrations and flux of nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Hydrol. Process., 15, 1209–1226.
Goolsby, D. A. & W. E. Pereira (1996). Pesticides in the Mississippi river. US Geol. Surv. Circular 1133, 87–102.
Goolsby, D. A. (1994). Flux of herbicdes and nitrate from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico, in Coastal Oceanographic Effects of Summer 1993 Mississippi River Flooiding, ed. M. J. Dowigiallo , US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Special NOAA Report, 77 pp.
Goolsby, D. A. et al. (1999). Flux and sources of nutrients in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin: Topic 3 report for the integrated assessment on hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 17, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Silver Spring, Maryland, p. 130.
Gordeev, V. V. & I. S. Sidorov (1993). Concentrations of major elements and their outflow into the Laptev Sea by the Lena River. Marine Geochem., 43, 33–45.
Gordeev, V. V. (2000). River input of water, sediment, major ions, nutrients and trace metals from Russian territory to the Arctic Ocean, in The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean, ed. E. L. Lewis , Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishing, pp. 297–322.
Gordeev, V. V. (2006). Fluvial sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean. Geomorph., 80, 94–104.
Gordeev, V. V. et al. (1996). A reassessment of the Eurasian River input of water, sediment, major ions and nutrients to the Arctic Ocean. Amer. J. Sci., 296, 664–691.
Gordon, R. (1885). The Irawadi River. Royal Geogr. Soc. Proc, 7, 292–331.
Gorg, S. K. (1999). River Water Disputes in India. Laxmi Publ., New Delhi, 132pp.
Gorsline, D. S. (1996). Depositional events in Santa Monica Basin, California Borderland, over the past five centuries. Sediment. Geol., 104, 73–88.
Goudie, A. (2000). The Human Impact on the Natural Environment, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, p. 511.
Goudie, A. S. (2006). Global warming and fluvial geomorphalogy. Geomorph., 79, 384–394.
Graf, W. L. (1999). Dam nation: a geographic census of American dams and their large-scale hydrologic impacts. Water Resour. Res., 35, 1305–1311.
Graf, W. L. (2006). Downstream hydrologic and geomorphic effects of large dams on American rivers. Geomorph., 79, 336–360.
GRDC (1995). First Interim Report on the Arctic River Database for the Arctic Climate System Study, Koblenz, Germany: Federal Institute of Hydrology.
Green, W. J. et al. (2005). Geochemical proceses in the Onyx River, Wright Valley, Antarctica: Major ions, nutrients, trace metals. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69, 839–850.
Greene, R. S. B. , C. J. Chartres & K. C. Hodgkinson (1990). The effects of fire on the soil in a degraded semi-arid woodland 1. Cryptogam cover and physical and micromorphological properties. Aust. J. Soil Res., 28, 755–777.
Gresswell, R. K. & A. Huxley (eds.) (1966). Standard Encyclopedia of the World's Rivers and Lakes, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Griffiths, G. A. & G. P. Glasby (1985). Input of river-derived sediment to the New Zealand continental shelf: I. Mass. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 21, 773–787.
Griffiths, G. A. (1981). Some suspended sediment yields from south island catchments, New Zealand. Water Resour. Bull., 17, 662–671.
Griffiths, G. A. (1982). Spatial and temporal variability in suspended sediment yields of North Island basins, New Zealand. Water Resour. Bull., 18, 575–584.
Griggs, G. B. et al. (1970). Deep-sea gravel from Cascadia Channel. J. Geology 78, 611–619.
Grove, A. T. & O. Rackham (2001). The nature of Mediterranean Europe. An Ecological History, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gudmundsson, M. T. , F. Sigmundsson & H. Bj örnsson (1997). Ice-volcano interaction of the 1996 Gjálp subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull, Iceland. Nature, 389, 954–957.
Guillén, J. & A. Palanques (1997). A historical perspective of the morphological evolution in the lower Ebro river. Environ. Geol., 30, 174–180.
Guillén, J. et al. (2006). Sediment dynamics during wet and dry storm events on the Têt inner shelf (SW Gulf of Lions). Mar. Geol., 234, 129–143.
Gumiero, B. et al. (2009). The Italian Rivers, in Rivers of Europe, eds. K. Tockner , C. T. Robinson & U. Uehlinger , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 467–496.
Gunnell, Y. (1998). Present, past and potential denudation rates: is there a link? Tentative evidence from fission-track data, river sediment loads and terrain analyses in south Indian shield. Geomorph., 25, 135–153.
Gupta, A. (1988). Large floods as geomorphic events in the humid tropics, in Flood Geomorphology, eds. V. R. Baker , R. C. Kochel & P. C. Patton , Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 301–315.
Gupta, A. , V. S. Kale & S. N. Rajaguru (1999). The Narmanda River, India, through space and time, in Varieties of Fluvial Form, eds. A. J. Miller & A. Gupta , Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 113–143.
Gupta, H. & G. J. Chakrapani (2005). Temporal and spatial variations in water flow and sediment load in Narmada River Basin, India: natural and man-made factors. Environ. Geol., 48, 579–589.
Gurnell, A. , D. Hannah & D. Lawler (1996). Suspended sediment yield from glacier basins. IAHS Publ. 236, 97–104.
Gutierrez, F. & J. A. Dracup (2001). An analysis of the feasibility of long-range streamflow forecasting for Colombia using El Niño–Southern Oscillation indicators. J. Hydrol., 246, 181–196.
Guyot, J. L. et al. (1996). Dissolved solids and suspended sediment yields in the Rio Maderia basin from the Bolivian Andes to the Amazon. IAHS Publ. 236, 55–63.
Habidin, A. (2005). Land subsidence in urban areas of Indonesia. GIM International, 19.
Haines, A. T. , B. L. Finlayson & T. A. McMahon (1988). A global classification of river regimes. Appl. Geog., 8, 255–272.
Hales, T. C. & J. J. Roering (2009). A frost “buzzsaw” mechanism for erosion of the eastern Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geomorph., 107, 241–253.
Hallet, B. , L. Hunter & J. Bogen (1996). Rates of erosion and sediment evacuation by glaciers: a review of field data and their implications. Global Planet. Change, 12, 213–235.
Han, Z. (2003). Groundwater resources protection and aquifer recovery in China. Environ. Geol., 44, 106–111.
Hanna, E. J. et al. (2009). Hydrologic response of the Greenland ice sheet: the role of oceanographic warming. Hydrol. Process., 23, 7–30.
Hanninen, J. , I. Vuorinen & P. Hjelt (2000). Climatic factors in the Atlantic control the oceanographic and ecological changes in the Baltic Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr., 703–710.
Harden, D. R. (1995). A comparison of flood-producing storms and their impacts in northwestern California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1454, D1–D9.
Hare, S. R. (1996). Low frequency climate variability and salmon production, Unpublished PhD Thesis, University Washington.
Harr, R. D. et al. (1975) Changes in storm hydrographs after road building and clear-cutting in the Oregon Coast Range. Water Resour. Res., 11, 436–444.
Harris, P. T. (1991). Sedimentation at the junction of the Fly River in the northern Great Barrier Reef, in Sustainable Development for Traditional Inhabitants of the Torres Strait Region, eds. D. Lawrence & T. Cansvield-Smith , Townsville: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, pp. 59–85.
Harrison, C. G. A. (1994). Rates of continental erosion and mountain building. Geol. Rundsch., 83, 431–447.
Harrison, C. G. A. (2000). What factors control mechanical erosion rates? Int. J. Earth Sci., 88, 752–763.
Hartmann, J. N. et al. (2007). High riverine fluxes of dissolved silica from Japan: the influence of lithology. Geophys. Res. Abs., EGU General Assembly 2008, 9, 00861.
Hartshorn, K. et al. (2002). Climate-driven bedrock incision in an active mountain belt. Science, 297, 2036–2038.
Hasholt, B. (1996). Sediment transport in Greenland. IAHS Publ. 236, 105–114.
Haston, L. & J. Michaelsen (1994). Long-term central coastal California precipitation variability and relationships to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. J. Climate., 7, 1373–1387.
Hawdon, A. A. et al. (2008). Hydrological recovery of rangeland following cattle exclusion. IAHS Publ. 325, 532–539.
Hay, B. J. (1994). Sediment and water discharge rates of Turkish Black Sea rivers before and after hydropower dam construction. Environ. Geol., 23, 276–283.
Hay, W. W. , J. L. Sloan & C. N. Wold (1988). Mass/age distribution and the global rate of sediment subduction. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 14 933–14 940.
Hayes, S. K. (1999). Low-flow sediment transport on the Pasig–Potrero alluvial fan, Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Unpublished MSc Thesis, University of Washington, 73 pp.
Helama, S. , J. Merilainen & H. Tuomenvirta (2009). Multicentennial megadrought in northern Europe coincided with a global El Nino-Southern Oscillation drought pattern during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Geology, 37, 175.
Herbert, T. D. et al. (2001). Collapse of the California current during glacial maxima linked to climate change on land. Science, 293, 71–76.
Herschy, R. (2003). World catalog of maximum observed floods. IAHS Publ. 284, 285.
Herschy, R. W. & R. W. Fairbridge (1998). Encyclopedia of ­hydrology and water resources, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Hettler, J. , G. Irion & B. Lehmann (1997). Environmental impact of mining waste disposal on a tropical lowland river system: a case study on the Ok Tedi Mine, Papua New Guinea. Mineral. Deposita, 32, 280–291.
Heusch, B. & A. Milles-Lacroix (1971). Une method pour estimer l'ecoulement et l'erosion dans un bassin, Application au Magreb. Mines et Geologie, 33, 21–39.
Hewawasam, T. et al. (2003). Increase of human over natural erosion rates in tropical highlands constrained by cosmogenic nuclides. Geology, 31, 597–600.
Heyns, P. (2003). Water-resources management in Southern Africa, in International Waters in Southern Africa, ed. M. Nakayama , Tokyo: UN Press, p. 318.
Hickin, E. J. (1989). Contemporary Squamish River sediment flux to Howe Sound, British Columbia. Can. J. Earth Sci., 26, 1953–1963.
Hicks, D. M. & L. R. Basher (2008). The signature of an extreme erosion event on suspended sediment loads: Motueka River catchment, South Island, New Zealand. IAHS Publ. 325, 184–191.
Hicks, D. M. & U. Shankar (2003). Sediment from New Zealand rivers, NIWA Chart Misc. Series No. 79.
Hicks, D. M. , B. Gomez & N. A. Trustrum (2000). Erosion thresholds and suspended sediment yields, Waipaoa River basin, New Zealand. Water Resour. Res., 36, 1129–1142.
Hicks, D. M. , B. Gomez & N. A. Trustrum (2004). Event suspended sediment characteristics and the generation of hyperpycnal plumes at river mouths: East Coast continental margin, North Island, New Zealand. J. Geol., 112, 471–485.
Hicks, D. M. , J. Hill & U. Shankar (1996). Variation of suspended sediment yields around New Zealand: the relative importance of rainfall and geology. IAHS Publ. 236, 149–156.
Hillel, D. (1994). Rivers of Eden : The Struggle for Water and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hilton, R. G. et al. (2008). Tropical-cyclone-driven erosion of the terrestrial biosphere from mountains. Nature Geoscience, 1, 759–762.
Hirabayashi, Y. et al. (2008). Global projections of changing risks of floods and droughts in a changing climate. Hydrol. Sci., 53, 754–772.
Hirsch, R. M. et al. (1990). The influence of man on hydrologic systems, in The Geology of North America: Surface Water Hydrology, eds. M. G. Wolman & H. C. Riggs , Boulder, Colorado: Geol. Soc. Amer., O-1, pp. 329–359.
Hiscott, R. N. (2001). Depositional sequences controlled by high rates of sediment supply, sea-level variations, and growth faulting: the Quaternary Baram Delta of northwestern Borneo. Mar. Geol., 175, 67–102.
Hodgkins, G. A. (2009). Streamflow changes in Alaska between the cool phase (1947–1976) and the warm phase (1977–2006) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation: The influence of glaciers. Water Resour. Res., 45, W06502, doi:10.1029/2008WR007575.
Hodson, A. et al. (1998). Suspended sediment yield and transfer processes in a small High-Arctic glacier basin, Svalbard. Hydrol. Process., 12, 73–86.
Hoelzmann, P. et al. (1998). Mid-Holocene land-surface conditions in northern Africa and the Arabian peninsula: a data set for the analysis of biogeophysical feedbacks in the climate system. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 12, 35–51.
Hogan, D. L. & J. W. Schwab (1991). Meteorological conditions associated with hillslope failures on the Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Land Management Report 73, p. 36.
Holdgate, M. et al. (1982). The world environment 1972–1982: a report, in Natural Resources and the Environment Series-United Nations Environment Programme (Irlanda) Dublin.
Holeman, J. N. (1968). Sediment yield of major rivers of the world. Water Resour. Res., 4, 737–747.
Holeman, J. N. (1980). Erosion rates in the US estimated by the Soil Conservation Service's inventory (abs). EOS, 61, 954.
Holland, H. D. (1978). The Geochemistry of the Atmosphere and Oceans, New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Hollerwoger, F. (1964). The progress of the river deltas in Java, in Scientific problem of the humid tropic zone deltas and their implications. UNESCO, pp. 347–355.
Holmes, R. M. et al. (2000). Flux of nutrients from Russian rivers to the Arctic Ocean: Can we establish a baseline against which to judge future changes? Water Resour. Res., 36, 2309–2320.
Holmes, R. M. et al. (2001). Nutrient chemistry of the Ob' and Yenisey rivers, Siberia: results from June 2000 expedition and evaluation of long-term data sets. Mar. Chem., 75, 219–227.
Holmes, R. M. et al. (2002). A circumpolar perspective on fluvial sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, 1098, doi:10.1029/2001GB001849.
Hong, G. H. et al. (1997). 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates in the southwestern East Sea (Sea of Japan). Geo-Mar. Lett., 17, 126–132.
Hooke, J. M. (2006). Human impacts on fluvial systems in the Mediterranean region. Geomorph., 79, 311–335.
Hooke, R. L. B. (2000). Toward a uniform theory of clastic sediment yield in fluvial systems. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 112, 1778.
Horowitz, A. J. (2010). A quarter century of declining suspended sediment fluxes in the Mississippi River and the effect of the 1993 flood. Hydrol. Process., 24, 13–34.
Hossain, F. et al. (2009). Have large dams altered extreme precipitation patterns? EOS 90, 453–454.
Hossain, M. M. (1991). Total sediment load in the lower Ganges and Jumuna, Bangladesh. University of Engineering and Technology, 15 pp.
Hovius, N. & M. Leeder (1998). Clastic sediment supply to basins. Basin Res., 10, 1–5.
Hovius, N. (1988). Control on sediment supply by large ­rivers, in Relative Role of Eustacy, Climate and Tectonism in Continental Rocks. SEPM Special Publ. 59, eds. K. W. Shanley & P. J. McCabe , pp. 3–16.
Hovius, N. , C. P. Stark & P. A. Allen (1997). Sediment flux from a mountain belt derived by landslide mapping. Geology, 25, 231–234.
Hovius, N. et al. (2000). Supply and removal of sediment in a landslide-dominated mountain belt: Central Range, Taiwan. J. Geol., 108, 73–89.
Howell, P. P. & J. A. Allan (1994). The Nile: Sharing a Scarce Resource, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hren, M. T. et al. (2007). Major ion chemistry of the Yarlung Tsangpo–Brahmaputra river: Chemical weathering, erosion, and CO2 consumption in the southern Tibetan plateau and eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 2907–2935.
Hrieche, A. , W. Najem & C. Bocquillon (2007). Hydrological impact simulations of climate change on Lebanese coastal rivers. IAHS Publ. 52, 1119–1133.
Huang, M. , L. Zhang & J. Gallichand (2003). Runoff responses to afforestation in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, China. Hydrol. Process., 17, 2599–2609.
Huber, A. , A. Iroumé & J. Bathurst (2008). Effect of Pinus ­radiata plantations on water balance in Chile. Hydrol. Proc., 22, 142–148.
Hudson, P. F. & J. Mossa (1997). Suspended sediment transport effectiveness of three large impounded rivers, US Gulf Coastal Plain. Environ. Geol., 32, 263–273.
Hudson, P. F. (2003). Event sequence and sediment exhaustion in the lower Panuco Basin, Mexico. Catena, 52, 57–76.
Hudson, P. F. et al. (2005). Rivers of Mexico, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 1030–1084.
Hughes, P. J. , M. E. Sullivan & D. Yok (1991). Human-induced erosion in a highlands catchment in Papua New Guinea: the prehistoric and contemporary records. Z. Geomorphol. Suppl., 83, 227–239.
Hugueny, B. & C. Lévêque (1994). Freshwater fish zoogeography in West Africa: faunal similarities between river basins. Environ. Biol. Fish., 39, 365–380.
Huh, Y. et al. (1998). The fluvial geochemistry of the rivers of eastern Siberia. II. Tributaries of the Lena, Omoloy, Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma, and Anadyr draining the collisional/accretionary zone of the Verkhoyansk and Cherskiy ranges. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 62, 2053–2075.
Huh, Y.-S. (2003). Chemical weathering and climate – a global experiment. A review. Geoscience Journal (Korea), 7, 277–288.
Humborg, C. et al. (1997). Effect of Danube River dam on Black Sea biogeochemistry and ecosystem structure. Nature, 386, 385–388.
Humborg, C. et al. (2000). Silica retention in river basins: far-reaching effects on biogeochemistry and aquatic food webs in coastal marine environments. Ambio, 29, 45–50.
Hurrell, J. W. (1995). Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676–679.
Hurrell, J. W. et al. (eds.) (2003). The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact. Amer. Geophys. Union Geophys. Monograph 134.
IAHS/UNESCO (1974). Gross sediment transport into the oceans, preliminary edition, UNESCO, 4 pp.
Imram, J. & J. P. M. Syvitski (2000). Impact of extreme river events on the coastal ocean. Oceanography, 13, 85–92.
Inbar, M. (1992). Rates of fluvial erosion in basins with a Mediterranean type climate. Catena, 19, 383–409.
Inbar, M. , M. Tamir & L. Wittenberg (1998). Runoff and erosion processes after a forest fire in Mount Carmel, a Mediterranean area. Geomorph., 24, 17–33.
Inman, D. L. & C. E. Nordstrom (1971). On the tectonic and morphologic classification of coasts. J. Geol., 79, 1–21.
Inman, D. L. & S. A. Jenkins (1999). Climate change and the episodicity of sediment flux of small California rivers. J. Geol., 107, 251–270.
Inman, D. L. , S. Jenkins & J. Wasyl (1998). Database for streamflow and sediment flux of California rivers, University of California San Diego, Scripps Inst. Oceangr. Ref. 98–9, 13 pp.
Instituto Geografico Nacional Mapa de Cuencas de Guatemala.
IOC/WESTPAC (1991). Workshop on River Input of Nutrients to the Marine Environment in the Western Pacific, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.
Isdale, P. et al. (1998). Palaeohydrological variation in a tropical river catchment: a reconstruction using fluorescent bands in corals of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Holocene, 8, 1–8.
Isik, S. et al. (2008). Effects of anthropogenic activities on the lower Sakarya River. Catena, 75, 172–181.
Ismail, W. R. (1996). The role of tropical storms in the catchment sediment removal. J. Bioscience, 7, 153–168.
Issar, A. (2003). Climate Changes during the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Issar, A. S. & N. Brown (eds.) (1998). Water, Environment and Society in Times of Climatic Change, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Istanbulluoglu, E. & R. L. Bras (2006). On the dynamics of soil moisture, vegetation, and erosion: Implications of climate variability and change. Water Resour. Res., 42 doi:10.1029/20005WR004113.
Itambi, A. C. et al. (2009). Millennial-scale northwest African droughts related to Heinrich events and Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles: evidence in marine sediments from offshore Senegal. Paleoceanogr., 24, doi:10.1029/ 2007PA001570.
Iverson, R. M. (2000). Landslide triggering by rain infiltration. Water Resour. Res., 36, 1897–1910.
Jackson, J. K. et al. (2005). Atlantic coast rivers of the northeastern United States, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 20–71.
Jackson, M. & J. J. Roering (2009). Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA. Quat. Sci. Rev., 28, 1131–1146.
Jacobson, A. D. et al. (2003). Climatic and tectonic controls on chemical weathering in the New Zealand Southern Alps. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 67, 29–46.
Jacobson, P. J. et al. (1999). Transport, retention, and ecological significance of woody debris within a large ephemeral river. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc., 18, 429–444.
Jaeschke, A. et al. (2007). Coupling of millennial-scale changes in sea surface temperature and precipitation off northeastern Brazil with high-latitude climate shifts during the last glacial period. Paleoceanogr., 22, PA4206, doi:10.1029/2006PA001391.
Jaffe, R. et al. (1995). Pollution effects of the Tuy River on the central Venezuelan coast: anthropogenic organic compounds and heavy metals in Tivela mactroidea. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 30, 820–825.
Jain, S. K. , P. K. Agarwal & V. P. Singh (2007). Hydrology and Water Resources of India, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
James, L. A. (1994). Channel changes wrought by gold mining: Northern Sierra Nevada, California, in Effects of Human-Induced Changes on Hydrologic Systems, eds. R. Marston & V. R. Hasfurther , Amer. Water Resour. Assoc., pp. 629–638.
Janda, R. J. & K. M. Nolan (1979). Stream sediment discharge in northwestern California, in A Fieldtrip to Observe Natural and Management Related Erosion in Franciscan Terrain of Northern California; a Guidebook. Boulder, CO: Geol. Soc. America, Cordillerian Section, pp. 1–27.
Janda, R. J. et al. (1981). Lahar movement, effects and deposits. US Geological Survey Prof. Paper 1250, 461–478.
Janda, R. J. et al. (1996). Assessment and response to lahar hazard around Mount Pinatubo, 1991 to 1993, in Fire and Mud, Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, eds. C. G. Newhall & R. S. Punongbayan , Seattle: University of Washington Press, pp. 107–139.
Jansen, I. M. L. & R. B. Painter (1974). Predicting sediment yield from climate and topography. J. Hydrol., 21, 371–380.
Jansen, P. et al. (1979). Principles of River Engineering, London: Pitman.
Jansson, M. B. (1988). A global survey of sediment yield. Geogr. Ann., 70, 81–98.
Jansson, R. et al. (2000). Effects of river regulation on river-margin vegetation: a comparison of eight boreal rivers. Ecol. Appl., 10, 203–224.
Jaoshvili, S. (2002). The rivers of the Black Sea. European Environmental Commission Technical Report 71, 58.
Jarrett, R. D. & J. E. Costa (1986). Hydrology, geomorphology and dam-break modeling of the July 15, 1982 Lawn Lake Dam and Cascade Lake Dam failures, Larimer Country, Colorado, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1369, 78 pp.
Jayawardena, A. W. , K. Takeuchi & B. Machubub (eds.) (1997). Catalogue of Rivers for Southeast Asia and The Pacific, Vol. 2, The UNESCO-IHP Regional Steering Committee (RSC) for Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
Jennerjahn, T. C. et al. (2010). The tropical Brazilian continental margin. In K. K. liu et al. (eds.), Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins. IGBP Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 427–442.
Jobin, W. R. (1999). Dams and Disease: Ecological Design and Health Impacts of Large Dams, Canals, and Irrigation Systems, London: Taylor & Francis.
Johnson, H. M. , IV & D. L. Belval (1998). Nutrient and suspended solid loads, yields and trends in the non-tidal part of five major river basins in Virginia, 1985–96, Richmond, VA. US Geol. Surv. Open-File Report, 36 pp.
Johnsson, M. J. & R. H. Meade (1990). Chemical weathering of fluvial sediments during alluvial storage; the Macuapanim Island point bar, Solimoes River, Brazil. J. Sediment. Petrol., 60, 827–842.
Johnsson, M. J. , R. F. Stallard & N. Lundberg (1991). Controls on the composition of fluvial sands from a tropical weathering environment: sands of the Orinoco River drainage basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 103, 1622.
Jones, B. G. , C. D. Woodroffe & G. R. Martin (2003). Deltas in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia: Forms, Processes and Products, in Tropical Deltas of Southeast Asia - Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, and Petroleum Geology, eds. F. H. Sidi et al., Tulsa, OK: SEPM, 21–43.
Jones, J. A. (2000). Hydrologic processes and peak discharge response to forest removal, regrowth, and roads in 10 small experimental basins, western Cascades, Oregon. Water Resour. Res., 36, 2621–2642.
Jones, P. D. , T. Jonsson & D. Wheeler (1997). Extension to the North Atlantic Oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibraltar and South-West Iceland. Int. J. Climatol., 17, 1433–1450.
Jonsson, P. , A. Snorrason & S. Palsson (1998). Discharge and sediment transport in the jökulhlaup on Skeiarrsandur in November (abs.). EOS, 79, S13.
Joo, M. et al. (2005). Estimation of long-term sediment loads in the Fitzroy catchment, Queensland, Australia, in MODSIM 2005 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation: Advances and Applications for Management and Decision Making: Proceedings, eds. A. Zerger & R. M. Argent , pp. 1161–1167.
Jouanneau, J. M. et al. (1998). Dispersal and deposition of suspended sediment on the shelf off the Tagus and Sado estuaries, SW Portugal. Prog. Oceanogr., 42, 233–257.
Judson, S. & D. F. Ritter (1964). Rates of regional denudation in the U.S. J. Geophys. Res., 69, 3395–6401.
Judson, S. (1968). Erosion of the land, or what's happening to our continents? Amer. J. Sci., 56, 356–374.
Jury, M. R. (2003). The coherent variability of African river flows: composite climate structure and the Atlantic circulation. Water Sci. Appl., 29, 1–10.
Köppen–Geiger (1954). Climate of the Earth (map: 1:16 mio), Justus Perthes, Darmstadt, Germany.
Kabat, P. et al. (eds.) (2003). Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Kahya, E. & J. A. Dracup (1993). U.S. streamflow patterns in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Water Resour. Res., 29, 2491–2503.
Kahya, E. & J. A. Dracup (1994). The relationships between US streamflow and La Nina events. Water Resour. Res, 30, 2133–2141.
Kanellopoulos, T. D. et al. (2008). The influence of the Evros River on the recent sedimentation of the inner shelf of the NE Aegean Sea. Environ. Geol., 53, 1455–1464.
Kao, S. , T. Lee & J. D. Milliman (2005). Calculating highly fluctuated suspended sediment fluxes from mountainous rivers in Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocean Sci., 16, 653.
Kao, S. J. & J. D. Milliman (2008). Water and sediment discharge from small mountainous rivers, Taiwan: the roles of lithology, episodic events, and human activities. J. Geol., 116, 431–448.
Kao, S. J. & K. K. Liu (2002). Exacerbation of erosion induced by human perturbation in a typical Oceania watershed: insight from 45 years of hydrological records from the Lanyang-Hsi River, northeastern Taiwan. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, 1016.
Karabork, M. C. , E. Kahya & A. U. Komuscu (2007). Analysis of Turkish precipitation data: homogeneity and the Southern Oscillation forcings on frequency distributions. Hydrol. Process., 21.
Kauppila, P. & J. Koskiaho (2003). Evaluation of annual loads of nutrients and suspended solids in Baltic rivers. Nord. Hydrol., 34, 203–220.
Kayano, M. T. & R. V. Andreoli (2007). Relations of South American summer rainfall interannual variations with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Int. J. Climatol., 27, 531–540.
Keat, T. S. & K. B. Alias (1982). Average annual and monthly surface water resources of penninsular Malaysia, 41 pp.
Keefer, D. K. (1994). The importance of earthquake-induced landslides to long-term slope erosion and slope-failure hazards in seismically active regions. Geomorph., 10, 265–284.
Kehew, A. E. & M. L. Lord (1987). Glacial-lake outbursts along the mid-continent margins of the Laurentide ice-sheet, in Catastrophic Floods, eds. L. Mayer & D. Nash , Boston: Allen and Unwin, pp. 95–120.
Keller, E. A. , D. W. Valentine & D. R. Gibbs (1997). Hydrological response of small watersheds following the Southern California Painted Cave Fire of June 1990. Hydrol. Process., 11, 401–414.
Keller, R. (1962). Gewasser und Wasserhaushalt des Festlandes, Leipzig: Teubner.
Kelly, E. F. , O. A. Chadwick & T. E. Hilinski (1998). The effect of plants on mineral weathering. Biogeochem., 42, 21–53.
Kelly, M. (2004). Florida river flow patterns and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Draft Report, Ecologic Evaluation Section. Southwest Florida Water Management District, 80pp.
Kelly, M. H. & J. A. Gore (2008). Florida river flow patterns and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Regul. Rivers Res. Manage., 24, 598–616.
Kelsey, H. M. (1978). Earthflows in Franciscan melange, Van Duzen River basin, California. Geology, 6, 361–364.
Kelsey, H. M. (1980). A sediment budget and an analysis of geomorphic process in the Van Duzen River basin, north coastal California, 1941–1975: Summary. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 91, 190–195.
Kelsey, H. M. et al. (1995). Geomorphic analysis of streamside landslides in the Redwood Creek basin, northwestern California, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1454, J1–J12.
Kempe, S. (1982). Long-term records of CO2 pressure fluctuations in freshwaters, in Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers, ed. E. T. Degens , Hamburg: Mitt. Geol.-Palaont. Inst. SCOPE/UNEP, pp. 91–332.
Kempe, S. (1988). Freshwater carbon and the weathering cycle, in Physical and Chemical Weathering in Geochemical Cycles, eds. A. Lerman & M. Meybeck , Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishing, pp. 197–223.
Kempe, S. , M. Pettine & G. Cauwet (1991). Biogeochemistry of European Rivers, in Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers, eds. E. T. Degens , S. Kempe & J. E. Richey , Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd., pp. 169–211.
Keown, M. P. , E. A. Dardeau Jr & E. M. Causey (1986). Historic trends in the sediment flow regime of the Mississippi River. Water Resour. Res., 22, 1555–1564.
Keppler, E. T. , R. R. Ziemer & P. H. Cafferata (1994). Changes in soil moisture and pore pressure after harvesting a forested hillslope in northern California, in Effects of Human-Induced Changes on Hydrologic Systems, Amer. Water Resour. Assoc., pp. 205–214.
Kerr, A. (2000). A North Atlantic climate pacemaker for the centuries. Science, 288, 1984–1986.
Kesel, R. H. (2003). Human modifications to the sediment regime of the Lower Mississippi River flood plain. Geomorph., 56, 325–334.
Kettner, A. J. , B. Gomez & J. P. M. Syvitski (2007). Modeling suspended sediment discharge from the Waipaoa River system, New Zealand: the last 3000 years. Water Resour. Res., 43, W07411.
Kettner, A. J. , B. Gomez & J. P. M.Syvitski (2008). Will human catalysts or climate change have a greater impact on the sediment load of the Waipaoa River in the 21st century? IAHS Publ. 325, 425–431.
Kiage, L. M. & K. Liu (2006). Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental changes in East Africa: a review of multiproxy evidence from palynology, lake sediments, and associated records. Prog. Phys. Geog., 30, 633.
Kiely, G. (1999). Climate change in Ireland from precipitation and streamflow observations. Adv. Water Resour., 23, 141–151.
Kim, T. W. et al. (2006). Quantification of linkages between large-scale climatic patterns and precipitation in the Colorado River Basin. J. Hydrol., 321, 173–186.
Kim, W. et al. (2009). Is it feasible to build new land in the Mississippi River delta? EOS (Transactions, Amer. Geophys. Union), 90, 373–374.
Kimstach, V. A. , M. Meybeck & E. Baroudy (1998). A Water Quality Assessment of the Former Soviet Union, London: GEMS/Routledge.
Kjerfve, B. J. et al. (1992). Modeling of the residual circulation in Broken Bay and the lower Hawkesbury River – NSW Australia. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 43, 1339–1357.
Klee, G. A. (1991). Conservation of Natural Resources, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kliot, N. (1994). Water Resources and Conflict in the Middle East, London: Routledge.
Knox, J. C. (1995). Fluvial systems since 20 000 years BP, in Global Continental Palaeohydrology, eds. K. J. Gregory , L. Starkel & V. R. Baker , Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 87–108.
Knox, J. C. (2007). The Mississippi River system, in Large Rivers. Geomorphology and Management, ed. A. Gupta , Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 145–182.
Korotaev, V. N. (1991). Geomorphology of River Deltas (in Russian), Moscow University Publ. House.
Korup, O. , A. L. Strom & J. T. Weidinger (2006). Fluvial response to large rock-slope failures: examples from the Himalayas, the Tien Shan, and the Southern Alps in New Zealand. Geomorph., 78, 3–21.
Korup, O. , M. J. McSaveney & T. R. H. Davies (2004). Sediment generation and delivery from large historic landslides in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geomorph., 61, 189–207.
Korzoun, V. I. et al. (eds.) (1977). Atlas of World Water Balance, Paris: UNESCO.
Kosmas, C. S. , N. Moustakas , N. G. Danalatos & N. Yassoglou (1996). The Sparta field site: I. The impacts of land use and management on soil properties and erosion. II. The effect of reduced moisture on soil properties and wheat production. In C. J. Brandt and J. B. Thornes (eds.) Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 207–228.
Kostaschuk, R. , J. Terry & R. Raj (2003). Suspended sediment transport during tropical-cyclone floods in Fiji. Hydrol. Process., 17, 1149–1164.
Kostianitsin, M. N. (1964). Hydrology of the Dnieper and Southern Bug mouth area (in Russian), Moscow: Gidrometeoizdat.
Koutaniemi, L. (1991). Kasvihuone-Suomen vesivoima. Terra: Suomen maantieteellisen seuran aikakauskirja; Geografiska sällskapets i Finland tidskrift, 14.
Kranck, K. & A. Ruffman (1981). Sedimentation in James Bay. Nat. Can., 109, 353–361.
Krasovskaia, I. et al. (1999). Dependence of the frequency and magnitude of extreme floods in Costa Rica on the Southern Oscillation Index. IAHS Publ., 255, 81–89.
Kravtsova, V. I. , V. N. Mikhailova & N. A. Efremova (2009). Variation of hydrological regime, morphological structure, and landscape of Indus River delta (Pakistan) under the effect of large-scale water management measures. Water Resources, 36(4), 465–379.
Krishnaswami, S. & S. K. Singh (2005). Chemical weathering in the river basins of the Himalaya, India. Curr. Sci., 89, 841–849.
Krishnaswamy, J. , P. N. Halpin & D. D. Richter (2001). Dynamics of sediment discharge in relation to land-use and hydro-climatology in a humid tropical watershed in Costa Rica. J. Hydrol., 253, 91–109.
Kristmannsdottir, H. , et al. (2002). Seasonal variation in the chemistry of glacial-fed rivers in Iceland. IAHS Publ. 127, 223–229.
Kuenzi, W. D. , O. H. Horst & R.V.McGehee (1979). Effect of volcanic activity on fluvial-deltaic sedimenation in a modern arc-trench gap, southwestern Guatemala. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 90, 827–838.
Kuhle, M. (2002). Outlet glaciers of the Pleistocene (LGM) south Tibetan ice sheet between Cho Oyu and Shisha Pangma as potential sources of former megafloods, in Flood and megaflood processes and deposits: recent and ancient examples, Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ. 32, pp. 291–302.
Kump, L. R. , S. L. Brantley & M. A. Arthur (2000). Chemical weathering, atmospheric CO2, and climate. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sic., 28, 611–667.
Kurtzman, D. & B. R. Scanlon (2007). El Niño Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation impacts on precipitation in southern and central US: evaluation of spatial distribution and predictions. Water Resour. Res., 43, W10427 doi:10.1029/20007WR005863.
Kutzbach, J. E. & P. J. Guetter (1986). The influence of changing orbital parameters and surface boundary conditions on climate simulations for the past 18,000 years. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 1726–1759.
López-Moreno, J. I. et al. (2007). Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on water resources in central Iberia: Precipitation, streamflow anomalies, and reservoir management strategies (DOI 10.1029/2007WR005864). Water Resour. Res., 43, 9411 doi:10.1029/2007WR005864.
López-Moreno, J. I. et al. (2009). Dam effects on droughts magnitude and duration in a transboundary basin: The Lower River Tagus, Spain and Portugal. Water Resour. Res., 45, W02405 doi:10.1029/2008WR007198.
L'Vovich, M. I. (1974). World Water Resources and Their Future (Mysl'PH Moscow, Engl. Transl. 1979, AGU, Washington).
Labat, D. et al. (2004). Evidence for global runoff increase related to climate warming. Adv. Water Res., 27, 631–642.
Lacerda, L. D. & R. V. Marins (2002). River damming and changes in mangrove distribution. ISME/Glomis Electronic Journal, 2, 1–4.
Lahlou, A. (1982). La degradation specifique des bassins versants et son impact cur l'envasement des barrages. IAHS Publ. 137, 163–169.
Lahlou, A. (1996). Environmental and socio-economic impacts of erosion and sedimentation in North Africa. IAHS Publ. 236, 491–500.
Lajoie, F. et al. (2007). Impacts of dams on monthly flow characteristics. The influence of watershed size and seasons. J. Hydrol., 334, 423–439.
Lamoureux, S. (2000). Five centuries of interannual sediment yield and rainfall-induced erosion in the Canadian high arctic recorded in lacustrine varves. Water Resour. Res., 36, 309–318.
Lancaster, S. T. & G. E. Grant (2006). Debris dams and the relief of headwater streams. Geomorph., 82, 84–97.
Lane, P. N. J. & G. J. Sheridan (2002). Impact of an unsealed forest road stream crossing: water quality and sediment sources. Hydrol. Process., 16, 2599–2612.
Lanfear, K. & R. M. Hirsch (1999). USGS study reveals a decline in long-term stream gauges. EOS, 80, 605–607.
Lang, A. et al. (2003). Changes in sediment flux and storage within a fluvial system: some examples from the Rhine catchment. Hydrol. Process., 17, 3321–3334.
Langbein, W. B. & S. A. Schumm (1958). Yield of sediment in relation to mean annual precipitation. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 39, 1076–1084.
Langland, M. J. , P. L. Lietman & S. A. Hoffman (1995). Synthesis of nutrient and sediment data for watersheds within the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin. US Geol. Surv. Open-File Report, 121 pp.
Larsen, G. & S. Asbjornsson (1995). Volume of tephra and rock debris deposited by the 1918 jokulhlaups on western Myrdalssandur, south Iceland (abs), in IGS International Symposium on Glacial Erosion and Sedimentation, August 20–25, 1995.
Larsen, M. C. & A. Simon (1993). A rainfall intensity-duration threshold for landslides in a humid-tropical environment Puerto Rico. Geogr. Ann., 75A, 13–23.
Larsen, M. C. & J. E. Parks (1997). How wide is a road? The association of roads and mass-wasting in a forested montane environment. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 22, 835–848.
Larsen, R. L. & W. C. I. Pittman (1985). The Bedrock Geology of the World, New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, Inc.
Latif, M. & T. P. Barnett (1994). Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science, 266, 634.
Lavigne, F. & H. Suwa (2004). Contrasts between debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows at a channel of Mount Semeru, East Java, Indonesia. Geomorph., 61, 41–58.
Lavigne, F. & J. C. Thouret (2003). Sediment transportation and deposition by rain-triggered lahars at Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia. Geomorph., 49, 45–69.
Law, B. C. (ed.) (1968). Mountains and Rivers of India, Calcutta: India National Committee for Geography.
Lawler, D. M. & L. J. Wright (1996). Sediment yield decline and climate change in southern Iceland. IAHS Publ. 236, 415–425.
Lawler, D. M. (1994). Recent changes in rates of suspended sediment transport in the Jokulsa a Solheimasandi glacial river, southern Iceland. IAHS Publ. 224, 343–358.
Laznik, M. et al. (1999). Riverine input of nutrients to the Gulf of Riga – temporal and spatial variation. J. Marine Syst., 23, 11–25.
Lecce, S. A. (2000). Spatial variations in the timing of annual floods in the southeastern United States. J. Hydrol., 235, 151–169.
Leeder, M. R. , T. Harris & M. J. Kirkby (1998). Sediment supply and climate change; implications for basin stratigraphy. Basin Res., 10, 7–18.
Legates, D. R. , H. F. Lins & G. J. McCabe (2005). Comments on “Evidence for global runoff increase related to climate warming” by Labat et al. Adv. Water Res., 28, 1310–1315.
Leifeste, D. K. (1974). Dissolved-solids discharge to the oceans from the conterminous United States. US Geological Survey Open-File Report, 8 pp.
Leithold, E. L. , N. E. Blair & D. W. Perkey (2006). Geomorphic controls on the age of particulate organic carbon from small mountainous and upland rivers. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB3022, doi:10.1029/2005GB002677.
LeLoeuff, P. , E. Marchall & J.- B. B. A. Kothias (1993). Environment et Resources aquatiques de Cote-d'Ivoire, ORSTOM, 586.
Leopold, L. B. (1994). A View of the River. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 290 pp.
Levashova, E. A. et al. (2004). Natural and human-induced variations in water and sediment runoff in the Danube River mouth. Water Resour., 31, 235–246.
Lewis, J. et al. (2001). Impacts of logging on storm peak flows, flow volumes and suspended sediment loads in Casper Creek, California, in Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas, eds. M. S. Wigmosta & S. J. Burges , Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, pp. 85–126.
Li, Q. et al. (2007). Impacts of human activities on the sediment regime of the Yangtze River. IAHS Publ. 314, 11–19.
Li, Y.-H. (1976). Denudation of Taiwan Island since the Pliocene Epoch. Geology, 4, 105–107.
Li, Z. (1992). The effects of forest in controlling gully erosion. IAHS Publ. 209, 429–437.
Licitri, R. & D. Normand (1969). Etudes générales des aires d'irrigation et d'assainissement agricloe en Algérie, dossier O.Sogreah/Mara.
Lienou, G. et al. (2005). Regimes of suspended sediment flux in Cameroon: review and synthesis for the main ecosystems; climatic diversity and anthropogenic activities. Hydrol. Sci. J., 50, 111–123.
Lins, H. F. & J. R. Slack (1999). Streamflow trends in the United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 227–230.
Lins, H. F. (1997). Regional streamflow regimes and hydroclimatology of the United States. Water Resour. Res., 33, 1655–1668.
Liquete, C. et al. (2005). Mediterranean river systems of Andalusia, southern Spain, and associated deltas: a source to sink approach. Mar. Geol., 222, 471–495.
Liquete, C. et al. (2007). Long-term development and current status of the Barcelona continental shelf: a source-to-sink approach. Cont. Shelf Res., 27, 1779–1800.
Liquete, C. et al. (2009). Sediment discharge of the rivers of Catalonia, NE Spain, and the influence of human impacts. J. Hydrol., 366, 76–88.
Lisitzin, A. P. (1972). Sedimentation in the World Ocean. Soc. Econ. Paleont. Mineral Spec. Publ. 17.
Litchfield, N. et al. (2008). The Waipaoa Sedimentary System: research review and future directions. IAHS Publ. 325, 408–416.
Little, C. , A. Lara, J. McPhee & R. Urrutia (2009). Revealing the impact of forest exotic planatations on water yield in large scale watersheds in South-Central Chile. J. Hydrol., 374, 162–170.
Liu, G.-W. & J. P. Wang (1999). A study of extreme floods in China for the past 100 years. IAHS Publ. 255, 109–119.
Liu, J. P. & J. D. Milliman (2004). Reconsidering melt-water pulses 1A and 1B: Global impacts of rapid sea-level rise. Oceanic and Coastal Research (China), 3, 1283–1290.
Liu, S. et al. (2001). Regional variation of sediment load of Asian rivers flowing into the ocean. Sci. China, Ser. B Chem., 44, 23–32.
Livingstone, D. A. (1963). Chemical composition of rivers and lakes, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 440-G, 64 pp.
Livingstone, I. (1991). Livestock management and “overgrazing” among pastoralists. Ambio, 20, 80–85.
Lloret, J. et al. (2001). Fluctuations of landings and environmental conditions in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Fish. Oceanogr., 10, 33–50.
Lombard, R. E. et al. (1981). Channel conditions in the Lower Toutle and Cowlitz rivers resulting from the ­mudflows of May 18, 1980, US Geol. Surv. Circular 850-C, 16 pp.
Long, B. F. , F. Morissette & J. Lebel (1982). Etude du material particulaire en suspension et du material dissous des rivieres Romaine et Saint-Jean durant un cycle saisonnies, Hydro-Quebec, 199.
Long, Y.-Q. et al. (1994). Variability of sediment load and its impacts on the Yellow River. IAHS Publ. 224, 431–436.
Lopes, C. & A. C. Mix (2009). Pleistocene megafloods in the northeast Pacific. Geology, 37, 79.
Love, D. et al. (2008). Changing rainfall and discharge patterns in the northern Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe (abs.). Geophys. Res. Abs., EGU General Assembly 2008, SRef-ID:1607–7962/gra/EGU2008-A-07350.
Lu, X. & D. L. Higgitt (1998). Recent changes of sediment yield in the Upper Yangtze, China. Environ. Management, 22, 697–709.
Lu, X. X. & R. Y. Siew (2005). Water discharge and sediment flux in the lower Mekong River. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 2, 2287–2325.
Lu, X. X. et al. (2007). Rapid channel incision of the lower Pearl River (China) since the 1990s. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 4, 2205–2227.
Luce, C. H. & T. A. Black (1999). Sediment production from forest roads in western Oregon. Water Resour. Res., 35, 2561–2570.
Luce, C. H. & T. A. Black (2001). Spatial and temporal patterns in erosion from forest roads, in Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas, eds. M. S. Wigmosta & S. J. Burges , Amer. Geophys. Union, pp. 165–178.
Ludwig, W. & J. L. Probst (1996). A global modelling of the climatic, morphological, and lithological control of river sediment discharges to the oceans. IAHS Publ. 236, 21–22.
Ludwig, W. & J. L. Probst (1998). River sediment discharge to the oceans; present-day controls and global budgets. Amer. J. Sci., 298, 265–295.
Lugo, A. E. (1983). Organic carbon export by waters of Spain, in Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers Pt. 2, eds. E. T. Degens , S. Kempe & H. Soliman , Hamburg: SCOPE/UNEP, pp. 267–279.
Lundberg, N. & R. J. Dorsey (1990). Rapid Quaternary emergence, uplift, and denudation of the Coastal Range, eastern Taiwan. Geology, 18, 638.
Luo, X. J. et al. (2006). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas, China. Environ. Pollut., 139, 9–20.
Lyons, W. B. et al. (2002). Organic carbon fluxes to the ocean from high-standing islands. Geology, 30, 443–446.
Lyons, W. B. et al. (2005). Chemical weathering in high- sediment-yielding watersheds, New Zealand. J. Geophys. Res., 110, F1008, doi:1029/2003JF000088.
Métivier, F. & Y. Gaudemer (1999). Stability of output fluxes of large rivers in South East Asia during the last 2 million years: implications on floodplain processes. Basin Res., 11, 293–303.
Macdonald, R. et al. (1998). A sediment and organic carbon budget for the Canadian Beaufort shelf. Mar. Geol., 144, 255–273.
Macias, J. L. et al. (2004). The 26 May 1982 breakout flows derived from failure of a volcanic dam at El Chichón, Chiapas, Mexico. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 116, 233–246.
Macklin, M. G. et al. (2006). Past hydrological events reflected in the Holocene fluvial record of Europe. Catena, 66, 145–154.
Madej, M. A. (1995). Changes in channel-stored sediment, Redwood Creek, northwestern Califonia, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1454, O1–O27.
Magilligan, F. J. & K. H. Nislow (2005). Changes in hydrologic regime by dams. Geomorph., 71, 61–78.
Magilligan, F. J. , K. H. Nislow & B. E. Graber (2003). Scale-independent assessment of discharge reduction and riparian disconnectivity following flow regulation by dams. Geology, 31, 569.
Maizels, J. (1989). Sedimentology and paleohydrology of Holocene flood deposits in front of a Jokulhlaup glacier, South Iceland, in Floods: Hydrological, Sedimentological and Geomorphological Implications, eds. K. Beven & P. Carling , Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 239–251.
Major, J. J. (2004). Posteruption suspended sediment transport at Mount St. Helens: decadal-scale relationships with landscape adjustments and river discharges. J. Geophys. Res., 109, F01002, doi:10.1029/2002JF000010, 2004.
Major, J. J. et al. (2000). Sediment yield following severe volcanic disturbance. A two-decade perspective from Mount St. Helens. Geology, 28, 819–822.
Malmstrom, V. H. (1958). A Regional Geography of Iceland, Nat. Acad. Sci-Nat. Res. Council.
Manabe, S. , P. C. D. Milly & R. Wetherald (2004). Simulated long-term changes in river discharge and soil moisture due to global warming. Hydrol. Sci. J., 49, 625–642.
Mantua, N. J. & S. R. Hare (2002). The Pacific Decadal Oscillation. J. Oceanogr., 58, 35–44.
Mantua, N. J. et al. (1997). A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 1069–1079.
Marden, M. & D. Rowan (1993). Protective value of vegetation on tertiary terrain before and during Cyclone Bola, East Coast, North Island, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Forest. Sci., 23, 255–263.
Marden, M. et al. (1992). A decade of earthflow research and interrelated studies in the North Island of New Zealand. IAHS Publ. 209, 263–271.
Marden, M. et al. (2008). Last glacial aggradation and postglacial sediment production from the non-glacial Waipaoa and Waimata catchments, Hikurangi Margin, North Island, New Zealand. Geomorph., 99, 404–419.
Mariño, M. G. (1992). Implications of climate change on the Ebro Delta, in Climate Change and the Mediterranean, eds. L. J. Jeftic , J. D. Milliman & G. Sestini , London: Edward Arnold, pp. 304–327.
Maria, A. et al. (2000). Source and dispersal of jokulhlaup sediments discharged to the sea following the 1996 Vatnajokull eruption. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 112, 1507.
Markgraf, V. (1993). Climatic history of Central and South America since 18,000 yr B.P.: comparison of pollen records and model simulations, in Global Climate Since the Last Glacial Maximum, eds. H. E. Wright , Jr., J. E. Kutzbach , T. Webb , III, et al., Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 357–385.
Markham, A. & G. Day (1994). Sediment transport in the Fly River system, Papua New Guinea. IAHS Publ. 22, 233–239.
Marques, M. A. & E. Mora (1992). The influence of aspect on runoff and soil loss in Mediterranean burnt forest (Spain). Catena, 19, 333–344.
Martins, O. & J.-L. Probst (1991). Biogeochemistry of major African rivers: Carbon and mineral transport, in Biogeochemistry of Major World Rivers, eds. E. T. Degens , S. Kempe & J. E. Richey , John Wiley and Sons Ltd, pp. 121–156.
Massong, T. M. & D. R. Montgomery (2000). Influence of sediment supply, lithology, and wood debris on the distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 112, 591–599.
Matsuoka, A. , T. Yamakoshi & K. Tamura (2008). Sediment yield from seismically-disturbed mountainous watersheds revealed by multi-temporal aerial LiDAR surveys. IAHS Publ. 325, 208–216.
Mauget, S. A. (2003). Multidecadal regime shifts in US streamflow, precipitation, and temperature at the end of the twentieth century. J. Climate, 16, 3905–3916.
McCabe, G. J. , M. A. Palecki & J. L. Betancourt (2004). Pacific and Atlantic Ocean influences on multidecadal drought frequency in the United States. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 4136–4141.
McClelland, J. W. et al. (2004). Increasing river discharge in the Eurasian Arctic: consideration of dams, permafrost thaw and fires as potential agents of change. J. Geophys. Res., 109, doi:10.1029/2004JD004583.
McClelland, J. W. et al. (2006). A pan-arctic evaluation of changes in river discharge during the latter half of the 20th century. Geophy. Res. Lett., 33, L06715, doi:10.1029/2006GL025753.
McCully, P. (1996). Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams, London: Zed Books.
McDowell, W. H. , A. E. Lugo & A. James (1995). Export of nutrients and major ions from Caribbean catchments. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc., 14, 12–20.
McKergow, L. A. et al. (2005). Sources of sediment to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Mar. Poll. Bull., 51, 200–211.
McLennan, S. M. (1993). Weathering and global denudation. J. Geol., 101, 295–303.
McMahon, T. A. (1979). Hydrological characteristics of arid zones. IAHS Publ. 128, 105–123.
McMahon, T. A. et al. (1992). Global Runoff: Continental Comparisons of Annual Flows and Peak Discharges, Cremlingen-Destedt, West Germany: Catena Verlag.
McNamara, J. P. , D. L. Kane & L. D. Hinzman (1998). An analysis of streamflow hydrology in the Kuparuk River Basin, Arctic Alaska: a nested watershed approach. J. Hydrol., 206, 39–57.
McNeill, J. R. (1992). The Mountains of the Mediterranean World: An Environmental History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McPhee, J. (1989). The Control of Nature, New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
McPhee, J. (1994). Assembling California, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
MDBMC (1999). The salinity audit of the Murray–Darling Basin: a 100-year perspective, Canberra, Australia, 39.
Meade, R. H. & J. A. Moody (2008). Changes in the discharge of sediment through the Missouri–Mississippi River system, 1940–2007. Proc.VIII Encontro Nacional de Engenharia de Sedimentos, Campo Grande, Brazil, 2–8 November, 27 pp.
Meade, R. H. & J. A. Moody (2010). Causes for the decline of suspended-sediment discharge in the Mississippi River system, 1940–2007. Hydrol. Process., 24, 35–49.
Meade, R. H. & R. S. Parker (1985). Sediment in rivers of the United States, US Geol. Surv. Water Supply Paper 2275, pp. 49–60.
Meade, R. H. (1969). Errors in using modern stream-load data to estimate natural rates of denudation. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 80, 1265–1274.
Meade, R. H. (1994). Suspended sediments of the modern Amazon and Orinoco rivers. Quat. Int., 21, 29–39.
Meade, R. H. (1996). River-sediment inputs to major deltas, in Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Subsidence, eds. J. D. Milliman & B. U. Haq , Dordrecht, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 63–85.
Meade, R. H. (2008). Transcontinental moving and storage: the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers transfer the Andes to the Atlantic. In Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management, ed. A. Gupta , Chichester: John Wiley, pp. 45–63.
Meade, R. H. (ed.) (1995). Contaminants in the Mississippi River, 1987–92, US Geol. Surv. Circular 1133.
Meade, R. H. , N. N. Bobrovitskaya & V. I. Babkin (2000). Suspended-sediment and fresh-water discharges In the Ob and Yenisey rivers, 1960–1988. Int. J. Earth Sci., 89.
Meade, R. H. , T. R. Yuzyk & T. J. Day (1990). Movement and storage of sediment in rivers of the United States and Canada, in The Geology of North America: Surface Water Hydrology, eds. M. G. Wolman & H. C. Riggs , Geological Society of America, O-1, pp. 255–280.
Meade, R. H. et al. (1985). Storage and remobilization of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon River of Brazil. Science, 228, 488–490.
Megnounif, A. et al. (2007). Key processes influencing erosion and sediment transport in a semi-arid Mediterranean area: the Upper Tafna catchment, Algeria. Hydrol. Sci. J., 52, 1271–1284.
Meigs, A. et al. (2006). Ultra-rapid landscape response and sediment yield following glacier retreat, Icy Bay, southern Alaska. Geomorph., 78, 207–221.
Meigs, P. (1953). World distribution of arid and sem-arid homoclimates, in Arid Zone Hydrology (UNESCO), pp. 203–209.
Meneghini, B. , I. Simmonds & I. N. Smith (2007). Association between Australian rainfall and the southern Annular Mode. Int. J. Climatol., 27.
Mensing, S. A. , J. Michaelsen & R. Byrne (1999). A 560-year record of Santa Ana fires reconstructed from charcoal deposited in the Santa Barbara Basin California. Quat. Res., 51, 295–305.
Mernild, S. H. , G. E. Liston & B. Hasholt (2008). East Greenland freshwater runoff to the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas 1999–2004 and 2071–2100. Hydrol. Process., 22, 4571–4586.
Mertes, L. A. K. & J. A. Warrick (2001). Measuring flood output from 110 coastal watersheds in California with field measurements and SeaWiFS. Geology, 29, 659.
Meybeck, M. & A. Ragu (1996). River discharges to the oceans: an assessment of suspended solids, major ions and nutrients, GEMS/EAP, 245 pp.
Meybeck, M. & C. Vörösmarty (2005). Fluvial filtering of land-to-ocean fluxes: from natural Holocene variations to Anthropocene. C.R. Geosci., 337, 107–123.
Meybeck, M. (1979). Concentration des eaux fluviales en ­éléments majeurs et apports en solution aux océans. Rev. Geogr. Phys. Geol., 21, 215–246.
Meybeck, M. (1988). How to establish and use world budgets of riverine materials, in Physical and Chemical Weathering in Geochemical Cycles, eds. A. Lerman & M. Meybeck , Dordrecht: Kluwer Acad. Publ., pp. 247–272.
Meybeck, M. (1994). Origin and variable composition of present day riverborne material, in Material Fluxes on the Surface of the Earth. Washington, DC: Nat. Acad. Press, pp. 61–73.
Meybeck, M. (1998). Surface water quality: global assessment and perspectives, in Water: A Looming Crisis?, ed. H. Zebidi , UNESCO, IHP-V, pp. 173–184.
Meybeck, M. (2002). Riverine quality at the Anthropocene: propositions for global space and time analysis, illustrated by the Seine River. Aqua. Sci.-Res. Across Boundaries, 64, 376–393.
Meybeck, M. (2003). Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, 358, 1935–1955.
Meybeck, M. , D. V. Chapman & R. Helmer (1989). Global Freshwater Quality. A First Assessment, Oxford: Blackwell for GEMS/WHO/UNEP.
Meybeck, M. , G. de Marsily & E. Fustec (eds.) (1998). La Seine en Son Bassin, Elsevier.
Meyer, W. B. & B. L. Turner (eds.) (1994). Changes in Land Use and Land Cover: a Global Perspective, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Meza, F. J. (2005). Variability of reference evapotranspiration and water demands. Association to ENSO in the Maipo river basin, Chile. Global Planet. Change, 47, 212–220.
Mikhailova, M. (1998). The hydrological regime and dynamics of the drainage network of the mouth of the HuangHe River. Water Res., 25, 98–110.
Mikhailova, M. V. & S. V. Dzhaoshvili (1998). Hydrological and morphological processes in the mouth area of the Rioni River and their anthropogenic changes. Water Res., 25, 134–142.
Mikhailova, M. V. et al. (1998). The Tiber River delta and the hydrological and morphological features of its formation. Water Res., 25, 572–582.
Milliman, J. D. & B. U. Haq (eds.) (1996). Sea-level Rise and Coastal Subsidence. Causes, Consequences, and Strategies, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press.
Milliman, J. D. & J. P. M. Syvitski (1992). Geomorphic/tectonic control of sediment discharged to the ocean: the importance of small mountainous rivers. J. Geol., 100, 525–544.
Milliman, J. D. & R. H. Meade (1983). World-wide delivery of river sediment to the ocean. J. Geol., 91, 1–21.
Milliman, J. D. & S. J. Kao (2005). Hyperpycnal discharge of fluvial sediment to the ocean: impact of Super-Typhoon Herb (1996) on Taiwanese rivers. J. Geol., 113, 503–516.
Milliman, J. D. (1975). Upper continental margin sedimentation off Brazil – a synthesis. Contrib. Sediment. Geol., 4, 151–175.
Milliman, J. D. (1980). Sedimentation in the Fraser River and its estuary, southwestern British Columbia (Canada). Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci., 10, 609–633.
Milliman, J. D. (1990). River discharge of water and sediment to the oceans: variations in space and time, in Facets of Modern Biogeochemistry, ed. S. K. V. Ittekkot , W. Michaelis , pp. 83–90.
Milliman, J. D. (1995). Sediment discharge to the ocean from small mountainous rivers: the New Guinea example. Geo-Mar. Lett., 15, 127–133.
Milliman, J. D. , C. Rutkowski & M. Meybeck (1995). River discharge to the sea: a global river index (GLORI), LOICZ, 125 pp.
Milliman, J. D. , G. Sestini & L. Jeftic (1992). The Mediterranean Sea and climate change – an overview, in Climate Change and Sealevel Rise in the Mediterranean Basin: Implications for the Future, eds. L. Jeftic , J. D. Milliman & G. Sestini , London: Edward Arnold Publ., pp. 1–14.
Milliman, J. D. , J. M. Broadus & F. Gable (1989). Environmental and economic impact of rising sea level and subsiding deltas: the Nile and Bengal examples. Ambio, 18, 340–345.
Milliman, J. D. , K. L. Farnsworth & C. S. Albertin (1999). Flux and fate of fluvial sediments leaving large islands in the East Indies. J. Sea Res., 41, 97–107.
Milliman, J. D. et al. (1987). Man's Influence on the erosion and transport of sediment by Asian rivers: the Yellow River (Huanghe) example. J. Geol., 95, 751–762.
Milliman, J. D. et al. (1996). Catastrophic discharge of fluvial sediment to the ocean: evidence of Jokulhlaups events in the Alsek Sea Valley, southeast Alaska (USA). IAHS Publ. 236, 367–379.
Milliman, J. D. et al. (2007). Short-term changes in seafloor character due to flood-derived hyperpycnal discharge: Typhoon Mindulle, Taiwan, July 2004. Geology, 35, 779–782.
Milliman, J. D. et al. (2008). Climatic and anthropogenic factors affecting river discharge to the global ocean, 1951–2000. Global Planet. Change, 62, 187–194.
Milliman, J. D. et al. (2010). Recent trends in fluvial discharge to the Black Sea. CIESM Workshop Monograph 39, pp. 45–51.
Milliman. D. J. , G. S. Quraishee & M. A. A. Beg (1984). Sediment discharge from the Indus River to the ocean: past, present, and future, in B. U. Haq and J. D. Milliman (eds.), Marine Geology and Oceanography of Arabian Sea and Coastal Pakistan, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 65–70.
Millot, R. et al. (2002). The global control of silicate weathering rates and the coupling with physical erosion: new insights from rivers of the Canadian Shield. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 196, 83–98.
Millot, R. et al. (2003). Northern latitude chemical weathering rates: clues from the MacKenzie River Basin, Canada. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 67, 1305–1329.
Milly, P. C. D. , K. A. Dunne & A. V. Vecchia (2005). Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate. Nature, 438.
Milly, P. C. D. et al. (2008). Stationarity is dead: Whither water management? Science, 319, 573–574.
Milner, A. M. , M. W. Osgood & K. R. Munkittrick (2005). Rivers of Arctic North America, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 902–937.
Ministry of Agriculture and Water (1984). Water Atlas of Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia.
Minobe, S. (1997). A 50–70 year climatic oscillation over the North Pacific and North America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 683–686.
Miyata, S. et al. (2009). Effects of forest floor coverage on overland flow and soil erosion on hillslopes in Japanese cypress plantation forests. Water Resour. Res., 45, W06402.
Mizuyama, T. & S. Kobashi (1996). Sediment yield and topographic change after major volcanic activity. IAHS Publ. 236, 295–301.
Mohammad, A. G. & A. A. Ada (2010). The impact of vegetative cover type on runoff and soil erosion under different land uses. Catena, 81, 97–103.
Molnar, P. & P. England (1990). Late Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change: chicken or egg? Nature, 346, 29–34.
Molnar, P. (2001). Climate change, flooding in arid environments, and erosion rates. Geology, 29, 1071–1074.
Molnia, B. F. & P. R. Carlson (1995). Glacial-marine sedimentation in Vitus Lake, Bering Glacier, Alaska, USA (abs). IGS International Symposium on Glacial Erosion and Sedimentation, August 20–25, 1995.
Montgomery, D. R. & H. Piegay (2003). Wood and rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes. Geomorph., 51, 1–5.
Montgomery, D. R. & J. M. Buffington (1997). Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 104, 596–611.
Montgomery, D. R. & M. T. Brandon (2002). Topographic controls on erosion rates in tectonically active mountain ranges. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 201, 481–489.
Montgomery, D. R. (1994). Road surface drainage, channel initiation, and slope instability. Water Resour. Res., 30, 1925–1932.
Montgomery, D. R. (2007). Dirt: The erosion of civilizations, University of California Press.
Montgomery, D. R. , M. S. Panfil & S. K. Hayes (1999). Channel-bed mobility response to extreme sediment loading at Mount Pinatubo. Geology, 27, 271–274.
Montgomery, D. R. et al. (2000). Forest clearing and regional landsliding. Geology, 28, 311–314.
Moody, D. W. , E. B. Chase & D. A. Aronson (1986). National Water Summary 1985 – Hydrologic Events and Surface Water Resources, U.S. Geol. Surv. Water Supply Paper 2300, 519 p.
Moody, J. A. & D. A. Martin (2009). Synthesis of sediment yields after wildland fire in different rainfall regimes in the western United States. Int. J. Wildland Fire, 18, 96–115.
Moon, S. et al. (2007). Chemical weathering in the Hong (Red) River basin: rates of silicate weathering and their controlling factors. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 1411–1430.
Mooney, H. A. & D. J. Parsons (1973). Structure and function of the California chaparral – an example from San Dimas. Ecol. Stud., 7, 83–112.
Moore, R. D. & S. M. Wondzell (2005). Physical hydrology and the effects of forest harvesting in the Pacific Northwest: a review. J. Amer. Water Resour. Assoc., 41, 763–784.
Moore, W. S. (1996). Large groundwater inputs to coastal waters revealed by 226-Ra enrichment. Nature, 380, 612–614.
Mosley, M. P. (2000). Regional differences in the effects of El Niño and La Niña on low flows and floods. Hydrol. Sci. J., 45, 249–267.
Mount, J. F. (1995). California Rivers and Streams: The Conflict Between Fluvial Process and Land Use, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Mount, J. F. and R. Twiss (2005).Subsidence, sea level rise and seismicity in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, 3(1).
Moy, C. M. et al. (2002). Variability of El Nino/Southern Oscillation activity at millennial timescales during the Holocene epoch. Nature, 420, 162–165.
Mulder, T. & J. P. M. Syvitski (1995). Turbidity currents generate at river mouths during exceptional discharges to the world oceans. J. Geol., 103, 285–299.
Mulder, T. et al. (1998). The Var submarine sedimentary system: understanding Holocene sediment delivery processes and their importance to the geological record, in Geological Processes on Continental Margins: Sedimentation, Mass Wasting and Stability, eds. M. Stoker , D. Evans & A. Cramp , Geol. Soc., London, Spec. Publ. 129, pp. 145–166.
Mulder, T. et al. (2003). Hyperpycnal turbidity currents: initiation, behavior and related deposits. A review. Mar. Pet. Geol., 20, 861–882.
Mulholland, P. J. & J. A. Watts (1982). Transport of organic carbon to the oceans by the rivers of North America: a synthesis of existing data. Tellus, 34, 176–186.
Murray, S. P. et al. (1982). Physical processes and sedimentation on a broad, shallow bank. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 14, 135.
Mutz, M. (2003). Hydraulic effects of wood in streams and rivers, in The Ecology and Management of Wood in World Rivers, eds. S. V. Gregory , K. L. Boyer & A. M. Gurnell . Amer. Fish. Soc., pp. 93–107.
Nace, R. (1967). Water resources: a global problem with local roots. Environ. Sci. Technol., 1, 550–560.
Nace, R. L. (1970). Hydrological and related data programs in the United States of America, in CENTO Seminar on Evaluation of water resources with scarce data, Beirut, Lebanon: Middle East Devel. Div, Ministry Overseas Devel., pp. 87–101.
Nageswara Rao, K. et al. (2010). Impacts of sediment retention by dams on delta shoreline regression: evidences from the Krishna and Godavari deltas, India. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 35, 817–827.
Naiman, R. J. , C. A. Johnston & J. C. Kelley (1988). Alteration of North American streams by beaver. BioScience, 38, 753–762.
Nakajima, X. (2006). Hyperpycnites deposited 700 km away from river mouths in the central Japan Sea. J. Sed. Res., 76, 60–73.
Narayana, A. C. (2006). Rainfall variability and its impact on the sediment discharge from the rivers of Kerala region, southwestern India. J. Geol. Soc. India, 68.
National Board of Water and the Environment Hydrological Yearbook, Helsinki, Finland.
Neal, E. G. , M. Todd Walter & C. Coffeen (2002). Linking the pacific decadal oscillation to seasonal stream discharge patterns in Southeast Alaska. J. Hydrol., 263, 188–197.
NEDECO (1959). River Studies and Recommendations on Improvement of Niger and Benue, Amsterdam: North Holland Publ., 1000 p.
NEDECO (1968). Suriname transportation study, Delft: The Netherlands, 293 pp.
NEDECO (1973). Rio Magdalena and Canal del Dique Survey Project. Technical Report, The Hague, The Netherlands Engineering Consultants.
Nelson, C. H. (1990). Estimated post-Messinian sediment supply and sedimentation rates on the Ebro continental margin, Spain. Mar. Geol., 95, 395–418.
New, M. et al. (2001). Precipitation measurements and trends in the twentieth century. Int. J. Climatol., 21, 1899–1922.
Newman, M. , G. P. Compo & M. A. Alexander (2003). ENSO-forced variability of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate, 16, 3853–3857.
Newson, M. (1997). Land, Water and Development. Sustainable Management of River Basin Systems, London: Routledge.
Nicholas, A. P. et al. (1999). Modeling and monitoring river response to environmental change: the impact of dam construction and alluvial gravel extraction on bank erosion rates in the lower Alfios Basin, Greece, in Fluvial Processes and Environmental Change, eds. A. G. Brown , T. A. Quine & T. Brown , Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
Nilsson, C. et al. (2005). Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world's large river systems. Science, 308, 405.
Nittrouer, J. A. , M. A. Allison & R. Campanella (2008). Bedform transport rates for the lowermost Mississippi River. J. Geophys. Res., 113, F03004 doi:10.1029/2007JF000795.
Nixon, S. W. (2003). Replacing the Nile: are anthropogenic nutrients providing the fertility once brought to the Mediterranean by a great river? Ambio, 32, 30–39.
NOAA (1985). Gulf of Mexico Coastal and Ocean Zones Strategic Assessment: Data Atlas, Washington, DC: Goverment Printing Office.
Nolan, K. M. & D. C. Marron (1995). History, causes, and significance of changes in the channel geometry of Redwood Creek, northwestern California. US Geol. Surv. Prfo. Paper 1454, N1–22.
Nolan, K. M. & R. J. Janda (1995). Movement and sediment yield of two earthflows, northwestern California. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1454, F1–12.
Nolan, K. M. , H. M. Kelsey & D. C. Marron (eds.) (1995). Geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat in the Redwood Creek basin, northwestern California. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1454.
Nolan, K. M. , T. E. Lisle & H. N. Kelsey (1987). Bankful discharge and sediment transport in northwestern California. IAHS Publ. 165, 439–449.
Normark, W. R. & J. A. Reid (2003). Extensive deposits on the Pacific Plate from late Pleistocene North American glacial lake outbursts. J. Geol., 111, 617–637.
Normark, W. R. et al. (1997). Tectonism and turbidites in Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge (abs.). EOS, 78, F630.
Nouh, M. (2006). Wadi flow in the Arabian Gulf states. Hydrol. Process., 20, 2393–2413.
NSW. Department of Public Works (1975). Shoalhaven River Entrance Study: Interim Report, 33 pp.
Nunes, C. & J. I. Augé (eds.) (1999). Land-use and Land-cover Change (LUCC) Implementation Strategy: IGBP.
Nutalaya, P. , R. N. Yong, T. Chumnankit & S. Buapeng (1996). Land subsidence in Bangkok during 1978–1988. In J. D. Milliman & B. U. Haq (eds.), Sea-level Rise and Coastal Subsidence: Causes, Consequences and Strategies. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 105–129.
O'Connor, J. E. & G. E. Grant (eds.) (2003). A Peculiar River. Geology, Geomorphology, and Hydrology of the Deschutes River, Oregon. Amer. Geophys. Union, 219 pp.
O'Connor, J. E. , G. E. Grant & J. E. Costa (2002). The geology and geography of floods, in Ancient Floods, Modern Hazards: Principles and Application of Paleoflood Hydrology. Amer. Geophys. Union Water Sci. Appl., 5, pp. 359–385.
O'Grady, D. B. & J. P. M. Syvitski (2002). Large-scale morphology of Arctic continental slopes: the influence of sediment delivery on slope form, in Glacier-influenced Sedimentation on High-latitude Continental Margins, eds. J. A. Dowdeswell & C. O. Cofaigh , Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 203, pp. 11–31.
Ogi, M. & Y. Tachibana (2006). Influence of the annual Arctic Oscillation on the negative correlation between Okhotsk Sea ice and Amur River discharge. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33.
Ohmori, H. (1983). Erosion rates and their relation to vegetation from the viewpoint of world-wide distribution. Bull. Dept. Geogr., University of Tokyo, pp. 77–91.
Oki, T. & S. Kanae (2006). Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science, 313, 1068–1072.
Oki, T. (1999). The global water cycle, in Global Energy and Water Cycles, eds. K. A. Browning & R. J. Gurney , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 10–29.
Olive, L. J. & W. A. Rieger (1986). Low Australilan sediment yields – a question of inefficient sediment delivery? IAHS Publ. 159, 355–364.
Onda, Y. , W. E. Dietrich & F. Booker (2008). Evolution of overland flow after a severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California. Catena, 72, 13–20.
Opperman, J. J. et al. (2009). Sustainable floodplains through large-scale reconnection to rivers. Science, 326, 1487–1488.
Owens, P. & O. Slaymaker (1992). Late Holocene sediment yields in small alpine and subalpine drainage basins, British Columbia. IAHS Publ. 36, 216–219.
Ozturk, F. (1996). Suspended sediment yields of rivers in Turkey. IAHS Publ., 236, 65–71.
Pachur, H. -J. & S. Kropelin (1987). Wadi Howar: Paleoclimatic evidence from an extinct river system in the southeastern Sahara. Science, 237, 298–300.
Page, M. & N. A. Trustrum (1997). A late Holocene lake sediment record of the erosion response to land use change in a steepland catchment. Z. Geomorphol., 41, 369–392.
Page, M. , N. Trustrum & B. Gomez (2000). Implications of a century of anthropogenic erosion for future land use in the Gisborne–East Coast region of New Zealand. N. Z. Geogr., 56, 13–24.
Page, M. J. , L. M. Reid & I. H. Lynn (1999). Sediment production from Cyclone Bola landslides Waipaoa catchment. J. Hydrol. N.Z., 38, 289–308.
Pahnke, K. et al. (2007). Eastern tropical Pacific hydrologic changes during the past 27,000 years from D/H ratios in alkenones. Paleoceanogr., 22, A4214 doi:10.1029/2007PA001468.
Palanques, A. , F. Plana & A. Maldonado (1990). Recent influence of man on the Ebro margin sedimentation system, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Geol., 95, 247–263.
Pano, N. (1992). Dynamic a del litorale Albanese (sintesi delle conoscenze). Proc. 19th AIGI Mtg., G. Land. Publ, Genoa, pp. 3–18.
Pareschi, M. T. et al. (2000). May 5, 1998, debris flows in circum-Vesuvian areas (southern Italy): insights for hazard assessment. Geology, 28, 639–642.
Parrett, C. , N. B. Melcher & R. W. J. James (1993). Flood discharges in the upper Mississippi River basin, 1993, U.S. Geol. Surv. Circular 1120-A.
Pasquini, A. I. & P. J. Depetris (2007). Discharge trends and flow dynamics of South American rivers draining the southern Atlantic seaboard: an overview. J. Hydrol., 333, 385–399.
Patchineelam, S. M. , B. J. Kjerfve & L. R. Gardner (1999). A preliminary sediment budget for the Winyah Bay estuary, South Carolina, USA. Mar. Geol., 162, 133–144.
Pearce, A. J. & A. Watson (1986). Effects of earthquake induced landslides on sediment budget and transport over a 50-year period. Geology 14, 14, 52–55.
Peel, M. C. & T. A. McMahon (2006). Continental runoff – a quality-controlled global runoff data set. Nature, e14–E14.
Peel, M. C. et al. (2001). Identification and explanation of continental differences in the variability of annual runoff. J. Hydrol., 250, 224–240.
Penman, H. L. (1963). Vegetation and hydrology, in Bureau Soils Tech. Comm. 53 Commonwealth Agricul. Bureau (Great Britian), p. 124.
Pereira, H. C. (1973). Land Use and Water Resources in Temperate and Tropical Climates, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peterson, B. J. et al. (2002). Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean. Science, 298, 2171–2173.
Petrone, K. C. et al. (2007). The influence of fire and permafrost on sub-arctic stream chemistry during storms. Hydrol. Process., 21, 423–434.
Pettine, A. et al. (1985). Organic and trophic loads of major Italian rivers, in Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers Pt. 4, eds. E. T. Degens , S. Kempe & R. Herrera , Hamburg: SCOPE/UNEP, pp. 407–416.
Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B. & M. W. Miller (2003). Quantitative bedrock geology of east and southeast Asia. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 5 doi:10.1029/2003GC000619.
Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B. (2009). Land2Sea database of river drainage basin sizes, annual water discharges, and suspended sediment fluxes. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10, Q06014 doi:10.1029/2008GC002356.
Phien-wej, N. , P. H. Giao & P. Nutalaya (2006). Land subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand. Eng. Geol., 82, 187–201.
Phillips, J. D. (1990). Relative importance of factors influencing fluvial soil loss at the global scale. Amer. J. Sci., 290, 547–568.
Piégay, H. et al. (2004). Contemporary changes in sediment yield in an alpine mountain basin due to afforestation (the upper Drôme in France). Catena, 55, 183–212.
Pickup, G. (1980). Hydraulic and sediment modeling studies in environmental impact assesment of a major tropical dam project. Earth Surf. Process., 5, 61–75.
Pickup, G. (1983). Sedimentation processes in the Purari River upstream of the delta, in The Purari – Tropical Environment of a high rainfall river basin, ed. T. Petr , The Hague: Monographiae Biologicae, pp. 205–225.
Pickup, G. , R. J. Higgins & R. F. Warner (1981). Erosion and sediment yield in Fly River drainage basins, Papua New Guinea. IAHS Publ. 132, pp. 438–456.
Pimentel, D. et al. (1995). Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science, 267, 117–1123.
Pinet, P. & M. Souriau (1988). Continental erosion and large-scale relief. Tectonics, 7, 563–582.
Pitkånen, H. (1994). Eutrophication of the Finnish coastal waters: origin, fate and effects of riverine nutrient fluxes. Publ. Water Environ. Res. Inst. 1994.
Pitlick, J. (1993). Response and recovery of a subalpine stream following a catastrophic flood. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 105, 657–670.
Pont, D. (1997). Les debits solides du Rhone a proximité de son embouchure donnees récentes (1994–1995). Rev. Geogr. Lyon, 72, 23–33.
Ponting, C. (1991). A Green History of the World, London: Penguin.
Porter, S. C. & Z. An (1995). Correlation between climate events in the North Atlantic and China during the last glaciation. Nature, 375, 305–308.
Postel, S. & B. Richter (2003). Rivers for Life. Managing Water for People and Nature, Washington, DC: Island Press.
Postel, S. L. , G. C. Daily & P. R. Ehrlich (1996). Human appropriation of renewable fresh water. Science, 271, 785.
Potter, P. E. (1978). Significance and origin of big rivers. J. Geol., 86, 13–33.
Poulos, S. E. & M. B. Collins (2002). Fluviatile sediment fluxes to the Mediterranean Sea: a quantitative approach and the influence of dams. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 191, 227–245.
Poulos, S. E. , B. D. Collins & G. Evans (1996). Water sediment fluxes of Greek rivers, southeastern Alpine Europe: annual yields, seasonal variability, delta formation and human impact. Z. Geomorphol., 40, 243–261.
Poulos, S. E. , V. Lykousis & M. B. Collins (1995). Late Quaternary evolution of Amvrakikos Gulf, western Greece. Geo-Mar. Lett., 15, 9–16.
Poulos, S. E. et al. (2000). Thermaikos Gulf Coastal System, NW Aegean Sea: an overview of water/sediment fluxes in relation to air–land–ocean interactions and human activities. J. Marine Syst., 25, 47–76.
Poulos, S. E. et al. (2002). Sediment fluxes and the evolution of a riverine-supplied tectonically-active coastal system: Kyparissiakos Gulf, Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean). Geological Society London Special Publications, 191, 247–266.
Prego, R. , P. Boi & A. Cobelo -García (2008). The contribution of total suspended solids to the Bay of Biscay by Cantabrian Rivers (northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula). J. Marine Syst., 72, 342–349.
Probst, J. L. (1992). Geochemie et hydrologie de l'erosion ­continental. Mechanisms, bilan global actuel at fluctuations au cours des 500 millions d'annees. Sci. Géol. Bull., 94, 161.
Probst, J.-L. & P. Amiotte-Suchet (1992). Fluvial suspended sediment transport and mechanical erosion in the Maghreb (North Africa). Hydrol. Sci. J., 37, 621–637.
Prowse, T. D. (1993). Suspended sediment concentration during river ice breakup. Can. J. Civil Eng., 20, 872–875.
Pyne, S. J. (1991). Burning Brush: A Fire History of Australia, New York: Holt.
Qi, S. Z. & F. Luo (2007). Environmental degradation in the Yellow River delta, Shandong Province, China. Ambio, 36, 610–611.
Qian, N. & D. Z. Dai (1980). The problems of river sedimentation and the present status of research in China, in China Hydraul. Eng. Proc. Int. Symp. River Sedimentation Beijing, China: Guanghua Press, pp. 3–39.
Quadrelli, R. , V. Pavan & F. Molteni (2001). Wintertime variability of Mediterranean precipitation and its links with large-scale circulation anomalies. Clim. Dyn., 17, 457–466.
Rabalais, N. N. & R. E. Turner (2001). Hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: description, causes and change. Coastal Hypoxia: Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems, Amer. Geophys. Union Coast. Est. Stud. Ser. 58, pp. 37–48.
Rabalais, N. N. et al. (1998). Consequences of the 1993 Mississippi River flood in the Gulf of Mexico. River Res. Appl., 14, 161–177.
Rabalais, N. N. et al. (2007). Hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: does the science support the plan to reduce, mitigate and control hypoxia? Estuaries Coasts, 30, 753–772.
Rachold, V. et al. (1996). Sediment transport to the Laptev Sea – hydrology and geochemistry of the Lena River. Polar Res., 15, 183–196.
Rachold, V. et al. (2003). Modern terrigenous organic carbon input to the Arctic Ocean, in The Organic Carbon Cycle in the Arctic Ocean: Present and Past, eds. R. Stein & R. W. MacDonald , Berlin: Springer Verlag, pp. 33–55.
Rahaman, W. et al. (2009). Climate control on erosion distribution over the Himalaya during the past ~ 100 ka. Geology, 37, 559–562.
Rajagopalan, B. et al. (2009). Water supply risk on the Colorado River: can management mitigate? Water Res. Resear., 45, W08201, doi:10.1029/2008WR007652.
Ramanathan, A. L. , V. Subramanian & B. K. Das (1996). Sediment and heavy metal accumulation in the Cauvery Basin. Environ. Geol., 27, 155–163.
Ramankutty, N. & J. A. Foley (1999). Estimating historical changes in global land cover: Croplands from 1700 to 1992. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 997–1027.
Ramesh, R. & V. Subramanian (1993). Geochemical characteristics of the major tropical rivers of India. IAHS Publ. 216, 157–164.
Rand McNally (1980). Encyclopedia of World Rivers, London: Bison Books Limited.
Rao, K. L. (1979). India's Water Wealth: Orient Longman.
Rao, K. N. (2006). Coastal Morphodynamics and Asymmetric Development of the Godavari Delta: Implications to Facies Architecture and Reservoir Heterogeneity, J. Geol. Soc. India.
Ravichandran, S. (2003). Hydrological influences on the water quality trends in Tamiraparani Basin, South India. Environ. Monit. Assess., 87, 293–309.
Raymo, M. E. & W. F. Ruddiman (1992). Tectonic forcing of late Cenozoic climate. Nature, 359, 117–122.
Raymond, M. B. (1999). Geochemistry of small mountainous rivers of Papua New Guinea: local observations and global implications, unpublished MSc Thesis, College of William and Mary.
Reed, L. A. , C. S. Takita & G. Barton (1997). Loads and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the Susquehanna River basin, 1985–89, US Geol. Survey Circular, 17 pp.
Regional Activity Center for Environment Remote Sensing (RACERS) (1996). Monitoring of Coastal Evolution through Space Remote Sensing, Palermo.
Reid, L. M. & M. J. Page (2003). Magnitude and frequency of landsliding in a large New Zealand catchment. Geomorph., 49, 71–88.
Reid, L. M. & T. Dunne (1984). Sediment production from forest road surfaces. Water Resour. Res., 20, 1753–1761.
Reid, L. M. & T. Dunne (1996). Rapid Evaluation of Sediment Budgets, Reiskirchen: Catena Verlag.
Rein, B. , A. Luckge & F. Sirocko (2004). A major Holocene ENSO anomaly during the Medieval period. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L17211 doi:10.1029/2004GL020161.
Rein, B. et al. (2005). El Niño variability off Peru during the last 20,000 years. Paleoceanogr., 20, PA4003 doi:10.1029/2004PA001099.
Reiners, P. W. et al. (2003). Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington Cascades. Nature, 426, 645–647.
Reisner, M. (1993). Cadillac Desert, New York, Penguin.
Ren, M. -E. & J. D. Milliman (1996). Effect of sea-level rise and human activity on the Yangtze delta, China. In J. D. Milliman and B. U. Haq (eds.) Sea-level Rise and Coastal Subsidence: Causes Consequences and Strategies. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 205–214.
Ren, M.-E. & X.-M. Zhu (1994). Anthropogenic influences on changes in the sediment load of the Yellow River, China, during the Holocene. Holocene, 4, 314–320.
Ren, M.-E. (1992). Human impact on coastal landform and ­sedimentation – the Yellow River example. GeoJournal, 28, 443–448.
Ren, M.-E. (1995). Anthropogenic effect on the flow and sediment of the Lower Yellow River and its bearing on the evolution of Yellow River delta, China. GeoJournal, 37, 473–478.
Renssen, H. & J. M. Knoop (2000). A global river routing network for use in hydrological modeling. J. Hydrol., 230, 230–243.
Renwick, W. H. (1996). Continental-scale reservoir sedimentation patterns in the United States. IAHS Publ. 236, 513–522.
Renwick, W. H. et al. (2005). The role of impoundments in the sediment budget of the conterminous United States. Geomorph., 71, 99–111.
Republic of Korea Ministry of Construction and Transportation (2007). Water Resources in Korea, Seoul: Water Resources Bureau, Ministry of Construction and Transportation.
Restrepo, J. D. & B. J. Kjerfve (2000a). Magdalena River: interannual variability (1975–1995) and revised water discharge and sediment load estimates. J. Hydrol., 235, 137–149.
Restrepo, J. D. & B. J. Kjerve (2000b). Water discharge and sediment load from the western slopes of the Colombian Andes, with focus on the Rio San Juan. J. Geol., 108, 17–33.
Restrepo, J. D. & J. P. M. Syvitski (2006). Assessing the effect of natural controls and land use change on sediment yield in a major Andean Basin: the Magdalena drainage basin, Colombia. Ambio, 35, 65–74.
Restrepo, J. D. & S. A. López (2008). Morphodynamics of the Pacific and Caribbean deltas of Colombia, South America. J. South Amer. Earth. Sci., 25, 1–21.
Reuther, A. U. et al. (2006). Constraining the timing of the most recent cataclysmic flood event from ice-dammed lakes in the Russian Altai Mountains, Siberia, using cosmogenic in situ 10Be. Geology, 34, 913–916.
Revelle, R. R. & P. E. Waggoner (1983). Effect of a carbon dioxide-induced climatic change on water supplies in the western United States, in Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee Changing Climate. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science, pp. 419–432.
Reynoldson, T. B. et al. (2005). Fraser River Basin, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 696–732.
Richards, J. F. (1990). Land transformation, in The Earth as Transformed by Human Action, eds. B. L. Turner , II, et al., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 163–178.
Richardson, J. S. & A. M. Milner (2005). Pacific coast rivers of Canada and Alaska, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 734–773.
Riebe, C. S. et al. (2001a). Minimal climatic control on erosion rates in the Sierra Nevada, California. Geology, 29, 447–450.
Riebe, C. S. et al. (2001b). Strong tectonic and weak climatic control of long-term chemical weathering rates. Geology, 29, 511–514.
Riggs, H. C. (1977). A Brief Investigation of the Surface Water Hydrology of Yemen Arab Republic, US Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper, 37 pp.
Robertson, D. M. & E. D. Roerish (1999). Influence of various water quality sampling strategies on load estimates for small streams. Water Resour Res., 35, 3747–3759.
Robinson, R. A. J. et al. (2007). The Irrawaddy River sediment flux to the Indian Ocean: the original nineteenth-century data revisited. J. Geol., 115, 629–640.
Robinson, R. S. & M. J. Johnsson (1997). Chemical and Physical Weathering of Fluvial Sands in an Arctic Environment : Sands of the Sagavanirktok River, North Slope, Alaska. J. Sediment. Res., 67, 560–570.
Rodier, J. A. & M. Roche (1984). World catalog of maximum obvserved floods. IAHS Publ. 143, 378.
Rondeau, B. et al. (2000). Budget and sources of suspended sediment transported in the St. Lawrence River, Canada. Hydrol. Process., 14, 21–36.
Rooseboom, A. & H. J. v. M. Harmse (1979). Changes in the sediment load of the Orange River during the period 1929–1969. IAHS Publ., pp. 459–470.
Ropelewski, C. F. & M. S. Halpert (1989). Precipitation patterns associated with the high index phase of the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 2, 268–284.
Rosenberg, D. M. et al. (2005). Nelson and Churchill River Basins, in Rivers of North America, eds. A. C. Benke & C. E. Cushing , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 852–901.
Rossignol-Strick, M. et al. (1982). After the deluge: Mediterranean stagnation and sapropel formation. Nature, 295, 105–110.
Rothacher, J. (1970). Increases in water yield following clear-cut logging in the Pacific Northwest. Water Resour. Res., 6, 653–658.
Rothacher, J. (1973). Does harvest in west slope Douglas-fir increase peak flow in small forest streams? US Forest Serv. Res. Paper PNW-163, 13.
Rovira, A. , R. J. Batalla & M. Sala (2004). Fluvial sediment budget of a Mediterranean river: the lower Tordera (Catalan coastal ranges, NE Spain). Catena, 60, 19–42.
Rozengurt, M. & I. Haydock (1993). Freshwater flow diversion and its implications for coastal zone ecosystems. 58th N. Amer. Wildlife Nat. Resour. Conf., pp. 287–295.
Rozin, U. & A. P. Schick (1996). Land use change, conservation measures and stream channel response in the Mediterranean/semiarid transition zone: Nahal Hoga, southern coastal plain, Israel. IAHS Publ. 236, 417–444.
Russell, A. J. et al. (2006). Icelandic jökulhlaup impacts: implications for ice-sheet hydrology, sediment transfer and geomorphology. Geomorph., 75, 33–64.
Russell, J. M. & T. C. Johnson (2007). Little Ice Age drought in equatorial Africa: Intertropical Convergence Zone migrations and El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability. Geology, 35, 21–24.
Russell, J. M. , T. C. Johnson & M. R. Talbot (2003). A 725-yr cycle in the climate of central Africa during the late Holocene. Geology, 31, 677–680.
Ryu, J. S. , K. S. Lee & H. W. Chang (2007). Hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of the Han River basin, South Korea. J. Hydrol., 345, 50–60.
Sabater, F. et al. (1995). The Ter: a Mediterranean river case-study in Spain, in Ecosystems of the World 22: River and Stream Ecosystems, eds. C. E. Cushing , K. W. Cummins & G. W. Mishall , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 419–438.
Sabater, S. et al. (2009). The Iberian Rivers, in Rivers of Europe, eds. K. Tockner , C. T. Robinson & U. Uehlinger , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 113–149.
Saito, Y. , Z. Yang & K. Hori (2001). The Huanghe (Yellow River) and Changjiang (Yangtze River) deltas: a review on their characteristics, evolution and sediment discharge during the Holocene. Geomorph., 41, 219–231.
Salomons, W. & W. G. Mook (1981). Field observations of the isotopic composition of particulate organic carbon in the southern North Sea and adjacent estuaries. Mar. Geol., 41, 11–20.
Sandler, A. & B. Herut (2000). Composition of clays along the continental shelf off Israel: contribution of the Nile versus local sources. Mar. Geol., 167, 339–354.
Savage, S. M. (1974). Mechanism of fire-induced water repellency in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 38, 653–657.
Savini, J. & J. C. Krammerer (1961). Urban growth and the water regime. US Geol. Surv. Water Supply Paper 1591A.
Scharler, U. M. & D. Baird (2003). The influence of catchment management on salinity, nutrient stochiometry and phytoplankton biomass of Eastern Cape estuaries, South Africa. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 56, 735–748.
Scheepers, A. C. T. & I. C. Rust (1999). The Uniab River Fan: an unusual alluvial fan on the hyper-arid Skeleton Coast, Namibia. Varieties of Fluvial Form: Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 273–294.
Schettini, C. A. F. (2002). Near-bed sediment transport in the Itajaí-Açu River estuary, southern Brazil, in Fine sediment dynamics in the marine environment. Elsevier, Amsterdam, eds. J. C. Winterwerp & C. S. Kranenburg , Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 499–512.
Scheumann, W. & M. Schiffler (eds.) (1998). Water in the Middle East, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Schick, A. P. & J. Lekach (1987). A high magnitude flood in the Sinai Desert, in Catastrophic Floods, eds. L. Mayer & D. Nash , Boston: Allen & Unwin, pp. 381–410.
Schick, A. P. (1988). Hydrologic aspects of floods in extreme arid environments, in Flood Geomorphology, eds. V. R. Baker , R. C. Kochel & P. C. Patton , Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 189–203.
Schimmelmann, A. et al. (1998). A large California flood and correlative global climatic events 400 years ago. Quat. Res., 49, 51–61.
Schmidt, K. M. & D. R. Montgomery (1995). Limits to relief. Science, 270, 617–620.
Schulze, R. E. (2004). River basin responses to global change and anthropogenic impacts, in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: A New Perspective on an Interactive System, eds. P. Kabat et al., New York: Springer Verlag, pp. 339–374.
Schulze, R. E. et al. (2004). Case study 3: Modelling the impacts of land-use and climate change on hydrological responses in the mixed underdeveloped/developed Mgeni catchment, South Africa, in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: A New Perspective on an Interactive System. IGBP, pp. 441–453.
Schumm, S. (2007). Rivers and humans: unintended consequences, in Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management, ed. A. Gupta , John Wiley, pp. 517–533.
Schumm, S. A. & D. K. Rea (1995). Sediment yield from disturbed earth systems. Geology, 23, 391.
Schumm, S. A. & R. F. Hadley (1961). Progress in the application of landform analysis in studies of semiarid erosion, US Geological Survey, 14 pp.
Schumm, S. A. (1963). The disparity between present rates of denudation and orogeny. US Geol Sur. Prof. Paper 454-H.
Schumm, S. A. (1977). The Fluvial System, New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Schumm, S. A. (2005). River Variability and Complexity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schumm, S. A. , J. F. Dumont & J. M. Holbrook (2002). Active Tectonics and Alluvial Rivers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Seager, R. et al. (2007). Blueprints for Medieval hydroclimate. Quat. Sci. Rev., 26, 2322–2336.
Serrano Suarez, B. E. (2004). The Sinú river delta on the northwestern Caribbean coast of Colombia: bay infilling associated with delta development. J. South Amer. Earth. Sci., 16, 623–631.
Sestini, G. (1991). The implications of climatic changes for the Nile Delta, in Climatic Change and the Mediterranean: Environmental and Societal Impacts of Climatic Change and Sea-level Rise in the Mediterranean Region, eds. L. Jeftic , J. D. Milliman & G. Sestini , Edward Arnold Publishers, p. 673.
Sestini, G. (1992). Implications of climatic changes for the Po delta and Venice lagoon, in Climatic Change and the Mediterranean, eds. L. Leftick & J. D. Milliman , London: Arnold, pp. 428–494.
Shabbar, A. (2006). The impact of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on the Canadian climate. Adv. Geos., 6, 149–153.
Shady, A. M. et al. (1996). Management and Development of Major Rivers, Oxford University Press.
Shahin, M. (2002). Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Pub.
Shahin, M. (2007). Water Resources and Hydrometeorology of the Arab Region, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Pub.
Shakun, J. D. & J. Shaman (2009). Tropical origins of North and South Pacific decadal variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L19711, doi:10.1029/2009GL040113.
Shaman, J & E. Tziperman (2005). The effect of ENSO on Tibetan Plateau snow depth: A stationary wave teleconnection mechanism and implications for the south Asian monsoons. J. Climate, 18, 2067–2079.
Sharma, K. D. (1997). Assessing the impact of overgrazing on soil erosion in arid regions at a range of spatial scales. IAHS Publ. 245, 119–123.
Sherman, D. J. , K. M. Barron & J. T. Ellis (2002). Retention of beach sands by dams and debris basins in southern California. J. Coast. Res., 36, 662–674.
Shiklomanov, A. I. , R. B. Lammers & C. J. Vörösmarty (2002). Widespread decline in hydrological monitoring threatens pan-Arctic research. EOS, 83, 13,16.
Shiklomanov, A. I. et al. (2006). Cold region river discharge ­uncertainty – estimates from large Russian rivers. J. Hydrol., 326, 231–256.
Shiklomanov, I. A. & B. G. Skakalsky (1994). Studying water, sediment and contaminant runoff of Siberian rivers: ­modern status and prospects. Arctic Research of the United States, 8, 295–306.
Shiklomanov, I. A. & J. C. Rodda (eds.) (2003). World Water Resources at the Beginning of the 21st Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.