The Politics of Scientific Advice

Institutional Design for Quality Assurance

The Politics of Scientific Advice
  • Edited by Justus Lentsch


    Edited by Peter Weingart

  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

    Online Publication Date:October 2011

    Online ISBN:9780511777141

    Hardback ISBN:9781107003705

    Paperback ISBN:9780521177153

  • Book DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511777141

    Subjects: Comparative politics

Controversies over issues such as genetically engineered food, foot-and-mouth disease and the failure of risk models in the global financial crisis have raised concerns about the quality of expert scientific advice. The legitimacy of experts, and of the political decision-makers and policy-makers whom they advise, essentially depends on the quality of the advice. But what does quality mean in this context, and how can it be achieved? This volume argues that the quality of scientific advice can be ensured by an appropriate institutional design of advisory organisations. Using examples from a wide range of international case studies, including think tanks, governmental research institutes, agencies and academies, the authors provide a systematic guide to the major problems and pitfalls encountered in scientific advice and the means by which organisations around the world have solved these problems.


 Reviews:

“This impressive collection, featuring a stellar cast of leading thinkers in the field, provides an indispensable guide to anyone seeking to navigate the boundaries between science, politics and public policy.”
– James Wilsdon, Director of Science Policy, The Royal Society

“In a world where decision makers increasingly rely on expert advice, more attention than ever is needed on the capacity of scientific advisory bodies to bridge science and politics. Lentsch and Weingart not only help to fill this need with this timely and comprehensive volume, but do so in a way that emphasizes practical knowledge. This book is an important part of the bridge that they seek to build.”
– Roger Pielke, Jr., Professor of Environmental Studies, University of Colorado

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bijker, Wiebe E. , Bal, Roland and Hendriks, Ruud 2009. The Paradox of Scientific Authority: The Role of Scientific Advice in Democracies, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Clark, William C. and Majone, Giandomenico 1985. ‘The critical appraisal of scientific inquiries with policy implications’, Science, Technologies, & Human Values 10/3: 6–19.
Clarke, Roger and Valentin, Jack 2005. ‘A history of the international commission on radiological protection’, Health Physics 88/5: 407–22.
DiMaggio, Paul J. and Powell, Walter 1983. ‘The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organisational fields’, American Sociological Review 48: 147–60.
Funtowicz, Silvio O. 2001. ‘Peer review and quality control’, in Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 11179–83.
Funtowicz, Silvio O. and Ravetz, Jerome R. 1990. Uncertainty and Quality in Science for Policy, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Gibbons, Michael , Limoges, Camille , Nowotny, Helga , Schwartzman, Simon , Scott, Peter and Trow, Martin 1994. The New Production of Knowledge. The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies, London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGE Publications.
Gieryn, Thomas F. 1983. ‘Boundary-work and the demarcation of science from non-science: Strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists’, American Sociological Review 48: 781–95.
Guston, David H. 2005. ‘Institutional design for socially robust knowledge: The national toxicology program's report on carcinogens’, in Sabine Maasen and Peter Weingart (eds.), Democratization of Expertise? Exploring Novel Forms of Scientific Advice in Political Decision-Making, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 63–80.
Hemlin, Sven and Rasmussen, Søren Barlebo 2006. ‘The shift in academic quality control’, Science, Technology, & Human Values 31/2: 173–98.
Irwin, Alan , Rothstein, Henry , Yearley, Steven and McCarthy, Elaine 1997. ‘Regulatory science – towards a sociological framework’, Futures 29/1: 17–31.
Jasanoff, Sheila 1990. The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jasanoff, Sheila 2005. Designs on Nature: Science and Democracy in Europe and the United States, Princeton University Press.
Krimsky, Sheldon 2003. Science in the Private Interest: Has the Lure of Profits Corrupted Biomedical Research?, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Lentsch, Justus 2010. ‘ “Knowledge brokers” in a pluralist world: The new function of (national) academies of science, technology, and humanities’, GAIA – Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 19/2: 110–13.
Maasen, Sabine and Weingart, Peter 2005. ‘What's new in scientific advice to politics?’, in Sabine Maasen and Peter Weingart (eds.), Democratization of Expertise? Exploring Novel Forms of Scientific Advice in Political Decision-Making, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 1–20.
Majone, Giandomenico 1997. ‘The new European agencies: Regulation by information’, Journal of European Public Policy 4/2: 262–75.
Miller, Clark A. 2008. ‘Civic epistemologies: constituting knowledge and order in political communities’, Sociological Compass 2/6: 1896–919.
Nightingale, Paul and Scott, Alister 2007. ‘Peer review and the relevance gap: Ten suggestions for policy-makers’, Science and Public Policy 34/8: 543–53.
Nowotny, Helga , Scott, Peter and Gibbons, Michael 2001. Re-Thinking Science. Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty, Cambridge: Polity Press.
O'Neill, Onora 2006. ‘Transparency and the ethics of communication’, Proceedings of the British Academy 135: 75–90.
Oreskes, Naomi and Conway, Erik M. 2010. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. New York: Bloomsbury Press.
Pawson, Ray and Tilley, Nick 1997. Realistic Evaluation, London: Sage.
Pielke, Roger Jr. 2007. The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics, Cambridge University Press.
Pielke, Roger Jr. and Klein, Roberta 2009. ‘The rise and fall of the science advisor to the president of the United States’, Minerva 47/1: 7–29.
Pielke, Roger Jr. 2010. ‘Major change is needed if the IPCC hopes to survive’, Yale Environment 360, available at: http://e360.yale.edu (last accessed 10 March 2010).
Pielke, RogerJr. and Klein, Roberta (eds.) 2010. Presidential Science Advisors: Perspectives and Reflections on Science, Policy and Politics, Dordrecht: Springer.
Power, Michael 1997. The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification, Oxford University Press.
Renn, Ortwin 1995. ‘Styles of using scientific expertise: A comparative framework’, Science and Public Policy 22/3: 147–56.
Tol, Richard , Pielke, Roger and von Storch, Hans 2010. ‘Save the panel on climate change’, Spiegel-Online, 25 January 2010, available at: www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,673944,00.html (last accessed 10 March 2010).
Wagner, Wendy and Steinzor, Rena (eds.) 2006. Rescuing Science from Politics: Regulation and the Distortion of Scientific Research, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weinberg, Alvin M. 1967. Reflections on Big Science, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Weingart, Peter 2005. ‘The impact of bibliometrics upon the science system: Inadvertent consequences?’, Scientometrics 62/1: 117–31.
Wynne, Brian , Felt, Ulrike , Gonçalves, Maria Eduarda , Jasanoff, Sheila , Jepsen, Maria , Joly, Pierre-Benoît , Konopasek, Zdenek , et al. 2007. Taking European Knowledge Society Seriously, Brussels: European Commission.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Angell, Marcia 1996. Science on Trial: The Clash of Medical Evidence and the Law in the Breast Implant Case, New York: Norton.
Beck, Ulrich 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, London: Sage Publications.
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 U.S. 579 (1993).
Desrosières, Alain 1991. ‘How to make things which hold together: Social science, statistics and the state’, in Peter Wagner , Bjorn Wittrock and Richard Whitley (eds.), Discourses on Society: The Shaping of the Social Science Disciplines, Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 195–218.
Foucault, Michel 1979. Discipline and Punish, New York: Vintage.
Fox Keller, Evelyn 2000. The Century of the Gene, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gee, David and Stirling, Andy , 2003. ‘Late lessons from early warnings: Improving science and governance under uncertainty and ignorance’, in Joel Tickner (ed.), Precaution, Environmental Science, and Preventive Public Policy, Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 195–213.
Gibbons, Michael , Limoges, Camille , Nowotny, Helga , Schwartzman, Simon , Scott, Peter and Trow, Martin 1994. The New Production of Knowledge, London: Sage Publication.
Gore, Al 2007. The Assault on Reason, New York: Penguin Books.
Halberstam, David 1972. The Best and the Brightest, New York: Random House.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell Jr. 1881. The Common Law, Boston.
Huber, Peter 1991. Galileo's Revenge: Junk Science in the Courtroom, New York: Basic Books.
Jasanoff, Sheila 1987. ‘Contested boundaries in policy-relevant science’, Social Studies of Science 17/2: 195–230.
Jasanoff, Sheila 1990. The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jasanoff, Sheila 1992. ‘Science, politics, and the renegotiation of expertise at EPA’, Osiris 7/1: 195–217.
Jasanoff, Sheila (ed.) 2004. States of Knowledge: The Co-Production of Science and Social Order, London: Routledge.
Jasanoff, Sheila 2005a. ‘Restoring reason: Causal narratives and political culture’, in Bridget Hutter and Michael Power (eds.), Organizational Encounters with Risk, Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, pp. 209–32.
Jasanoff, Sheila 2005b. Designs on Nature: Science and Democracy in Europe and the United States, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Jasanoff, Sheila 2010. ‘A New Climate for Society’, Theory, Culture and Society 27/2–3: 233–53.
Jasanoff, Sheila , Markle, Gerald , Petersen, James and Pinch, Trevor (eds.) 1995. Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kuhn, Thomas 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago University Press.
Laski, Harold 1930. ‘The limitations of the expert’, Harper's Monthly Magazine, December 1930: 101.
Mooney, Chris 2005. The Republican War on Science, New York: Basic Books.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission) , 9–11 Commission Report, available at: www.9-11commission.gov/report/index.htm (last accessed 25 March 2010).
Porter, Theodore M . 1995. Trust in Numbers, Princeton University Press.
Sanders, Joseph 1998. Bendectin on Trial: A Study of Mass Tort Litigation, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Summary of the Nolan Committee's First Report on Standards in Public Life , 1 October 2001, available at: www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/parlment/nolan/nolan.htm (last accessed July 2007).
The Phillips Inquiry 2000 . Volume 10, Economic Impact and International Trade, available at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090505194948/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume10/toc.htm (last accessed 25 March 2010).
United States Office of Management and Budget , Proposed Bulletin on Peer Review and Information Quality, Summary, 68 Federal Register 54023, 15 September 2003.
Weinberg, Alvin 1972. ‘Science and trans-science’, Minerva 10/2: 209–22.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Boykoff, Maxwell T. and Boykoff, Jules M. 2004. ‘Balance as bias: Global warming and the US prestige press’, Global Environmental Change 14: 125–36.
Bredehoeft, John D. 2000. ‘The conceptualization problem – Surprise’, Hydrogeology Journal 13/1: 37–46.
Cartwright, Nancy 1983. How the Laws of Physics Lie, New York: Oxford University Press.
Dewey, John 1929. The Quest for Certainty: A Study of the Relation of Knowledge and Action, New York: Minton, Balch & Co.
Dörner, Dietrich 1996. The Logic of Failure, New York: Metropolitan Books.
EEA 2001. ‘Late lessons from early warnings: The precautionary principle 1896–2000’. Environmental Issues Report No. 22, Copenhagen. (Edited by: Poul Harremoës (chairman), Malcolm MacGarvin (executive editor), Andy Stirling, Brian Wynne and Jane Keys (editors), David Gee and Sofia Guedes Vaz (EEA editors).)
Federal Code of Regulations 2009. US Mineral Management Services 30CFR250.1304.
Funtowicz, Silvio O. and Ravetz, Jerome R. 1985. ‘Three types of risk assessment: A methodological analysis’, in Whipple and Covello (eds.), Risk Analysis in the Private Sector, New York: Plenum, pp. 217–32.
Gilman, Paul 2005. Testimony to Committee on Models in the Regulatory Decision Process, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, 2 December 2005.
Holling, C.S. (ed.) 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Houghton, J.T. , Meira Filho, L.G. , Callender, B.A. , Harris, N. , Kattenberg, A. and Maskell, K. (eds.) 1996. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change: Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, see esp. pp. 1–9.
Joint Operating Agreement for UKCS License 2007 , available at www.ukooa.co.uk/issues/stdagreements/worddocs/joint%20operating% 20agreement.pdf (last accessed 14 October 2007).
Kahneman, D. , Slovic, P. and Tversky, A. (eds.) 1982. Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Metlay, Daniel 2000. ‘From tin roof to torn wet blanket: Predicting and observing groundwater movement at a proposed nuclear waste site’, in Sarewitz, Pielke and Byerly (eds.), Prediction: Science, Decision Making, and the Future of Nature, Washington DC and Covelo, CA: Island Press, pp. 199–230.
Michaels, David 2005. ‘Doubt is their product’, Scientific American 292: 96–101.
Michaels, David 2008. Doubt is their Product, New York: Oxford University Press.
Oreskes, Naomi (ed. with Homer Le Grand ) 2001. Plate Tectonics: An Insider's History of the Modern Theory of the Earth. Boulder: Westview Press.
Oreskes, Naomi 2004. ‘Science and public policy: What's proof got to do with it?’, Environmental Science & Policy 7: 369–83.
Oreskes, Naomi 2007. ‘The long consensus on climate change’, Washington Post, 1 February 2007, p. A15.
Oreskes, Naomi and Belitz, Kenneth 2001. ‘Philosophical issues in model evaluation’, in M.G. Anderson and P.D. Bates (eds.), Model Validation: Perspectives in Hydrological Science. London: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 23–41.
Oreskes, Naomi and Conway, Erik M. 2010. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists obscured the truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. New York: Bloomsbury Press.
Ross, James G. 2004. ‘Industry practice in equity redeterminations’, Transnational Dispute Management 1/2, available at: www.transnational-dispute-management.com/samples/freearticles/tv1-2-article15a.htm (last accessed 8 March 2010).
Ross, Jim 2003. ‘Unitization lessons learned from the North Sea’, SPETT News, 1 September 2003, pp. 4–9.
Rudwick, Martin J.S. 1985. The Great Devonian Controversy: The Shaping of Scientific Knowledge among Gentlemanly Specialists. Chicago University Press.
Sarewitz, Daniel 1996. Frontiers of Illusion: Science, Technology, and the Politics of Progress. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Sarewitz, Daniel 2004. ‘How science makes environmental problems controversies worse’, Environmental Science and Policy 7: 385–403.
US Mineral Management Service 2010 , available at: www.gomr.mms.gov/homepg/pd/ Model_agreement_Dev_Prod_Units.rtf.(last accessed 14 March 2010).
Walters, Carl J. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources, New York: Macmillan Publishers.
Weart, Spencer 2003. The Discovery of Global Warming, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Whipple, Chris G . et al. (15 authors) 2007. ‘Models in environmental regulatory decision making’, Committee on Models in the Regulatory Decision Process, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, Washington DC: The National Academies Press.
Wiggins, Steven N. and Libecap, Gary D. 1985. ‘Oil field unitization: Contractual failure in the presence of imperfect information’, The American Economic Review 75/3: 368–85.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Africa Fighting Malaria 2009. ‘Prevention’, available at: www.fightingmalaria.org/issues.aspx?issue=4 (last accessed 25 October 2009).
Brown, P. 1987. ‘Microparasites and macroparasites’, Cultural Anthropology 2/1: 155–71.
Edgerton, D. 2006. The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History since 1900, Oxford University Press.
Ellul, J. 1967. The Technological Society, New York: Vintage Press.
Gortmaker, S.P. and Wise, P.H. 1997. ‘The first injustice: Socioeconomic disparities, health services technology, and infant mortality’, Annual Review of Sociology 23: 147–70.
Hill, J. , Lines, J. and Rowland, M. 2006. ‘Insecticide-treated nets’, Advances in Parasitology 61: 77–126.
Kyama, R. and McNeil, Jr., D. 2007. ‘Distribution of nets splits malaria fighters’, New York Times, 9 October 2007.
Lantz, P. , Shultz, C. , Sieffert, K. , Lori, J. and Ransom S. (forthcoming). The Impact of Expanded Models of Prenatal Care on Birth Outcomes: A Critical Review of the Literature.
Moorthy V.S. , Good, M.F. and Hill, A.V. 2004. ‘Malaria vaccine developments’, Lancet 363/9403: 150–6.
Mumford, L. 1963 [1928]. Technics and Civilization, New York: Harvest Books.
National Institutes of Health 2009. Cochlear Implants, available at: www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/coch.asp (last accessed 25 October 2009).
Porter, R. 1997. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity, New York: W.W. Norton.
Roll Back Malaria 2009. Economic Costs of Malaria, available at: www.rollbackmalaria.org/cmc_upload/0/000/015/363/RBMInfosheet_10.htm (last accessed 25 October 2009).
Sachs, J. and Malaney, P. 2002. ‘The economic and social burden of malaria’, Nature 415: 680–5.
Spriggs, M. 2002. ‘Lesbian couple create a child who is deaf like them’, Journal of Medical Ethics 28: 283.
Tucker, B.P. 1998. ‘Deaf culture, cochlear implants and elective disability’, The Hastings Center Report, p. 28.
US National Transportation Safety Board 2009. Table 6. Accidents, Fatalities, and Rates, 1989 through 2008, for U.S. Air Carriers Operating Under 14 CFR 121, Scheduled Service (Airlines), available at: www.ntsb.gov/aviation/Table6.htm (last accessed 25 October 2009).
Winner, L. 1978. Autonomous Technology: Technics-Out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
World Health Organization 2004. Global Strategic Framework for Integrated Vector Management, Geneva: World Health Organization, p. 15, available at: http://apps.who.int/malaria/integratedvectormanagement.html (last accessed 25 October 2009).
World Health Organization 2009. Integrated Vector Management, available at: www.who.int/malaria/vector_control/ivm/en/index.html (last accessed 25 March 2010).

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Advisory Committee on Pesticides (ACP) 2005. Crop Spraying and the Health of Residents and Bystanders: A Commentary on the Report published by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution in September 2005, London: ACP, December, available at: www.pesticides.gov.uk/uploadedfiles/Web_Assets/ACP/RCEP_Response_vfinal.pdf (last accessed 1 September 2009).
Argyris, C. and Schön, D. 1978. Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective, Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
Baker, R. 1988. ‘Assessing complex technical issues: Public inquiries or commissions?’, Political Quarterly, April–June: 178–89.
Bal, R. , Bijker, W. and Hendriks, R. 2004. ‘Democratisation of scientific advice’, British Medical Journal 329: 1339–41.
Barker, A. and Peters, B. Guy (eds.) 1993. The Politics of Expert Advice, Edinburgh University Press.
Bennett, C. J. and Howlett, M. 1992. ‘The lessons of learning: Reconciling theories of policy learning and policy change’, Policy Sciences 25: 275–94.
Boehmer-Christiansen, S. 1995. ‘Reflections on scientific advice and EC transboundary pollution policy’, Science and Public Policy 22/3: 195–203.
Bulmer, M. (ed.) 1980a. Social Research and Royal Commissions, London: George Allen and Unwin.
Bulmer, M. 1980b. ‘Introduction', in M. Bulmer (ed.) 1980a.
Bulmer, M. 1983. ‘Does social science contribute effectively to the work of governmental commissions?’, American Behavioural Scientist 26/5: 643–68.
Bulmer, M. 1993. ‘The Royal Commission and Departmental Committee in the British Policy-making process’, in B. Guy Peters and A. Barker (eds.), Advising West European Governments: Inquiries, Expertise and Public Policy, Edinburgh University Press, pp. 37–49.
Cartwright, T. J. 1975. Royal Commissions and Departmental Committees in Britain: A Case-Study in Institutional Adaptiveness and Public Participation in Government, London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Chapman, R. A. (ed.) 1973. The Role of Commissions in Policy-making, London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.
Clark, W. C. and Majone, G. 1985. ‘The critical appraisal of scientific inquiries with policy implications’, Science, Technology and Human Values 10/3: 6–19.
Collingridge, D. and Reeve, C. 1986. Science Speaks to Power: The Role of Experts in Policy Making, New York: St Martin's Press.
Committee on Standards in Public Life 1995. First Report, Cm 2850, London: HMSO.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) 2007a. Waste Strategy for England, Cm 7086, London: The Stationery Office.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) 2007b. Review of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution: Final Report, prepared for Defra by PricewaterhouseCoopers, London: Defra, May.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) 2008. Government Response to the Review of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, London: Defra, June.
Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) 1998. A New Deal for Transport: Better for Everyone, Cm 3950, London: HMSO.
Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) 2000a. Waste Strategy 2000, London: The Stationery Office.
Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) 2000b. Financial Management Policy Review of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, London: Defra.
Department of the Environment (DoE) 1993. The Government Response to the Ninth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, Pollution Paper No. 19, London: DoE.
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) 2003. Our Energy Future: Creating a Low Carbon Economy, London: The Stationery Office.
Eddington, R. 2006. The Eddington Transport Report. The Case for Action: Sir Rod Eddington's Advice to Government, London: The Stationery Office (with agreement of HM Treasury).
Everest, D. A. 1990. ‘The provision of expert advice to government on environmental matters: The role of advisory committees’, Science and Public Affairs 4: 17–40.
Fischer, F. 1990. Technocracy and the Politics of Expertise, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Funtowicz, S. and Ravetz, J. 1993. ‘Science for the post-normal age’, Futures 25/7: 739–55.
Gieryn, T. 1983. ‘Boundary work and the demarcation of science from non-science: Strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists’, American Sociological Review 48: 781–95.
Gieryn, T. 1995. ‘Boundaries of science’, in S. Jasanoff , G. E. Markle , J. C. Petersen and T. Pinch (eds.), Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, Thousand Oaks, London and New Delhi: Sage, pp. 393–443.
Gottweis, H. 2003. ‘Theoretical strategies of poststructuralist policy analysis: Towards an analytics of government’, in M. Hajer and H. Wagenaar (eds.), Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society, Cambridge University Press, pp. 247–65.
Government Office for Science (UK) 2007. Code of Practice for Scientific Advisory Committees, London: Department of Innovation, Universities and Skills, November.
Haas, P. M. 1992. ‘Introduction: Epistemic communities and international policy co-ordination’, International Organisation 46/1: 1–35.
Hajer, M. 1995. The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernisation and the Policy Process, Oxford University Press.
Hajer, M. and Versteeg, W. 2005. ‘A decade of discourse analysis of environmental politics: Achievements, challenges, perspectives’, Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 7/3: 175–84.
Hajer, M. and Wagenaar, H. (eds.) 2003a. Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society, Cambridge University Press.
Hajer, M. and Wagenaar, H. 2003b. ‘Introduction’, in M. Hajer and H. Wagenaar (eds.) 2003a, pp. 1–32.
Hall, P. A. 1993. ‘Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state: The case of economic policymaking in Britain’, Comparative Politics 25/3: 275–96.
Hawes, D. 1993. Power on the Backbenches?, Bristol: School for Advanced Urban Studies.
Heclo, H. 1974. Modern Social Politics in Britain and Sweden, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Hendriks, R. , Bal, R. and Bijker, E. 2004. ‘Beyond the species barrier: The Health Council of The Netherlands, legitimacy and the making of objectivity’, Social Epistemology 18/2–3: 271–99.
Holdgate, M. 2003. Penguins and Mandarins, Spennymoor, County Durham: The Memoir Club.
House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee 2004. The Sustainable Development Strategy: Illusion or Reality? Thirteenth Report Session 2003–04, HC 624, London: The Stationery Office.
House of Commons Public Administration Select Committee 2007. Governing the Future, Third Report Session 2006–07, HC 123, London: The Stationery Office.
Irwin, A. 2007. ‘STS perspectives on scientific governance’, in E. J. Hackett , O. Amsterdamska , M. Lynch and J. Wajcman (eds.), The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, 3rd edn., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 583–607.
James, S. 2000. ‘Influencing government policymaking’, in D. Stone (ed.), Banking on Knowledge: The Genesis of the Global Development Network, London: Routledge, pp. 162–79.
Jasanoff, S. 1990. The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policy Makers, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jasanoff, S. 2004a. ‘The idiom of co-production’, in S. Jasanoff (ed.), States of Knowledge: The Co-Production of Science and the Social Order, London: Routledge, pp. 1–12.
Jasanoff, S. 2004b. ‘Ordering knowledge, ordering society’, in S. Jasanoff (ed.), States of Knowledge: The Co-Production of Science and the Social Order, London: Routledge, pp. 13–45.
Jenkins-Smith, H. and Sabatier, P.A. 1994. ‘Evaluating the advocacy coalition framework’, Journal of Public Policy 14/2: 175–203.
Kennet, W. 1972. Preservation, London: Temple Smith.
Kingdon, J. 2003. Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policy, 2nd edn., New York: Longman.
Litfin, K. 1994. Ozone Discourses, New York: Columbia University Press.
Majone, G. 1989. Evidence, Argument and Persuasion in the Policy Process, New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press.
Marsh, D. and Rhodes, R.A. 1992. Policy Networks in British Government, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
May, P. 1992. ‘Policy learning and failure’, Journal of Public Policy 12/4: 331–54.
Miller, C. 2001. ‘Hybrid management: Boundary organizations, science policy, and environmental governance in climate change’, Science, Technology, and Human Values 26/4: 478–500.
Nichols, R. W. 1972. ‘Some practical problems of scientist-advisers’, Minerva X/4: 603–13.
Nowotny, H. , Scott, P. and Gibbons, M. 2001. Re-thinking Science: Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Owens, S. 1990. ‘The unified pollution inspectorate and best practicable environmental option in the UK’, in N. Haigh and F. Irwin (eds.), Integrated Pollution Control in Europe and North America, Washington DC and IEEP, London: The Conservation Foundation, pp. 169–208.
Owens, S. 2006. ‘Risk and precaution: Changing perspectives from the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution’, Science in Parliament 63/1: 16–17.
Owens, S. and Cowell, R. 2002. Land and Limits: Interpreting Sustainability in the Planning Process, London: Routledge.
Owens, S. and Rayner, T. 1999. ‘ “When knowledge matters”: The role and influence of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution’, Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 1/1: 7–24.
Peters, B. Guy and Barker, A. (eds.) 1993a. Advising West European Governments: Inquiries, Expertise and Public Policy, Edinburgh University Press.
Peters, B. Guy and Barker, A. 1993b. ‘Introduction: Governments, information, advice and policy-making’, in Peters and Barker (eds.) 1993a, pp. 1–19.
Radaelli, C. M . 1995. ‘The role of knowledge in the policy process’, Journal of European Public Policy 2/2: 159–83.
Rein, M. and Schön, D. 1991. ‘Frame-reflective policy discourse', in P. Wagner , C. Weiss , B. Wittrock and H. Wolman (eds.), Social Sciences and Modern States, Cambridge University Press, pp. 262–89.
Renn, O. 1995. ‘Styles of using scientific expertise: A comparative framework’, Science and Public Policy 22/3: 147–56.
Rhodes, G. 1975. Committees of Inquiry, London: Allen and Unwin for Royal Institute of Public Administration.
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (RCEP) 2006. Response to Commentary of the Advisory Committee on Pesticides on the RCEP's Report on Crop Spraying and the Health of Residents and Bystanders, London: RCEP, July 2006, available at:www.rcep.org.uk/reports/sr-2006-cropspraying/sr-cropspraying.htm (last accessed 25 March 2010).
Sabatier, P. A. 1987. ‘Knowledge, policy-oriented learning and policy change: An advocacy coalition framework’, Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilisation, 8/4: 649–92.
Sabatier, P. A. 1988. ‘An advocacy coalition framework of policy change and the role of policy-oriented learning therein’, Policy Sciences 21/2–4: 129–68.
Sabatier, P. A. 1998. ‘The advocacy coalition framework: Revisions and relevance for Europe’, Journal of European Public Policy 5/1: 98–130.
Science and Public Policy 1995. Special issue on scientific expertise in Europe, 22/3.
Smith, A. 1997. Integrated Pollution Control: Change and Continuity in the UK Industrial Pollution Policy Network, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Southwood, T. R. E. 1985. ‘The roles of proof and concern in the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution’, Marine Pollution Bulletin 16/9: 346–50.
Stone, D. A. 2004. ‘Introduction: Think tanks, policy advice and governments’, in D. Stone and A. Denham (eds.) 2004, pp. 1–16.
Stone, D. A. and Denham, A. 2004. Think Tank Traditions: Policy Research and the Politics of Ideas, Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.
Torgerson, D. 1986. ‘Between knowledge and politics: The three faces of policy analysis’, Policy Sciences 19: 33–59.
UK Government 1974. Control of Pollution Act 1974, Chapter 40, London: HMSO.
UK Government 1990. Environmental Protection Act 1990, Chapter 43, London: HMSO.
UK Government 1995. Environment Act 1995, Chapter 35, London: TSO.
UK Government 2000. Transport Change Act 2000, Chapter 38, London: TSO.
UK Government 2008. Climate Change Act 2008, Chapter 27, London: TSO.
Weale, A. , O'Riordan, T. and Kramme, L. 1991. Controlling Pollution in the Round, London: Anglo German Foundation.
Weingart, P. 1999. ‘Scientific expertise and political accountability: Paradoxes of science in politics’, Science and Public Policy 26/3: 151–61.
Weiss, C. H. 1977. ‘Research for policy's sake: The enlightenment function of social research’, Policy Analysis 3/4: 531–45.
Weiss, C. H. and M. J. Bucuvalas 1980. Social Science Research and Decision-Making, New York: Columbia University Press.
Wheare, K. C. 1955. Government by Committee: An Essay on the British Constitution, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Williams, A. and Weale, A. 1996. ‘The UK's Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution after 25 years’, Environmental Management and Health 7/2: 35–9.
Williams, R. 1993. ‘The House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology within British science policy and the nature of science policy advice’, in Peters and Barker (eds.) 1993a, pp. 137–50.
Wilson, D. 1983. The Lead Scandal, London: Heinemann Educational.
Zuckerman, S. 1988. Monkeys, Men and Missiles: An Autobiography 1946–1988, London: Collins.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

BEIR VII (National Research Council of the National Academies of USA) 2005. Health Risk From Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, Pre-publication version, July 2005.
BMU 2005. Umweltpolitik. Umweltradioaktivität und Strahlenbelastung, Jahresbericht 2003, Bonn: Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit.
ICRP 1991. ‘Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’ (ICRP Publication 60), Ann. ICRP 21(1–3): 1–201.
ICRP 1999. International Commission on Radiological Protection: History, Policies, Procedures.
ICRP 2002. ‘Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection’ (ICRP Publication 89), Ann. ICRP 32(3/4): 1–277.
ICRP 2003. ‘A framework for assessing the impact of ionising radiation on non-human species’ (ICRP Publication 91), Ann. ICRP 33(3): 201–70.
ICRP 2006. ‘Low-dose extrapolation of radiation-related cancer risk’ (ICRP Publication 99), Ann. ICRP 35(4): 1–142.
ICRP 2007. ‘The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’ (ICRP Publications 103), Ann. ICRP 37(2/4): 1–332.
Streffer, C. 2009. Radiological Protection: Challenges and Fascination of Biological Research. StrahlenschutzPRAXIS 2/2009, 35–45.
Streffer, C. , Bolt, H. , Follesdal, D . et al. 2004. Low Dose Exposures in the Environment: Dose-Effect Relations and Risk Evaluation, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer.
UNSCEAR 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, New York: United Nations.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Ballentine, Bruce 2005. Enhancing the Role of Science in the Decision-Making of the European Union, EPC Working Paper No. 17, March 2005.
Bernal, J.D. 1944. ‘Lessons of the war for science’, Reports on Progress in Physics 10: 418–36.
Churchill, Randolph S. 1965. Twenty-One Years, Epilogue, London: Wiedenfield and Nicolson.
European Commission 1994. Growth, Competitiveness, Employment – The Challenges and Ways Forward into the 21st Century, White Paper, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
European Commission 2000. White Paper on Food Safety, COM(1999) 719 final, 12 January 2000.
European Commission 2001a. European Governance – A White Paper, COM(2001) 428 final, 25 July 2001, available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2001/com2001_0428en01.pdf (last accessed 28 January 2007).
European Commission 2001b. White Paper – Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy, COM(2001) 88 final, available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52001DC0088:EN:HTML (last accessed 2 December 2007).
European Commission 2001c. Report of the Working Group Democratising Expertise and Establishing Scientific Reference Systems, Brussels, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/governance/areas/group2/report_en.pdf (last accessed 11 April 2010).
European Commission 2002. ‘Improving the Knowledge Base for Better Policies’, Communication on the Collection and Use of Expertise, COM(2002) 713 final.
European Council 1991, Promoting the Competitive Environment for the Industrial Activities Based on Biotechnology within the Community, SEC(91) 629 final, Brussels.
European Council 2002. Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety, available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/pri/en/oj/dat/2002/l_031/l_03120020201en00010024.pdf (last accessed 1 April 2010).
European Court of Justice 1959. Case 9/56 Meroni & Co, Industrie Metallurgiche SpA v. High Authority [1959] ECR 133.
European Union 1999. Treaty Establishing the European Community. Article 174 (ex 130r) in Selected Instruments Taken from the Treaties, Vol. I, pp. 253–4.
Jacquemin, Alexis and Wright, David (eds.) 1993. The European Challenges Post-1992, Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
Linklater, Magnus 2007. ‘Go on, upset your masters. The new Chief Scientist must not shy away from speaking unwelcome truths’, The Times of London, 12 December 2007.
Michaels, David , Bingham, Eula , Boden, Les , Clapp, Richard , Goldman, Lynn R. , Hoppin, Polly , Krimsky, Sheldon , Monforton, Celeste , Ozonoff, David and Robbins, Anthony 2002. ‘Advice without dissent’, Science 298: 703, 25 October 2002.
Prodi, Romano 2000. ‘Shaping the New Europe’, European Parliament Strasbourg, 15 February 2000, available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/00/41&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (last accessed 28 January 2007).
Rogers, M.D. 1993. Carrefours Européene des Sciences et de la Culture, No. 2, July 1993, Forward Studies Unit.
Rogers, M.D. 2003. ‘Risk Analysis under uncertainty, the precautionary principle, and the new EU chemicals strategy’, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 37: 370–81.
Rogers, M.D. 2004. ‘Genetically modified plants and the precautionary principle’, Journal of Risk Research 7: 675–88.
US National Research Council 1996. Understanding Risk – Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society.
Whiteside, K.H. 2006. Precautionary Politics: Principle and Practice in Confronting Environmental Risk, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wiener, J.B. and Rogers, M.D. 2002. ‘Comparing precaution in the United States and Europe’, Journal of Risk Research 5/4: 317–49.
Wilsdon, J. and Willis, R. 2004. See Through Science – Why Public Engagement Needs to Move Upstream, London: Demos, available at: http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/paddlingupstream#media#media (last accessed 29 September 2009).
Wynne, Brian , Felt, Ulrike , Eduarda Gonçalves , Maria, Jasanoff , Sheila, Jepsen , Maria, Joly , Pierre-Benoît, Konopasek , Zdenek, May , Stefan, Neubauer , Claudia, Rip , Arie, Siune , Karen, Stirling , Andy and Tallacchini, Mariachiara 2007. Taking European Knowledge Society Seriously, Report of the Expert Group on Science and Governance to the Science, Economy and Society Directorate, Directorate-General for Research, European Commission; EUR 22700, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/european-knowledge-society_en.pdf (last accessed 12 October 2009).

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Abma, T. 2001. ‘Variatie in beleidsevaluaties/Variations in policy evaluation’, in T. Abma and R. In't Veld (eds.), Handboek beleidswetenschap (Handbook of Policy Sciences), Meppel: Uitgeverij Boom.
Bergmann, Matthias , Brohmann, Bettina , Hofmann, Esther , Loibl, M. Céline , Rehaag, Regine , Schramm, Engelbert and Voß, Jan-Peter 2005. Qualitätskriterien transdisziplinärer Forschung. Ein Leitfaden für die formative Evaluation von Forschungsprojekten. – Quality Criteria for Transdisciplinary Research. A Guide for the Formative Evaluation of Research Project, ISOE-Studientexte Nr. 13, Frankfurt am Main.
Hajer, M.A. and Wagenaar, H. (eds.) 2003. Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society, Cambridge University Press.
Halffman, W. and Hoppe, R. 2005. ‘Science policy boundaries: A changing division of labour in Dutch expert policy advice’, in Sabine Maasen and Peter Weingart (eds.), Democratization of Expertise? Exploring Novel Forms of Scientific Advice in Political Decision-Making, Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 135–52.
Halffman, W. 2008. States of Nature: Nature and fish stock reports for policy, Report for the Netherlands Consultative Committee of Sector Councils for research and development, RMNO preliminary study V.13, The Hague.
Hisschemöller, M. 1998. Kennisbenutting en politieke keuze: Een dilemma voor het milieubeleid? (Knowledge Utilisation and Political Choice: A Dilemma for Environmental Policy?), Werkdocument no. 65, Den Haag, Rathenau-Instituut.
Hoppe, R. and Huijs, S. 2003. Werk op de grenzen van wetenschap en beleid. Paradoxen en dilemma's (Work on the Boundaries of Science and Policy), Paradoxes and Dilemmas. RMNO nr. 157, Den Haag.
In't, R.J. 2000. Willingly and Knowingly. The Role of Knowledge About Nature and The Environment in Policy Processes RMNO, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Lemma.
Veld, R.J. In't 2001. Eerherstel voor Cassandra/Rehabilitation for Cassandra (available in English) WRR, RMNO, Den Haag.
Jasanoff, S. 2004. ‘The idiom of co-production’, in Sheila Jasanoff (ed.), States of Knowledge: The Co-Production of Science and Social Order, London: Routledge, pp. 1–12.
Leeuw, F. 2001. ‘Evaluatieonderzoek, auditing en controle in Nederland anno 2000/Evaluation Research, auditing and control in the Netherlands in 2000’, in T. Abma and R. In't Veld (eds.), Handboek beleidswetenschap, Meppel: Uitgeverij Boom.
KNAW 2005. Verklaring van Wetenschappelijke Onafhankelijkheid/Declaration of Scientific Independence, Amsterdam: KNAW.
RMNO 2001. Disaster, Failure Or Success? Towards a Better Interaction Between Scientists, Policymakers and Societal Groups, RMNO nr. 152, Den Haag.
Spaapen, J. , Dijstelbloem, H. and Wamelink, F. 2004. A Model for the Evaluation of Research in the Context of Application. Self-Evaluation of Two Pharmaceutical Faculties in a New National System of Evaluation, Den Haag: COS.
Tweede Kamer (Dutch Parliament) 2004/2005. Grote Projecten uitvergroot. Een infrastructuur voor besluitvorming/Mega Projects Magnified. An Infrastructure for Decision-Making, TK vergaderjaar 2004/2005, nr. 29283, nr 6.
Weingart , Peter and Lentsch , Justus 2006. Standards and Best Practices of Scientific Policy Advice. Round Table Discussion with Sir David King, Chief Scientific Adviser to the British Government, Berlin: Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bartz, Olaf 2007. Der Wissenschaftsrat, Entwicklungslinien der Wissenschaftspolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1957–2007, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften 2006. Standards and ‘Best Practice’ of Scientific Policy Advice (Akademie-Debatten), Berlin.
Braun, Dietmar 1997. Die politische Steuerung der Wissenschaft. Ein Beitrag zum ‘kooperativen Staat’, Schriften aus dem MPI für Gesellschaftsforschung Bd. 28, Frankfurt am Main, New York: Campus.
Hohn, Hans-Willy 1998. Kognitive Strukturen und Steuerungsprobleme der Forschung. Kernphysik und Informatik im Vergleich, Frankfurt am Main, New York: Campus.
Luhmann, Niklas [1969] 1983. Legitimation durch Verfahren, Darmstadt/Neuwied: Luchterhand.
Münch, Richard 2007. Die akademische Elite. Zur Sozialen Konstruktion wissenschaftlicher Exzellenz, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Stichweh, Rudolf 1994. ‘Differenzierung von Wissenschaft und Politik: Wissenschaftspolitik im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert’, in Rudolf Stichweh (ed.), Wissenschaft, Universität, Professionen, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, pp. 156–74.
Stucke, Andreas 2002. ‘The role of “councils” in research and technology policy: The case of the German Wissenschaftsrat’, Plattform Forschungs- und Technologieevaluierung 16: 2–5.
Thompson, James D. 1967. Organisations in Action, New York: MacGraw-Hill.
Weingart, Peter 2001. Die Stunde der Wahrheit? Zum Verhältnis der Wissenschaft zu Politik, Wirtschaft und Medien in der Wissensgesellschaft, Weilerswist: Velbrück.
Weingart, Peter 2006. ‘Erst denken, dann handeln? Politikberatung aus der Perspektive der Wissens(chafts)soziologie’, Svenja Falk et al. (eds.), Handbuch Politikberatung, Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp. 35–44.
Wissenschaftsrat 1998. Stellungnahme zu den Instituten der Blauen Liste. Wirtschaftsforschungsinstitute in den alten Ländern, Band III (see Report on the West German Economic Research Institutes on the Blue List – General Aspects, pp. 29–51), Cologne.
Wissenschaftsrat 2001a. Systemevaluation der Blauen Liste – Stellungnahme des Wissenschaftsrates zum Abschluß der Bewertung der Einrichtungen der Blauen Liste, Band XII, Cologne.
Wissenschaftsrat 2001b. Statement of the German Science Council on the Hermann von Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (Executive summary), Cologne.
Wissenschaftsrat 2002. Empfehlungen zur Stärkung wirtschaftswissenschaftlicher Forschung an den Hochschulen (Drs. 5455–02) , Saarbrücken.
Wissenschaftsrat 2007a. Empfehlungen zu einer lehrorientierten Reform der Personalstruktur an Hochschulen, Cologne.
Wissenschaftsrat 2007b. Kriterien des Ausschusses Ressortforschung für die Begutachtung von Bundeseinrichtungen mit FuE-Aufgaben (Drs. 7693–07), Cologne.
Wissenschaftsrat 2007c. Empfehlungen zur Rolle und künftigen Entwicklung der Bundeseinrichtungen mit FuE-Aufgaben (Executive Summary in English see pp. 6–15), Cologne.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bakker, G.P. den 1993. ‘Origin and development of Dutch National accounts’, in W.F.M. de Vries et al.(eds.), The Value Added of National Accounting, Voorburg/Heerlen: CBS, pp. 73–92.
Bergeijk, P.A.G. van and van Sinderen, J. 2000. ‘Models and macroeconomic policy in the Netherlands’, in Den Butter and Morgan (eds.), 2000, pp. 26–38.
Besancenot, D. and Vranceanu, R. 1999. ‘A trade union model with endogenous militancy: Interpreting the French case’, Labour Economics 6: 355–73.
Bjerkholt, O. 1998. ‘Interaction between model builders and policy makers in the Norwegian tradition’, Economic Modelling 15: 317–39.
Blanchard, O. and Tirole, J. 2004. ‘Redesigning the employment protection system’, De Economist 152: 1–20.
Blien, U . and Butter, F.A.G. den (eds.) 2003. Labour Participation and Unemployment; A Comparison of Developments and Institutions in Germany and The Netherlands, The Hague: WRR Working Documents W133.
Bogaard, A.A. van den 1999. Configuring the Economy. The Emergence of a Modelling Practice in the Netherlands, 1920–1955, Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers (Thela Thesis).
Bogaard, A.A. van den 2002. De verwevenheid tussen toekomstverkenning en beleid; het ontstaan van vertoogcoalities, The Hague: Working Document W127, Scientific Council for Government Policy (WRR).
Bos, F. 2003. The National Accounts as a Tool for Analysis and Policy; Past, Present and Future, University of Twente: Academic Thesis.
Butter, F.A.G. den 1991. ‘Macroeconomic modelling and the policy of restraint in the Netherlands’, Economic Modelling 8: 16–33.
Butter, F.A.G. den 2004. ‘Statistics and the origin of the Royal Netherlands economic association’, De Economist 152: 439–46.
Butter, F.A.G. den 2007. ‘National accounts and indicators’, in M. Boumans (ed.), Measurement in Economics: a Handbook, Amsterdam/Boston: Elsevier Inc., pp. 189–229.
Butter, F.A.G. den and Morgan, M.S. 1998. ‘What makes the models-policy interaction successful?’, Economic Modelling 15: 443–75.
Butter, F.A.G. den and Morgan, M.S. (eds.) 2000. Empirical Models and Policy Making: Interactions and Institutions, London: Routledge.
Butter, F.A.G. den and Mosch, R.H.J. 2003. ‘The Dutch miracle, institutions, networks, and trust’, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 159: 362–91.
CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis 1997. Challenging Neighbours: Rethinking German and Dutch Economic Institutions, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Don, F.H.J. 1996. ‘De positie van het Centraal Planbureau’ (The position of the central planning bureau), Economische Statistische Berichten 81: 208–12.
Don, F.J.H. 1998. ‘Verbons verwijten aan CPB onterecht’, Christen Democratische Verkenningen 9/10: 406–10.
Don, F.H.J. 2003. ‘Economic analysis of election programmes: What, how and why?’, in J.J. Graafland and A.P. Ros (eds.), Economic Assessment of Election Programs: Does it Make Sense? Dordrecht, Boston: Kluwer, pp. 21–30.
Don, F.H.J. , van de Klundert, Th . and van Sinderen, J . (eds.) 1991. Applied General Equilibrium Modelling, Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Driehuis, W. and Van der Zwan, A. (eds.) 1978. De voorbereiding van het economisch beleid kritisch bezien, Leiden: Stenfert Kroese.
Eichhorst, W. and Wintermann, O. 2005. Generating Legitimacy for Labor Market and Welfare State Reforms: The Role of Policy Advice in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, IZA Discussion Paper No. 1845.
Eijk, C.J. van and Sandee, J. 1959. ‘Quantitative determination of optimum economic policy’, Econometrica 27: 1–13.
Esping-Andersen, G. 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Cambridge: Polity Press and Princeton University Press.
Frayssinet, J. 1986. ‘Le conseil economique et social’, Notes et Etudes Documentaires, Paris: La Documentation Française.
Graafland. J.J. 2003. ‘Balancing information and uncertainty’, in J.J. Graafland , and A.P. Ros (eds.), pp. 61–79.
Graafland, J.J. and Ros, A.P. (eds.) 2003. Economic Assessment of Election Programmes: Does it Make Sense?, Dordrecht, Boston: Kluwer.
Hartog, H. den and Tjan, H.S. 1974. Investeringen, lonen, prijzen en arbeidsplaatsen, Occasional Paper no. 2, The Hague: Central Planning Bureau.
Hartog, H. den and Tjan, H.S. 1976. ‘Investment, wages, prices and demand for labour (a clay-clay vintage model for the Netherlands)’, De Economist 124: 32–55.
Hoppe, R. and Halffman, W. 2004. ‘Wetenschappelijke beleidsadvisering in Nederland; trends en ontwikkelingen’ (Scientific policy advice in the Netherlands, trends and developments), Beleidswetenschap 18/1: 31–61.
Kadushin, C. 1995. ‘Friendship among the French financial elite’, American Sociological Review 60: 202–21.
Kerkhof, M. van de 2004. Debating Climate Change; A Study of Stakeholder Participation in Integrated Assessment of Long-Term Climate Policy in the Netherlands, Utrecht: Lemma Publishers.
Klamer, A. 1990. Verzuilde dromen: 40 jaar SER (Pillarised dreams, 40 years SER), Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Balans.
Kleinknecht, A. 1994. ‘Heeft Nederland een loongolf nodig? Een neo-Schumpeteriaans verhaal over bedrijfswinsten, werkgelegenheid en export’, Tijdschrift voor Politieke Ekonomie 17: 5–24.
Kleinknecht, A. 2003. ‘Causes of the Dutch job miracle: There is no free lunch’, De Economist 151: 329–33.
Klep, P.M.M. and Stamhuis, I. (eds.) 2002. The Statistical Mind in a Pre-statistical Era: The Netherlands 1750–1850, Amsterdam: Aksant, NEHA Series III.
Merkies, A.H.Q.M. 1973. Van Prognoses naar Programma's, Inaugural lecture, Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit, 13 April 1973.
Mooij, J. 1994. Denken over Welvaart, Koninklijke Vereniging voor de Staathuishoudkunde, 1849–1994, Utrecht: Lemma.
Morgan, M.S. 1990. The History of Econometric Ideas, Cambridge University Press.
Mosch, R.H.J. 2004. The Economic Effects of Trust; Theory and Evidence, Tinbergen Institute Research Series no. 340, Amsterdam: Thela thesis.
Nickell, S. and van Ours, J. 2000. ‘The Netherlands and the United Kingdom: A European employment miracle?’, Economic Policy 30 (April 2002): 137–80.
Ostrom, E. and Walker, J. 1997. ‘Neither markets nor states: Linking transformation processes in collective action arenas’, in D.C. Mueller (ed.), Perspectives on Public Choice: A Handbook, Cambridge University Press, pp. 35–72.
Putnam, R.D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, Princeton University Press.
Review Committee CPB 1997. Scanning CPB; A View from the Outside, The Hague: Central Planning Bureau.
Social Economic Council (SER) 2002. Advies sociaal economisch beleid 2002–2006, The Hague: SER.
Stamhuis, I.H. 1989. Cijfers en Aequaties en Kennis der Staatskachten; Statistiek in Nederland in de negentiende eeuw, Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi.
Stamhuis, I.H. 2002. ‘Vereeniging voor de Statistiek (VVS); een gezelschap van juristen’, STAtOR 3/2: 13–17.
Tinbergen, J. 1936. ‘Kan hier te lande, al dan niet na overheidsingrijpen een verbetering van de binnenlandse conjunctuur intreden, ook zonder verbetering van onze exportpositie? Welke lering kan ten aanzien van dit vraagstuk worden getrokken uit de ervaringen van andere landen?’, in Praeadviezen voor de Vereeniging voor de Staathuishoudkunde en de Statistiek, Den Haag: Nijhoff, pp. 62–108.
Tinbergen, J. 1952. On the Theory of Economic Policy, Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Tinbergen, J. 1956. Economic Policy: Principles and Design, Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Verbon, H.A.A. 1998. ‘Vernieuwing van de partij – CPB modellen verwijtbaar ondeugdelijk’, Christen Democratische Verkenningen 7–8: 345–9.
Woldendorp, J.J. 2005. The Polder Model: From Disease to Miracle? Dutch Neocorporatism 1965–2000, Thesis, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Zanden, J.L. van 2002. ‘Driewerf hoera voor het poldermodel’, Economisch Statistische Berichten 87: 344–7.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Frank, Robert H. , Gilovich, Thomas and Regan , Dennis T. 1993. ‘Does studying economics inhibit cooperation?’, The Journal of Economic Perspectives 7/2: 159–71.
Frey, Bruno S. and Osterloh , Margit 2006. Evaluations: Hidden Costs, Questionable Benefits, and Superior Alternatives, Working Paper No. 302 of the Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Zurich: University of Zurich.
Frey, Bruno S. and Meier , Stephan 2005. ‘Selfish and indoctrinated economists?’, European Journal of Law and Economics 19: 165–71.
Hoffmann, Lutz and Wagner , Gert G. 1998. ‘Die Rolle der empirischen Wirtschaftsforschung für die Politikberatung', Wirtschaftsdienst 78/3: 185–92.
Humboldt, Wilhelm von 1810. Über die innere und äuβere Organisation der höheren wissenschaftlichen Anstalten in Berlin. Wilhelm von Humboldt Ausgewählte Schriften – Herausgegeben von Theodor Kappstein, Berlin 1917: Borngräber.
Kaube, Jürgen 2006. ‘Die Öffentlichkeit der Wissenschaft’, Max Planck Forschung 3: 15–18.
Ketzler, Rolf and Zimmermann , Klaus F. 2009. ‘Publications: German economic research institutes on track’, Scientometrics 80/1: 231–52.
KVI (Commission for the Improvement of the Statistical Infrastructure) 2001. ‘Summary report of the commission set up by the federal ministry of education and research (Germany) to improve the statistical infrastructure in cooperation with the scientific community and official statistics’, Schmollers Jahrbuch 121/3: 443–68.
Postlep, Rolf-Dieter and Wagner , Gert G. 1998. ‘Zur Ökonomik grundfinanzierter wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlicher Forschung', Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 217/3: 345–58.
Sarewitz, Daniel 2004. ‘How science makes environmental controversies worse’, Environmental Science & Policy 7: 385–403.
Schmidt, Christoph 2006. ‘Fokus, Fokus, Fokus? Zur Rolle der auβeruniversitären Wirtschafsforschungsinstitute’, Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv 90: 617–22.
Schmidt, Christoph 2007. Policy Evaluation and Economic Policy Advice, IZA Discussion Paper 2700, Bonn.
Solga, Heike and Wagner , Gert G. 2007. ‘A modern statistical infrastructure for excellent research and policy advice – Report on the German council for social and economic data during its first period in office (2004–2006)’, Schmollers Jahrbuch 127/2: 315–20.
Tooze, Adam 1999. ‘Economic statistics and the Weimar state: The Reich's statistical office and the institute for business-cycle research, 1924–1933’, Economic History Review LII.
Tooze, Adam 2001. Statistics and the German State 1900–1945: The Making of Modern Economic Knowledge, Cambridge University Press.
Weingart, Peter 1999. ‘Scientific expertise and political accountability: Paradoxes of science in politics’, Science and Public Policy 26/3: 151–61.
Weingart, Peter 2006. ‘Providing policy advice is an academic duty’, Humboldt Kosmos 87: 8–11.
Wissenschaftsrat 1998. Wirtschaftsforschungsinstitute der Blauen Liste in den alten Ländern – Allgemeine Gesichtspunkte (Drs. 3320/98), Berlin.
Wissenschaftsrat 2002. ‘Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrat zur Stärkung der wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Forschung an den Hochschulen’, Schmollers Jahrbuch 122/4: 635–51.
Wissenschaftsrat 2007. ‘Kriterien des Ausschusses Ressortforschung für die Begutachtung von Bundeseinrichtungen mit FuE-Aufgaben’ (Drs. 7693–07), Berlin.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Cash, David W. , Clark, William C. , Alcock, Frank , Dickson, Nancy M. , Eckley, Noelle , Guston, David H. , Jäger, Jill and Mitchell, Ronald B. 2003. Knowledge Systems for Sustainable Development, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA – National Academy of Sciences.
Clark, William C. , Mitchell, Ronald , Cash, David , Alcock, Frank and John F . Kennedy School of Government 2002. Information as Influence: How Institutions Mediate the Impact of Scientific Assessments on Global Environmental Affairs, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Faculty Research Working Papers Series, RWP02–044.
Codex Alimentarius 2007. Principles for Risk Analysis for Food Safety, Rome: FAO/WHO.
EC 2001. Regulation (EC) No. 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents, OJ L 145/43, 31 May 2001.
EEA 2001. Late Lessons from Early Warnings: The Precautionary Principle 1896–2000. Environmental Issues Report No. 22, Copenhagen. (Edited by: Poul Harremoës (chairman), Malcolm MacGarvin (executive editor), Andy Stirling , Brian Wynne and Jane Keys (editors), David Gee and Sofia Guedes Vaz (EEA editors).)
EEA 2003. State of the Environment Report No 3/2003, available at: www.eea.europa.eu/publications/environmental_assessment_report_2003_10.
EEA 2004. The European Environment Agency – Who We Are – What We Do – How We Do It, available at: http://org.eea.europa.eu/documents/brochure2004/general_brochure_web-EN.pdf.
EEA 2005a. EEA core set of indicators, EEA Technical Report 1/2005, Copenhagen.
EEA 2005b. The European Environment – State and Outlook, Copenhagen.
EEA 2008. Draft EEA Quality manual (internal working document).
EEA 2010. The European Environment State and Outlook Report, Copenhagen.
EEC 1990. Regulation (EEC) No. 1210/90 of 7 May 1990 on the establishment of the European Environment Agency and the European Environment Information and Observation Network, OJ L 120, 11 May 1990, pp. 1–6.
European Commission 2001. European Governance – A White Paper, COM(2001) 428 final, Brussels, 25 July 2001.
Funtowicz, S.O. and Ravetz, J.R. 1990. Uncertainty and Quality in Science for Policy, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Gee, David 2006. ‘Late lessons from early warnings: Toward realism and precaution with endocrine-disrupting substances’, Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (supplement 1, April 2006): 152–60.
Guston, David H. 2001. ‘Boundary organizations in environmental policy and science: An introduction’, Science Technology & Human Values 26: 399.
Hansen, Steffen Foss , Krayer von Krauss , Martin P . and Tickner, Joel A. 2007. ‘Categorizing mistaken false positives in regulation of human and environmental health’, Risk Analysis 27/1: 255–69.
Hill, Austin Bradford 1965. ‘Environment and disease: Association or causation?’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58: 295–300.
Majone, G. 1997. ‘The new European agencies: Regulation by information’, Journal of European Public Policy 4/2: 262–75.
National Academy of Sciences 2008. Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment, Washington DC.
OECD 1993. ‘Core set of indicators for Environmental Performance Reviews’, OJ L 267, 20 October 2000, Code of Good Administrative Behaviour, Relations with the public.
Royal Commision on Environmental Pollution 1998. Environmental Standards, London: Stationery Office.
SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry) 2002. Interconnections between Human Health and Ecological Integrity.
US Presidential Commision on Risk Assessment and Risk Management 1997. Final Report, Washington DC.
Van der Sluijs, J. P. 2002. ‘A way out of the credibility crisis of models used in integrated environmental assessment', Futures 34: 133–46.
Wahlström, Bo 1999. ‘The precautionary approach to chemicals management: A Swedish perspecive’, in Carolyn Raffensperger and Joel A. Tickner (eds.), Protecting Public Health and the Environment; Implementing the Precautionary Principle, Washington DC: Island Press, pp. 51–69.
Waterton, C . and Wynne, B. 2004. ‘Knowledge and political order in the European Environment Agency’, in S. Jasanoff (ed.), States of Knowledge – The Co-Production of Science and Social Order, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 87–108.
Zadeh, Lotfi A. 1965. ‘Fuzzy sets’, Information and Control 8(3): 338–53, Academic Press Inc. (cited from Jeroen C. J. M. van den Bergh (ed.), 1999, Handbook of Environmental and Resource Economics, Ashgate: Edward Elgar Publishing).

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Beck, B. 2002. ‘Model evaluation and performance’, in A.H. El-Shaarawi and W.W. Piegorsch (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, Vol. 3, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 1275–9.
Beven, K. 2002. ‘Towards a coherent philosophy for modelling the environment’, Proceedings of the Royal Society London A 458(2026): 2465–84.
Corral Quintana, S.A. 2000. Una Metodología integrada de exploración y compensión de los procesos de elaboración de políticas públicas, Ph.D. thesis, University of La Laguna, Spain.
Craye, M. , Van der Sluijs, J.P. and Funtowicz, S. 2005. ‘A reflexive approach to dealing with uncertainties in environmental health risk science and policy’, International Journal for Risk Assessment and Management 5/2: 216–36.
Funtowicz, S.O. and Ravetz, J.R. 1990. Uncertainty and Quality in Science for Policy, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Funtowicz, S.O. and Ravetz, J.R. 1993. ‘Science for the post-normal age’, Futures 25: 735–55.
Hornberger, G.M. and Spear, R.C. 1981. ‘An approach to the preliminary analysis of environmental systems’, Journal of Environmental Management 12: 7–18.
IPCC 2005. Guidance Notes for Lead Authors of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report on Addressing Uncertainties, Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Janssen P.H.M. , Petersen, A.C. , Van der Sluijs, J.P. , Risbey, J.S. and Ravetz, J.R. 2003. RIVM/MNP Guidance for Uncertainty Assessment and Communication: Quickscan Hints & Actions List, Bilthoven, The Netherlands: RIVM/MNP. ISBN 90-6960-105-2.
Janssen, P.H.M. , Petersen, A.C. , Van der Sluijs, J.P. , Risbey, J. and Ravetz, J.R. (2005). ‘A guidance for assessing and communicating uncertainties’, Water Science and Technology 52/6: 125–31.
Keepin, B. and Wynne, B. 1984. ‘Technical analysis of IIASA energy scenarios’, Nature 312: 691–5.
Kloprogge, P. , Van der Sluijs, J.P. and Petersen, A.C. 2005. A Method for the Analysis of Assumptions in Assessments Applied to Two Indicators in the Fifth Dutch Environmental Outlook , Research Report. Department of Science Technology and Society, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Utrecht University.
MNP/UU 2003. RIVM/MNP Guidance for Uncertainty Assessment and Communication, Bilthoven: Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and Utrecht:Utrecht University (UU).
Oreskes, N. , Shrader-Frechette, K. and Belitz, K. 1994. ‘Verification, validation, and confirmation of numerical models in the earth sciences’, Science 263: 641–6.
Petersen, A.C. 2006a. Simulating Nature: A Philosophical Study of Computer-Simulation Uncertainties and Their Role in Climate Science and Policy Advice, Apeldoorn and Antwerpen, The Netherlands: Spinhuis Publishers.
Petersen, A.C. 2006b. ‘Simulation uncertainty and the challenge of post-normal science’, in J. Lenhard , G. Küppers and T. Shinn (eds.), Simulation: Pragmatic Constructions of Reality, Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook Vol. 25, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 173–85.
Petersen, A.C. , Janssen, P.H.M. , Van der Sluijs, J.P. , Risbey, J.S. and Ravetz, J.R. 2003. RIVM/MNP Guidance for Uncertainty Assessment and Communication: Mini-Checklist & Quickscan Questionnaire, Bilthoven, The Netherlands: RIVM/MNP. ISBN 90-6960-105-1.
Risbey, J. , Van der Sluijs, J.P. , Kloprogge, P. , Ravetz, J.R. , Funtowicz, S. and Corral Quintana, S. 2005. ‘Application of a checklist for quality assistance in environmental modelling to an energy model’, Environmental Modeling & Assessment 10/1: 63–79.
Saltelli, A . 2002. ‘Sensitivity analysis for importance assessment’, Risk Analysis 22/3: 579–90.
Saltelli, A. , Chan, K. and Scott, E.M. (eds.) 2000. Sensitivity Analysis, Probability and Statistics Series, New York: John Wiley & Sons Publishers.
Saltelli, A. , Tarantola, S. , Campolongo, F. and Ratto, M. 2004. Sensitivity Analysis in Practice: A Guide to Assessing Scientific Models, New York: John Wiley & Sons Publishers.
Stirling, A . 1999. On Science and Precaution in the Management of Technological Risk: Volume I – A Synthesis Report of Case Studies, Seville: European Commission Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Report number EUR 19056 EN.
Stirling A. 2001. ‘Inclusive deliberation and scientific expertise: Precaution, diversity and transparency in the governance of risk’, PLA Notes 40: 67–71.
UK Strategy Unit 2002. Risk: Improving Government's Capability to Handle Risk and Uncertainty, London: UK Strategy Unit, Cabinet Office.
Van der Sluijs, J.P. 1997. Anchoring Amid Uncertainty: On the Management of Uncertainties in Risk Assessment of Anthropogenic Climate Change, Ph.D. thesis, Utrecht, The Netherlands: Utrecht University.
Van der Sluijs, J.P. 2002. ‘A way out of the credibility crisis of models used in integrated environmental assessment’, Futures 34: 133–46.
Van der Sluijs, J.P. 2005. ‘Uncertainty as a monster in the science policy interface: Four coping strategies’, Water Science and Technology 52/6: 87–92.
Van der Sluijs J.P. , Craye, M. , Funtowicz, S. , Kloprogge, P. , Ravetz, J. and Risbey, J. 2005. ‘Combining quantitative and qualitative measures of uncertainty in model based environmental assessment: The NUSAP system’, Risk Analysis 25/2: 481–92.
Van der Sluijs J.P. , Janssen, P.H.M. , Petersen, A.C. , Kloprogge, P. , Risbey, J.S. , Tuinstra, W. and Ravetz, J.R. 2004. RIVM/MNP Guidance for Uncertainty Assessment and Communication: Tool Catalogue for Uncertainty Assessment, Utrecht University & RIVM.
Van der Sluijs, J.P. , Risbey, J. , Kloprogge, P. , Ravetz, J. , Funtowicz, S. , Corral Quintana, S. , Guimaraes Pereira, A. , De Marchi, B. , Petersen, A. , Janssen, P. , Hoppe, R. and Huijs, S. 2003. RIVM/MNP Guidance for Uncertainty Assessment and Communication: Detailed Guidance, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, and RIVM-MNP, Utrecht, The Netherlands, available at: www.nusap.net.
Van der Sluijs J.P. , van Eijndhoven, J.C.M. , Shackley, S. and Wynne, B. 1998. ‘Anchoring devices in science for policy, the case of consensus around climate sensitivity’, Social Studies of Science 28/2: 291–324.
Walker, W.E. , Harremoës, P. , Rotmans, J. , Van der Sluijs, J.P. , van Asselt, M.B.A. , Janssen, P. and Krayer von Krauss, M.P. 2003. ‘Defining uncertainty: A conceptual basis for uncertainty management in model-based decision support’, Integrated Assessment 4/1: 5–17.
Yearley, S. 1996. Sociology, Environmentalism, Globalization, London: Sage Publications.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Biedenkopf, K. 2006. ‘Was erwartet die Politik von der Wissenschaft?’, in Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften: Politikberatung in Deutschland, Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp. 17–32.
Choi, Bernard C.K. , Pang, Tikki , Lin, Vivian , Puska, Pekka , Sherman, Gregory , Goddard, Michael , Ackland, Michael J. , Sainsbury, Peter , Stachenko, Sylvie , Morrison, Howard and Clottey, Clarence 2005. ‘Can scientists and policy makers work together’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59: 632–7.
Forschen – prüfen – beraten, Ressortforschungseinrichtungen als Dienstleister für Politik und Gesellschaft, ein Positionspapier , 2006, available at: www.ressortforschung.de.
Grundlagen für wissenschaftliches Arbeiten und Handeln am Robert Koch-Institut: Richtlinien zur Sicherung guter wissenschaftlicher Praxis und zum Umgang mit wissenschaftlichem Fehlverhalten am Robert Koch-Institut , 1 May 2002, available at:www.rki.de.
Kriterien für die Bewertung der Forschung in den Ressortforschungseinrichtungen des Bundes , Working paper, discussed in the board-meeting on 2 June 2005, available at www.ressortforschung.de.
Kurth, Bärbel-Maria 2006. ‘Epidemiologie und Gesundheitspolitik’, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz, Bundesgesundheitsblatt 49: 637–47.
Kurth, Reinhard 2006a. ‘Managing expectations’, in Ernst Schering Foundation, British Embassy Berlin, British Council (ed.), Trust in Science – The Dialogue with Society, Berlin.
Kurth, Reinhard 2006b. ‘The risk of world wide influenza epidemic presents a national and international challenge’, in Influenza Viruses – Facts and Perspectives, Berlin: Grosse Verlag.
(N)ONLINER Atlas 2006. Publisher: TNS Infratest und Initiative D21, www.onliner-atlas.de. Proposals for Safeguarding Good Scientific Practice, January 1998, available at www.dfg.de.
Sonder-GMK zur Pandemievorsorge: Erweiterung der Bund-Länder-AG zur Koordinierung der Pandemieprävention und Aufstockung bei antiviralen Medikamenten , Press release 24 February 2006, Ministerium für Gesundheit und Soziales, Sachsen-Anhalt.
World Health Organization 2005. Outbreak communication guidelines 2005, available at: www.who.int.
World Health Organization 2006. Avian Influenza: Significance of Mutations in the H5N1 Virus, 20 February 2006, available at: www.who.int.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Perthes, Volker 2007. ‘Zwischen Hofnarr und Agendasetter: Über wissenschaftliche Politikberatung in der Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik’, Internationale Politik 62/12: 114–23.
Schneckener, Ulrich 2006. ‘Die Grenzen der Terror-Forschung’, Handelsblatt (September 2006) 6: 11.
Wissenschaftsrat 2006. Stellungnahme zum Deutschen Institut für Internationale Politik und Sicherheit der Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP) (Drs. 7262–06), available at: www.wissenschaftsrat.de/download/archiv/7262-06.pdf.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Ahearne, John F. and Blair, Peter D. 2003. ‘Expanded use of the national academies’, in Morgan and Peha (eds.), Science and Technology Advice for Congress, Washington DC: RFF Press, Ch. 8, pp. 118–33 and Appendix 2, pp. 191–207.
Bimber, Bruce 1996. The Politics of Expertise in Congress: The Rise and Fall of the Office of Technology Assessment, Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Blair, Peter D . 1994. ‘Technology assessment: Current trends and the myth of a formula’, First Meeting of the International Association of Technology Assessment and Forecasting Institutions, Bergen, Norway, 2 May 1994, available at: www.princeton.edu/∼ota/ns20/blair_f.html.
Blair, Peter D. 1997a. ‘The evolving role of government in science and technology’, The Bridge, 27/3 (Fall 1997): 4–12, Washington, DC: The National Academy of Engineering, available at: www.nae.edu/nae/bridgecom.nsf/weblinks/NAEW-4NHM9J?.
Blair, Peter D. 1997b. ‘Examining our science and technology enterprise’, American Scientist 8/1: 74 (January/February).
Dawson, Jim 2001. ‘Legislation to revive OTA focuses on science advice to congress’, Physics Today 54/10: 24 (October), available at: link.aip.org/link/abstract/PHTOAD/v54/i10/p24/s1.
Executive Office of the President 1993. Presidential Executive Order 12832 ( George H. Bush ), Amendments Relation to the National Research Council, 19 January 1993, which amended Executive Order 10668 (Dwight D. Eisenhower), National Research Council, May 10, 1956 and Executive Order 2859 (Woodrow Wilson), National Research Council, 10 May 1956, available at: www7.nationalacademies.org/ocga/PolicyDocuments.asp.
Fri, Robert W. , Granger Morgan (chair), M. , Stiles, William A. (Skip) 2002. ‘An external evaluation of the GAO's assessment of technologies for border control', 18 October 2002.
Government Accountability Office (GAO) 2002. Technology Assessment: Using Biometrics for Border Security, GAO-03–174, November 2002, available at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d03174.pdf.
Guston, David 2003. ‘Insights from the office of technology assessment and other assessment experiences’, in Morgan and Peha (eds.), Science and Technology Advice for Congress, Washington, DC: RFF Press, Ch. 4, pp. 77–89.
Jones, Richard M. 2004. ‘House rejects Rep. Holt amendment to establish OTA-capability’, FYI: The AIP Bulletin of Science Policy News 116, 31 August 2004, available at: www.aip.org/fyi/2004/116.html.
Knezo, Genevieve J. 2005. ‘Technology assessment in congress: History and legislative options’, Congressional Research Service, Order Code RS21586, 20 May 2005, available at: www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS21586.pdf.
Morgan, M. Granger and Peha, John M. (eds.) 2003. Science and Technology Advice for Congress, Washington, DC: RFF Press.
National Research Council (NRC) 1998. The National Academies: A Unique National Resource, Office of News and Public Information.
National Research Council (NRC) 2000. Roles of the Committee Chair, available at: www7.nationalacademies.org/committees_chair_roles/index.html.
National Research Council (NRC) 2002. Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, available at: www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10172.
National Research Council (NRC) 2003. Policy and Procedures on Committee Composition and Balance and Conflicts of Interest for Committees Used in the Development of Reports, May 2003, available at: www.nationalacademies.org/coi/index.html.
National Research Council (NRC) 2005. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, available at: http://books.nap.edu/catalog/11463.html.
Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) 1991. Improving Automobile Fuel Economy: New Standards, New Approaches, OTA-E-504, NTIS order #PB92–115989, 1991, available at: www.princeton.edu/∼ota/disk1/1991/9125_n.html.
Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) 1996. OTA Legacy, CD-ROM Collection (Vols. 1–5), GPO Stock No. 052–003–01457–2, Washington, DC: US Govt. Printing Office, available also at: www.wws.princeton.edu/ota/.
Smith, Bruce L.R. and Stine, Jeffrey K. 2003. ‘Technical advice for Congress: Past trends and present obstacles’, in Morgan and Peha (eds.), Ch. 2, pp. 23–52.
The National Academies 2004. 2004 Report to Congress, available at: www.nationalacademies.org/annualreport/.
The National Academies 2005a. The National Academies Study Process: Ensuring Independent, Objective Advice, available at: www.nationalacademies.org/studyprocess/index.html.
The National Academies 2005b. Getting to Know the Committee Process, Office of News and Public Information.
The National Academies 2005c. Making a Difference: Selected Studies from The National Academies, available at: www.nationalacademies.org/publications/Making_A_Difference.pdf.
The National Academies Press 2002. Complete Catalog of Books and Periodicals, 2002 (NRC reports are now indexed and available at: www.nationalacademies.org or www.nap.edu).
The National Academy of Sciences 2005. The National Academies In Focus, published three times annually, available at: www.infocusmagazine.org.
US Office of Management and Budget 2005. Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review, 16 December 2006, available at: www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg_infopoltech/.
Walker, Robert S. 2001. ‘OTA reconsidered’, Issues in Science and Technology, 17/3 (Spring), available at: www.issues.org/17.3/forum.htm.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Collins, P. and Lindberg, U. 2002. ‘Independent science advice in the EU’, The IPTS Report, December 4–7.
EASAC 2005. Infectious Diseases – Importance of Co-ordinated Activity in Europe, London: The Royal Society.
EASAC 2006. Vaccines: Innovation and Human Health, London: The Royal Society.
EASAC 2007. Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance, London: The Royal Society.
EASAC 2008. Combating the Threat of Zoonotic Infections, London: The Royal Society.
EASAC 2009. Drug-resistant Tuberculosis: Challenges, Consequences and Strategies for Control, London: The Royal Society.
European Commission 2002. On the Collection and Use of Expertise by the Commission: Principles and Guidelines, COM(2002) 713 final.
Fayl, G. and Kyriakou, D. 2002. ‘Voluntary interdisciplinary trans-national networks in an enlarged Europe’, The IPTS Report, December 2–3.
Hanney, S.R. , Gonzalez-Block, M.A. , Buxton, M.J. and Kogan, M. 2003. ‘The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment’, BioMed Central, available at: www.health-policy-systems.com/content/1/1/2 (last accessed 7 April 2010).
Health Council of the Netherlands 2006. Science Advice on Public Health at National and European Level, available at: www.healthcouncil.nl.
Weingart, P. and Lentsch, J. (eds.) 2006. Standards and ‘Best Practices’ of Scientific Policy Advice – A Roundtable Discussion with Sir David King, Berlin: Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bijker, Wiebe E. , Bal, Roland and Hendriks, Ruud 2009. The Paradox of Scientific Authority: The Role of Scientific Advice in Democracies, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Brown, Mark B . 2006. ‘Fairly balanced: The politics of representation on government advisory committees’, Political Research Quarterly 61/4: 547–60.
Brown, Mark B. 2009. ‘Federal Advisory Committees in the United States: A Survey of the Political and Administrative Landscape’, in Justus Lentsch and Peter Weingart (eds.), Scientific Advice to Policy Making: International Comparison, Opladen & Farmington Hills: Barbara Budrich Publishers.
Buchholz, Kai 2008. Professionalisierung der wissenschaftlichen Politikberatung? Interaktions- und professionssoziologische Perspektiven, Bielefeld: Transcript.
Ezrahi, Yaron 1980. ‘Utopian and pragmatic rationalism: The political context of scientific advice’, Minerva 18: 111–31.
Feuer, Michael J. and Maranto, Christina J. 2010. ‘Science advice as procedural rationality: reflections on the National Research Council’, Minerva 48: 259–75.
Funtowicz, S.O. and Ravetz, J.R. 1990. Uncertainty and Quality in Science for Policy, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Gieryn, Thomas F. 1983. ‘Boundary-work and the demarcation of science from non-science: Strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists’, American Sociological Review 48: 781–95.
Gieryn, Thomas F. 1995. ‘Boundaries of science’, in S. Jasanoff , G.E. Markle , J.C. Petersen and T. Pinch (eds.), Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, Thousand Oaks, London and New Delhi: Sage, pp. 393–443.
Guston, David H. 2005. ‘Institutional design for socially robust knowledge: The national toxicology program's report on carcinogens’, in Sabine Maasen and Peter Weingart (eds.), Democratization of Expertise? Exploring Novel Forms of Scientific Advice in Political Decision-Making, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 63–80.
Hilgartner, Stephen 2000. Science on Stage: Expert Advice as Public Drama, Stanford University Press.
Jasanoff, Sheila 1985. ‘Peer review in the regulatory process’, Science, Technology, & Human Values 10/3: 20–32.
Jasanoff, Sheila 1990. The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jasanoff, Sheila 2004. ‘The idiom of co-production’, in Sheila Jasanoff (ed.), States of Knowledge: The Co-Production of Science and Social Order, London: Routledge, pp. 1–12.
Krimsky, Sheldon 2006. ‘Publication bias, data ownership, and the funding effect in science: Threats to the integrity of biomedical research’, in Wendy Wagner and Rena Steinzor (eds.), Rescuing Science from Politics: Regulation and the Distortion of Scientific Research, Cambridge University Press, pp. 61–85.
Lentsch, Justus 2008. ‘Qualitätssicherung in der wissenschaftlichen Politikberatung’, in Stephan Böchler and Rainer Schützeichel (eds.), Politikberatung, Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius, pp. 194–216.
Mitchell, Sandra D. 2009. Unsimple Truths: Science, Complexity, and Policy, University of Chicago Press.
National Research Council (NRC) 2002. Knowledge and Diplomacy: Science Advice in the United Nations System, Washington DC: National Academies Press.
O'Neill, Sarah 2006. ‘Transparency and the ethics of communication’, British Academy Lectures 125: 75–90.
Pielke, Roger S., Jr. 2007. The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics, Cambridge University Press.
Renn, Ortwin 2008. Risk Governance: Coping With Uncertainty in a Complex World, London: Earthscan, Sterling.
Shrader-Frechette, Kristin 2005. ‘Radiobiology and gray science: Flaws in landmark new radiation protections’, Science and Engineering Ethics 11/2: 167–9.
Siebenhüner, Bernd 2002. ‘How do scientific assessments learn? Part I: Conceptual framework and case-study of the IPCC’, Environmental Science & Policy 5: 411–20.
Wagner, Wendy and Steinzor, Rena 2006. ‘Conclusion: The imperatives of the principles’, in Wendy Wagner and Rena Steinzor (eds.), Rescuing Science from Politics: Regulation and the Distortion of Scientific Research, Cambridge University Press, pp. 281–98.
Weingart, Peter and Lentsch, Justus 2008. Wissen – Beraten – Entscheiden. Form und Funktion wissenschaftlicher Politikberatung in Deutschland, Weilerswist: Velbrück.
Wynne, Brian , Felt, Ulrike , Eduarda Gonçalves , Maria, Jasanoff , Sheila, Jepsen , Maria, Joly , Pierre-Benoît, Konopasek , Zdenck et al. 2007. Taking European Knowledge Society Seriously, Brussels: European Commission.