The Gacaca Courts, Post-Genocide Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda

Justice without Lawyers

This is a timely empirical study and review of the Gacaca Courts which were established in 2001 in Rwanda as an attempt to prosecute suspects involved in the 1994 genocide. Based on the author's original field work which began in 2003 in Rwanda and which has been updated to the end of 2009, it includes responses from within the Rwandan population. Dr. Clark argues that, despite widespread international scepticism, the Gacaca process has achieved remarkable results in terms of justice and reconciliation, although this has often come at a price, especially the re-traumatisation of many Rwandans who have participated firsthand in hearings. This book will appeal to a wide global readership crossing human rights, transitional justice and African studies for its combination of original empirical data with a socio-legal analysis.


 Reviews:

'Clark's book is the culmination of nine years of research on and in Rwanda, and it exhibits the combination of breadth and level of detail that is made possible through such an extended engagement with a topic … Clark provides his readers with a wide horizon of possible interpretations of this unique process, and this book will certainly reorient the debates in future gacaca scholarship.' Christian M. De Vos, International Journal of Transitional Justice

Reference Title: Books

Reference Type: bibliography

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Reference Title: Chapters in edited collections

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Reference Title: Journal articles

Reference Type: bibliography

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Reference Title: United Nations, government and non-governmental organisation reports and legal documents

Reference Type: bibliography

African Rights , ‘Gacaca Justice: A Shared Responsibility’, Kigali: African Rights, January 2003.
African Rights , ‘Prisoner Releases: A Risk for the Gacaca System’, Kigali: African Rights, 16 January 2003.
Amnesty International , ‘Namibia: Caprivi Treason Trial – Justice Delayed is Justice Denied!’, AI Index AFR 42/002/2003, 4 August 2003.
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Babalola, S. and J. Karambizi , ‘Evaluation of the Gacaca Promotional Campaign in Rwanda: Report of Main Findings’, Baltimore, Md. Johns Hopkins University, Population Communication Services, 2003.
Bugingo, S. , ‘Gacaca Courts Prepare for Trials’, Press Release, Kigali: NURC, 9 July 2004.
Gasibirege, S. and S. Babalola , ‘Perceptions about the Gacaca Law in Rwanda: Evidence from a Multi-Method Study’, Special Publication (no. 19), Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, April 2001.
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National Unity and Reconciliation Commission , ‘Opinion Survey on Participation in Gacaca and National Reconciliation’, Kigali: NURC, January 2003.
National Unity and Reconciliation Commission , ‘Reconciliation and Democratization: Experiences and Lessons Learned in Reconciliation and Democratization from Germany, South Africa, Namibia and Rwanda’, Kigali: NURC, October 2003.
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Oxford Policy Management , ‘The Impact of Increases in Public Expenditure on Poverty in Rwanda’, Oxford: OPM, March 2003.
Penal Reform International , ‘Gacaca Courts in Rwanda’, Kigali: PRI, 2003.
Penal Reform International , ‘Interim Report on Research on Gacaca Jurisdictions and its Preparations (July–December 2001)’, Kigali: PRI, January 2002.
Penal Reform International , ‘Monitoring and Research Report No. IX on the Gacaca: Community Service (TIG) – Areas of Reflection’, Kigali: PRI, March 2007.
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Republic of Rwanda , ‘Gacaca Judicial System Launched in Kigali’, Department of Information, 18 June 2002, www.gov.rw/government/061802.html.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Imfashanyigisho Y'Ingando N'Andi Mahugurwa’, Kigali: NURC, October 2006.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘La Situation actuelle des juridictions gacaca’, Kigali: Supreme Court of Rwanda, 6th Chamber (Gacaca Commission), 25 June 2003.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Les Parténaires du processus gacaca’, official rwandan government website, www.inkiko-gacaca.gov.rw/fr/partenaires.html.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Loi Organique No. 33/2001 du 22/6/2001 modifiant et completant Loi Organique No. 40/2000 du 26 Janvier 2001 portant creation des “juridictions gacaca” et organisation des poursuite des infractions constitutives du crime de génocide ou de crimes contre l'humanité, commises entre le 1 Octobre 1990 et 31 Decembre 1994’, Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, Kigali, 22 June 2001.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Loi Organique No. 8196 du 30/8/96 sur l'organisation des poursuites des infractions constitutives du crime de genocide ou de crimes contre l'humanité, commises à partir de 1er octobre 1990’, Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, Kigali, 1 September 1996.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Manuel explicatif sur la Loi Organique portant création des juridictions gacaca’, Kigali: Cour Suprème, Département des Juridictions Gacaca, 2001.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning Budgets, 2002–9’, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, www.minecofin.gov.rw/en/inno-file_galleries.php.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Minutes of the Symposium on Gacaca’, Hotel Umubano, Kigali, 6–7 March 2000.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Organic Law No. 10/2007 of 01/03/2007 Modifying and Complementing Organic Law No. 16/2004 of 19/6/2004 Establishing the Organisation, Competence and Functioning of Gacaca Courts Charged with Prosecuting and Trying the Perpetrators of the Crime of Genocide and Other Crimes against Humanity, Committed between October 1, 1990 and December 31, 1994, as Modified and Complemented to Date’, Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, 3 January 2007.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Organic Law No. 13/2008 of 19/05/2008 Modifying and Complementing Organic Law No. 16/2004 of 19/6/2004 Establishing the Organisation, Competence and Functioning of Gacaca Courts Charged with Prosecuting and Trying the Perpetrators of the Crime of Genocide and Other Crimes against Humanity, Committed between October 1, 1990 and December 31, 1994, as Modified and Complemented to Date’, Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, 19 May 2008.
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Republic of Rwanda , ‘Organic Law No. 40/2000 of 26/01/2001 Setting Up Gacaca Jurisdictions and Organising Prosecutions for Offences Constituting the Crime of Genocide or Crimes against Humanity Committed between 1 October 1993 and 31 December 1994’, Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda, Kigali, October 2000.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘President Kagame Allays Concerns about Gacaca’, Department of Information, Government of Rwanda, 14 April 2002, www.gov.rw/government/07_11_01_genoconcern.htm.
Republic of Rwanda , ‘Report on the Reflection Meetings Held in the Office of the President of the Republic from May 1998 to March 1999’, Kigali: Office of the President of the Republic, August 1999.
United Nations , ‘Further Promotion and Encouragement of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Including the Question of the Programme and Methods of the Work of the Commission: Human Rights, Mass Exoduses and Displaced Persons’, UNESCO, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1995/50/Add.4, 16 February 1995.
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United Nations , ‘Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the United Nations During the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda’, UN, 15 December 1999.
United Nations , ‘Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations’, UN Doc. A/55/305-S/2000/809, 21 August 2000.
United Nations , ‘Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Security Council Resolution 808, UN SCOR, 48th session, Annex, article 9(1)’, UN Doc. S/25704, 1993.
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United Nations , ‘Situation in Rwanda: International Assistance for a Solution to the Problems of Refugees, the Restoration of Total Peace, Reconstruction and Socio-Economic Development in Rwanda (Report of the Secretary-General)’, UN Doc. A/51/353, 12 September 1996.
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Reference Title: Print Journalism

Reference Type: bibliography

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Blomfield, A. , ‘Village Courts Will Try Thousands over Rwandan Genocide’, Daily Telegraph, 5 October 2001, news.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2001/10/05/wrwan05.xml.
British Broadcasting Corporation , ‘From Butchery to Executions in Rwanda’, 27 April 1998, news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/84120.stm.
Brittain, V. , ‘Letter from Rwanda’, The Nation, 1 September 2003, www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20030901&s=brittain.
Carroll, R. , ‘Rwandans Face Village Justice’, Guardian, 5 July 2004, www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,1253924,00.html.
Evêques Catholiques du Rwanda , ‘Juridictions gacaca: pour une justice qui reconcilie’, Dialogue, 230, September–October 2002, pp.3–13.
Gourevitch, P. , ‘Justice in Exile’, New York Times, 24 June 1996, A15.
Helsingin Sanomat, ‘Prosecutor in Genocide Case Takes Court on Tour of Rwanda Village’, 17 September 2009, www.hs.fi/english/article/Prosecutor+in+genocide+case+takes+court+on+tour+of+Rwanda+village/ 1135249393557.
Kanuma, S. , ‘Local Justice’, Developments, 24, 2003, www.developments.org.uk/templates/display/text.cfm.
Lacey, M. , ‘A Decade after Massacres, Rwanda Outlaws Ethnicity’, New York Times, 9 April 2004, www.nytimes.com/2004/04/09/international/africa/09RWAN.html?hp=&pagewanted=all&position=.
Morgan, T. , ‘Healing Genocide’, Christianity Today, 31 March 2004, www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2004/004/4.76.html.
Neuffer, E. , ‘It Takes a Village’, New Republic, 222, 15, 10 April 2000, pp.18–20.
Newbury, C. , ‘Ethnicity and the Politics of History in Rwanda’, Africa Today, 45, 1, January–March 1998, pp.7–24.
Ntampaka, C. , ‘Le Gacaca devenu une justice aux mains des victimes’, Umubano, March 1999, www.umubano.be/02_fr/magazine/s_gacaca.htm.
Sezibera, R. , ‘The Only Way to Bring Justice to Rwanda’, Washington Post, 7 April 2002.
Smith, A. , ‘Rwanda Warns of Hutus Preparing Second Genocide’, Independent, 4 August 2001, p.13.
Vansina, J. , ‘The Politics of History and the Crisis in the Great Lakes’, Africa Today, 45, 1, January–March 1998, pp.37–44.
Wagner, M. , ‘All the ‘Bourgmestre's’ Men: Making Sense of Genocide in Rwanda’, Africa Today, 45, 1, January–March 1998, pp.25–36.
Weisbord, N. , ‘Traditional Justice for a Genocide’, International Herald Tribune, 26 September 2003, www.iht.com/articles/111291.html.

Reference Title: Internet sources

Reference Type: bibliography

Ciabattari, J. , ‘Rwanda Gambles on Renewal, Not Revenge’, Women's E-News, 9 October 2000, www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/301/context.
Fondation Hirondelle , ‘Training of Gacaca Judges Starts 8 April 2002’, 3 April 2002, www.hirondelle.org/hirondelle.nsf/0/192d793b82d9b481c1256cb800591075?OpenDocument.
Gabiro, G. , ‘Rwanda Genocide: Paying for Reconciliation’, Fondation Hirondelle, 19 December 2002, www.hirondelle.org/hirondelle.nsf/0/192d793b82d9b481c1256cb800591075?OpenDocument.
Goodman, D. , ‘Justice Drowns in Political Quagmire’, Mail and Guardian Online (Archives), 31 January 1997, www.mg.co.za.
Hirondelle News Agency , ‘Cost of the ICTR to Reach $1 Billion by the End of 2007’, 12 May 2006, www.allafrica.com/stories/200605120745.html.
Inyumba, A. , ‘Restoring Human Dignity and Reconciling the People of Rwanda’, Media Development Index, 4, 2001, www.wacc.org.uk/modules.php? name=News&file=print&sid=714.
IRIN News , ‘Gacaca Judges Undergo “Solidarity Training”’, 24 November 2003, www.irinnews.info/report.asp?ReportID=38065&SelectRegion=Great_Lakes&SelectCountry=RWANDA.
IRIN News , ‘More Genocide Suspects Rearrested’, 11 June 2003, www.irinnews.org/print.asp?ReportID=34679.
Braithwaite, J. , ‘Rwanda: Del Ponte Addresses Alleged RPF Massacres with Kagame’, 14 December 2000, www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=7752&SelectRegion=Great_Lakes&SelectCountry=RWANDA.
Braithwaite, J. , ‘Rwanda: Gacaca Courts Begin Operations’, 10 March 2005, www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=46037&SelectRegion=Great_Lakes&SelectCountry=RWANDA.
IRIN News , ‘Rwanda: Genocide Survivor Group Denounces Killings, Harassment’, 16 December 2003, www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=38445&SelectRegion=Great_LakesSelectCountry=RWANDA.
IRIN News , ‘Rwanda: ICTR Preparing to Indict First Tutsis’, 12 April 2002, www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=27252&SelectRegion=Great_Lakes&SelectCountry=RWANDA.
IRIN News , ‘Rwanda: Plans to Reform Traditional Courts’, 16 June 2004, www.irinnews.org/print.asp?ReportID=41693.
IRIN News , ‘Rwanda: Release of Thousands of Prisoners Begins’, 1 August 2005, www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=48373&SelectRegion=Great_ Lakes&SelectCountry=RWANDA.
IRIN News , ‘Special Report on Hopes for Reconciliation under Gacaca Court System’, IRIN, 4 December 2002, www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=31241&SelectRegion=Great_Lakes&SelectCountry=RWANDA.
IRIN News , ‘Traditional Courts Inaugurated’, 24 June 2004, www.irinnews.info/ report.asp?ReportID=41860&SelectRegion=Great_Lakes& SelectCountry=RWANDA.
IRIN News , ‘Trauma Counsellors Trained’, 16 January 2004, www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=38977&SelectRegion=Great_Lakes&SelectCountry=RWANDA.
IRIN News , ‘Uganda: Forgiveness as an Instrument of Peace’, 9 June 2005, www.irinnews.org/S_report.asp?ReportID=47575.
Lerche, C. , ‘Truth Commissions and National Reconciliation: Some Reflections on Theory and Practice’, www.gmu.edu/academic/pcs/lerche71pcs.html.
Morgan, T. , ‘Healing Genocide’, Christianity Today, 31 March 2004, www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2004/004/4.76.html.
Ntampaka, C. , ‘Le Gacaca: une juridiction pénale populaire’, Agence intergouvernementale de la francophonie, 2001, www.droit.francophonie.org/acct/rjf/actu/13Ntampa.htm.
Porter, T. , ‘Restorative Justice: Justice as Peacebuilding’, Eastern Mennonite University, 2001, www.emu.edu/ctp/footpaths/vol1no1/page2.html.
Radio Netherlands , ‘The Gacaca Fiasco’, Radio Netherlands Wereldomroep, 14 January 2004, www.rnw.nl/hotspots/html/rwa040114.html.
Reuters , ‘Sierra Leone Court Sends Convicts to Rwandan Prison’, 31 October 2009, www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSLV126612.
Rinaldo, R. , ‘Can the Gacaca Courts Deliver Justice?’, Inter Press Service, 8 April 2004, ipsnews.net/new_nota.asp?idnews=23234.
Vespereni, H. , ‘Rwandans Back People's Courts’, BBC News, 5 October 2001, news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1581236.stm.
Walker, R. , ‘Rwanda Still Searching for Justice’, BBC, Kigali, 30 March 2004, news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3557753.stm.

Reference Title: Conference papers, films, unpublished theses and miscellaneous sources

Reference Type: bibliography

Aghion, A. (director), Gacaca: Living Together Again in Rwanda?, film produced by P. Brooks, L. Bouchard and A. Aghion, New York: First Run Films, 2002.
Aghion, A. (director), In Rwanda We Say … the Family that Does Not Speak Dies, film produced by L. Bouchard and A. Aghion, New York: First Run Films, 2004.
Clark, P. and N. Palmer , ‘The International Community Fails Rwanda Again’, Oxford Transitional Justice Research Working Paper Series, 5 May 2009, www.csls.ox.ac.uk/documents/ClarkandPalmer_Rwanda_Final.pdf.
Cronin, J. , ‘A Luta Dis-Continue: The TRC Final Report and the Nation Building Project’, paper delivered at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, June 1999, www.trcresearch.org.za/papers99/cronin.pdf.
Dortzbach, K. , ‘Wholeness and Healing in Community: Toward Understanding Effective African Church Interventions Following Community Violence’, unpublished PhD thesis, Faculty of Theology, University of Pretoria, June 2002, copy on file with author.
Feil, S. , ‘Preventing Genocide: How the Early Use of Force Might Have Succeeded in Rwanda’, report to the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, New York: Carnegie Corporation, 1998.
Fujii, L.A. , ‘Origins of Power and Identity in Rwanda’, paper delivered at the Annual Conference of the International Studies Association, 20–4 February 2001, Chicago, Ill., pp.1–17, www.isanet.org/archive/fujii.html.
Gahima, G. , ‘What is Understood by Justice in Rwanda Today?’, paper delivered at the Newick Park Initiative Conference, ‘The Role of the Churches in the Restoration of Justice in Rwanda’, Kigali, 19–21 August 1997.
Ingelaere, B. , ‘“Does the Truth Pass across the Fire without Burning?” Transitional Justice and its Discontents in Rwanda's Gacaca Courts’, Institute of Development Policy and Management Discussion Paper, University of Antwerp, November 2007.
Institute for Contextual Theology ‘The Kairos Document: Challenge to the Church’, Cape Town, 1985, www.bethel.edu/~letnie/AfricanChristianity/SAKairos.html.
Kagame, P. , ‘Preventing Genocide: Threats and Responsibilities’, paper delivered at the Stockholm International Forum, 26 January 2004.
Kerrigan, F. , ‘Some Issues of Truth, Justice and Reconciliation in Genocide Trials before Gacaca Tribunals in Rwanda’, Copenhagen: Danish Centre for Human Rights, April 2002.
Molenaar, A. , ‘Gacaca: Grassroots Justice after Genocide – The Key to Reconciliation in Rwanda?’, Research Report 77/2005, Leiden: African Studies Centre, 2005.
Morton, J. , ‘Conflict in Darfur: A Different Perspective’, Resource Paper, Hempstead: HTSPE, June 2004.
Munyeli, J. , ‘Gacaca comme voie oblige de la reconciliation: cas des prisonniers libérés par le communiqué présidentiel du 01 Janvier 2003 – District de Kanombe’, unpublished BA thesis, Department of Sociology, Université Libre de Kigali, June 2004, copy on file with author.
Ndangiza, F. , ‘Transitional Justice and Reconciliation’, paper delivered at the Conference on Policy Research, Ottawa, 21 November 2002.
Pearlman, L.A. , ‘Psychological Trauma’, paper prepared for the ‘Healing, Forgiving, and Reconciliation’ project, John Templeton Foundation, West Conshohocken, Pa., 13 March 2000, www-unix.oit.umass.edu/%7egubin/rwanda/lec4.htm.
Straus, S. , ‘Letter from Rwanda: Gacaca Begins’, report for the Institute for the Study of Genocide, 26 June 2002.
Tuzinde, I. , ‘Justice and Social Reconstruction in the Aftermath of Genocide in Rwanda: An Evaluation of the Possible Role of the Gacaca Tribunals’, unpublished LLM thesis, Bellville: University of the Western Cape, November 2000, copy on file with author.
Uvin, P. , ‘The Introduction of a Modernized Gacaca for Judging Suspects of Participation in the Genocide and the Massacres of 1994 in Rwanda’, discussion paper prepared for the Belgian Secretary of State for Development Cooperation, 2000.
Vandeginste, S. , ‘A Truth and Reconciliation Approach to the Genocide and Crimes against Humanity in Rwanda’, Antwerp: Centre for the Study of the Great Lakes Region of Africa, May 1998.
Vandeginste, S. , ‘Justice, Reconciliation and Reparation after Genocide and Crimes against Humanity: The Proposed Establishment of Popular Gacaca Tribunals in Rwanda’, paper delivered at the All-Africa Conference on African Principles of Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation, Addis Ababa, 8–12 November 1999.
Various , ‘The Rwandan Genocide and Transitional Justice: Commemorating the 10th Anniversary of the Genocide’, conference at St Antony's College, University of Oxford, 15 May 2004, notes on file with author.
Woodstock Theological Center , ‘An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in Politics’, Forum Transcript, Woodstock Report, 45, March 1996, www.georgetown.edu/centers/woodstock/report/r-fea45.htm.