This title has been withdrawn from sale on Cambridge Books Online. Institutions who purchased this title previous to removal will continue to have access via Cambridge Books Online but this title can no longer be purchased.

The Law of Armed Conflict

International Humanitarian Law in War

The Law of Armed Conflict

The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law introduces law students and undergraduates to the law of war in an age of terrorism. What law of armed conflict/international humanitarian law applies to particular armed conflicts? Does that law apply to terrorists as well? What is the status of participants in an armed conflict? What constitutes a war crime? What is a lawful target and how are targeting decisions made? What are rules of engagement? What weapons are lawful and unlawful, and why? This text takes the reader through these essential questions of the law of armed conflict and international humanitarian law to an awareness of finer points of battlefield law. The U.S.-weighted text incorporates lessons from many nations and includes hundreds of cases from jurisdictions worldwide.


 Reviews:

“Anyone involved with international humanitarian law -- academics, commanders and Soldiers, cadets, concerned citizens -- should be delighted that Professor Solis has devoted his expertise to writing [this] textbook…He combines academic rigor and expertise with experience as a combat Marine to communicate how these issues unfold on the ground…The broad coverage of essential international humanitarian law should make it a vade mecum for upper division undergraduate students as well as those in law school…Any tactical legal advisor should make sure this is the first item packed in his or her rucksack…With this outstanding textbook, Professor Solis makes a broad contribution to the study of an area of the law that is critical to the manner in which countries, armed forces, and individuals conduct themselves.”
--Patrick Finnegan, Brigadier General, United States Army, Academic Dean, United States Military Academy


“The law of armed conflict matters. This superb book is an extraordinarily rich discussion of the law of armed conflict written by a combat veteran with a true understanding of the importance of such laws for effective democratic nation war fighting. It should quickly become a standard teaching manual.”
--John Norton Moore, Director, Center for National Security Law & former Chairman of the Board, the United States Institute of Peace, Professor of Law, University of Virginia School of Law


“This is the book that teachers of the law of armed conflict have been waiting for. It tackles the controversial areas with a wealth of historical and legal reference material as well as comments on recent US practice. A real bonus is that it is interestingly and lucidly written - one always wants to read more.”
--Major-General (ret.) A. P. V. Rogers, Fellow of the Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge


“This is a most helpful guide to the law of armed conflict, designed for law students and undergraduates. Although structured as a textbook, it has a large dose of cases and materials. The book is written by an accomplished teacher with invaluable military experience.”
--Yoram Dinstein, Professor Emeritus of International Law and Human Rights, Tel-Aviv University



 Prizes:

Winner, 2011 Certificate of Merit in a Specialized Area of International Law, American Society of International Law

Reference Type: notes

Theodor Meron , Bloody Constraint: War and Chivalry in Shakespeare (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 49
John Keegan , War and Our World (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), 26
John Keegan , A History of Warfare (New York: Knopf, 1993), 119
James Hillman , A Terrible Love of War (New York: Penguin Books, 2004), 17
Col. William Winthrop , Military Law and Precedents, 2d ed. (Washington: GPO, 1920), 17
Robert C. Stacey , “The Age of Chivalry,” in Michael Howard , George J. Andreopoulos , and Mark R. Shulman , eds., The Laws of War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), 27
Jean Pictet , Development and Principles of International Humanitarian Law (Leiden: Kluwer, 1985), 7–8
Leslie C. Green , The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 2d ed. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), 21
Suurya P. Subedi , “The Concept in Hinduism of ‘Just War,’” 8–2 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Oct. 2003), 339, 355–6
K.P. Jayaswal , Manu and Yâjñavalkya, A Comparison and A Contrast: A Treatise on the Basic Hindu Law (Calcutta: Butterworth, 1930), 106
J.H. Huang trans., Sun Tzu: The New Translation (New York: Quill, 1933), 46
C.E. Brand , Roman Military Law (Austin: University of Texas, 1968), 195–6
Timothy L.H. McCormack , “From Sun Tzu to the Sixth Committee: The Evolution of an International Criminal Law Regime,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack and Gerry J. Simpson , eds., The Law of War Crimes: National and International Approaches (The Hague: Kluwer, 1997), 31–63, 35
Majid Khadduri , War and Peace in the Law of Islam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1955), 87
Gerrit W. Gong , The Standard of “Civilization” in International Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984), 122–3
G.I.A.D. Draper , “The Interaction of Christianity and Chivalry in the Historical Development of the Laws of War,” 5–3 Int'l Rev. of Red Cross (1965)
Gregory M. Reichberg , Henrik Syse , and Endre Begby , eds., The Ethics of War (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 97
Chris af Jochnick and Roger Normand , “The Legitimation of Violence: A Critical History of the Laws of War,” 35–1 Harvard Int'l L. J. (1994), 49, 61
Georg Schwarzenberger , “Judgment of Nuremberg,” 21 Tulsa L. Rev. (1947), 330
Joseph W. Bishop, Jr., Justice Under Fire: A Study of Military Law (New York: Charterhouse, 1974), 4
Georg Schwarzenberger , International Law: As Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, vol. II (London: Stevens & Sons, 1968), 15–16
Michael Walzer , Just and Unjust Wars, 3d ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 42
Geoffrey Best , Humanity in Warfare (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1980), 11
Adam Roberts and Richard Guelff , Documents on the Law of War, 3d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 31
Carl von Clausewitz , On War, A. Rapoport , ed. (London: Penguin Books, 1982), 101
Bert V.A. Röling , “Are Grotius' Ideas Obsolete in an Expanded World?” in Hedley Bull , Benedict Kingsbury , and Adam Roberts , eds., Hugo Grotius and International Relations (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), 287
Eugene Sledge , With the Old Breed at Peleliu and Okinawa (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1981)
Paul Fussell , Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989)
Stephen J. Lofgren , ed., “Diary of First Lieutenant Sugihara Kinryû: Iwo Jima, January – February 1945,” 59–97. J. Military History (Jan. 1995)
Michael Walzer , “Two Kinds of Military Responsibility,” in Lloyd J. Matthews and Dale E. Brown , eds., The Parameters of Military Ethics (VA: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1989), 69
David Kennedy , Of War and Law (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006), 32
Capt. Larry Seaquist, USN , “Community War,” Proceedings (Aug. 2000), 56
Toni Pfanner , “Interview with General Sir Rupert Smith,” 864 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2006), 720
Michael H. Hoffman , “Rescuing the Law of War: A Way Forward in an Era of Global Terrorism,” Parameters (Summer 2005), 18, 34
Bob Woodward , State of Denial (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 486
Dept. of the Army, FM 27–10 : The Law of Land Warfare, w/change 1 (DC: GPO, 1956)
Theodor Meron , Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 3
David Hackett Fischer , Washington's Crossing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 375, 376, 378, 379
Morison , John Paul Jones: A Sailor's Biography (Boston: Atlantic-Little Brown, 1959), 143–55
Theodor Meron , “The Geneva Conventions as Customary Law,” 81–2 AJIL (April 1987), 348, 367
Louise Arbour , “Legal Professionalism and International Criminal Proceedings,” 4–4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Sept. 2006), 674, 675
Kunt Dörmann , Elements of War Crimes (Cambridge: ICRC/Cambridge University Press, 2003), 491
William A. Schabas , An Introduction to the International Criminal Court (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 292–6
Amos S. Hershey , “History of International Law Since the Peace of Westphalia,” 6 AJIL (1912) 31, fn. 2
G.I.A.D. Draper , “Development of the Law of War,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflict (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998), 49
Sergio M. Villa , “The Philosophy of International Law: Suárez, Grotius and Epigones,” 320 Int'l. Rev. of the Red Cross (Oct. 1997), 324
Donald A. Wells , The Laws of Land Warfare: A Guide to the U.S. Army Manuals (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 5
War Dept ., Rules of Land Warfare, 1914 (Washington: GPO, 1914)
Gary Solis , “Obedience of Orders and the Law of War: Judicial Application in American Forums,” 15 American U. Int'l L. R. (2003), 481, 510
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
Maj. J. Jeremy Marsh , “Lex Lata or Lex Ferenda? Rule 45 of the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law,” 198 Military L. Rev. (Winter 2008), 116
David Turns , “Weapons in the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law,” 11–2 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Summer, 2006), 201, 203
Charles H.B. Garraway , “‘Combatants’ – Substance or Semantics?” in Michael Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 316–34, 316
Ingrid Detter , The Law of War, 2d ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)
Carl von Clausewitz , Vom Kriege, 18th ed. (Bonn, 1972)
Judge Advocate General's Legal Center & School, Int'l & Operational Law Dept ., Law of War Handbook (Charlottesville, VA: JAG School, 1997), 1–2
Stanislaw E. Nahlik , “A Brief Outline of International Humanitarian Law,” Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (July-August, 1984), 7
Jean S. Pictet , ed., Commentary, IV Geneva Convention, 1949 (Geneva: ICRC, 1958), 20
D. Forsythe , Humanitarian Politics: The ICRC (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977), 122
Frits Kalshoven and Liesbeth Zegveld , Constraints on the Waging of War: An Introduction to International Humanitarian Law (Geneva: ICRC, 2001), 12
Hans-Peter Gasser , International Humanitarian Law: An Introduction (Berne: Paul Haupt Publishers, 1993), 6
Cordula Droege , “Elective Affinities? Human Rights and Humanitarian Law,” 871 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2008), 501
ICRC , “International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2007), 719, 722
Christophe Girod , DRAFT , Storm in the Desert: The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Gulf War 1990–1991 (Geneva: ICRC, 2003), 26–7
Helen Durham , “International Humanitarian Law and the Gods of War: The Story of Athena Versus Ares,” 8–2 Melbourne J. of Int'l L. (2007), 248, 253
Jean S. Pictet , International Humanitarian Law (Geneva: ICRC, 1985), 3
Jean S. Pictet , Humanitarian Law and the Protections of War Victims (Leyden: ICRC, 1975), 11
Robert J. Mathews and Timothy L.H. McCormack , “The Influence of Humanitarian Principles in the Negotiation of Arms Control Treaties,” 834 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (June 1999), 331
Christian Tomuschat , Human Rights: Between Idealism and Realism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 247
Geoffrey Best , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 13
Françoise J. Hampson , “The Relationship Between International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law from the Perspective of A Human Rights Treaty Body,” 871 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2008), 549, 550
Louise Doswald-Beck and Sylvain Vité , “International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law,” 293 Int'l. Rev. of the Red Cross (April 1993), 94
“Human Rights in Armed Conflict,” in Theodor Meron , ed., Human Rights in International Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984), 345–68
Maj. Marie Anderson and Ms. Emily Zukauskas , eds., Operational Law Handbook, 2008 (Charlottesville, VA: Int'l and Operational Law Dept., The Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School, 2008), 40
Peter Rowe , The Impact of Human Rights Law on Armed Forces (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006)
Frits Kalshoven , Reflections on the Law of War (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 925
Thomas Buergenthal , “The Evolving International Human Rights System,” 100–4 AJIL (Oct. 2006), 783, 785
Steven R. Ratner and Jason S. Abrams , Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy, 2d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 10
Henry J. Steiner and Philip Alston , International Human Rights in Context, 2d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 67
Robert Kolb and Richard Hyde , An Introduction to the International Law of Armed Conflicts (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2008), 269
Maj. Michelle A. Hansen , “Preventing the Emasculation of Warfare: Halting the Expansion of Human Rights Law into Armed Conflict,” 194 Military L. Rev. (Winter 2007), 1–65, 5
Theodor Meron , “The Humanization of Humanitarian Law,” 94 AJIL (2000), 239, 240
Christoph Burchard , “Torture in the Jurisprudence of the Ad Hoc Tribunals,” 6–2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (May 2008), 159, 166
Chris af Jochnick and Roger Normand , “The Legitimation of Violence: A Critical History of the Laws of War,” 35–1 Harvard Int'l L. J. (Winter 1994), 49, 54
Colin L. Powell , A Soldier's Way: An Autobiography (London: Hutchinson, 1995), 144
Paul Fussell , Doing Battle: The Making of A Skeptic (Boston: Little Brown, 1996), 124
Xenophon , Hellenica, Books I-V, Carlton L. Brownson trans. (London: William Heinemann, 1918), 101, 107
Georg Schwarzenberger , International Law: As Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, vol. II (London: Stevens & Sons, 1968), 462
Roger L. DiSilvestro , In the Shadow of Wounded Knee (New York: Walker, 2005)
Robert M. Utley , “The Ordeal of Plenty Horses,” 26–1 American Heritage (Dec. 1974), 15
Paul Drew Stevens , ed., The Congressional Medal of Honor: The Names, the Deeds (Forest Ranch, CA: Sharp & Dunnigan, 1984), 712
H. Lauterpacht , ed., Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases – 1946 (London: Butterworth & Co., 1951), 203, 207–10, 212

Reference Type: notes

Department of the Army, Field Manual (FM) 27–10, The Law of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1956), para. 33
UK Ministry of Defense , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 102
Burris M. Carnahan , “Lincoln, Lieber and the Laws of War: The Origins and Limits of the Principle of Military Necessity,” 92–2 AJIL 213–231, 213 (April 1998)
Col. James R. Miles , “Francis Lieber and the Law of War,” XXIX-1–2 Revue de Droit Militaire et de Droit de la Guerre, 256 (1990)
Karma Nabulsi , Traditions of War: Occupation, Resistance, and the Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 166
R.R. Baxter , “The First Modern Codification of the Law of War,” part I, 25 Int'l. Rev. of the Red Cross 171, 183 (April 1963)
G.I.A.D. Draper , “The Development of International Humanitarian Law,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflicts (The Hague: Kluwer Law, 1998), 70–71
Geoffrey Best , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 41
R.R. Baxter , “The First Modern Codification of the Law of War,” part II, 26 Int'l. Rev. of the Red Cross 234, 235 (May 1963)
Richard S. Hartigan , Lieber's Code and the Law of War (Chicago: Precedent, 1983), 1
Thomas E. Holland , The Laws of War on Land (Written and Unwritten) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908), 72–73
Hugo Grotius , The Law of War and Peace (Buffalo, NY: Hein reprint of Kelsey translation, 1995)
Knut Dörmann , “The Legal Situation of ‘Unlawful/Unprivileged Combatants,’” 85 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 45 (March 2003)
Yves Sandoz , Christophe Swinarski , Bruno Zimmermann , eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 (Geneva: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987), 515
Telford Taylor , Nuremberg and Vietnam: an American Tragedy (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1970), 19
Burke Davis , Sherman's March (New York: Vintage Books, 1988), 31
Associated Press , “Jury Calls for Officer's Ouster Over S.U.V.,” NY Times, 14 Aug. 2004, A7
Leslie C. Green , Essays on the Modern Law of War, 2d ed. (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 1999), 63
Geoffrey Best , Humanity in Warfare (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1980), 170
Percy Bordwell , The Law of War Between Belligerents: A Commentary (Chicago: Callaghan, 1908), 74
Dieter Fleck , ed., The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), para. 116
Richard Shelly Hartigan , Lieber's Code and the Law of War (Bethesda, MD: Legal Classics Library, 1995), 24
War Department , Rules of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1914), 7
John A. Nagl , Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2002), 16
James Hillman , A Terrible Love of War (New York: Penguin, 2004), 168
Caroline Moorehead , Dunant's Dream (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1999), 3
Pierre Boissier , Henry Dunant (Geneva: Henry Dunant Institute, 1974)
John Watts DePeyster , Personal and Military History of Philip Kearny (New York: Rice & Gage, 1869), 167–83
Henry Dunant , A Memory of Solferino (Geneva: ICRC reprint, 1986), 19
François Bugnion , The Emblem of the Red Cross (Geneva: ICRC, 1977), 6
Daniel Thürer , “Dunant's Pyramid: Thoughts on the ‘Humanitarian Space’,” 865 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 47, 50 (March 2007)
Adam Roberts and Richard Guellf , Documents on the Laws of War, 3d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 53
John B. Bellinger III and William J. Haynes II, “A US Government Response to the International Committee of the Red Cross Study of Customary International Humanitarian Law,” 866 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 443, 460–1 (June 2007)
Georg Schwarzenberger , International Law: As Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, vol. II, The Law of Armed Conflict (London: Stevens, 1968), 10
Judith Gardam , Necessity, Proportionality and the Use of Force by States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 50
George H. Aldrich , “From the St. Petersburg Declaration to the Modern Law of War,” in Nicolas Borsinger , ed., 125th Anniversary of the 1868 Declaration of St. Petersburg (Geneva: ICRC, 1994), 50–1
Arthur Eyffinger , The Peace Palace: Residence for Justice – Domicile of Learning (The Hague: Carnegie Foundation, 1988), 14
James Brown Scott , ed., The Hague Conventions and Declarations of 1899 and 1907 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1918), v
James B. Scott , ed., The Proceedings of the Hague Peace Conference (Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing Reprint, 2007), 6–7
David D. Caron , “War and International Adjudication: Reflections on the 1899 Peace Conference,” 94–4 AJIL 4 (2000)
Shabtai Rosenne , ed., The Hague Peace Conference of 1899 and 1907: Reports and Documents (The Hague, Asser Press, 2001), 294
Vladimir V. Pustogarov , “Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens (1845–1909) – A Humanist of Modern Times,” 312 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 300–14 (1966)
Geoffrey Best , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 41
George P. Fletcher and Jens David Ohlin , Defending Humanity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 187
Lassa Oppenheim , International Law: A Treatise, vol. II, Disputes, War and Neutrality, 7th ed., H. Lauterpacht , ed. (London: Longman, 1952), 341
Dept. of the Army , FM 27–10, The Law of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1956), para. 34.b
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 10
John D. Lawson , ed., American State Trials, vol. VIII (St. Louis: F.H. Thomas Law Book Co., 1916), 666
Robert S. Davis , “Escape from Andersonville: A Study in Isolation and Imprisonment,” 67-4 J. of Military History 1065, 1067, 1069 (Oct. 2003)
Michael A. Marsh , Andersonville: The Story Behind the Scenery (Las Vegas: KC Publications, 2000), 4–29
Leon Friedman , ed., The Law of War: A Documentary History, vol. I (New York: Random House, 1972), 785–98
Max Boot , The Savage Wars of Peace (New York: Basic Books, 2002), 120
Gary D. Solis , Marines and Military Law in Vietnam (Washington: GPO, 1989), 183
Brian M. Linn , The Philippine War: 1899–1902 (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2000), 253
U.S. War Department , The Military Laws of the United States, 1915, 5th ed. (Washington: GPO, 1917), para. 194
William Winthrop , Military Law and Precedents, 2d ed. (Washington: GPO, 1920), 179
Moorfield Storey and Julian Codman , Secretary Root's Record: “Marked Severities” in Philippine Warfare (Boston: Ellis Co., 1902), 62
William T. Generous, Jr., Swords and Scales (New York: Kennikat Press, 1973), 12–13
Dept. of the Army , The Army Lawyer: A History of the Judge Advocate General's Corps, 1775–1975 (Washington: GPO, 1975), 101–2

Reference Type: notes

George B. Davis , “The Geneva Convention of 1906,” 1–2 AJIL (April 1907), 409
Andrew N. Liaropoulos , “Revolutions in Warfare: Theoretical Paradigms and Historical Evidence – The Napoleonic and First World War Revolutions in Military Affairs,” 70–2 J. of Military History (April 2006), 363, 377
Claud Mullins , The Leipzig Trials (London: Witherby, 1921), 5
United Nations , Historical Survey of the Question of International Criminal Jurisdiction (Lake Success, NY: U.N.G.A., 1949), 57–9
Theodor Meron , “Reflections on the Prosecution of War Crimes by International Tribunals,” 100–3 AJIL (July 2007), 551, 557
M. Cherif Bassiouni , “Justice and Peace: The Importance of Choosing Accountability Over Realpolitik,” 35–2 Case Western Reserve J. of Int'l L. (Spring 2003), 191, 193
Erik Goldstein , Wars and Peace Treaties: 1816–1991 (London: Routledge, 1992), 49, 52
Peter Maguire , Law and War: An American Story (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 10
John C. Watkins, Jr., and John P. Weber , War Crimes and War Crime Trials: From Leipzig to the ICC and Beyond (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2006), 6–7
Nina H. B. Jörgensen , The Responsibility of States for International Crimes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 9
F. S. Northedge , The League of Nations (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1986), 161
Morris Greenspan , The Modern Law of Land Warfare (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), 518
Ian Brownlie , International Law and the Use of Force by States (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963), 75
Adam Roberts and Richard Guelff , Documents on the Laws of War, 3d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 243
National Defense Intelligence College , Interrogation: World War II, Vietnam, and Iraq (Washington: NDIC Press, 2008), 51
Peter N. Carroll , The Odyssey of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994), 77, 88
Cecil D. Eby , Comrades and Commissars: The Lincoln Battalion in the Spanish Civil War (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007)
Lt.Col. Yair M. Lootsteen , “The Concept of Belligerency in International Law,” 166 Military L. Rev. (Dec. 2000), 109
François Bugnion , The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Protection of War Victims (Oxford: Macmillan/ICRC, 2003), 268
Eve La Haye , War Crimes in Internal Armed Conflicts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 38
U.K. Ministry of Defense , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Theodor Meron , The Humanization of International Law (Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006), 6
Michael Walzer , Just and Unjust Wars, 3d ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1997), 46
War Department , Rules of Land Warfare – 1914 (Washington: GPO, 1914), 3
G.I.A.D. Draper , “The Historical Background and General Principles of the Geneva Conventions of 1949,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflict (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998), 60
Liesbeth Lijnzaad , “Developments in International Humanitarian Law Since 1977,” in Protecting Human Dignity in Armed Conflict (The Hague: Netherlands Red Cross, 2008), 17
George H. Aldrich , “Some Reflections on the Origins of the 1977 Geneva Protocols,” in Christophe Swinarski , ed., Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles, in Honour of Jean Pictet (Geneva: ICRC, 1984), 129
Theodor Maron , “The Geneva Conventions as Customary Law,” 81–2 AJIL (April 1987), 348
ICRC , “International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2007), 719–57, 742
Theodor Meron , “The Humanization of Humanitarian Law,” 94 AJIL (2000), 239, 243
Toni Pfanner , “Editorial,” 859 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2005), 413, 416
Jean Pictet , ed., Commentary, IV Geneva Convention (Geneva: ICRC, 1958), 5
L. C. Green , “‘Grave Breaches’ or Crimes Against Humanity,” 8 J. of Legal Studies (1997–1998), 19, 21
Jean Pictet , ed., Commentary, I Geneva Convention (Geneva: ICRC, 1952), 362
Maj. Martin N. White , “Charging War Crimes: A Primer for the Practitioner,” The Army Lawyer (Feb. 2006), 1–11
Maj. Mynda Ohman , “Integrating Title 18 War Crimes into Title 10: A Proposal to Amend the UCMJ,” 57 Air Force L. Rev. (2005), 1
Leslie C. Green , “Aftermath of Vietnam: War Law and the Soldier,” in Richard A. Falk , ed., The Vietnam War and International Law, vol. 4 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976), 147, 149
Hans Kelsen , Peace Through Law (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944), 77
R. R. Baxter , “The Municipal and International Law Basis of Jurisdiction Over War Crimes,” 28 BYIL (1951), 382
Lt. Gen. William R. Peers , The My Lai Inquiry (New York: Norton, 1979), 173.
Maj. Gen. George S. Prugh , Law at War: Vietnam 1964–1973 (Washington: Dept. of the Army, 1975), 109
Lt. Col. Gary D. Solis , Marines and Military Law in Vietnam (Washington: GPO, 1989), 99–100
John R. Crook , ed., “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law,” 102–4 AJIL (Oct. 2008), 860, 898
Jennifer K. Elsea and Nina M. Serafino , Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues, updated (Washington: Congressional Research Service, July 11, 2007), 19
Mark J. Yost and Douglas S. Anderson , “The Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act of 2000: Closing the Gap,” 95–2 AJIL (April 2001), 446, 447
Gidget Fuentes , “Not Guilty,” Marine Corps Times (8 Sept. 2008), 8
A.P. , “Ex-Marine Is Cleared in Killing of Unarmed Iraqi Detainees,” NY Times, Aug. 29, 2008, A9
National Brief ; “Wisconsin: Nazi Guard Is Deported,” NY Times, March 20, 2009, A14
Sonja Boelaert-Suominen , “Grave Breaches, Universal Jurisdiction and Internal Armed Conflict: Is Customary Law Moving Towards A Uniform Enforcement Mechanism for All Armed Conflicts?” 5–1 J. Conflict & Security L. (June 2000), 63, 71
Antonio Cassese , International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 41
Adel Maged , “International Legal Cooperation: An Essential Tool in the War Against Terrorism,” in Wybo P. Heere , ed., Terrorism and the Military (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2003), 157, 164–5
Sharon A. Williams , “Laudable Principles Lacking Application: The Prosecution of War Criminals in Canada,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack and Gerry J. Simpson , eds., The Law of War Crimes (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1997), 151, 157
Eli M. Rosenbaum , “An Introduction to the Work of the Office of Special Investigations,” 54–1 United States Attorneys' Bulletin (Jan. 2006), 1
U.N.W.C.C ., Law Reports of Trial of War Criminals, vol. XIII (London: U.N., 1949), 151–2
Chester Hearn , Sorties into Hell: The Hidden War on Chichi Jima (Westport, CN: Praeger, 2003), 189
Knut Dörmann , Elements of War Crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 128
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 233
Guénaël Mettraux , International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 321
Payam Akhavan , “Reconciling Crimes Against Humanity with the Law of War,” 6–1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (March 2008), 21–37, 26
Hans-Heinrich Jescheck , “The General Principles of International Criminal Law Set Out in Nuremberg, as Mirrored in the ICC Statute,” 2–1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (March 2004), 38, 49
Roy Gutman and David Rieff , eds., Crimes of War (New York: Norton, 1999), 109
Lassa Oppenheim , International Law: A Treatise, vol. I – Peace (London: Longmans Green, 1967), 365–6
Michael J. Matheson , “The Law of Internal Armed Conflict,” 97–2 AJIL [reviewing Lindsay Moir, The Law of Internal Armed Conflict (April 2003)], 466, 467
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), Rule 87, at 307–8
L.C. Green , The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 2d ed. (Yonkers, NY: Juris, 2000), 319
Theodor Meron , “International Criminalization of Internal Atrocities,” 89–3 AJIL (July 1995), 554–77, 561
James G. Stewart , “The Military Commissions Act's Inconsistency with the Geneva Conventions: An Overview, 5–1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (March 2007), 26–38, 33
Harmen van der Wilt , “Genocide v. War Crimes in the Van Anraat Appeal,” 6–3 J. of Int'l. Crim. Justice (July 2008), 557, 559
Lindsay Moir , The Law of Internal Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 27
Burt Neuborne , “Spheres of Justice: Who Decides?” 74–5/6 The George Washington L. R. (Aug. 2006), 1090
Maj Gen A.V.P. Rogers , Law on the Battlefield, 2d ed. (Huntington, NY: Juris, 2004), 216
Cdr. Mark E. Newcomb , ed., Law of War Workshop Deskbook (Charlottesville, VA: The Judge Advocate General's School, 1997), 6–13
Jean de Preux , Commentary: III Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Geneva: ICRC, 1960), 163
W. Michael Reisman , “Assessing Claims to Revise the Laws of War,” 97–1 AJIL (Jan. 2003), 82, 86
Joel Rosenthal , “New Rules For War?” Vol. LVII, No. 3/4, Naval War College Rev. (2004), 91, 97
P. X. Kelley and Robert F. Turner , “War Crimes and the White House,” Washington Post (July 26, 2007), A21
Helen Duffy , The ‘War on Terror’ and the Framework of International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 61, 62
R. L. Brownlee and Gen. Peter J. Schoomaker , Serving A Nation at War (Washington: Army Strategic Communications, 2004)
Kenneth Watkin , “21st Century Conflict and International Humanitarian Law: Status Quo or Change?” in Michael N. Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 264–96, 292
Yoram Dinstein , “Comments on Protocol I,” 320 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Oct. 1997), 515
Marcus Luttrell with Patrick Robinson , Lone Survivor (New York: Little Brown, 2007), 168–70
Dept of the Army , International Law, vol. II (Washington: GPO, 1962), 221–2
United Nations War Crimes Commission , Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, vol. XI (Washington: GPO, 1950), 408–11
Gerry J. Simpson , “War Crimes: A Critical Introduction,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack and Gerry J. Simpson , eds., The Law of War Crimes: National and International Approaches (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1997), 1–30, 5
Adm. Karl Doenitz , Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days (New York: DeCapo Press, 1977), 256
E.B. Potter , Nimitz (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1976), 422–3
Telford Taylor , The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials (New York: Knopf, 1992), 408–9
United Nations War Crimes Commission , Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, vol. XIII (London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1949), 146–8
Bing West , No True Glory (New York: Bantam, 2006), 175–6
Antonio Cassese , “Under What Conditions May Belligerents be Acquitted of the Crime of Attacking an Ambulance?” 6–2 J. of Int'l Crim Justice (May 2008), 385–9
A.P. , “Columbian Soldier Wore Red Cross Logo in Hostage Rescue,” NY Times, July 17, 2008, A12

Reference Type: notes

Gen. Rupert Smith , The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World (New York: Knopf, 2007), 3
Adam Roberts and Richard Guelff , Documents on the Laws of War, 3d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 420
Yves Sandoz , Christophe Swinarski , and Bruno Zimmermann , eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (Geneva: ICRC, 1987), xxix
R. R. Baxter , “Modernizing the Law of War,” 78 Military L. R. (1978), 165, 168
G.I.A.D. Draper , “War Criminality,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflicts (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998), 169–70
Michael N. Schmitt , “War, Technology and the Law of Armed Conflict,” in Anthony M. Helm , ed., International Law Studies, Vol. 82, The Law of War in the 21st Century: Weaponry and the Use of Force (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2006), 137, 141
Philip Sutter , “The Continuing Role for Belligerent Reprisals,” 13–1 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Spring 2008), 93, 112
Waldemar Solf , “A Response to Douglas J. Feith's Law in the Service of Terror – The Strange Case of the Additional Protocol,” 20 Akron L. Rev. (1986), 261, 269
George H. Aldrich , “Some Reflections on the Origins of the 1977 Geneva Protocols,” in Christophe Swinarski , ed., Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles, in Honour of Jean Pictet (Geneva: ICRC, 1984), 135
Hans-Peter Gasser , “Acts of Terror, ‘Terrorism’ and International Humanitarian Law,” 847 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2002), 547, 549
Richard R. Baxter , “So-called ‘Unprivileged Belligerency’: Spies, Guerrillas, and Saboteurs,” 28 Brit. Y.B. Int'l L. (1951), 323, 328
Maj. William H. Ferrell, III, “No Shirt, No Shoes, No Status: Uniforms, Distinction, and Special Operations in International Armed Conflict,” 178 Military L. R. (Winter 2003), 94, 108
A. D. Sofaer , “Agora: The U.S. Decision Not to Ratify Protocol I to the Geneva Convention,” 82 AJIL (1988), 784, 785–6
Maj. Gen. George S. Prugh , “Armed Forces and Development of the Law of War,” (Recueils de la Société Internationale de Droit Pénal Militaire et de Droit de la Guerre) (1982), 277, 285
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 11
W. Michael Reisman , “Editorial Comment: Holding the Center of the Law of Armed Conflict,” 100–4 AJIL (Oct. 2006), 852, 858
Yoram Dinstein , “Comments on Protocol I,” 320 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Oct. 1997), 515
Hans-Peter Gasser , “Acts of Terror, ‘Terrorism’ and International Humanitarian Law,” in 847 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2002), 547, 563
Guénaël Mettraux , International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 140
L.C. Green , “‘Grave Breaches’ or Crimes Against Humanity?” 8 J. of Legal Studies (1997–1998), 19, 20
Michael Walzer , Arguing About War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), 13
BGen. Kenneth Watkin , “21st Century Conflict and International Humanitarian Law: Status Quo or Change?” in Michael Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 265, 272
Alison Duxbury , “Drawing Lines in the Sand – Characterising Conflicts For the Purposes of Teaching International Humanitarian Law,” 8–2 Melbourne J. of Int'l L. (2007), 258–72, 269
Jane Perlez , “Pakistan Makes A Taliban Truce, Creating A Haven,” NY Times, Feb. 17, 2009, A1
Eve La Haye , War Crimes in Internal Armed Conflicts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 46
George H. Aldrich , “Comments on the Geneva Protocols,” 320 Int'l R. of the Red Cross, n.p. (31 Oct. 1997)
W. Hays Parks , “Air War and the Law of War,” 32–1 Air Force L. Rev. (1990), 1, 143
Judge Abraham D. Sofaer , Legal Advisor, Dept. of State , “Agora: The Rationale for the United States Decision,” 82 AJIL (1988), 784, 785–6
Theodor Meron , “The Time Has Come for the United States to Ratify Geneva Protocol I,” 88 AJIL (1994), 678, 679
George H. Aldrich , “Prospects for United States Ratification of Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions,” 85 AJIL (1991), 1, 11
Thomas E. Ricks , Fiasco (New York: Penguin, 2006), 31, 55
Douglas J. Feith , War and Decision (New York: Harper, 2008), 38
Hans-Peter Gasser , “An Appeal for Ratification by the United States,” 81 AJIL (Oct. 1987), 912, 924–5
Mike Matheson , “Additional Protocol I as Expressions of Customary International Law,” 2–2 Am. U. J. Int'l L. & Policy (Fall 1987), 415, 425
W. Hays Parks , “‘Special Forces’ Wear of Non-Standard Uniforms,” 4 Chicago J. of Int'l L. (2003), 519, fn. 55
( Charles Garraway , “‘England Does Not Love Coalitions.’ Does Anything Change?” in Anthony M. Helm , ed., International Law Studies, Vol. 82, The Law of War in the 21st Century: Weaponry and the Use of Force (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2006), 234, 238
U.S. Dept. of Defense , Conduct of the Persian Gulf War: Final Report to Congress (Washington: GPO, 1992), 21–2
François Bugnion , The Emblem of the Red Cross: A Brief History (Geneva: ICRC, 1977), 11–12
John R. Crook , ed. “Contemporary Practice of the United States, 100–1 AJIL (2006), 244
François Bugnion , Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal (Geneva: ICRC, 2007), 31
Luc Reydams , “‘A la Guerre Comme à la Guerre:’ Patterns of Armed Conflict, Humanitarian Law Responses and New Challenges,” 864 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2006), 729, 743
Jack Goldsmith , The Terror Presidency (New York: Norton, 2007), 117
Maj. Jefferson D. Reynolds , “Collateral Damage on the 21st Century Battlefield: Enemy Exploitation of the Law of Armed Conflict and the Struggle for a Moral High Ground,” 56 Air Force L. Rev. (Jan. 2005), 23–4
Maj. Marie Anderson and Emily Zukauskas , eds., Operational Law Handbook, 2008 (Charlottesville, VA: Int'l and Operational Law Dept., The Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School, 2008), 15
BGen. Kenneth Watkin , “21st Century Conflict and International Humanitarian Law: Status Quo or Change?” in Michael Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 265, 292
U.K. Ministry of Defence , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Jean S. Pictet , ed., Commentary, I Geneva Convention (Geneva: ICRC, 1952), Art. 3.1, at 49–50

Reference Type: notes

Derek Jinks , “The Applicability of the Geneva Conventions to the ‘Global War on Terrorism,’” 46–1 Virginia J. of Int'l L. (2006), 1, 20–1
BGen. Kenneth Watkin , “Chemical Agents and Expanding Bullets: Limited Law Enforcement Exceptions or Unwarranted Handcuffs?” in Anthony M. Helm , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 82, The Law of War in the 21st Century: Weaponry and the Use of Force (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2006), 193, 199
L. C. Green , The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 2nd ed. (Manchester: Juris Manchester University Press, 2000), 65–6
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 14
Ian Brownlie , International Law and the Use of Force by States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963), 29
Frank E. Vandiver , Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing, vol. II (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1977), 610
Edwin Howard Simmons , The United States Marines: A History, 4th ed. (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2003), 107–17
Yoram Dinstein , War, Aggression and Self-Defence, 4th ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 11
U.K. Ministry of Defence , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), para. 3.3.1., at 29
Eve La Haye , War Crimes in Internal Armed Conflicts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 35
Randal C. Archibald , “One of Ford's Would-Be Assassins Is Paroled,” NY Times (Jan. 1, 2008), A15
Associated Press , “Former '70s Radical is Back in Custody After a Parole Error,” NY Times (March 23, 2008), A14
Jean S. Pictet , ed., Commentary, IV Geneva Convention (Geneva: ICRC, 1958), 42
John Embry Parkerson, Jr., “United States Compliance with Humanitarian Law Respecting Civilians During Operation Just Cause,” 133 Mil. L. Rev. (1991), 31, 41–2
Michael N. Schmitt , “Responding to Transnational Terrorism Under the Jus ad Bellum: A Normative Framework,” in Michael Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 157–95, at 187
Adam Roberts , “The Laws of War in the War on Terror,” in Wybo P. Heere , ed., Terrorism and the Military: International Legal Implications (The Hague: Asser Press, 2003), 65
Lassa Oppenheim , International Law: A Treatise, vol. II, Disputes, War and Neutrality, 7th ed. H. Lauterpacht , ed. (London: Longman, 1952), 203
Andrew Clapham , “Extending International Criminal Law beyond the Individuals to Corporations and Armed Opposition Groups,” 6–5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Nov. 2008), 899, 920
Christopher Greenwood , “Scope of Application of Humanitarian Law,” in Dieter Fleck , ed., The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, 2d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 45, 76
Marco Sassòli , “The Implementation of International Humanitarian Law: Current and Inherent Challenges,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (The Hague: Asser Press, 2009), 45, 56
Anne-Marie LaRosa and Carolin Wuerzner , “Armed Groups, Sanctions and the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law,” 870 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (June 2008), 327, 331
Liesbeth Zegveld , The Accountability of Armed Opposition Groups in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 10
Thomas M. Franck , “On Proportionality of Countermeasures in International Law,” 102–4 AJIL (Oct. 2008), 715, 764
Theodor Meron , The Humanization of International Law (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006), 86
Tarcisio Gazzini , “A Response to Amos Guiora: Pre-Emptive Self-Defence Against Non-State Actors?” 13–1 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Spring 2008), 25, 28
Enzo Cannizzaro , “Contextualizing Proportionality: jus ad bellum and jus in bello in the Lebanese War,” 864 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2006), 779
Terry D. Gill , “The Eleventh of September and the Right of Self-Defense,” in Wybo P. Heere , ed., Terrorism and the Military (The Hague: Asser Press, 2003), 23, 32–3
Mary Ellen O'Connell , The Power & Purpose of International Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 182
Rosalyn Higgins , Problems & Process (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 232
Michael N. Schmitt , “Targeting and Humanitarian Law: Current Issues,” 33 Israel Yearbook on Human Rights (2003), 59, 88–9
Ruth Wedgwood , “Responding to Terrorism: The Strikes Against bin Laden,” 24 Yale J. of Int'l L. (1999), 559, 565
James Crawford , The International Law Commission's Articles on State Responsibility (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 110
Jane Stromseth , David Wippman , and Rosa Brooks , Can Might Make Rights? (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 40–1
Muge Kinacioglu , “A Response to Amos Guiora: Reassessing the Parameters of Use of Force in the Age of Terrorism,” 13–1 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Spring 2008), 33, 41
Steven R. Ratner , “Predator and Prey: Seizing and Killing Suspected Terrorists Abroad,” 15–3 J. of Pol. Philosophy (2007), 251
Clive Walker , “Clamping Down on Terrorism in the United Kingdom,” 4–5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Nov. 2006), 1137, 1145
George P. Fletcher , “The Indefinable Concept of Terrorism,” 4–5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Nov. 2006), 894, 899
Douglas J. Feith , War and Decision (New York: Harper, 2008), 9
Jelena Pejic , “Terrorist Acts and Groups: A Role for International Law?” 75 BYIL (2004), 71, 75
Marco Sassòli , “The Status of Persons Held in Guantanamo under International Humanitarian Law,” 2–1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (March 2004), 96
Major Richard V. Meyer , “When a Rose is Not a Rose: Military Commissions v. Courts-Martial,” 5–1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (March 2007), 48
Sean D. Murphy , “Terrorism and the Concept of ‘Armed Attack’ in Article 51 of the U.N. Charter,” 43 Harvard Int'l L. J. (2002), 41, 47–50
Michael C. Dorf , “The Orwellian Military Commissions Act of 2006,” 5–1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (March 2007), 10
Nils Melzer , Targeted Killing in International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 396
Geoffrey S. Corn , “‘Snipers in the Minaret – What is the Rule?’ The Law of War and the Protection of Cultural Property: A Complex Equation,” The Army Lawyer (July 2005), 28–40, 31, fn. 27
Alison Duxbury , “Drawing Lines in the Sand – Characterising Conflicts for the Purposes of Teaching International Humanitarian Law,” 8–2 Melbourne J. of Int'l L. (2007), 259, 263
Jean S. Pictet , ed., Commentary, I Geneva Convention (Geneva: ICRC, 1952), 32
Rodger W. Claire , Raid on the Sun (New York: Broadway Books, 2004)
Stanimar A. Alexandrov , Self-Defense Against the Use of Force in International Law (The Hague: Kluwer, 1996)
Timothy L.H. McCormack , Self-Defense in International Law: The Israeli Raid on the Iraqi Nuclear Reactor (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996)
Michael Byers , War Law (New York: Grove Press, 2005), 72
Bob Woodward , State of Denial (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 215
Christine Gray , International Law and the Use of Force (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 13
John Norton Moore , et al., National Security Law (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1990), 154–5
Bob Woodward , State of Denial (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 215
David E. Sanger and Mark Mazzetti , “Analysts Find Israel Struck a Syrian Nuclear Project,” NY Times (Oct. 14, 2007), A1
David E. Sanger , “Bush Administration Releases Images to Bolster Its Claims About Syrian Reactor,” NY Times (April 25, 2008), A5
Loch K. Johnson , “On Drawing a Bright Line for Covert Operations,” 86–2 AJIL (April 1992), 284, 292
Anthony D'Amato , “Editorial Comment,” 84–3 AJIL (July 1990), 705
Lt. Cmdr. Walter L. Jacobsen , “A Juridical Examination of the Israeli Attack on the U.S.S. Liberty ,” 36 Naval L. Rev. (Winter 1986), 1
David C. Walsh , “Friendless Fire,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (June 2003), 58
James Bamford , Body of Secrets (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 187–239
A. Jay Cristol , The Liberty Incident (New York: Brassey's, 2002)

Reference Type: notes

Jean Pictet , ed., Commentary, IV Geneva Convention (Geneva: ICRC, 1958), 51
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 27
Col. G.I.A.D. Draper , “Personnel and Issues of Status,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflicts (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998), 194, 197
Yves Sandoz , Christophe Swinarski , and Bruno Zimmerman , eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols (Geneva: ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1987), 515
Maj. Gen. A.P.V. Rogers , Law on the Battlefield, 2d ed. (Huntington, NY: Juris, 2004), 9
Charles H.B. Garraway , “‘Combatants’ – Substance or Semantics?” in Michael N. Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 317
Dieter Fleck , ed., The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), para. 301, at 67
Marco Sassòli and Laura M. Olson , “The Relationship Between International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law Where it Matters: Admissible Killing and Internment of Fighters in Non-international Armed Conflicts,” 871 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2008), 599, 605–6
Jeffrey Rosen , “The Dissenter,” New York Times Magazine, Sept. 23, 2007, 50
War Department , Rules of Land Warfare – 1914 (Washington: GPO, 1914), para. 60, at 27
H. Lauterpacht , ed., 1946 Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases (London: Butterworth, 1951), 300
MG George S. Prugh , Law at War: Vietnam 1964–1973 (Washington: Dept. of the Army, 1975), 66
Morris Greenspan , The Modern Law of Land Warfare (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), 57
UK Ministry of Defence , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), para. 7.11.1., at 126
Jean Pictet , ed., Commentary, I Geneva Convention (Geneva: ICRC, 1952), 221
David Miller , Mercy Ships (London: Continuum, 2008)
Andrew Scutro , “Mystery medical officer earned a Navy Cross he can't display,” Marine Corps Times, Nov. 10, 2008, 24
L.C. Green , The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 2d ed. (Manchester: Juris/Manchester University Press, 2000), 103
Stanley Weintraub , Silent Night (New York: Free Press, 2001), 21
Charles B. MacDonald , United States Army in World War II: The European Theater of Operations; The Siegfried Line Campaign (Washington: Center of Military History, 2001), 371–2
John Keegan discusses similar nonholiday truces in The Face of Battle (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1988), 239
Cornelius Ryan , A Bridge Too Far (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974), 556–9
Michael R. Gordon and Lt. Gen. Bernard E. Trainor , Cobra II (New York: Pantheon Books, 2006), 405–6
Jean Pictet , Commentary, III Geneva Convention (Geneva: ICRC, 1960), 59
W. Hays Parks , “Air War and the Law of War,” 32–1 Air Force L. R. (1990), 1, 84
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), Rule 106, at 386
Richard Whittle , “A Test, Not a Final Exam,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Feb. 2008), 20, 21
Louise Doswald-Beck , ed., San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 36, para. 142(a)
Ernest C. Brace , A Code to Keep (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988), 261
Stuart I. Rochester and Frederick Kiley , Honor Bound (Washington: Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense, 1998), 58, 64, 253, 283, 450, and 452
Gregory J.W. Urwin , Facing Fearful Odds (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997), 528
Lt. Col. Frank O. Hough , Maj. Verle E. Ludwig , and Henry I. Shaw , History of Marine Corps Operations in World War II, vol. I, Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal (Washington: GPO, 1958), 132–43
Gary R. Baker , Cadets in Gray (Lexington, SC: Palmetto Bookworks, 1990), 134–52
Rod Andrew, Jr., Long Gray Lines: The Southern Military School Tradition, 1839–1915 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2007), 30–1
Major Richard R. Baxter , “So-Called ‘Unprivileged Belligerency’: Spies, Guerrillas, and Saboteurs,” 28 BYIL (1951), 335
Michael Schwirtz and Andrew E. Kramer , “Russian Forces Capture Military Base in Georgia,” NY Times, Aug. 12, 2008, A8
Nicholas Kulish and Michael Schwirtz , “Sons Missing in Action, If Indeed They Found It,” NY Times, Aug. 12, 2008, A10
Michael Schwirtz , “2 Georgians Went to War But Never Got to Fight,” NY Times, Sept. 2, 2008, A8
Cathryn J. Prince , Shot from the Sky: American POWs in Switzerland (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2003), 21–43
Frits Kalshoven , Reflections on the Law of War (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 924
George P. Fletcher and Jens David Ohlen , Defending Humanity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 183
Knut Dörmann , “The Legal Situation of ‘Unlawful/Unprivileged Combatants,’” 849 Int'l Rev. of Red Cross (2003), 45
Georg Schwarzenberger , International Law, vol. II: The Law of Armed Conflict (London: Stevens & Sons, 1968), 116–17
Tim Parks , “The Insurgent,” The New Yorker, July 9 and 16, 2007, 92–7
J.M. Spaight , Air Power and War Rights, 3d ed. (London: Longmans, Green, 1947), 42
Col. E. Gerald Tremblay , “Charles Lindbergh Saved My Life,” Marine Corps Gazette, May 1990, 89–90
Mark M. Boatner , Biographical Dictionary of World War II (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996), 320
Yoram Dinstein , “The Distinction Between Unlawful Combatants and War Criminals,” in Yoram Dinstein , ed., International Law At A Time of Perplexity (Dordrecht: Nijhoff Publishers, 1989), 103, 105
Tamar Meisels , “Combatants – Lawful and Unlawful,” 26–1 L. & Phil. (2007), 31, 55–56
Marcus Luttrell , Lone Survivor (New York: Little, Brown, 2007), 169
Michael J. Dennis , “Current Developments: Newly Adopted Protocols To the Convention on the Rights of the Child,” 94–4 AJIL (Oct. 2000), 789, 792
Victoria Burnett , “Detainees Plotted Bombing in Spain, Judge Says,” NY Times, Jan. 24, 2008, A6
Marco Sassòli , “Terrorism and War, in 4–5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Nov. 2006), 958, 970
Marko Milanovic , “Lessons for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in the War on Terror: Comparing Hamdan and the Israeli Targeted Killing Case,” 866 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (June 2007), 373, 388
Marco Sassòli , “Query: Is There a Status of ‘Unlawful combatant?’” in Richard B. Jaques , ed., International Law Studies: Issues in International Law and Military Operations, vol. 80 (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2006), 57–67, 61
William L. Shirer , The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), 33–4, 42–3
George H. Aldrich , “The Taliban, al Qaeda, and the Determination of Illegal Combatants, 96–4 AJIL (Oct. 2002), 891, 894
Thomas M. Franck , “The Taliban, al Qaeda, and the Determination of Illegal Combatants,” 96–4 AJIL (Oct. 2002), 891, 897
Karen J. Greenberg and Joshua L. Dratel , The Torture Papers (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 38
Jordan J. Paust , Beyond the Law (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 10
Jack Goldsmith , The Terror Presidency (New York: Norton, 2007), 121
John Keegan , War and Our World (New York: Vintage, 1998), 36–7
Derek Jinks , “The Applicability of the Geneva Conventions to the ‘Global War on Terrorism,’” 46–1 Virginia J. of Int'l L. (2006), 1, 15
Douglas J. Feith , War and Decision (New York: Harper, 2008), 160–1
Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez , Wiser in Battle (New York: Harpers, 2008), 144
Hans-Peter Gasser , “Acts of Terror, ‘Terrorism’ and International Humanitarian Law,” 847 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2002), 547, 549–50
Professor George H. Aldrich scolds, “[I have] limited tolerance for any purported legal concept of a war against terrorism or of a ‘global war against terror’…. One can speak of a war only emotively, as when one speaks of a war against crime or a war against drugs.” 100–2 AJIL (April 2006), 496
Wybo P. Heere , ed., Terrorism and the Military (The Hague: Asser Press, 2003), 22
Richard Ashby Wilson , ed., Human Rights in the ‘War on Terror’ (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 164–6
Jelena Pejic writes in, “Terrorist Acts and Groups: A Role for International Law,” 75 BYIL (2004), 71, 88
ICRC , “International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2007), 719, 725
Thomas E. Ricks , Fiasco (New York: Penguin Press, 2006), 116
Kenneth Katzman , Congressional Research Service Report for Congress , “Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks” (12 May 2008), 1
Geoffrey S. Corn , “‘Snipers in the Minaret – What is the Rule?’ The Law of War and the Protection of Cultural Property: A Complex Equation,” The Army Lawyer (July 2005), 28, 29
John Yoo , “Enemy Combatants and the Problem of Judicial Competence,” in Peter Berkowitz , ed., Terrorism, the Laws of War, and the Constitution (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2005), 69, 74
I.P. Trainin , “Questions of Guerrilla Warfare in the Law of War, 40–3 AJIL (July 1946), 534–62, 561–2
David J. Danelski , “The Saboteur's Case,” vol. 1, J. of S. Ct. History (1996), 61
War Department , Rules of Land Warfare – 1914 (Washington: GPO, 1914), para. 71
Sean Taylor , Not A Good Day to Die (New York: Berkley Books, 2005), 9
Michael N. Schmitt , “War, Technology and the Law of Armed Conflict,” in International Law Studies, vol. 82, The Law of War in the 21st Century: Weaponry and the Use of Force (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2006), 151
Donald M. Goldstein , Katherine V. Dillon , and J. Michael Wenger , Nuts!: The Battle of the Bulge (Washington: Brassey's, 1994), 85
W. Hays Parks , “‘Special Forces’ Wear of Non-Standard Uniforms,” 4–2 Chicago J. of Int'l. L. (Fall, 2003), 493, 545 fn. 133
Lowell Thomas , With Lawrence in Arabia (London: Hutchison, 1927)
Gabor Rona , “An Appraisal of US Practice Relating to ‘Enemy Combatants,’” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., Yearbook of I.H.L., vol. 10, 2007 (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2009), 232, 240
Ryan Goodman , “Editorial Comment: The Detention of Civilians in Armed Conflict,” 103–1 AJIL (Jan. 2009), 48, 61
Jack M. Beard , “The Geneva Boomerang: The Military Commissions Act of 2006 and U.S. Counterterror Operations,” 101–1 AJIL (Jan. 2007), 56, 60
Josh White , “Detainees Ruled Enemy Combatants,” NY Times, Aug. 10, 2007, A2
Yoram Dinstein , “Unlawful Combatancy,” in Fred L. Borch and Paul S. Wilson , eds., International Law Studies, vol. 79; International Law and the War on Terror (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2003), 151–74, 164
DoD , Conduct of the Persian Gulf War (Washington: GPO, 1992), App. L, at 578
Army Judge Advocate General's School , Law of War Workshop Deskbook (Charlottesville, VA: JAG School, 1997), at 5F–10–13
John Yoo , War By Other Means (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006), 22
Marco Sassòli , “The Implementation of International Humanitarian Law: Current and Inherent Challenges,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (The Hague: Asser Press, 2009), 45, 51
John C. Dehn , “Why Article 5 Status Determinations are not ‘Required’ at Guantanamo,” 6–2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (May 2008), 371
Howard M. Hensel , ed., The Law of Armed Conflict (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005), 172
J.M. Spaight , Air Power and the Cities (London: Longmans & Green, 1930), 150–2
Conrad C. Crane , Bombs, Cities, and Civilians (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1993), 23
Guénaël Mettraux , International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 159
Marco Sassòli , “The Status of Persons Held in Guantànamo under International Humanitarian Law,” 2–1 J. of Int'l Crim Justice (March 2004), 96, 104
H. Lauterpacht , ed., Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases: Year 1946 (London: Butterworth, 1951), 293
Theodor Meron , The Humanization of International Law (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006), 34–5

Reference Type: notes

U.K. Ministry of Defence (MOD) , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I: Rules (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 3
Yves Sandoz , Christophe Swinarski , and Bruno Zimmermann , eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols (Geneva: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987), 585
Geoffrey Best , “The Restraint of War in Historical and Philosophic Perspective,” in Astrid J.M. Delissen and Gerard J. Tanja , eds., Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict Challenges Ahead (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991), 17
Guénaël Mettraux , International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 120
Capt. M.R.D. Foote , SOE in France (London: HMSO, 1966), 357
Michael R. Gordon and Gen. Bernard E. Trainor , Cobra II (New York: Pantheon, 2006), 208
Lindsay Moir , The Law of Internal Armed Conflict (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 2–3
H.P. Glasser , “Prohibition of Terrorist Acts in International Humanitarian Law,” Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (1986), 200
Christopher Greenwood , “Customary Law Status of the 1977 Geneva Protocols,” in Astrid J.M. Delissen and Gerard J. Tanja , eds., Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict Challenges Ahead (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991), 109
Major Geoffrey Corn , “International and Operational Law Notes; Principle 2: Distinction,” The Army Lawyer (Aug. 1998), 35, 38
Mark Bowden , Black Hawk Down (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999), 217
Lt. Col. Dave Grossman , On Killing (Boston: Little, Brown, 1995), 199
Gwynne Dyer , War (London: Guild Publishing, 1985)
Sean Naylor , Not A Good Day to Die (New York: Berkley Books, 2005), 168
I.C.B. Dear , ed., The Oxford Companion to the Second World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 212
Robert C. Mikesh , Japan's World War II Balloon Bomb Attacks on North America (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972)
Victor Davis Hanson , “The Right Man,” in Robert Cowley , ed., No End Save Victory (New York: Putnam, 2001), 638, 647
Telford Taylor , The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials (New York: Knopf, 1992), 326
Gen. Rupert Smith , The Utility of Force (New York: Knopf, 2007), 142
U.S. Dept. of Defense , Conduct of the Persian Gulf War (Washington: GPO, 1992)
Michael W. Lewis , “The Law of Aerial Bombardment in the 1991 Gulf War,” 97–3 AJIL (July 2003), 481, 502–4
Rick Atkinson , Crusade (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993), 275–7, 285–6
Michael Walzer , Arguing About War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), 61
Burris M. Carnahan , “Lincoln, Lieber and the Laws of War: The Origins and Limits of the Principle of Military Necessity,” 2 AJIL (1998), 213
Frederic de Mulinen , Handbook of the Law of War for Armed Forces (Geneva: ICRC, 1987)
Marco Sassòli , “The Implementation of International Humanitarian Law: Current and Inherent Challenges,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., Y.B. of Int'l Humanitarian L. (The Hague: Asser Press, 2009), 45, 50
Dept. of the Army, Field Manual 27–10 , The Law of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1956)
Geoffrey F.A. Best , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 242
Ian Brownlie , International Law and the Use of Force by States (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963), 42
Alan M. Dershowitz , Shouting Fire (New York: Little, Brown, 2002), 473
Knut Dörmann , Elements of War Crimes Under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Cambridge: ICRC/Cambridge University Press, 2003), 81
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 16–17
Hugo Grotius , De Jure Belli Ac Pacis, vol. two, Francis W. Kelsey , trans. (Buffalo, NY: William Hein reprint, 1995)
M.H. Keen , The Laws of War in the Middle Ages (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965), 159
Frits Kalshoven , Belligerent Reprisals, 2d ed. (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2005), 192–3
David Hapgood and David Richardson , Monte Cassino (New York: Congdon & Weed, 1984), 227
Correlli Barnett , ed., Hitler's Generals (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1989), 248
Maj. Gen. A.V.P. Rogers , Law on the Battlefield, 2d ed. (Manchester: Juris, 2004), 93–4
Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett , A War to Be Won (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000), 383
Lara Marlowe , “French Generals Admit Hand in Algeria Killings,” Irish Times, Nov. 23, 2000, 1
Adam Roberts , “Environmental Issues in International Armed Conflict: The Experiences of the 1991 Gulf War,” 69 Int'l. L. Studies (1996), 222, 247
Judith Gardam , Necessity, Proportionality and the Use of Force by States (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 71–2
Major Geoffrey Corn , “International & Operational Law Note,” The Army Lawyer (July 1998), 73
Telford Taylor , Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1970), 36
Leslie C. Green , The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 2d ed. (Manchester: Manchester/Juris Publishing, 2000), 353
Dieter Fleck , ed., The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 33
Lt. Col. William J. Fenrick , “The Rule of Proportionality and Protocol I in Conventional Warfare,” Military L. Rev. 98 (Fall 1982), 91, 126
Morris Greenspan , The Modern Law of Land Warfare (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), 279
Michael Walzer , Just and Unjust Wars, 3d ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 8
Bernard H. Oxman , “International Decisions,” 91–3 AJIL (July 1997), 518, 529
Jean Pascal Zanders , “International Norms Against Chemical and Biological Warfare: An Ambiguous Legacy,” 8–2 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Oct. 2003), 391, 401
Lassa Oppenheim , ed., The Collected Papers of John Westlake on Public International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1914), 244–6
T.J. Lawrence , The Society of Nations (New York: Oxford University Press, 1919), 104–7
Jesse S. Reeves , “The Neutralization of Belgium and the Doctrine of Kriegsraison,” XIII, No. 3 Michigan L. Rev. (1914–1915), 179–84
William H. Downey , “The Law of War and Military Necessity,” 47–2 AJIL (April 1953), 251, 253
J.H. Morgan , trans., The German War Book (London: John Murray, 1915), 53–5
Louise Doswald-Beck , “International Humanitarian Law and the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons,” 316 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (1997), 33
William Downey , “The Law of War and Military Necessity,” 47 AJIL (1953), 251, 253
Adm. Sir R.H. Bacon , The Life of Lord Fisher of Kilverstone – Admiral of the Fleet, vol. I (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1929), 120–1
Claud Mullins , The Leipzig Trials (London: Witherby, 1921), 123
David M. Fyfe , ed., War Crimes Trials, vol. I – The Peleus Trial (London: William Hodge, 1948), 102
W. Hays Parks , “Special Forces' Wear of Non-Standard Uniforms,” 4–2 Chicago J of Int'l L (Fall 2003), 493, 543
Leslie C. Green , Essays on the Modern Law of War, 2d ed. (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 1999), 330
Henri Meyrowitz , “The Principle of Superfluous Injury or Unnecessary Suffering,” 299 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (March-April 1994), 98, 100–1
Major Geoffrey Corn , “International & Operational Law Note: Principle 4: Preventing Unnecessary Suffering,” The Army Lawyer (Nov. 1998), 50
Antonio Cassese , Violence and Law in the Modern Age, S.J.K. Greenleaves , trans. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988), 15
W. Hays Parks , “Joint Service Combat Shotgun Program,” The Army Lawyer (Oct. 1997), 16, 18
Michael N. Schmitt , “War and the Environment: Fault Lines in the Prescriptive Landscape,” in, Jay E. Austin and Carl E. Bruch , eds., The Environmental Consequences of War: Legal, Economic and Scientific Perspectives (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 101
Geoffrey Best , Humanity in Warfare (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980), 172
Peter George , Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1998), 52
Yoram Dinstein , “Discussion: Reasonable Military Commanders and Reasonable Civilians,” in, Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002), 173, 219
W. Hays Parks , “Air War and the Law of War,” 32–1 Air Force L. Rev. (1990), 1, 173
Robert Cryer , “Of Custom, Treaties, Scholars and the Gavel: The Influence of the International Criminal Tribunals on the ICRC Customary Law Study,” 11–2 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Summer 2006), 239–63, 259–60
Lt. Col. William J. Fenrick , Canadian Forces , “The Rule of Proportionality and Protocol I in Conventional Warfare,” 98 Military L. Rev. (Fall 1982), 91–127, 102
Oliver O'Donovan , The Just War Revisited (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 62
Col. Frederic L. Borch , “Targeting After Kosovo,” Naval War College Rev. (Spring 2003), 64, 67
Douglas J. Feith , War and Decision (New York: Harper, 2008), 96
Judith Gail Gardam , “Proportionality and Force in International Law,” 87–3 AJIL (July 1993), 391, 407
Sahr Conway-Lanz , Collateral Damage (New York: Routledge, 2006), 221
William Safire , Safire's New Political Dictionary (New York: Random House, 1993), 682–3
Carlotta Gall , “U.S. Killed 90 in Afghan Village, Including 60 Children, U.N. Finds,” NY Times, Aug. 27, 2008, A5
Eric Schmitt , “U.S. Officials Describe Afghan Airstrike,” NY Times, Aug. 28, 2008, A9
D. Clayton James , The Years of MacArthur: Triumph and Disaster 1945–1964, vol. 3 (Wilmington, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1970), 635
U.S. Army/Marine Corps , Counterinsurgency Field Manual (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
Robin Geiß , “Asymmetric Conflict Structures,” 864 Int'l Rev. of Red Cross (Dec. 2006), 757, 766
Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez , Wiser in Battle (New York: Harper, 2008), 333
Elizabeth Rubin , “Battle Company Is Out There,” NY Times Magazine, Feb. 24, 2008, 41
A.V.P. Rogers , “Zero-Casualty Warfare,” 837 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (March 2000), 165, 169
Cmdr. Jan C. Jacobs , “U.S. Naval Aviation and Weapon Development in Review,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (May 2008), 68, 74
Howard S. Levie , The Code of International Armed Conflict, vol. 1 (New York: Oceana Publications, 1986), 85
Bob Drogin , “German Spies Aided U.S. Attempt To Kill Hussein In Aerial Attack,” L.A. Times, Jan. 12, 2006, A1
Omar N. Bradley , A Soldier's Story (New York: Henry Holt, 1951), 345–6
Russell F. Weigley , Eisenhower's Lieutenants (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981), 164
Martin Blumenson , The Battle of the Generals (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1993), 134–41
A. J. Coates , The Ethics of War (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997), 209–10
Heike Krieger , “A Conflict of Norms: The Relationship Between Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law in the ICRC Customary Law Study,” 11–2 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Summer 2006), 265, 280–1
Jelena Pejic , “Terrorist Acts and Groups: A Role for International Law,” 75 BYIL (2004), 71, 88
Seymour M. Hersh , “Overwhelming Force,” The New Yorker, May 22, 2000, 62–3
24th Mechanized Infantry Division Combat Team , Historical Reference Book: A Collection of Historical Letters, Briefings, Orders, and Other Miscellaneous Documents Pertaining to the Defense of Saudi Arabia and the Attack to Free Kuwait (Fort Stewart, GA, 1991), vol. 1
Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez , Wiser in Battle (New York: Harper, 2008), 80
Major Jason K. Kamiya , A History of the 24th Mechanized Infantry Division Combat Team During Operation Desert Storm (Fort Stewart, GA, 1991), 37
Yoram Dinstein , “Legitimate Military Objectives Under The Current Jus In Bello,” in Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002), at 153
M. Cherif Bassiouni , The Legislative History of the International Criminal Court, vol. 1 (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2005), 4
John W. Chambers II, et al., eds., The Oxford Companion to American Military History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 93–4
Donald Goldstein , Katherine Dillon , and J. Michael Wenger , Nuts! The Battle of the Bulge (Washington: Brassey's, 1994), 113–14
Dept. of Defense, Joint Publication 1–02 , Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Washington: GPO, 2001, amended through 17 Oct. 2008)
Carl von Clausewitz , On War, Michael Howard and Peter Paret , eds. and trans. (New York: Knopf, Everyman's Library, 1993), 111
W. Hays Parks , “Special Forces' Wear of Non-Standard Uniforms,” 4–2 Chicago J. of Int'l L. (Fall 2003), 493
Lt. Col. Michael D. Grice , “Force Protection and the Death of Common Sense,” Marine Corps Gazette (Aug. 2009), 8
Adam Roberts , “The Equal Application of the Laws of War: A Principle under Pressure,” 872 Int'l. Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2008), 931, 959
Thomas M. Franck , “On Proportionality of Countermeasures in International Law,” 102–4 AJIL (Oct. 2008), 715, 765
Paul Fussell , Thank God for the Atom Bomb and Other Essays (New York: Summit Books, 1988), 14–15

Reference Type: notes

United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC) , History of the United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Development of the Laws of War (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1948), 24
FM 27–10 , The Law of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1956)
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 229
UK Ministry of Defence , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. II, Practice, Part 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
John B. Bellinger III and William J. Haynes II, “A US Government Response to the International Committee of the Red Cross Study Customary International Humanitarian Law,” 866 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (June 2007), 443, 467
Antonio Cassese , “The Italian Court of Cassation Misapprehends the Notion of War Crimes,” 6–3 J. of Int'l. Crim. Justice (Nov. 2008), 1077
Antonio Cassese , ed., The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 522
Theodor Meron , “International Criminalization of Internal Atrocities,” 89–3 AJIL (July 1995), 554, 570–1
UNWCC , Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, vol. XIII (London: H.M. Stationary Office, 1949), 146–8
Leon Freidman , ed., The Law of War: A Documentary History (New York: Random House, 1972), 1029–183, 1088
Chester Hearn , Sorties into Hell (Westport, CN: Praeger, 2003), 181–92
ICRC , “International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2007), 719, 742
Jean S. Pictet , Commentary: I Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field (Geneva: ICRC, 1952), 362
Jean de Preux , Commentary: III Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Geneva: ICRC, 1960), 623
Eve La Haye , War Crimes in Internal Armed Conflicts (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 229
Sonja Boelaert-Suominen , “Grave Breaches, Universal Jurisdiction and Internal Armed Conflict: Is Customary Law Moving Towards A Uniform Enforcement Mechanism for All Armed Conflicts?” 5–1 J. Conflict & Security L. (June 2000), 63, 71–2
Jaques Verhaegen , “Legal Obstacles to Prosecution of Breaches of Humanitarian Law,” 261 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Nov.–Dec. 1987), 607
Luc Reydams , Universal Jurisdiction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 157, 191, 201
Commentator , “The Spanish Indictment of High-ranking Rwandan Officials,” 6–5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Nov. 2008), 1003, 1006
Louise Arbour , “Will the ICC Have an Impact on Universal Jurisdiction,” 1–3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Dec. 2003), 585–8
Brigadier General Kenneth Watkin , “21st Century Conflict and International Humanitarian Law: Status Quo or Change?” in Michael N. Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 264–96, 283
Guénaël Mettraux , International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 38
Knut Dörmann , Elements of War Crimes (Cambridge: ICRC/Cambridge University Press, 2003), 27
N. War Crimes Commission , LRTWC, vol. I (London: UN War Crimes Comm., 1947), 93, 103
Lindsay Moir , The Law of Internal Armed Conflict (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 52–8
Liesbeth Zegveld , The Accountability of Armed Opposition Groups in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 14–26
Kelly D. Askin , “A Decade of the Development of Gender Crimes in International Courts and Tribunals: 1993 to 2003,” 11–3 Human Rights Brief 16 (American U. Washington College of L., Spring 2004)
William A. Schabas , An Introduction to the International Criminal Court (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 43
Wolfgang Schomburg and Ines Peterson , “Genuine Consent to Sexual Violence Under International Criminal Law,” 101–1 AJIL (Jan. 2007), 121, 122
Theodor Meron , “Rape as a Crime Under International Humanitarian Law,” 87–3 AJIL (July 1993), 424–8, 425
J. Robert Lilly , Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe During World War II (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)
Angela J. Edman , “Crimes of Sexual Violence in the War Crimes Chamber of the State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Successes and Challenges,” 16–1 Human Rights Brief 21 (American U. Washington College of L., Spring 2004)
Neha Jain , “Forced Marriage as a Crime Against Humanity,” 6–5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Nov. 2008), 1013
David J. Bederman , ed., “International Decisions,” 103–1 AJIL (Jan. 2009), 97, 103
Jean S. Pictet , Commentary: III Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Geneva: ICRC, 1960), 361
John H. Moore , The Faustball Tunnel (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1978)
Dept. of the Army Pamphlet 20–213 , History of Prisoner of War Utilization by the United States Army 1776–1945 (Washington: GPO, 1955), 91
Dept. of the Army Pamphlet 27–161–2 , International Law, vol. II (Washington: GPO, Oct. 1962), 90–1
Aidan Crawley , Escape From Germany (London: Collins, 1956)
Christopher Mann , “Combined Operations, the Commandos, and Norway, 1941–1944,” 73–2 J. of Military History (April 2009), 471, 483–7
British Military Court , LRTWC, vol. IV (London: UN War Crimes Comm., 1949), 113, 117
Dexter Filkins , “My Long War,” NY Times Magazine, Aug. 24, 2008, 36–43
Geoffery S., Corn , “‘Snipers in the Minaret – What Is the Rule?’ The Law of War and the Protection of Cultural Property: A Complex Equation,” The Army Lawyer (July 2005), 128, 36
Major Ronald M. Riggs , “The Grenada Intervention: A Legal Analysis,” 109 Military L. Rev. (1985), 1
B. Drummond Ayres Jr., “U.S. Concedes Bombing Hospital in Grenada, Killing at Least 12,” NY Times Nov. 1, 1983, A16
Jean S. Pictet , Commentary: IV Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Geneva: ICRC, 1958), 229
Thomas E. Ricks , “U.S. Adopts Aggressive Tactics on Iraqi Fighters,” Washington Post, July 28, 2003, A1
Eric Schmitt , “Finding Hussein Took Skill And Plenty of Legwork,” NY Times, Dec. 16, 2003, A18
Nancy A. Youssef , “U.S. Has Detained Women In Iraq As Leverage,” Miami Herald, Jan. 28, 2006, 1
Anthony Shadid , “U.S. Detains Relatives of Suspects in Iraq Attacks,” Washington Post, Nov. 6, 2008, A21
W. Hays Parks , “Righting the Rules of Engagement,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (May 1989), 83, 92
Jean-François Quéguiner , “Precautions Under the Law Governing the Conduct of Hostilities,” 864 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2006), 793, 812
Stéphanie Bouchié de Belle , “Chained to Cannons or Wearing Targets on Their T-Shirts: Human, Shields in IHL,” 872 Intl Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2008), 883
Hays Parks , “Air War and the Law of War,” 32–1 AFLR (1990), 1, 174
Enzo Cannnizzaro , “Contextualizing Proportionality: Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello in the Lebanese War,” 864 Int'l Rev. of Red Cross (Dec. 2006), 779, 789–90
Steven Erlanger , “With Israeli Use of Force, Debate Over Proportion,” NY Times, July 19, 2006, A1
Warren Hoge , “Attacks Qualify as War Crimes, Officials Say,” NY Times, July 20, 2006, A11
John Kifner , “Human Rights Group Accuses Israel of War Crimes in Lebanon, NY Times, Aug. 24, 2006, A6
Paul von Zielbauer , “U.S. Investigates Civilian Toll in Airstrike, but Holds Insurgents Responsible,” NY Times, Oct. 13, 2007, A5
Carlotta Gall , “British Criticize U.S. Air Attacks in Afghan Region,” NY Times, Aug. 9, 2007, A1
Hugo Grotius , The Law of War and Peace (Buffalo, NY: Hein reprint of Kelsey translation, 1995)
Chuck Neubauer , “Soldiers Rebuked In Corpse Burning,” LA Times, Nov. 27, 2005, A1
Julia Preston , “Officials See Risk in the Release of Photos and Videos of Iraqi Prisoners,” NY Times, Aug. 12, 2005, A12
Jack M. Beard , “The Geneva Boomerang: The Military Commissions Act of 2006 and U.S. Counterterror Operations,” 101–1 AJIL (Jan. 2007), 56–73, 68
Maj. Marie Anderson and Emily Zukauskas , eds., Operational Law Handbook, 2008 (Charlottesville: Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School, 2008), 189
Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez , Wiser in Battle (New York: Harpers, 2008), 299
Barton Gellman , “Reaction to Tactic They Invented Baffles 1st Division Members,” Washington Post, Sept. 13, 1991, A21
Harry Summers , “Bambifying War,” Washington Times, Sept. 19, 1991, G1
Billy Cox , “The Spoils of War,” Marine Corps Times, July 7, 2008, 14, 15
Stephen E. Ambrose , Band of Brothers (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992), 268
E.B. Sledge , With the Old Breed (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1981), 34, 118, 148
Lt. Col. Dave Grossman , On Killing (New York: Little, Brown, 1995), 175–6
John Keegan , The Face of Battle (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1988), 93, 175
Ann Scott Tyson , “A Deadly Clash at Donkey Island,” Washington Post, Aug. 19, 2007, A1
Jean-René Bachelet , “Address by General Jean-René Bachelet,” 870 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (June 2008), 215, 217
Nathaniel Fick , One Bullet Away (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2006), 253
Th.A. van Baarda and D.E.M. Verweij , Military Ethics: The Dutch Approach (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006), 12
David Zucchino , Thunder Run (New York: Grove Press, 2004), 32
MGen. George S. Prugh , Law at War: Vietnam 1964–1973 (Washington: Dept of the Army, 1975), 74
Lt. Gen. W.R. Peers , The My Lai Inquiry (New York: Norton, 1979), 230
U.N. War Crimes Commission , LRTWC, vol. I (London: UN War Crimes Comm., 1947), 93–103
Jordan J. Paust , Beyond the Law (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 32
H. Lauterpacht , ed., Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases: Year 1946 (London: Butterworth (1951), 291

Reference Type: notes

Michael Walzer , Just and Unjust Wars, 3d ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 311
Theodor Meron , “Leaders, Courtiers and Command Responsibility in Shakespeare,” in Michael Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 403–11
Hugo Grotius , De Jure Belli ac Pacis Libri Tres, Francis W. Kelsey , trans. (New York: Hein reprint, 1995)
Hersch Lauterpacht , “The Law of Nations and the Punishment of War Crimes,” 21 British Yearbook of Int'l L. (1944), 58, 73
Col. William Winthrop , Military Law and Precedents, 2d ed. (Washington: GPO, 1920)
Department of the Army , FM 27–10, The Law of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1956)
Alan M. Wilner , “Superior Orders As A Defense to Violations of International Criminal Law,” 26 Maryland Law Review (1966), 127, 130
Kit Denton , Closed File (Adelaide: Rigby Publishers, 1983)
Guénaël Mettraux , “US Courts-Martial and the Armed Conflict in the Philippines (1899–1902): Their Contribution to National Case Law on War Crimes,” 1–1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (April 2003), 134–50
Lassa F. L. Oppenheim , International Law, vol. II, 1st ed. (London: Longmans Green, 1906), 264–5
Donald A. Wells , The Laws of Land Warfare: A Guide to the U.S. Army Manuals (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 5
J.W. Garner , “Punishment of Defenders Against the Laws and Customs of War,” 14 AJIL (1920), 95, 117
William Winthrop , Military Law and Precedents (Washington: GPO, 1920), 296–7
Ian Brownlie , International Law and the Use of Force By States (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963), 150–2
Hans Kelsen , “Collective and Individual Responsibility in International Law With Particular Regard to the Punishment of War Criminals,” 31 Cal. L. Rev. (1943), 530
Hersch Lauterpacht , ed., Disputes, War and Neutrality, 6th ed., rev. (London: Longmans Green, 1944)
Col. J.E. Edmonds and L. Oppenheim , Land Warfare. An Exposition of the Laws and Usages of War on Land for the Guidance of Officers of His Majesty's Army, ed. of 1929 (London: HMSO, 1912), Ch. X, para. 443, at 95
Hersch Lauterpacht , ed., Disputes, War and Neutrality, 6th ed. (London: Longmans Green, 1940), 264–5
Martti Koskenniemi , “Hersch Lauterpacht and the Development of International Criminal Law,” 2–3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Sept. 2004), 810–25, 816–17
Mark P. Osiel , Obeying Orders (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 278
Department of the Army , FM 27–10, Field Manual: Rules of Land Warfare, Change No. 1, 15 Nov. 1944 (Washington: GPO, 1944), para. 345(1)
Morris Greenspan , The Modern Law of Land Warfare (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), 491
U.N. War Crimes Commission , History of the United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Development of the Laws of War (London: HMSO, 1948), 288
Alfred M. deZayas , The Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau, 1939–1945 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989), 10, 18, 20–1, 86
Clay Blair, Jr., Silent Victory (New York: Lippincott, 1987), 384
Richard H. O'Kane , Wahoo (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1987), 153–4
Samuel Eliot Morison , History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, vol. V (Boston: Little, Brown, 1966), 256
Williamson Murray , “The Meaning of World War II,” 8 Joint Forces Quarterly (Summer 1995), 50, 54
B.V.A. Röling , “Introduction” to C. Hosoya , N. Andō , Y. Ōnuma , and R. Minear , eds., The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: An International Symposium (New York: Harper & Row, 1986)
Col. William G. Eckhardt , “Command Criminal Responsibility: A Plea For A Workable Standard,” 97 Military L. Rev. 1 (1982)
BGen. Telford Taylor , Final Report to the Secretary of the Army on the Nuernberg War Crimes Trials Under Control Council Law No. 10 (Washington: GPO, 1949), 1
U.N ., The Charter and Judgment of the Nurnberg Tribunal: History and Analysis (New York: UNGA, 1949), 39
Geoffrey Best , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 190
Steven R. Ratner and Jason S. Abrams , Accountability For Human Rights Atrocities In International Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), 6
Robert Cryer , “The Boundaries of Liability in International Criminal Law, or ‘Selectivity by Stealth,’” 6–1 Conflict & Security L. (June 2001), 3–31, 12
Hans-Heinrich Jescheck , “The General Principles of International Criminal Law Set Out in Nuremberg, as Mirrored in the ICC Statute,” 2–1 Journal of Int'l Crim. Justice (March 2004), 38–55, 46
Hilaire McCoubrey , International Humanitarian Law: The Regulation of Armed Conflicts (Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing, 1990), 221
Telford Taylor , The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trial (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1992), 275
Col. Charles Garraway , “Superior Orders and the International Criminal Court: Justice Delivered or Justice Denied,” 836 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 1999), 785
Nico Keijzer , Military Obedience (The Netherlands: Sijthoff, 1978), 212
William Winthrop , Military Law and Precedents (Washington: GPO, 1886), 296–7
Jackson N. Maogoto , “The Superior Orders Defense: A Game of Musical Chairs and the Jury is Still Out,” 10 Flinders J. of L. Reform (2007), 1–26, 6–7
Lt. Gen. W.R. Peers , The My Lai Inquiry (New York: Norton, 1979), 33
Col. G.I.A.D. Draper , “Rules Governing the Conduct of Hostilities – the Laws of War and Their Enforcement,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds. Reflections on Law and Armed Conflicts (The Hague: Kluwer Law, 1998), 87–93, 92
Antonio Cassese , “The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Some Preliminary Reflections,” 10–1 European J. of Int'l L. (1999), 144–71, 157
Col. Howard S. Levie , “The Rise and Fall of an Internationally Codified Denial of the Defense of Superior Orders,” 30 Mil. L. & L. of War Rev. (1991), 204
William A. Schabas , The UN International Criminal Tribunals (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 330–1
Charles Trueheart , “Balkan War Crimes Court Imposes First Sentence,” The Washington Post, Nov. 30, 1996, A31
Charles Trueheart , “Croat, 2 Bosnian Muslims Convicted of Atrocities Against Serbs,” The Washington Post, Nov. 17, 1998, A34
Steven Erlanger , “Bosnian Serb General Is Arrested By Allied Force in Genocide Case,” The Washington Post, Dec. 3, 1998, A1
Frits Kalshoven , “The Conference of Government Experts on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts (Second Session), 3 May – 2 June, 1972,” in Reflections on the Law of War: Collected Essays (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 57–99, 88
Jan Willem Honig and Norbert Both , Srebrenica (New York: Penguin, 1997)
Aaron Fichtelberg , “Liberal Values in International Criminal Law: A Critique of Erdemović,” 6–1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (March 2008), 3–19
Illan Rua Wall , “Duress, International Criminal Law and Literature, 4–4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Sept. 2006), 724–44
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (New York: Cambridge, 2004), 247–8
Antonio Cassese , International Criminal Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 34
Kriangsak Kittichaisaree , International Criminal Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 264

Reference Type: notes

Kriangsak Kittichaisaree , International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 241
Chantal Meloni , “Command Responsibility,” 5–3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice, (July 2007), 619, 628
Leslie C. Green , Essays on the Modern Law of War, 2d ed. (Ardsley, New York: Transnational, 1999), 283
Geoffrey Best , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 190
George L. Coil , “War Crimes in the American Revolution,” 82 Mil. L. Rev. (1978), 171, 197
Col. William Winthrop , Military Law and Precedents, 2d ed. (Washington: GPO, 1920), 297
Claude Mullins , The Leipzig Trials (London: H.F. & G. Witherby, 1921), 151
George G. Battle , “The Trials Before the Leipzig Supreme Court of Germans Accused of War Crimes,” 8 Va. L. Rev. (1921), 1, 11
Col. Howard S. Levie , “Command Responsibility,” 8 USAF Academy J. of Legal Studies (1997–1998), 1, 3
Maj. Bruce D. Landrum , “The Yamashita War Crimes Trial: Command Responsibility Then and Now,” 149 Mil. L. Rev. (1995), 293, 295
Maj. William H. Parks , “Command Responsibility for War Crimes,” 62 Military L. Rev. (1973), 1, 30
Lt. Cmdr. Weston D. Burnett , “Command Responsibility and a Case Study of the Criminal Responsibility of Israeli Military Commanders for the Pogrom at Shatila and Sabra,” 107 Mil. L. Rev. (1985), 71, 88
Capt. Jordan J. Paust , “My Lai and Vietnam: Norms, Myths and Leader Responsibility,” 57 Military L. Rev. (1972), 99, 181
Colonel Frederick Bernays Wiener , “Comment, The Years of MacArthur, volume III: MacArthur Unjustifiably Accused of Meting Out ‘Victor's Justice’ in War Crimes Cases,” 113 Military L. Rev. (1986), 203, 206
Gen. of the Army Douglas MacArthur , Reminiscences (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964), 298
Aubrey M. Daniel III, “The Defense of Superior Orders, 7–3 U. Rich. L. Rev. (Spring 1973), 477, 498–9
Frank J. Price , Troy H. Middleton: A Biography (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, 1974), 168–71
Ladislas Farago , Patton: Ordeal and Triumph (New York: Obolensky, 1964), 415
James J. Weingartner , “Massacre at Biscari: Patton and an American War Crime,” vol. LII, No. 1, The Historian, (Nov. 1989), 24, 29
L.C. Green , Superior Orders in National and International Law (Leyden: Sijthoff, 1976), 131
Martin Blumenson , Patton Papers, 1940–1945 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972), 431
Dwight D. Eisenhower , Crusade in Europe (New York: Doubleday, 1948), 225
U.K. Ministry of Defense , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Michael Walzer , Just and Unjust Wars, 3d ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 310
Michael R. Belknap , The Vietnam War on Trial (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press), 2002, 68
Mary McCarthy , Medina (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972), 6–7
Emily Langston , “The Superior Responsibility Doctrine in International Law: Historical Continuities, Innovation and Criminality: Can East Timor's Special Panels Bring Militia Leaders to Justice?” 4–2 Int'l Crim. L. Rev. (2004), 141, 157
Col. William G. Eckhardt , “Command Criminal Responsibility: A Plea For A Workable Standard,” 97 Military L. Rev. (1982), 10, 18
L.C. Green , Essays on the Law of War, 2d ed. (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 1999), 301
Richard L. Lael , The Yamashita Precedent (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1982), 132
R.S. Clark , “Medina: An Essay on the Principles of Criminal Liability for Homicide,” 5 Rutgers-Camden L. J. (1975), 59, 72
Maj. Michael L. Smidt , “Yamashita, Medina, and Beyond: Command Responsibility in Contemporary Military Operations,” 164 Military L. Rev. (June 2000), 155, 199
Lt. Gen. W.R. Peers , The My Lai Inquiry (New York: Norton, 1979), 214, 227
U.S. Military Commission, Manila, IV LRTWC 1 (London: U.N. War Crimes Commission, 1947), at 86
U.N. War Crimes Commission , Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, vol. V, Trial of Lieutenant-General Shigeru Sawada and Three Others (London: U.N. War Crimes Commission, 1948), 1
Herbert C. Kelman and V. Lee Hamilton , Crimes of Obedience (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), 209
Neil Boister and Robert Cryer , The Tokyo International Military Tribunal: A Reappraisal (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 304
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 238
Samuel P. Huntington , The Soldier and the State (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1957), 73
Ilene R. Prusher , “Soldiers' Refusal to Heed West Bank Evacuation Orders Roils Israel,” The Christian Science Monitor, Aug. 8, 2007, 1
Haim Watzman , “At War With Themselves,” NY Times, May 20, 2005, A25
Paul Christopher , The Ethics of War & Peace, 2d ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999), 143
Erwin Rommel , B.H. Liddell Hart , ed., The Rommel Papers (London: Collins, 1953), 321
Martin van Creveld , The Transformation of War (New York: Free Press, 1991), 89
Mark J. Osiel , Obeying Orders (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1999), 313
Guenter Lewy , “Superior Orders, Nuclear Warfare, and Conscience,” in Richard Wasserstrom , ed., War and Morality (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1970), 124
Nico Keījzer , Military Obedience (The Netherlands: Sijthoff & Noordhoff, 1978), 279
Yves Sandoz , Christophe Swinarski , and Bruno Zimmerman , eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols (Geneva: ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1987), 1007
Arthur T. O'Reilly , “Command Responsibility: A Call to Realign Doctrine with Principles,” 20–1 Am. U. Int'l L. Rev. (2004), 71, 80
William A. Schabas , An Introduction to the International Criminal Court (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 85
Guénaël Mettraux , International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 298–310
Suzannah Linton , “New Approaches to International Justice in Cambodia and East Timor,” 845 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (2002), 93–119
Antonio Cassese , International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 206–7
Telford Taylor , The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1992), 239
Beatrice I. Bonafé , “Finding a Proper Role for Command Responsibility,” 5–3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (July 2007), 599, 606
Helen Brady and Barbara Goy , “Current Developments in the Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunals,” 6–3 J. of Int'l. Crim. Justice (1998) 569, 576
A. Frank Reel , The Case of General Yamashita (New York: Octagon Books, 1971), 247
Jenny S. Martinez , “Understanding Mens Rea in Command Responsibility, 5–3 J. of Int'l Criminal Justice (July 2007), 638–57
Tim Golden , “Years After 2 Afghans Died, Abuse Case Falters,” NY Times, Feb. 13, 2006, A1
Eric Schmitt , “Pentagon Study Describes Abuse by Special Units,” NY Times, June 17, 2006, A1
Marlise Simons , “Trial Reopens Pain of 1995 Bosnian Massacre,” NY Times, Nov. 7, 2000, A3

Reference Type: notes

Leslie C. Green , The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 2d ed. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), 22
Karl E. Meyer and Sharen B. Brysac , Kingmakers: The Invention of the Modern Middle East (New York: W.W. Norton, 2008), 39
Pietro Verri , Dictionary of the International Law of Armed Conflict (Geneva: ICRC, 1992), 84
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 198
U.K. Ministry of Defense (MOD) , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Yves Sandoz , Christophe Swinarski , and Bruno Zimmermann , eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols (Geneva: ICRC, 1987), 435
Frits Kalshoven , Constraints on the Waging of War (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1987), 82
Geoffrey Best , War and Law Since 1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 288
Roy Gutman and David Rieff , eds., Crimes of War (New York: Norton, 1999), 271
Dept. of the Army, FM 27–10 , The Law of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1956)
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), Rule 65, 221–3
Maj. John C. Dehn , “Permissible Perfidy,” 6–4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Sept. 2008), 627, 651
Max Hastings and Simon Jenkins , The Battle for the Falklands (New York: Norton, 1983), 247
Dieter Fleck , ed., The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995)
Leslie C. Green , Essays on the Modern Law of War, 2d ed. (New York: Transnational, 1999), 589
William R. Trotter , The Winter War: The Russo-Finnish War of 1939–40 (London: Aurum, 1991), 68
Pietro Verri , Dictionary of the International Law of Armed Conflict (Geneva: ICRC, 1992), 27
Callum MacDonald , The Killing of SS Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich (New York: Free Press, 1989)
Charles Wighton , Hitler's Most Evil Henchman (London: Odhams Press, 1962)
Gen. Sir Peter de la Billière , Storm Command (New York: Harper Collins, 1993), 250
Dept. of Defense , Conduct of the Persian Gulf War (Washington: GPO, 1992)
Col. Fred L. Borch and Robert F. Dorr , “Ambush in Oregon,” Army Times, Oct. 8, 2007, 45
Carol Chomsky , “The United States-Dakota War Trials: A Study in Military Justice,” 43 Stanford L. Rev. (1990), 13
Lassa Oppenheim and Hersch Lauterpacht , International Law, vol. II, Disputes, War and Neutrality (London: Longmans, Green, 1944)
A.V.P. Rogers , Law on the Battlefield, 2d ed. (Manchester: Juris Publishing, 2004), 37
Victor Hugo , Les Misérables, Norman Denny , trans. (London: Penguin Classics, 1982), 292
Brig. Desmond Young , Rommel, The Desert Fox (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950), 175
Carlo D'Este , Patton: A Genius for War (New York: Harper Collins, 1995), 593
General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower , Crusade in Europe (New York: Doubleday, 1948), 288
Morris Greenspan , The Modern Law of Land Warfare (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), 320
Col. Gary J. Ohls , “Eastern Exit: Rescue ‘From the Sea’,” 61–4 Naval War College Rev. (Autumn 2008), 125, 127–8
Knut Dörmann , Elements of War Crimes (Cambridge: ICRC/Cambridge University Press, 2003), 16
Dept. of the Navy , U.S. Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (NWP 1–14M) (Washington: GPO, 1995), at 12–1
A.R. Thomas and J.C. Duncan , eds., Annotated Supplement to the Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1999), 511
Marlise Simons , “Officers Say Bosnian Massacre Was Deliberate,” NY Times, Oct. 12, 2003, A10
Nicholas Wood , “Bosnian Serbs Admit Responsibility for the Massacre of 7,000,” NY Times, June 12, 2004, A2
Donald M. Goldstein , Katherine V. Dillon , and J. Michael Wenger , Nuts!: The Battle of the Bulge (Washington: Brassey's, 1994), 85
W. Hays Parks , “‘Special Forces’ Wear of Non-Standard Uniforms,” 4–2 Chicago J. of Int'l L. (Fall, 2003), 545–6

Reference Type: notes

Alan M. Dershowitz , Why Terrorism Works (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002), 137
Will Lester , “Poll Finds Support For Use of Torture In War on Terror,” Washington Times, Dec. 7, 2005, 14
John G. Roos , “Editorial: Torture and Terrorists,” Armed Forces J. (May 2005), 4
Richard A. Posner , Not A Suicide Pact: The Constitution in A Time of National Emergency (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 38
Deborah Solomon , “Questions for Trent Lott: All's Fair,” NY Times Sunday Magazine, June 20, 2004, 15
David Luban , “Liberalism, Torture, and the Ticking Bomb,” 91 Va. L. Rev. (2005), 1425, 1426
Pamela Constable , “Torture's Echoes,” Washington Post, July 17, 2005, B3
Dan Eggen , “Bush Approved Meetings on Interrogation Techniques,” Washington Post, April 12, 2008, A3
Sheryl G. Stolberg , “Bush Defends Interrogations, Saying Methods Aren't Torture,” NY Times, Oct. 6, 2007, A1
Joby Warrick , “Top Officials Knew in 2002 of Harsh Interrogations,” Washington Post, Sept. 25, 2008, A7
Joby Warrick , “CIA Tactics Endorsed in Secret Memos,” Washington Post, Oct. 15, 2008 A1
Sarah Williams and Lena Sherif , “The Arrest Warrant for President Al-Bashir: Immunities of Incumbent Heads of States,” 14-1 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Spring 2009), 71–92
Marlise Simons , “Spanish Court Weighs Criminal Inquiry on Torture for 6 Bush-Era Officials, NY Times, March 29, 2009, A6
W. Michael Reisman , “Editorial Comment: Holding the Center of the Law of Armed Conflict,” 100–4 AJIL (Oct. 2006), 852, 854
Jamie Allan Williamson , “Some Considerations on Command Responsibility and Criminal Liability,” 870 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (June 2008), 303, 312–13
Alistair Horne , A Savage War of Peace (New York: New York Review of Books, 1977), 195
James Ross , “A History of Torture,” in Kenneth Roth , Minky Worden , and Amy Bernstein , eds., Torture (New York: The New Press, 2005), 10
John H. Langbein , “The Legal History of Torture,” in Sanford Levinson , ed., Torture: A Collection (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 93–103, 95
Alice Edwards , “The Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture and the Detention of Refugees,” 57–4 Int'l and Comp. L. Quarterly (2008), 789–825
Christoph Burchard , “Torture in the Jurisprudence of the Ad Hoc Tribunals,” in 6–2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice, (May 2008), 159–182, at 162
Barbara Crossette , “U.S. Fails in Effort to Block Vote On U.N. Convention on Torture,” NY Times, July 25, 2002, A5
John R. Crook , ed., “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law,” 103–1 AJIL (Jan. 2009), 132, 166
Jaykumar A. Menon , “Guantánamo Torture Litigation,” 6–2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (May 2008), 323–45, 42
James B. Stockdale and Sybil Stockdale , In Love and War (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1990), 170–2
Lt. Cmdr. John M. McGrath , Prisoner of War: Six Years in Hanoi (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1975), 78–9
Nigel S. Rodley , The Treatment of Prisoners Under International Law, 2d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 75
Kriangsak Kittichaisaree , International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 111
Jean S. Pictet , ed., Commentary, IV Geneva Convention (Geneva: ICRC, 1958), 39
Hernán Reyes , “The Worst Scars Are in the Mind: Psychological Torture,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, (Sept. 2007), 591, 615
Toni Pfanner , “Editorial,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2007), 502
Karen J. Greenberg and Joshua L. Dratel , The Torture Papers (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 172
Jack Goldsmith , The Terror Presidency (New York: Norton, 2007), 165
John Yoo , War by Other Means (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006), 169, 171–2
Dan Eggen and Josh White , “Memo: Laws Didn't Apply to Interrogators,” Washington Post, April 2, 2008, A1
Mark Mazzetti , “'03 U.S. Memo Approved Harsh Interrogations,” NY Times, April 2, 2008, A1
John R. Crook , ed., “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law,” 99–2 AJIL (April 2005), 479
Ruth Wedgwood and R. James Woolsey , “Law and Torture,” Wall Street Journal, June 28, 2004, 10
Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez , Wiser in Battle (New York: Harper Collins, 2008), 150
Florian Jessberger , “Bad Torture – Good Torture?” 3–5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Nov. 2005), 1059
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), Rule 90, at 315
Cordula Droege , “‘In Truth the Leitmotiv’: The Prohibition of Torture and Other Forms of Ill-Treatment in International Humanitarian Law,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2007), 515, 525–6
Knut Dörmann , Elements of War Crimes Under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Guénaël Mettraux , “Dutch Courts' Universal Jurisdiction over Violations of Common Article 3 qua War Crimes,” 4–2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (May 2006), 362
Ward Ferdinandusse , “On the Question of Dutch Courts' Universal Jurisdiction,” 4–4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Sept. 2006), 881
Guénaël Mettraux , International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 116
Randy Borum , “Approaching Truth: Behavioral Science Lessons on Educing Information from Human Sources,” in Educing Information: Interrogation: Science and Art (Washington: Nat'l Defense Intelligence College, 2006), 17, 18
Keith William Nolan , Death Valley (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1987), 60
Dexter Filkins , “General Says Less Coercion of Captives Yields Better Data,” NY Times, Sept. 7, 2004, A12
Petula Dvorak , “Fort Hunt's Quiet Men Break Silence on WW II,” Washington Post, Oct. 6, 2007, A1
Philip Zelikow , “A Dubious C.I.A. Shortcut,” NY Times, April 24, 2009, A23
Ronald Kessler , The Terrorist Watch (New York: Crown Forum, 2007), 147, 148
Scott Shane , “Inside the Interrogation of a 9/11 Mastermind,” NY Times, June 22, 2008, A1
Mark Bowden , “The Ploy,” The Atlantic, May, 2007, 54–68
Marites D. Vitug and Glenda M. Gloria , Under the Crescent Moon: Rebellion in Mindanao (Quezon City, PI: Institute for Popular Democracy, 2000), 223
Peter Maas , “If a Terror Suspect Won't Talk, Should He Be Made To?” NY Times, March 9, 2003, wk4
George Packer , “The Talk of the Town; Comment: Prisoners,” The New Yorker, Sept. 18, 2006, 26
Steven Lee Myers , “Bush Vetoes Bill on C.I.A. Tactics, Affirming Legacy,” NY Times, March 9, 2008, A1
John R. Crook , “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law: President Vetoes Legislation to Limit CIA Interrogation Methods,” 102–3 AJIL (July 2008), 650
Scott Shane , “Interrogations' Effectiveness May Prove Elusive,” NY Times, April 23, 2009, A14
Ali Soufan , “My Tortured Decision,” NY Times, April 23, 2009, A25
John McCain , Faith of My Fathers (New York: Random House, 1999), 193–4
James Bond Stockdale , “Leadership in Times of Crisis,” in, Thoughts of A Philosophical Fighter Pilot (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1995), 41
Eric Lichtblau and Adam Liptak , “Questioning to Be Legal, Humane and Aggressive, The White House Says,” NY Times, March 4, 2003, A13
Ron Suskind , “The Unofficial Story of the al-Qaeda 14,” Time, Sept. 10, 2006, 35
Gisli H. Gudjonsson , The Psychology of Interrogations and Confessions (West Sussex, UK: Wiley, 2003), 37
Tina Kelley , “DNA Clears Inmate of New Jersey Child Murders,” NY Times, May 16, 2007, A18
Brian Bennett , “True Confessions?” Time, Dec. 12, 2005, 45–6
Alan Berlow , “What Happened In Norfolk?” NY Times Magazine, Aug. 19, 2007, 36
Dennis Hevesi , “Harold E. Fischer Jr., 83, American Flier Tortured in a Chinese Prison, Is Dead,” NY Times, May 8, 2009, B10
Michael Walzer , Arguing About War (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004), 26
Michael Bilton and Kevin Sim , Four Hours in My Lai (New York: Viking, 1992), 196–7
Michal R. Belknap , The Vietnam War on Trial (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2002), 88
Lt.General W.R. Peers , The My Lai Inquiry (New York: Norton, 1979), 232
Lt. Col. Nathan Sassaman , Warrior King (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2008), 207
Dexter Filkins , “The Fall of the Warrior King,” NY Times Magazine, Oct. 23, 2005, 52, 59
Lt. Col. Gary Solis , “Military Justice?” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Oct. 2006), 24–7
Manfred Nowak and Elizabeth McArthur , The United Nations Convention Against Torture: A Commentary (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), A1:69–74, at 55–8
Joel Greenberg , “Israel Reports Abuses in Past Interrogations of Palestinians,” NY Times, Feb. 10, 2000, A-3
General Rupert Smith , The Utility of Force (New York: Alfred Knopf, 2007), 246
Alon Harel and Assaf Sharon , “What is Really Wrong With Torture?” 6–2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (May 2008), 241, 241–2
B General Paul Aussaresses , The Battle of the Casbah (New York: Enigma Books, 2002), 17
Keith B. Richburg , “France Faces Its Demons For Algerian War Brutality,” Washington Post, May 10, 2001, A26
Adam Shatz , “The Torture of Algiers,” The New York Review of Books, Nov. 21, 2002, 53, 54
Eugene Robinson , “Torture is Torture,” Washington Post, Sept. 19, 2006, A21
Generals Charles C. Krulak and Joseph P. Hoar , “It's Our Cage, Too,” Washington Post, May 17, 2007, A17
Nick Wadhams , “U.N. Says Human Rights Violators Cite U.S.,” Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2006, A4
Ian Austen , “Canadian Manual Has U.S. on Torture List,” NY Times, Jan. 18, 2008, A10
Alberto Mora and Jack Shattuck , “Self-Inflicted Wounds,” Washington Post, Nov. 6, 2007, A19
David R. Irvine , “Rationalizing Torture,” Washington Times, Nov. 2, 2005, 17
Ian Austen , “Citing New Report, Lawyers for Canadian Detainee Denounce Abuse,” NY Times, July 11, 2008, A9
Josh White , “Detainee's Attorney Seeks Dismissal Over Abuse,” Washington Post, June 8, 2008, A4
John McCain , “Torture's Terrible Toll,” Newsweek, Nov. 21, 2005, 34
Matthew Alexander , “Torture's the Wrong Answer. There's a Smarter Way,” Washington Post, Nov. 30, 2008, B1
Abby Mann , Judgment at Nuremberg (London: Cassell, 1961), 170–1
Charles F. Adams , Carl Schurz , Edwin B. Smith , and Herbert Welsh , Secretary Root's Record: “Marked Severities” in Philippine Warfare (Boston: Geo. H. Ellis Co., 1902), 60
Brian McAllister Linn , The Philippine War (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2000), 223
Scott Shane , “Inside a 9/11 Mastermind's Interrogation,” NY Times, June 22, 2008, A1
Scott Shane , “Memo Says Prisoner Got Waterboarded 183 Times,” NY Times, April 20, 2009, A8
Erik Holmes , “Interrogator: SERE Tactics Used in Iraq,” Marine Corps Times, Oct. 13, 2008, 32
Major Mynda G. Ohman , “Integrating Title 18 War Crimes into Title 10: A Proposal to Amend the Uniform Code of Military Justice,” 57 Air Force L. R. (2005), 1, fn. 78
Evan Wallach , “Drop by Drop: Forgetting the History of Water Torture in U.S. Courts,” 45–2 Columbia J. of Transnational L. (2007), 468
General James H. Doolittle , I Could Never Be So Lucky Again (New York: Bantam, 1991), 549
Eric Lomax , The Railway Man (London: Jonathan Cape, 1995), 143
Suzanne Daley , “Apartheid Torturer Testifies, As Evil Shows Its Banal Face,” NY Times, Nov. 9, 1997, A1
Cristián Correa , “Waterboarding Prisoners and Justifying Torture: Lessons for the U.S. from the Chilean Experience,” 14–2 Human Rights Brief (Winter 2007), 21
Dan Eggen , “White House Pushes Waterboarding Rationale,” Washington Post, Feb. 13, 2008, A3
Joby Warrick and Dan Eggen , “Waterboarding Recounted,” Washington Post, Dec. 11, 2007, A1
Morris Davis , “Unforgivable Behavior, Inadmissible Evidence,” NY Times, Feb. 17, 2008, WK 12
Fred Hiatt , “The Consequences of Torture,” Washington Post, June 14, 2004, A17
Slavoj Žižek , “Knight of the Living Dead,” NY Times, March 24, 2007, A27
Kai Ambos , “May A State Torture Suspects to Save the Life of Innocents?” 6–2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (May 2008), 261, 264, 286
Jens David Ohlin , “The Bounds of Necessity,” 6–2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (May 2008), 289
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. II, Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), §§ 1039–1215, at 2112–34
Dept. of the Army , The Law of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1956)
Bob Woodward , “Detainee Tortured, Says U.S. Official,” Washington Post, Jan. 14, 2009, A1
George P. Fletcher and Jens David Ohlin , Defending Humanity: When Force is Justified and Why (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 170
James Ross , “Black Letter Abuse: The Legal Response to Torture Since 9/11,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2007), 561, 573
Seymour M. Hersh , “The General's Report,” The New Yorker, June 25, 2007, 69
David S. Cloud , “General Says Prison Inquiry Led to His Forced Retirement,” NY Times, June 17, 2007, A10
Jonathan Mahler , “After the Imperial Presidency,” NY Times Sunday Magazine, Nov. 9, 2008, 49
Dept. of the Army , FM 2–22.3, Human Intelligence Collection Operations (Washington: GPO, 2006), vi
Col. David A. Wallace , “Torture v. the Basic Principles of the US Military,” 6–2 J. of Int'l Criminal Justice (May 2008), 309, 316
Carl von Clausewitz , On War ( Michael Howard and Peter Paret , eds. and trans., New York: Knopf, Everyman's Library, 1993), 85
Deborah Sontag , “How Colonel Risked His Career By Menacing Detainee and Lost,” NY Times, May 27, 2004, A1
Rowan Scarborough , “Army Files Charges In Combat Tactic,” Washington Times, Oct. 29, 2003, A1
Richard Berry , A Missing Link in Leadership (Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2008), 27
Vernon Loeb , “Army Officer's Actions Raise Ethical Issues,” Washington Post, Sept. 30, 2003, A24
Emily Tower , “Retired Officer Discusses Ethics with Upperclassmen,” Pointer View, newspaper of the West Point campus (Oct. 23, 2008), 5
Vernon Loeb , “Army Fines Officer for Firing Pistol Near Iraqi Detainee,” Washington Post, Dec. 13, 2003, A18
P.J. Tobia , “The Other Front,” Washington Post, Dec. 14, 2008, B1
BGen. Telford Taylor , Final Report to the Secretary of the Army on the Nuernberg War Crimes Trials Under Control Council Law No. 10 (Washington, DC/Buffalo, NY: Hein reprint, 1949/1997), 67
R. Jeffrey Smith , Michael D. Shear , and Walter Pincus , “In Obama's Inner Circle, Debate Over Memos' Release Was Intense,” Washington Post, April 24, 2009, A1

Reference Type: notes

Lt. Gen. Roméo Dallaire , Shake Hands With the Devil (New York: Carroll & Graff, 2003), 99, 229, 233, 264
Gen. Tony Zinni , in Tom Clancy with Gen. Tony Zinni , Battle Ready (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 2004), 251
Kenneth P. Werrell , “Across the Yalu: Rules of Engagement and the Communist Air Sanctuary During the Korean War,” 72–2 J. of Military History (April 2008), 451–75, 458
Marcus Luttrell , Lone Survivor (New York: Little, Brown, 2007), 37–8
Major Mark S. Martins , “Rules of Engagement for Land Forces: A Matter of Training, Not Lawyering,” 143 Military L. Rev. (Winter 1994), 3–160, 35
W. Hays Parks , “Righting the Rules of Engagement,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (May 1989), 83, 84
Lt. Gen. W.R. Peers , The My Lai Inquiry (New York: Norton, 1979), 230
Robert Timberg , The Nightingale's Song (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995), 152
Michal R. Belknap , The Vietnam War on Trial (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2002), 49
Gen. Bruce Palmer, Jr., The 25 Year War (New York: DaCapo Press, 1984), 125
Lewis Sorley , Thunderbolt (Washington: Brassey's, 1998), 341
Maj. Daniel J. Sennott , “Interpreting Recent Changes to the Standing Rules for the Use of Force,” The Army Lawyer (Nov. 2007), 52
Richard J. Grunawalt , “The JCS Standing Rules of Engagement: A Judge Advocate's Primer,” Air Force L. Rev. (1997), 245, 247
Maj. Marie Anderson and Emily Zukauskas , eds., Operational Law Handbook, 2008 (Charlottesville, VA: Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School, 2008), 79
Thomas E. Ricks and Steve Vogel , “USS Cole Guards Told Not To Fire First Shot,” Washington Post, Nov. 14, 2000, A1
Steven Lee Myers , “Inquiry Faults the Cole's Captain and Crew,” NY Times, Dec. 9, 2000, A6
Eric Hammel , The Root (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985), 292–4
Cmdr. Mike Spence , “Lessons for Combined Rules of Engagement,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Oct. 2000), 56–60
Seymour M. Hersh , “King's Ransom: How Vulnerable Are the Saudi Royals,” New Yorker, Sept. 22, 2001, 36
Thomas E. Ricks , “Target Approval Delays Cost Air Force Key Hits,” Washington Post, Nov. 18, 2001, A1
Rebecca Grant , “An Air War Like No Other,” Air Force, Nov. 2002, 31, 34
Col. Nicholas E. Reynolds , Basrah, Baghdad, and Beyond (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2005), 157–8
C.J. Chivers , “Perfect Killing Method, but Clear Targets Are Few,” NY Times, Nov. 22, 2006, A1
Center for Law And Military Operations (CLAMO) , “Rules of Engagement: What Are They and Where Do They Come From?” Marine Corps Gazette (April 2002), 59, 60
CLAMO , “‘ROE’ Rhymes With ‘We’,” Marine Corps Gazette (Sept. 2002), 78
Nathaniel Fick , One Bullet Away (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2006), 182
Mark Bowden , Black Hawk Down (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999), 18
Charles Garraway , “The ‘War on Terror’: Do the Rules Need Changing?” 3 Chatham House (2006)
Maj. Michelle A. Hansen , “Preventing the Emasculation of Warfare: Halting the Expansion of Human Rights Law into Armed Conflict,” 194 Military L. Rev. (Winter 2007), 1, 47
David Zucchino , Thunder Run (New York: Grove Press, 2004), 43
Capt. Ashley Roach , “Rules of Engagement,” Naval War College Rev. (Jan.–Feb., 1983), 50
Paul von Zielbauer , “At Marine's Hearing, Testament to Violence,” NY Times, Sept. 1, 2007, A4
Lt. Col. W.A. Stafford , “How to Keep Military Personnel from Going to Jail for Doing the Right Thing: Jurisdiction, ROE & the Rules of Deadly Force,” The Army Lawyer (Nov. 2000), 1, 5
Nathaniel R. Helms , My Men Are My Heroes (Des Moines, IA: Meredith Books, 2007), 184
Th.A. van Baarda and D.E.M. Verweij , Military Ethics: A Dutch Approach (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006), 85
The Judge Advocate General's Legal Center & School , Operational Law Handbook, 2006 (Charlottesville, VA: JAGC&S, 2006), 92
Kriangsak Kittichaisaree , International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 264
Maj. Dawn R. Eflein , “A Case Study of Rules of Engagement in Joint Operations: The Air Force Shootdown of Army Helicopters in Operation Provide Comfort,” Air Force L. Rev. (1998), 33
Elisabeth Bumiller , “From A Carrier, Another View of America's Air War in Afghanistan,” NY Times, Feb. 24, 2009, A6
Maj. Seth W.B. Folsom , The Highway War (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2006), 56
Col. Frederick M. Lorenz , “Law and Anarchy in Somalia,” 23 Parameters (1993–1994), 39
Maj. Mark S. Martins , “Rules of Engagement For Land Forces: A Matter of Training, Not Lawyering,” 143 Military L. Rev. (1994), 64
Capt. Ilario Pantano , Warlord (New York: Threshold Editions, 2006), 315
Michael R. Gordon and Lt. Gen. Bernard E. Trainor , Cobra II (New York: Pantheon Books, 2006), 226
Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez , Wiser in Battle (New York: Harper Collins, 2008), 125
Peter Rowe , “The Rules of Engagement in Occupied Territory: Should They Be Published?” 8–2 Melbourne J. of Int'l L. (2007), 327, 331

Reference Type: notes

Yves Sandoz , Christophe Swinarski , and Bruno Zimmerman , eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols (Geneva: ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1987), 631
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
Michael Bothe , “Targeting,” in, Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002), 173, 177
Adam Roberts and Richard Guelff , eds., Documents on the Laws of War, 3d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 139
Waldemar Solf , “Article 52,” in, Michael Bothe , Karl Partsch , and Waldemar Solf , eds., New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflict: Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 (Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982), 326
W. Hays Parks , “Air War and the Law of War,” 32–1 Air Force L. Rev. (1990), 1, 143
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower , Crusade in Europe (New York: Doubleday, 1948), 378
Cornelius Ryan , A Bridge Too Far (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974), 90
Maj. Marie Anderson and Emily Zukauskas , eds., Operational Law Handbook, 2008 (Charlottesville: Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School, 2008), 20
Maj. Gen. A.V.P. Rogers , Law on the Battlefield, 2d ed. (Manchester: Juris Publishing, 2004), 70–1
Brig. Gen. Charles J. Dunlap , “The End of Innocence: Rethinking Noncombatancy in the Post-Kosovo Era,” Strategic Rev. 14 (Summer 2000)
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 116
Klaus Schmider , “The Last of the First: Veterans of the Jagdwaffe Tell Their Story,” 73–1 J. of Military History (Jan. 2009), 231, 238–9
Max Hastings and Simon Jenkins , The Battle for the Falklands (New York: Norton, 1983), 88
Cmdr. John Patch , “Taking Out Saddam's Floating Pleasure Palace,” U.S. Naval Institute's Proceedings (Sept. 2008), 33
Frits Kalshoven , Reflections on the Law of War (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 232–3
UK Ministry of Defence , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), para. 5.29.3, at 76
COL Gregory Fontenot , LTC E.J. Degen and LTC David Tohn , On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2004), 214
Barton Gellman , Angler (New York: Penguin Press, 2008), 119
John Sweetman , The Dambusters Raid (London: Arms and Armour, 1990), 153
Alan Cooper , The Dambusters Squadron (London: Arms and Armour, 1993), 29
Henry Probert , Bomber Harris: His Life and Times (London: Greenhill Books, 2001), 254
Leslie C. Green , The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 2d ed. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), 158
Michael N. Schmitt , “Precision Attack and International Humanitarian Law,” 859 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2005), 445, 450–1
Dept. of Defense , Conduct of the Persian Gulf War (Washington: GPO, 1992), 103
John F. Murphy , “Some Legal (and a Few Ethical) Dimensions of the Collateral Damage Resulting from NATO's Kosovo Campaign,” 31 Israel Yearbook on Human Rights (2001), 51, 63
Marco Sassòli and Lindsey Cameron , “The Protection of Civilian Objects – Current State of the Law and Issues de lege ferenda ,” in, Natalino Ronzitti and Gabriella Venturini , eds., The Law of Air Warfare (Utrecht, the Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing, 2006), 35, 57
Michael N. Schmitt , “Targeting and Humanitarian Law: Current Issues,” 33 Israel Yearbook on Human Rights (2003), 59, 69
L. Oppenheim , International Law: A Treatise, vol. II, Disputes, War and Neutrality, 7th ed., H. Lauterpacht , ed. (London: Longman, 1952), para. 213, at 513–14
Stephen L. McFarland , America's Pursuit of Precision Bombing, 1910–1945 (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995), 204
Kenneth P. Werrell , Blankets of Fire (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996), photos p. 2
Conrad C. Crane , Bombs, Cities, and Civilians (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1993), 132
Geoffrey Best , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 281
Col. Frederic L. Borch , “Targeting After Kosovo: Has the Law Changed for Strike Planners?” vol. LVI-2 Naval War College Rev. (Spring 2003), 64
Nils Melzer , Targeted Killing in International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 5
William C. Banks and Peter Raven-Hansen , “Targeted Killing and Assassination: The U.S. Legal Framework,” 37 U. Richmond L. Rev. (2002–2003), 667, 671
Seymour M. Hersh , “Manhunt,” The New Yorker, Dec. 23 & 30, 2002, 66
Asa Kasher and Amos Yadlin , “Assassination and Preventive Killing,” XXV no. 1, SAIS Rev. of Int'l Affairs (Winter–Spring 2005), 41, 45
Vincent Joël Proulx , “If the Hat Fits, Wear It, If the Turban Fits, Run for Your Life: Reflections on the Indefinite Detention and Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists,” 56 Hastings L. J. (2004–2005), 801, 873
ICRC , “Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law,” 872 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2008), 991–1047
David Kretzmer , “Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists: Extra-Judicial Executions or Legitimate Means of Defence?”, 16–2 European J. of Int'l L. (2005), 171, 179
O. Ben-Naftali and K.R. Michaeli , “We Must Not Make A Scarecrow of the Law: A Legal Analysis of the Israeli Policy of Targeted Killings,” 36 Cornell Int'l L. J. (2003), 233, 239
Keith B. Richburg and Lee Hockstader , “Israelis Kill Arab Militia Official,” Washington Post, Nov. 10, 2000, A1
Deborah Sontag , “Israelis Track Down and Kill a Fatah Commander,” NY Times, Nov. 10, 2000, A1
Clyde Haberman , “Israeli Raid Kills 8 at Hamas Office; 2 Are Young Boys,” NY Times, Aug. 1, 2001, A1
Sharon Weill , “The Targeted Killing of Salah Shehadeh,” 7–3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (July 2009), 617
Craig R. Whitney , “War on Terror Alters U.S. Qualms about Assassination,” Int'l Herald Tribune, March 29, 2004, 2
Abraham D. Sofaer , “Terrorism, the Law, and the National Defense,” 126 Military L. Rev. (1989), 89, 121
James Risen and David Johnston , “Bush Has Widened Authority of C.I.A. to Kill Terrorists,” NY Times, Dec. 15, 2002, A1
Mark Mazzetti and David E. Sanger , “Obama Expands Missile Strikes Inside Pakistan,” NY Times, Feb. 21, 2009, A1
Ministry of Defense , The Law of War on Land: Part III of the Manual of Military Law (London: HMSO, 1958)
Laura Blumenfeld , “In Israel, a Divisive Struggle Over Targeted Killing,” Washington Post, Aug. 25, 2006, A1
Esther Schrader and Henry Weinstein , “U.S. Enters A Legal Gray Zone,” Los Angeles Times, Nov. 5, 2002, A1
Ryan Goodman , “Editorial Comment: The Detention of Civilians in Armed Conflict,” 103–1 AJIL (Jan. 2009), 48, 50
Brig. Gen. Kenneth Watkin , “Humans in the Cross-Hairs: Targeting and Assassination in Contemporary Armed Conflict,” in David Wippman and Matthew Evangelista , eds., New Wars, New Laws? Applying the Laws of War in 21st Century Conflicts (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2005), 137, 147
Armando Spataro , “Why Do People Become Terrorists?” 6–3 J. of Int'l. Crim. Justice (July 2008), 507, 520–21
Vattel , The Law of Nations, or, Principles of the Law of Nature (Northhampton, MA: Thomas M. Pomroy for S. & E. Butler, 1805), 327
George P. Fletcher , “The Indefinable Concept of Terrorism,” 4 J. of Int'l Criminal Justice (Nov. 2006), 894, 898
Kristen Eichensehr , “On the Offensive: Assassination Policy Under International Law,” 25(3) Harvard Int'l Rev. (Fall 2003)
Peter Rowe , “Kosovo 1999: The Air Campaign – Have the Provisions of Additional Protocol I Withstood the Test?” 837 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (2000), 147

Reference Type: notes

William Bogdanos , Thieves of Baghdad (New York: Bloomsbury, 2005) 110–11
Geoffrey Best , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 285
Sharon A. Williams , The International and National Protection of Movable Cultural Property: A Comparative Study (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1978), 5–6
War Dept., FM27–10 , Rules of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1956)
L. Oppenheim , International Law: A Treatise, vol. II, Disputes, War and Neutrality, 7th ed., H. Lauterpacht , ed. (London: Longman, 1952)
Maj-Gen. A.V.P. Rogers , Law on the Battlefield, 2d ed. (Manchester: Juris Publishing, 2004), 136
Roger O'Keefe , The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 74
U.N. War Crimes Commission , Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, vol. IX (London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1949), 67–8
Leon Friedman , ed., The Law of War: A Documentary History, vol. II (New York: Random House, 1972), 922, 981
UK Ministry of Defence , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Adam Roberts and Richard Guelff , Documents on the Laws of War, 3d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 371
Leslie C. Green , Essays on the Modern Law of War, 2d ed. (New York: Transnational, 1999), 235
Jan Hladík , “The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and the Notion of Military Necessity,” 835 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 1999), 621
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 158
Maj. Marie Anderson and Emily Zukauskas , eds., Operational Law Handbook, 2008 (Charlottesville: Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School, 2008), 15
Dept. of Defense , Conduct of the Persian Gulf War (Washington: GPO, 1992), 100
Theodor Meron , “The Time Has Come for the United States to Ratify Geneva Protocol I,” in War Crimes Law Comes of Age: Essays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 184
Aryeh Neier , War Crimes (New York: Times Books, 1998), 157–61
Roger O'Keefe , The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006)
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
Claud Pilloud , et al., eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols (Geneva: ICRC, 1987), 646
Mike Matheson , “Additional Protocol I as Expression of Customary International Law,” 2–2 Am. U. J. Int'l L. & Policy (Fall 1987), 415, 425
Julian J.E. Schutte , “The System of Repression of Breaches of Additional Protocol I,” in, Astrid J.M. Delissen and Gerard J. Tanja , eds., Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict Challenges Ahead (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991), 177, 195
ICRC , Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: Report on the Meeting of Experts (Geneva: ICRC, 2002), 126
Frits Kalshoven , Reflections on the Law of War: Collected Essays (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 429
T.R. Fehrenbach , This Kind of War (New York: MacMillan), 1963), 223–4
John Henry Merryman and Albert E. Law Elsen , Ethics and the Visual Arts (London: Kluwer Law International, 2002), 80–1

Reference Type: notes

Leslie C. Green , Essays on the Modern Law of War, 2d ed. (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 1999), 330
Nagendra Singh , “The Distinguishable Characteristics of the Concept of the Law as it Developed in Ancient India,” in Liber Amicorum for Lord Wilberforce (1987), 93
G.I.A.D. Draper , “The Interaction of Christianity and Chivalry in the Historical Development of the Law of War,” 5 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (1965), 3, 19
W. Hays Parks , “Conventional Weapons and Weapons Reviews,” in 8 Yearbook of IHL (2005), 55, 61
Hugo Grotius , De Jure Belli Ac Pacis, vol. two, Francis W. Kelsey trans. (Buffalo, NY: William Hein reprint, 1995)
Robert J. Mathews , “The 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons: A Useful Framework Despite Earlier Disappointments,” 844 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (2001), 991, 992
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 59
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), Rule 79, at 275
David Turns , “Weapons in the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law,” 11–2 J. of Conflict & Security L. 201, 227
Adam Roberts and Richard Guelff , Documents on the Laws of War, 3d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 517
Maj. Michael Lacey , “Passage of Amended Protocol II,” The Army Lawyer (March 2000), 7–8
John R. Crook , ed., “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law,” 102–1 AJIL (Jan. 2008), 190
U.K. Ministry of Defence , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), para. 6.12, fn. 41, at 110
Frits Kalshoven , Reflections on the Law of War (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 381
Lane Evans , “Laser Warfare's Blinding Effect,” Christian Science Monitor, Aug. 15, 1995, 20
Dr. R. DeVour , “Possible Psychological and Societal Effects of Sudden Permanent Blindness of Military Personnel Caused by Battlefield Use of Laser Weapons,” in Louise Doswald-Beck , ed., Blinding Weapons (Geneva: ICRC, 1993), 46, 51
Louise Doswald-Beck , “New Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons,” 312 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (May–June 1996), 272
Bill Gertz , “Trial Aims To Tie Russia To Laser Attack,” Washington Times, Oct. 7, 2002, 8
Richard B. Jackson , “Lasers Are Lawful as Non-Lethal Weapons,” The Army Lawyer (Aug. 2006), 15
Frederic J. Frommer , “U.S. Boosts Aid for Bomb Removal in Laos,” Washington Post, Dec. 27, 2004, A7
Louis Maresca , “A New Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War: The History and Negotiation of Protocol V to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons,” 856 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2004), 815
Stuart Maslen , Explosive Remnants of War (Geneva: ICRC, 2000), 35
Kenneth P. Werrell , Blankets of Fire (Washington: Smithsonian, 1996), 48
Virgil Wiebe , “Footprints of Death: Cluster Bombs as Indiscriminate Weapons Under International Humanitarian Law,” 22 Mich. J. Int'l L. (2000), 85, 89
Thomas M. McDonnell , “Cluster Bombs Over Kosovo: A Violation of International Law?” 44 Ariz. L. Rev. (2002), 31, 51, 61
Thom Shanker , “Rights Group Faults U.S. Over Cluster Bombs,” NY Times, Dec. 12, 2003, A12
Isabel Kershner , “Israel Won't Prosecute for Use of Cluster Bombs in Lebanon,” NY Times, Dec. 25, 2007, A4
John Borrie , “The ‘Long Year’: Emerging International Efforts to Address the Humanitarian Impacts of Cluster Munitions, 2006–2007,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., YIHL, vol. 10, 2007 (The Hague: Asser Press, 2009), 251, 256
John R. Crook , ed., “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law,” 102–4 AJIL (Oct. 2008), 889
Yves Sandoz , Christophe Swinarski , and Bruno Zimmerman , eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols (Geneva: ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1987), 426
William Fenrick , “The Conventional Weapons Convention: A Modest but Useful Treaty,” 279 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (1990), 498, 499
Theodor Meron , The Humanization of International Law (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006), 85
Capt. James T. Cobb , 1st Lt. Christopher A. LaCour and SFC William H. Hight , “TF 2–2 in FSE AAR: Indirect Fires in the Battle of Fallujah,” Field Artillery (March–April 2005), 23, 26
I. J. MacLeod and A.P.V. Rogers , “The Use of White Phosphorous and the Law of War,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., YIHL (The Hague: Asser Press, 2009), 75, 90

Reference Type: notes

Jonathan B. Tucker , War of Nerves (New York: Pantheon, 2006), 11–12
Berthold von Deimling , Aus der alten in die neue Zeit (Berlin, 1930), 201
Frank E. Vandiver , Black Jack, vol. II (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1977), 885
William Manchester , American Caesar (Boston: Little, Brown, 1978), 89
Frits Kalshoven , Reflections on the Laws of War (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007), 342
Yoram Dinstein , The Conduct of Hostilities Under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 74
Col. G.I.A.D. Draper , “The Development of International Humanitarian Law,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflicts (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998), 69, 75
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), Rule 72, at 251
UK Ministry of Defence , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), para. 1.2.7., at 11
Antonio Cassese , Paola Gaeta , and John R.W.D. Jones , eds., The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, vol. I (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 406
Adam Roberts and Richard Guelff , Documents on the Laws of War, 3d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 156
Lassa Oppenheim , International Law, vol. II, Disputes, War and Neutrality, 7th ed., H. Lauterpacht , ed. (London: Longman, 1952), 344, fn. 1
Barton J. Bernstein , “Why We Didn't Use Poison Gas in World War II,” 36–5 American Heritage (Aug./Sept. 1985), 40, 42
Norman Polmar and Thomas B. Allen , “The Most Deadly Plan,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Jan. 1998), 79
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower , Crusade in Europe (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1948), 204
Gen. James H. Doolittle , I Could Never Be So Lucky Again (New York: Bantam, 1991), 368–9
Rick Atkinson , The Day of Battle (New York: Henry Holt, 2007), 272
Albert J. Mauroni , Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Reference Handbook, 2d ed. (Oxford: ABC-Clio, 2006), 102
Joost R. Hiltermann , A Poisonous Affair (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 34
Dept. of Defense , Conduct of the Persian Gulf War (Washington: GPO, 1992), 15
AP , “Two Sentenced to Death for 1995 Gas Attack on Tokyo Subways,” NY Times, July 18, 2000, A10
Pauline Jelinek , “Figures on Gulf War Gas Exposure Revised,” NY Times, Oct. 28, 2000, A4
Jack M. Beard , “The Shortcomings of Indeterminacy in Armed Control Regimes: The Case of the Biological Weapons Convention,” 101–2 AJIL (April 2007), 271
Col. (Dr.) Jim A. Davis , USAF, “The Looming Biological Warfare Storm,” Air & Space Power J. (Spring 2003), 57, 58
United Nations , Chemical and Bacteriological (Biological) Weapons and the Effects of Their Possible Use (New York: UN, 1969)
World Health Organization , Health Aspects of the Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons (Geneva: WHO, 1970)
Jozef Goldblat , “The Biological Weapons Convention – An Overview,” 318 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (June 1997), 251
World Health Organization , Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons (Geneva: WHO, 1970)
Jeffrey Gettleman , “Army Begins Burning Biological Weapons in Alabama Town,” NY Times, Aug. 10, 2003, A12
Lt. Col. Terry N. Mayer , USAF, “The Biological Weapon: A Poor Nation's Weapon of Mass Destruction,” in Berry R. Schneider and Lawrence E. Grinter , eds., Battlefield of the Future: 21st Century Warfare Issues (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Warfare College, Sept. 1995)
Geoffrey Best , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 308
Elizabeth Olson , “Talks Inching Ahead on Monitoring '72 Germ Warfare Pact,” NY Times, May 14, 2001, A6
Elizabeth Olson , “U.S. Rejects New Accord Covering Germ Warfare,” NY Times, July 26, 2001, A5
Michael R. Gordon , “Germ Warfare Talks Open in London; U.S. Is the Pariah,” NY Times, July 24, 2001, A7
Judith Miller , Stephen Engelberg , and William J. Broad , “U.S. Germ Warfare Research Pushes Treaty Limits,” NY Times, Sept. 1, 2001, A1
Judith Miller , “When Is Bomb Not a Bomb? Germ Experts Confront U.S.,” NY Times, Sept. 5, 2001, A5
Tim Weiner , “Soviet Defector Warns of Biological Weapons,” NY Times, Feb. 25, 1998, A1
Ken Alibek , Biohazard (New York; Arrow Books, 2000), 70–86
Onno Kervers , “Strengthening Compliance with the Biological Weapons Convention: The Protocol Negotiations,” 7–2 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Oct. 2002), 275
Sean D. Murphy , ed., “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law,” 95–4 AJIL (Oct. 2001), 873, 901
Lt. Col. Raymond S. Shelton , “No Democracy Can Feel Secure,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Aug. 1998), 39, 44
Cmdr. Stephen Rose , “The Coming Explosion of Silent Weapons,” 42 Naval War College Rev. (Summer 1989), 6
David P. Fidler , “The Meaning of Moscow: ‘Non-lethal’ Weapons and International Law in the Early 21st Century,” 859 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2005), 525, 547
John R. Crook , ed., “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law,” 100–3 AJIL (July 2006), 690, 720
Philip Bobbitt , Terror and Consent (London: Penguin Books, 2009), 104
Sherman McCall, M.D., “A Higher Form of Killing,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Feb. 1995), 38, 43
Amy E. Smithson , “The Failing Inspector,” NY Times, April 8, 2002, A23
Jean Pascal Zanders , “International Norms Against Chemical and Biological Warfare: An Ambiguous Legacy,” 8–2 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Oct. 2003), 391, 397
Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), Rule 74, at 259
David Turns , “Weapons in the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law,” 11–2 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Summer 2006), 202, 225
Matthew S. Meselson , “Chemical and Biological Weapons,” 222–5 Scientific American (May 1970), 3
Judith Miller , “Libya Discloses Production of 23 Tons of Mustard Gas,” NY Times, March 6, 2004, A5
U.K. Ministry of Defence , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 103–4
Peter Baker and Susan B. Glasser , “Rebels Hold Hundreds Hostage in Moscow,” Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2002, A1
Michael Wines , “Hostage Drama in Moscow: The Aftermath,” NY Times, Oct. 28, 2002, A1
David P. Fidler , The Meaning of Moscow: ‘Non-lethal’ Weapons and International Law in the Early 21st Century,” 859 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2005), 525, 532–3
Judith Miller and William J. Broad , “U.S. Suspects Opiate in Gas In Russia Raid,” NY Times, Oct. 29, 2002, A1
Clem Cecil , “Chechen Siege Hostages Still Dying of Gas Effects,” The Times (London), Oct. 27, 2002, 1
Mark Wheelis , “Will the New Biology Lead to New Weapons,” Arms Control Today (July/Aug. 2004), 6, 8

Reference Title: Books Cited

Reference Type: reference-list

Adams, Charles F. , Carl Schurz , Edwin B. Smith , and Herbert Welsh , Secretary Root's Record: “Marked Severities” in Philippine Warfare (Boston: Geo. H. Ellis Co., 1902)
Alexandrov, Stanimar A. , Self-Defense Against the Use of Force in International Law (The Hague: Kluwer, 1996)
Alibek, Ken , Biohazard (NY: Arrow Books, 2000)
Ambrose, Stephen E. , Band of Brothers (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1992)
Andrew, Rod, Jr., Long Gray Lines: The Southern Military School Tradition, 1839–1915 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2007)
Atkinson, Rick , Crusade (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993)
Atkinson, Rick , The Day of Battle (NY: Henry Holt, 2007)
Aussaresses, BGen. Paul , The Battle of the Casbah (NY: Enigma Books, 2002)
Austin, Jay E. and Carl E. Bruch , eds., The Environmental Consequences of War: Legal, Economic, and Scientific Perspectives (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2000)
Bacon, Adm. Sir R.H. , The Life of Lord Fisher of Kilverstone – Admiral of the Fleet, vol. I (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1929)
Baker, Gary R. , Cadets in Gray (Lexington, SC: Palmetto Bookworks, 1990)
Bamford, James , Body of Secrets (NY: Doubleday, 2001)
Barnett, Correlli , ed., Hitler's Generals (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1989)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif , The Legislative History of the International Criminal Court, vol. 1 (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2005)
Belknap, Michael R. , The Vietnam War on Trial (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2002)
Berkowitz, Peter , ed., Terrorism, the Laws of War, and the Constitution (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2005)
Berry, Richard , A Missing Link in Leadership (Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2008)
Best, Geoffrey , Humanity in Warfare (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1980)
Best, Geoffrey , War and Law Since 1945 (Oxford: Clarendon/Oxford University Press, 1994)
2002 Bicentennial Register of Graduates (USMA: AOG, 2002)
Bilton, Michael and Kevin Sim , Four Hours in My Lai (NY: Viking, 1992)
Bishop, Joseph W., Jr., Justice Under Fire: A Study of Military Law (NY: Charterhouse, 1974)
Blair, Clay, Jr., Silent Victory (NY: Lippincott, 1987)
Blumenson, Martin , The Battle of the Generals (William Morrow & Co., 1993)
Blumenson, Martin , Patton Papers, 1940–1945, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972)
Bobbitt, Philip , Terror and Consent (London: Penguin Books, 2009)
Bogdanos, Col. William , Thieves of Baghdad (NY: Bloomsbury, 2005)
Boissier, Pierre , Henry Dunant (Geneva: Henry Dunant Institute, 1974)
Boister, Neil and Robert Cryer , The Tokyo International Military Tribunal: A Reappraisal (NY: Oxford University Press, 2008)
Boot, Max , The Savage Wars of Peace (NY: Basic Books, 2002)
Borch, Col. Fred L. and Paul S. Wilson , eds., International Law Studies, vol. 79; International Law and the War on Terror (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2003)
Bordwell, Percy , The Law of War Between Belligerents: A Commentary (Chicago: Callaghan, 1908)
Borsinger, Nicolas , ed., 125th Anniversary of the 1868 Declaration of St. Petersburg (Geneva: ICRC, 1994)
Bothe, Michael , Karl Partsch and Waldemar Solf , eds., New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflict: Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 (Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982)
Bowden, Mark , Black Hawk Down (NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999)
Brace, Ernest C. , A Code to Keep (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1988)
Bradley, Gen. Omar N. , A Soldier's Story (NY: Henry Holt, 1951)
Brand, C.E. , Roman Military Law (Austin: University of Texas, 1968)
Brownlee, R. L. and Gen. Peter J. Schoomaker , Serving A Nation at War (Washington: Army Strategic Communications, 2004)
Brownlie, Ian , International Law and the Use of Force by States (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963)
Bugnion, François , The Emblem of the Red Cross: A Brief History (Geneva: ICRC, 1977)
Bugnion, François , The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Protection of War Victims (Oxford: Macmillan/ICRC, 2003)
Bugnion, François , Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal (Geneva: ICRC, 2007)
Bull, Hedley , Benedict Kingsbury , and Adam Roberts , eds., Hugo Grotius and International Relations (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990)
Byers, Michael , War Law (NY: Grove Press, 2005)
Carroll, Peter N. , The Odyssey of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994)
Cassese, Antonio , International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Cassese, Antonio , Violence and Law in the Modern Age, trans. S.J.K. Greenleaves (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988)
Cassese, Antonio , The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)
Cassese, Antonio , with Paola Gaeta and John R.W.D. Jones , eds., The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, vol. I (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002)
Chambers, John W. II, et al., eds., The Oxford Companion to American Military History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999)
Christopher, Paul , The Ethics of War & Peace, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999)
Claire, Rodger W. , Raid on the Sun (NY: Broadway Books, 2004)
Clancy, Tom with Gen. Tony Zinni , Battle Ready (NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 2004)
Coates, A. J. , The Ethics of War (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997)
Conway-Lanz, Sahr , Collateral Damage (NY: Routeledge, 2006)
Cooper, Alan , The Dambusters Squadron (London: Arms and Armour, 1993)
Cowley, Robert , ed., No End Save Victory (NY: Putnam, 2001)
Crane, Conrad C. , Bombs, Cities, and Civilians (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1993)
Crawford, James , The International Law Commission's Articles on State Responsibility (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002)
Crawley, Aidan , Escape From Germany (London: Collins, 1956)
Cristol, A. Jay , The Liberty Incident (NY; Brassey's, 2002)
Dallaire, Lt. Gen. Roméo , Shake Hands With the Devil (NY: Carroll & Graff, 2003)
Dalton, Harvey , Commentary, in Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002)
Davis, Burke , Sherman's March (NY: Vintage Books, 1988)
Dear, I.C.B. , ed. The Oxford Companion to the Second World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995)
de la Billiere, Gen. Sir Peter , Storm Command (NY: Harper Collins, 1993)
Delissen, Astrid J.M. , and Gerard J. Tanja , eds., Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict Challenges Ahead. (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991)
Denton, Kit , Closed File (Adelaide: Rigby Publishers, 1983)
DePeyster, John Watts , Personal and Military History of Philip Kearny (NY: Rice & Gage, 1869)
de Preux, Jean , Commentary: III Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Geneva: ICRC, 1960)
Dershowitz, Alan M. , Shouting Fire (NY: Little, Brown, 2002)
Dershowitz, Alan M. , Why Terrorism Works (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002)
D'Este, Carlo , Patton: A Genius for War (NY: Harper Collins, 1995)
Detter, Ingrid , The Law of War, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)
deZayas, Alfred M. , The Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau, 1939–1945 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989)
Dinstein, Yoram , ed., International Law at a Time of Perplexity (Dordrecht: Nijhoff Publishers, 1989)
Dinstein, Yoram , The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)
Dinstein, Yoram , War, Aggression and Self-Defence, 4th ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
DiSilvestro, Roger L. , In the Shadow of Wounded Knee (NY: Walker, 2005)
Doenitz, Adm. Karl , Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days (NY: DeCapo Press, 1977)
Doolittle, Gen. James H. , I Could Never Be So Lucky Again (NY: Bantam, 1991)
Dörmann, Knut , Elements of War Crimes Under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Cambridge: ICRC/Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Doswald-Beck, Louise , ed., Blinding Weapons (Geneva: ICRC, 1993), 46th ed., San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)
Duffy, Helen , The ‘War on Terror’ and the Framework of International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
Dunant, Henry , A Memory of Solferino (Geneva: ICRC reprint, 1986)
Dyer, Gwynne , War (London: Guild Publishing, 1985)
Eby, Cecil D. , Comrades and Commissars: The Lincoln Battalion in the Spanish Civil War (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007)
Edmonds, Col. J.E. and L. Oppenheim , Land Warfare. An Exposition of the Laws and Usages of War on Land for the Guidance of Officers of His Majesty's Army (London: H.M.S.O., 1912, ed. of 1929)
Educing Information: Interrogation: Science and Art (Washington: National Defense Intelligence College, 2006)
Eisenhower, Gen. Dwight D. , Crusade in Europe (NY: Doubleday, 1948)
Elsea, Jennifer , Treatment of “Battlefield Detainees” in the War on Terrorism (Washington: Congressional Research Service, 13 Jan. 2005)
Elsea, Jennifer , and Nina M. Serafino , Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues, updated (Washington: Congressional Research Service, July 11, 2007)
Eyffinger, Arthur , The Peace Palace: Residence for Justice – Domicile of Learning (The Hague: Carnegie Foundation, 1988)
Falk, Richard A. , ed., The Vietnam War and International Law, vol. 4 (NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976)
Farago, Ladislas , Patton: Ordeal and Triumph (NY: Obolensky, 1964)
Fehrenbach, T.R. , This Kind of War (NY: Macmillan, 1963)
Feith, Douglas J. , War and Decision (NY: Harper, 2008)
Fick, Nathaniel , One Bullet Away (NY: Houghton Mifflin, 2006)
Fischer, David Hackett , Washington's Crossing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Fleck, Dieter , ed., The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts, 1st and 2nd eds. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995, 2007)
Fletcher, George P. and Jens David Ohlin , Defending Humanity: When Force is Justified and Why (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008)
Folsom, Maj. Seth W.B. , The Highway War (Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, 2006)
Fontenot, Col. Gregory , LTC E.J. Degen and LTC David Tohn , On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2004)
Foote, Capt. M.R.D. , SOE in France (London: HMSO, 1966)
Forsythe, D. , Humanitarian Politics: The ICRC (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977)
Friedman, Leon , ed., The Law of War: A Documentary History, vols. I and II (NY: Random House, 1972)
Fussell, Paul , Thank God for the Atom Bomb and Other Essays (NY: Summit Books, 1988)
Fussell, Paul , Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War (NY: Oxford University Press, 1989)
Fussell, Paul , Doing Battle: The Making of A Skeptic (Boston: Little Brown, 1996)
Fyfe, David M. , ed., War Crimes Trials, vol. I – The Peleus Trial (London: William Hodge, 1948)
Garcia, Michael John , The War Crimes Act: Current Issues (Washington: Congressional Research Service, 15 Sept. 2006)
Gardam, Judith , Necessity, Proportionality and the Use of Force by States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)
Gasser, Hans-Peter , International Humanitarian Law: An Introduction (Berne: Paul Haupt Publishers, 1993)
Gellman, Barton , Angler (NY: Penguin Press, 2008)
Generous, William T., Jr., Swords and Scales (NY: Kennikat Press, 1973)
George, Peter , Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (NY: Barnes & Noble, 1998)
Girod, Christophe , DRAFT, Storm in the Desert: The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Gulf War 1990–1991 (Geneva: ICRC, 2003)
Goldsmith, Jack , The Terror Presidency (NY: Norton, 2007)
Goldstein, Donald M. , Katherine V. Dillon , and J. Michael Wenger , Nuts!: The Battle of the Bulge (Washington: Brassey's, 1994)
Goldstein, Eric , Wars and Peace Treaties: 1816–1991 (London: Routledge, 1992)
Gong, Gerrit W. , The Standard of “Civilization” in International Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984)
Gordon, Michael R. and Lt. Gen. Bernard E. Trainor , Cobra II (NY: Pantheon Books, 2006)
Gray, Christine , International Law and the Use of Force (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)
Green, Leslie C. , Superior Orders in National and International Law (Leyden: Sijthoff, 1976)
Green, Leslie C. , Essays on the Modern Law of War, 2nd ed. (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 1999)
Green, Leslie C. , The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 2nd ed. (Manchester: Juris/Manchester University Press, 2000)
Greenberg, Karen J. and Joshua L. Dratel , The Torture Papers (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
Greenspan, Morris , The Modern Law of Land Warfare (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959)
Grossman, Lt. Col. Dave , On Killing (Boston: Little, Brown, 1995)
Grotius, Hugo , The Law of War and Peace (Buffalo, NY: Hein reprint of Francis W. Kelsey trans., 1995)
Gudjonsson, Gisli H. , The Psychology of Interrogations and Confessions (West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley, 2003)
Gutman, Roy and David Rieff , eds., Crimes of War (NY: Norton, 1999)
Hammel, Eric , The Root (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985)
Hapgood, David and David Richardson , Monte Cassino (NY: Congdon & Weed, 1984)
Hartigan, Richard S. , Lieber's Code and the Law of War (Chicago: Precedent, 1983)
Hastings, Max and Simon Jenkins , The Battle for the Falklands (NY: Norton, 1983)
Hearn, Chester , Sorties into Hell: The Hidden War on Chichi Jima (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003)
Heere, Wybo P. , ed., Terrorism and the Military: International Legal Implications (The Hague: Asser Press, 2003)
Helm, Anthony M. , ed., International Law Studies, Vol. 82, The Law of War in the 21st Century: Weaponry and the Use of Force (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2006)
Helms, Nathaniel R. , My Men Are My Heroes (Des Moines, Iowa: Meredith Books, 2007)
Henckaerts, Jean-Marie and Louise Doswald-Beck , eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Rules, and vol. II, Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
Hensel, Howard M. , ed., The Law of Armed Conflict (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005)
Higgins, Rosalyn , Problems & Process (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994)
Hillman, James , A Terrible Love of War (NY: Penguin Books, 2004)
Hiltermann, Joost R. , A Poisonous Affair (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)
Holland, Thomas E. , The Laws of War on Land (Written and Unwritten) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908)
Honig, Jan Willem and Norbert Both , Srebrenica (NY: Penguin, 1997)
Horne, Alistair , A Savage War of Peace (NY: New York Review of Books, 1977)
Hosoya, C. , N. Andō , Y. Ōnuma , and R. Minear , eds., The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: An International Symposium (NY: Harper & Row, 1986)
Hough, Lt. Col . Frank O. , Maj. Verle E. Ludwig , and Henry I. Shaw , History of Marine Corps Operations in World War II, vol. I, Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal (Washington: GPO, 1958)
Howard, Michael , George J. Andreopoulos , and Mark R. Shulman , eds., The Laws of War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994)
Huang, J.H. trans., Sun Tzu: The New Translation (NY: Quill, 1933)
Hugo, Victor , Les Misérables, Norman Denny , trans. (London: Penguin Classics, 1982)
Huntington, Samuel P. , The Soldier and the State (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1957)
International Institute of Humanitarian Law , Terrorism and International Law: Challenges and Responses (Sanremo, Italy: IIHL, 2002)
James, D. Clayton , The Years of MacArthur: Triumph and Disaster 1945–1964, vol. 3 (Wilmington, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1970)
Jaques, Richard B. , ed., International Law Studies: Issues in International Law and Military Operations, vol. 80 (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2006)
Jayaswal, K.P. , Manu and Yâjñavalkya, A Comparison and A Contrast: A Treatise on the Basic Hindu Law (Calcutta: Butterworth, 1930)
Jørgensen, Nina H.B. , The Responsibility of States for International Crimes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)
Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School , Operational Law Handbook, 2006 (Charlottesville, VA: JAGC&S, 2006)
Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School, International and Operational Law Department , Law of War Handbook (Charlottesville, VA: JAG School, 1997)
Kalshoven, Frits , Belligerent Reprisals, 2nd ed. (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2005)
Kalshoven, Frits , Reflections on the Law of War: Collected Essays (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007)
Kalshoven, Frits and Liesbeth Zegveld , Constraints on the Waging of War: An Introduction to International Humanitarian Law (Geneva: ICRC, 2001)
Kamiya, Maj. Jason K. , A History of the 24th Mechanized Infantry Division Combat Team During Operation Desert Storm (Fort Stewart, GA, 1991)
Katzman, Kenneth , Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks (Washington: Congressional Research Service, May 12, 2008)
Keegan, John , The Face of Battle (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1988)
Keegan, John , A History of Warfare (NY: Knopf, 1993)
Keegan, John , War and Our World (NY: Vintage Books, 2001)
Keen, M.H. , The Laws of War in the Middle Ages (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965)
Keijzer, Nico , Military Obedience (The Netherlands: Sijthoff & Noordhoff, 1978)
Kelman, Herbert C. and V. Lee Hamilton , Crimes of Obedience (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989)
Kelsen, Hans , Peace Through Law (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1944)
Kennedy, David , Of War and Law (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006)
Kessler, Ronald , The Terrorist Watch (NY: Crown Forum, 2007)
Khadduri, Majid , War and Peace in the Law of Islam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1955)
Kittichaisaree, Kriangsak , International Criminal Law (NY: Oxford University Press, 2001)
Kolb, Robert and Richard Hyde , An Introduction to the International Law of Armed Conflicts (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2008)
Lael, Richard L. , The Yamashita Precedent (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1982)
La Haye, Eve , War Crimes in Internal Armed Conflicts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)
Lauterpacht, H. , ed., Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases – 1946 (London: Butterworth & Co., 1951)
Lawrence, T.J. , The Society of Nations (NY: Oxford University Press, 1919)
Lawson, John D. , ed., American State Trials, vol. VIII (St. Louis: F.H. Thomas Law Book Co., 1916) (1972)
Levie, Col. Howard S. , Protection of War Victims: Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, Supplement (NY: Oceana Publications, 1985)
Levie, Col. Howard S. , The Code of International Armed Conflict, vol. 1 (NY: Oceana Publications, 1986)
Levinson, Sanford , ed., Torture: A Collection (NY: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Lilly, J. Robert , Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe During World War II (NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)
Linn, Brian M. , The Philippine War: 1899–1902 (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2000)
Lomax, Eric , The Railway Man (London: Jonathan Cape, 1995)
Luttrell, Marcus , with Patrick Robinson , Lone Survivor (NY: Little, Brown, 2007)
MacArthur, Gen. Douglas , Reminiscences (NY: McGraw-Hill, 1964)
MacDonald, Callum , The Killing of SS Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich (NY: Free Press, 1989)
MacDonald, Peter Charles B. United States Army in World War II: The European Theater of Operations; The Siegfried Line Campaign (Washington: Center of Military History, 2001)
Maguire, Peter , Law and War: An American Story (NY: Columbia University Press, 2000)
Manchester, William , American Caesar (Boston: Little, Brown, 1978)
Mann, Abby , Judgment at Nuremberg (London: Cassell, 1961)
Marsh, Michael A. , Andersonville: The Story Behind the Scenery (Las Vegas: KC Publications, 2000)
Maslen, Stuart , Explosive Remnants of War (Geneva: ICRC, 2000)
Matthews, Lloyd J. and Dale E. Brown , eds., The Parameters of Military Ethics (VA: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1989)
Mauroni, Albert J. , Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Reference Handbook, 2nd ed. (Oxford: ABC-Clio, 2006)
McCain, John , Faith of My Fathers (NY: Random House, 1999)
McCarthy, Mary , Medina (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972)
McCormack, Timothy L.H. , Self-Defense in International Law: The Israeli Raid on the Iraqi Nuclear Reactor (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1996)
McCormack, Timothy L.H. , ed., Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, vol. 10, 2007 (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2009)
McCormack, Timothy L.H. and Gerry J. Simpson , eds., The Law of War Crimes: National and International Approaches (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1997)
McCoubrey, Hilaire , International Humanitarian Law: The Regulation of Armed Conflicts (Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing, 1990)
McFarland, Stephen L. , America's Pursuit of Precision Bombing, 1910–1945 (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995)
McGrath, Lt. Cmdr. John M. , Prisoner of War: Six Years in Hanoi (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1975)
Melzer, Nils , Targeted Killing in International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008)
Meron, Theodor , ed., Human Rights in International Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984)
Meron, Theodor , Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989)
Meron, Theodor , Bloody Constraint: War and Chivalry in Shakespeare (NY: Oxford University Press, 1998)
Meron, Theodor , War Crimes Law Comes of Age: Essays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998)
Meron, Theodor , The Humanization of International Law (Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006)
Merryman, John Henry and Albert E. Law Elsen , Ethics and the Visual Arts (London: Kluwer Law International, 2002)
Mettraux, Guénaël , International Crimes and the Ad Hoc Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)
Meyer, Karl E. and Sharen B. Brysac , Kingmakers: The Invention of the Modern Middle East (NY: W.W. Norton, 2008)
Meyer, Michael A. and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflicts (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998)
Mikesh, Robert C. , Japan's World War II Balloon Bomb Attacks on North America (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972)
Miller, David , Mercy Ships (London: Continuum, 2008)
Moir, Lindsay , The Law of Internal Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002)
Moore, John H. , The Faustball Tunnel (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1978)
Moore, John Norton , et al., National Security Law (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1990)
Moorehead, Caroline , Dunant's Dream (NY: Carroll & Graf, 1999)
Morgan, J.H. , ed. and trans., The German War Book (London: John Murray, 1915)
Morison, Samuel Eliot , John Paul Jones: A Sailor's Biography (Boston: Atlantic-Little, Brown, 1959)
Morison, Samuel Eliot , History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, vol. V (Boston: Little, Brown, 1966)
de Mulinen, Frederic , Handbook of the Law of War for Armed Forces (Geneva: ICRC, 1987)
Mullins, Claud , The Leipzig Trials (London: Witherby, 1921)
Murray, Williamson and Allan R. Millett , A War to Be Won (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000)
Nabulsi, Karma , Traditions of War: Occupation, Resistance, and the Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999)
Nagl, John A. , Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2002)
National Defense Intelligence College , Interrogation: World War II, Vietnam, and Iraq (Washington: NDIC Press, 2008)
Naylor, Sean , Not A Good Day to Die (NY: Berkley Books, 2005)
Neier, Aryeh , War Crimes (NY: Times Books, 1998)
Netherlands Committee of the Red Cross , Protecting Human Dignity in Armed Conflict, (The Hague: Netherlands Red Cross, 2008)
Nolan, Keith William , Death Valley (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1987)
Northedge, F.S. , The League of Nations (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1986)
Nowak, Manfred and Elizabeth McArthur , The United Nations Convention Against Torture: A Commentary (NY: Oxford University Press, 2008)
O'Connell, Mary Ellen , The Power & Purpose of International Law (NY: Oxford University Press, 2008)
O'Donovan, Oliver , The Just War Revisited (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
O'Kane, VAdm. Richard H. , Wahoo (Novato, Ca: Presidio Press, 1987)
O'Keefe, Roger , The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006)
Oppenheim, Lassa F.L. , International Law, vol. II, 1st ed. (London: Longmans Green, 1906)
Oppenheim, Lassa F.L. , ed., The Collected Papers of John Westlake on Public International Law (Cambridge: University Press, 1914)
Oppenheim, Lassa F.L. , International Law, vol. II, 6th ed., rev., Hersch Lauterpacht , ed., Disputes, War and Neutrality (London: Longmans Green, 1944)
Oppenheim, Lassa F.L. , International Law: A Treatise, vol. II, Disputes, War and Neutrality, 7th ed., H. Lauterpacht , ed. (London: Longman, 1952)
Oppenheim, Lassa F.L. , International Law: A Treatise, vol. I, Peace (London: Longmans Green, 1967)
Osiel, Mark P. , Obeying Orders (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999)
Palmer, Gen. Bruce, Jr., The 25 Year War (NY: DaCapo Press, 1984)
Pantano, Capt. Ilario , Warlord (NY: Threshold Editions, 2006)
Paust, Jordan J. , Beyond the Law (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2007)
Peers, Lt. Gen. William R. , The My Lai Inquiry (NY: Norton, 1979)
Pictet, Jean S. , ed., Commentary, I Geneva Convention 1949, For the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field (Geneva: ICRC, 1952)
Pictet, Jean S. , ed., Commentary, IV Geneva Convention 1949, Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Geneva: ICRC, 1958)
Pictet, Jean S. , Commentary: III Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Geneva: ICRC, 1960)
Pictet, Jean S. , Humanitarian Law and the Protections of War Victims (Leyden: ICRC, 1975)
Pictet, Jean S. , International Humanitarian Law (Geneva: ICRC, 1985)
Pictet, Jean S. , Development and Principles of International Humanitarian Law (Leiden: Kluwer, 1985)
Pilloud, Claud , et al., eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols (Geneva: ICRC, 1987)
Posner, Richard A. , Not A Suicide Pact: The Constitution in A Time of National Emergency (NY: Oxford University Press, 2006)
Potter, E.B. , Nimitz (Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, 1976)
Powell, Colin L. , A Soldier's Way: An Autobiography (London: Hutchinson, 1995)
de Preux, Jean , Commentary: III Geneva Convention 1949, Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Geneva: ICRC, 1960)
Price, Frank J. , Troy H. Middleton: A Biography (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, 1974)
Prince, Cathryn J. , Shot From the Sky: American POWs in Switzerland (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2003)
Probert, Henry , Bomber Harris: His Life and Times (London: Greenhill Books, 2001)
Prugh, Maj. Gen. George S. , Law at War: Vietnam 1964–1973 (Washington: Dept. of the Army, 1975)
Ratner, Steven R. and Jason S. Abrams , Accountability For Human Rights Atrocities In International Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997)
Ratner, Steven R. and Jason S. Abrams , Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001)
Reel, A. Frank , The Case of General Yamashita (NY: Octagon Books, 1971)
Reichberg, Gregory M. , Henrik Syse , and Endre Begby , eds., The Ethics of War (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006)
Reydams, Luc , Universal Jurisdiction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Reynolds, Col. Nicholas E. , Basrah, Baghdad, and Beyond (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2005)
Ricks, Thomas E. , Fiasco (NY: Penguin, 2006)
Roberts, Adam and Richard Guelff , Documents on the Law of War, 3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)
Rochester, Stuart I. and Frederick Kiley , Honor Bound (Washington: Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense, 1998)
Rodley, Nigel S. , The Treatment of Prisoners Under International Law, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Rogers, Maj Gen A.V.P. , Law on the Battlefield, 2nd ed. (Huntington, NY: Juris/Manchester, 2004), 216.
Rommel, Erwin, B.H. Liddell Hart , ed., The Rommel Papers (London: Collins, 1953)
Rosenne, Shabtai , ed., The Hague Peace Conference of 1899 and 1907: Reports and Documents (The Hague, Asser Press, 2001)
Roth, Kenneth , Minky Worden , and Amy Bernstein , eds., Torture (NY: The New Press, 2005)
Rowe, Peter , The Impact of Human Rights Law on Armed Forces (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2006)
Ryan, Cornelius , A Bridge Too Far (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1974)
Safire, William , Safire's New Political Dictionary (New York: Random House, 1993)
Sanchez, Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. , Wiser in Battle (NY: Harpers, 2008)
Sandoz, Yves , Christophe Swinarski , and Bruno Zimmermann , eds., Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (Geneva: ICRC, 1987)
San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea (San Remo: International Institute of Humanitarian Law, 1994)
Sassaman, Lt. Col. Nathan , Warrior King (NY: St. Martin's Press, 2008)
Schabas, William A. , An Introduction to the International Criminal Court (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)
Schabas, William A. , The UN International Criminal Tribunals (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2006)
Schmitt, Michael N. and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007)
Schneider, Berry R. and Lawrence E. Grinter , eds., Battlefield of the Future: 21st Century Warfare Issues (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Warfare College, Sept. 1995)
Schwarzenberger, Georg , International Law: As Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, vol. II, The Law of Armed Conflict (London: Stevens & Sons, 1968)
Scott, James Brown , ed., The Hague Conventions and Declarations of 1899 and 1907 (NY: Oxford University Press, 1918)
Scott, James Brown , The Proceedings of the Hague Peace Conference (Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, Reprint, 2007)
Shirer, William L. , The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1960)
Simmons, Edwin Howard , The United States Marines: A History, 4th ed. (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003)
Sledge, Eugene , With the Old Breed at Peleliu and Okinawa (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1981)
Smith, Gen. Rupert , The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World (NY: Knopf, 2007)
Solis, Lt. Col. Gary D. , Marines and Military Law in Vietnam (Washington: GPO/USMC, 1989)
Sorley, Lewis , Thunderbolt (Washington: Brassey's, 1998)
Spaight, J.M. , Air Power and the Cities (London: Longmans & Green, 1930)
Spaight, J.M. , Air Power and War Rights, 3rd ed. (London: Longmans & Green, 1947)
Steiner, Henry J. and Philip Alston , International Human Rights in Context, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)
Stevens, Paul Drew , ed., The Congressional Medal of Honor: The Names, the Deeds (Forest Ranch, CA: Sharp & Dunnigan, 1984)
Stockdale, VAdm. James B. , Stockdale on Stoicism II: Master of My Fate (Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Academy, Center for the Study of Professional Military Ethics, Occasional Paper Number 2, 1996)
Stockdale, VAdm. James B. , Thoughts of A Philosophical Fighter Pilot (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1995)
Stockdale, VAdm. James B . and Sybil Stockdale , In Love and War (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1990)
Storey, Moorfield and Julian Codman , Secretary Root's Record: “Marked Severities” in Philippine Warfare (Boston: Ellis Co., 1902)
Stromseth, Jane , David Wippman , and Rosa Brooks , Can Right Make Rights? (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2006)
Sweetman, John , The Dambusters Raid (London: Arms and Armour, 1990)
Swinarski, Christophe , ed., Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles, in Honour of Jean Pictet (Geneva: ICRC, 1984)
Taylor, Sean , Not A Good Day to Die (NY: Berkley Books, 2005)
Taylor, Telford , Final Report to the Secretary of the Army on the Nuernberg War Crimes Trials Under Control Council Law No. 10 (Washington D.C./Buffalo NY: Hein reprint, 1949/1997)
Taylor, Telford , Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1970)
Taylor, Telford , The Anatomy of the Nuermberg Trials (NY: Knopf, 1992)
Thomas, A.R. and J.C. Duncan , eds., Annotated Supplement to the Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1999)
Thomas, Lowell , With Lawrence In Arabia (London: Hutchison, 1927)
Thursfield, J.R. Oxford Manual of Naval War (Cambridge: Putnam, 1913)
Timberg, Robert , The Nightingale's Song (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1995)
Tomuschat, Christian , Human Rights: Between Idealism and Realism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)
Trotter, William R. , The Winter War: The Russo-Finnish War of 1939–40 (London: Aurum, 1991)
Tucker, Jonathan B. , War of Nerves (NY: Pantheon, 2006)
United Kingdom Ministry of Defense , The Law of War on Land: Part III of the Manual of Military Law (London: HMSO, 1958)
Urwin, Gregory J.W. , Facing Fearful Odds (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997)
van Baarda, Th.A. and D.E.M. Verweij , Military Ethics: the Dutch Approach (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006)
van Creveld, Martin , The Transformation of War (NY: Free Press, 1991)
Vandiver, Frank E. , Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing, vol. II (College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press, 1977)
Vattel, Emmerich , The Law of Nations, or, Principles of the Law of Nature (Northhampton, MA: Thomas M. Pomroy for S. & E. Butler, 1805)
Verri, Pietro , Dictionary of the International Law of Armed Conflict (Geneva: ICRC, 1992)
Vitug, Marites D. and Glenda M. Gloria , Under the Crescent Moon: Rebellion in Mindanao (Quezon City, RP.: Institute for Popular Democracy, 2000)
von Clausewitz, Carl , On War, A. Rapoport , ed. (London: Penguin Books, 1982)
von Clousewits, Carl Michael Howard and Peter Paret , eds. and trans. (New York: Knopf, Everyman's Library, 1993)
Wall, Andru E. , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002)
Walzer, Michael , Arguing About War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004)
Walzer, Michael , Just and Unjust Wars, 3rd ed. (NY: Basic Books, 2000)
Wasserstrom, Richard , ed., War and Morality (Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1970)
Watkins, John C., Jr., and John P. Weber , War Crimes and War Crime Trials: From Leipzig to the ICC and Beyond (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2006)
Weigley, Russell F. , Eisenhower's Lieutenants (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981)
Weintraub, Stanley , Silent Night (NY: Free Press, 2001)
Wells, Donald A. , The Laws of Land Warfare: A Guide to the U.S. Army Manuals (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992)
Werrell, Kenneth P. , Blankets of Fire (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996)
West, Bing , No True Glory (NY: Bantam, 2006)
Wighton, Charles , Hitler's Most Evil Henchman (London: Odhams Press, 1962)
Williams, Sharon A. , The International and National Protection of Movable Cultural Property: A Comparative Study (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1978)
Wilson, Richard Ashby , ed., Human Rights in the ‘War on Terror’ (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
Winthrop, Col. William , Military Law and Precedents, 2nd ed. (Washington: GPO, 1920)
Wippman, David and Matthew Evangelista , eds. New Wars, New Laws? Applying the Laws of War in 21st Century Conflicts (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2005)
Woodward, Bob , State of Denial (NY: Simon & Schuster, 2006)
Xenophon , Hellenica, Books I-V, Carlton L. Brownson trans. (London: William Heinemann, 1918)
Yoo, John , War By Other Means (NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006)
Young, Brig. Desmond , Rommel, The Desert Fox (NY: Harper & Brothers, 1950)
Zegveld, Liesbeth , The Accountability of Armed Opposition Groups in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002)
Zucchino, David , Thunder Run (NY: Grove Press, 2004)

Reference Title: U.S. Government and UN Publications Cited

Reference Type: reference-list

Anderson, Maj. Marie and Emily Zukauskas , eds., Operational Law Handbook, 2008 (Charlottesville: Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School, 2008)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 5810, “Implementation of the DOD Law of War Program,” 12 Aug. 1996, para. 4. Policy
Implementation of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 60/251, “Human Rights Council” Report of Commission of Inquiry on Lebanon (15 March 2006)
Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Army General Orders 100 of 24 April 1863)
A Manual for Courts-Martial, Courts of Inquiry and Other Procedure Under Military Law (Washington: GPO, 1916)
Manual for Courts-Martial United States, 1969 (Revised edition) (Washington: GPO, 1969)
Manual for Courts-Martial United States (Washington: GPO, 2008)
Newcomb, Cdr. Mark E. , ed., Law of War Workshop Deskbook (Charlottesville, VA, The Judge Advocate General's School, 1997)
2005 Operational Law Handbook (Charlottesville, VA: Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School, International and Operational Law Dept., 2005)
Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Security Council Resolution 808 (1993) U.N. doc. S/25704 of 3 May 1993
Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, vol. I (Nuremberg: IMT, 1947)
Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals, vols. IV, VI, VIII, and XI (Washington: GPO, 1948, 1950, 1951, 1952)
United Kingdom, Ministry of Defense , The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
United Nations , The Charter and Judgment of the Nurnberg Tribunal: History and Analysis (NY: UNGA, 1949)
United Nations , Chemical and Bacteriological (Biological) Weapons and the Effects of Their Possible Use (NY: UN, 1969)
1968 United Nations Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, UN Juridical Y. B. (1968)
United Nations , Historical Survey of the Question of International Criminal Jurisdiction (Lake Success, NY: U.N.G.A., 1949)
United Nations War Crimes Commission , History of the United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Development of the Laws of War (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1948)
United Nations War Crimes Commission , Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, vols. I, III, IV, V, XI, XIII, IX, and XI (London: UN, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950)
United Nations , Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1950, vol. II (Lake Success NY: UNGA, 1952)
U.S. Army Field Manual 3-24 and Marine Corps Warfighting Publication 3-33.5, U.S. Army-Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
U.S. Army , Report of the Dept. of the Army Review of the Preliminary Investigation Into the My Lai Incident, vol. 2, book 16 (Pentagon: Dept. of the Army, n.d.)
U.S. Department of the Air Force , The United States Strategic Bombing Surveys (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press reprint, 1987)
U.S. Department of the Air Force , Commander's Handbook on the Law of Armed Conflict (AFP 110-34) (1980)
U.S. Department of the Army , The Army Lawyer: A History of the Judge Advocate General's Corps, 1775–1975 (Washington: GPO, 1975)
U.S. Department of the Army, Field Manual (FM) 2-22.3, Human Intelligence Collection Operations (Washington: GPO, 2006)
U.S. Department of the Army, FM 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare (Washington: GPO, 1956)
U.S. Department of the Army, Office of The Surgeon, Multinational Force – Iraq; and, Office of The Surgeon General, United States Army Medical Command, Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) IV, Operation Iraqi Freedom 05-07, FINAL REPORT (17 Nov. 2006)
U.S. Department of the Army Pamphlet 20-213, History of Prisoner of War Utilization by the United States Army 1776–1945 (Washington: GPO, 1955)
U.S. Department of the Army Pamphlet 27-9, Military Judge's Benchbook (30 Sept. 1996)
U.S. Department of the Army Pamphlet 27-161-2, International Law, vol. II (Washington: GPO, 1962)
U.S. Department of Defense , Conduct of the Persian Gulf War: Final Report to Congress (Washington: GPO, 1992)
U.S. Department of Defense, Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Washington: GPO, 2001, amended through 17 Oct. 2008)
U.S. Department of Defense, Joint Publication 3-36, Detainee Operations, (6 February 2008)
U.S. Department of the Navy , U.S. Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (NWP 1-14M), (Washington: GPO, 1995)
U.S. Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 4-11.8B, War Crimes (2005)
U.S. War Department , Rules of Land Warfare, 1914 (Washington: GPO, 1914)
U.S. War Department , The Military Laws of the United States, 1915, 5th ed. (Washington: GPO, 1917)
World Health Organization , Health Aspects of the Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons (Geneva: WHO, 1970)
24th Mechanized Infantry Division Combat Team , Historical Reference Book: A Collection of Historical Letters, Briefings, Orders, and Other Miscellaneous Documents Pertaining to the Defense of Saudi Arabia and the Attack to Free Kuwait (Ft. Stewart, GA, 1991), vol. 1

Reference Title: Articles Cited

Reference Type: reference-list

Abi-Saab, Georges , “The Proper Role of Universal Jurisdiction,” 1-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 596 (Dec. 2003)
Akhavan, Payam , “Reconciling Crimes Against Humanity with the Law of War,” 6-1 J. of Int'l Crim L. 21 (March 2008)
Aldrich, George H. , “Some Reflections on the Origins of the 1977 Geneva Protocols,” in Christophe Swinarski , ed., Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles, in Honour of Jean Pictet (Geneva: ICRC, 1984)
Aldrich, George H. , “Prospects for United States Ratification of Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions,” 85 AJIL 1 (1991).
Aldrich, George H. , “From the St. Petersburg Declaration to the Modern Law of War,” in Nicolas Borsinger , ed., 125th Anniversary of the 1868 Declaration of St. Petersburg (Geneva: ICRC, 1994)
Aldrich, George H. , “Comments on the Geneva Protocols,” 320 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, n.p. (31 Oct. 1997)
Aldrich, George H. , “Symposium: The Hague Peace Conferences: Introduction,” 94-1 AJIL 1 (Jan. 2000).
Aldrich, George H. , “The Taliban, al Qaeda, and the Determination of Illegal Combatants, 96-4 AJIL 891, (Oct. 2002)
Aldrich, George H. , (reviewing David Wippman and Matthew Evangelista , eds., New Wars, New Laws? 100-2 AJIL 496 (April 2006).)
Ambos, Kai , “May A State Torture Suspects to Save the Life of Innocents?” 6-2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 261 (May 2008)
Arbour, Louise , “Will the ICC Have an Impact on Universal Jurisdiction,” 1-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 585 (Dec. 2003)
Arbour, Louise , “Legal Professionalism and International Criminal Proceedings,” 4-4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 674 (Sept. 2006).
Askin, Kelly D. , “A Decade of the Development of Gender Crimes in International Courts and Tribunals: 1993 to 2003,” 11-3 Human Rights Brief 16 (American U. Washington College of L., Spring 2004)
Bachelet, Jean-René , “Address by General Jean-René Bachelet,” 870 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 215 (June 2008)
Banks, William C. and Peter Raven-Hansen , “Targeted Killing and Assassination: The U.S. Legal Framework,” 37 U. Richmond L. Rev. 667 (2002–2003)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif , “Justice and Peace: The Importance of Choosing Accountability Over Realpolitik,” 35-2 Case Western Reserve J. of Int'l L. 191, 193 (Spring 2003)
Battle, George G. , “The Trials Before the Leipzig Supreme Court of Germans Accused of War Crimes,” 8 Va. L. Rev., 1 (1921)
Baxter, Maj. Richard R. , “The Municipal and International Law Basis of Jurisdiction Over War Crimes,” 28 BYIL 382 (1951)
Baxter, Maj. Richard R. , “So-called ‘Unprivileged Belligerency’: Spies, Guerrillas, and Saboteurs,” 28 Brit. Y.B. Int'l L. 323 (1951)
Baxter, Maj. Richard R. , “The First Modern Codification of the Law of War,” part I, 25 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 171, 183 (April 1963)
Baxter, Maj. Richard R. , “The First Modern Codification of the Law of War,” part II, 26 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 234 (May 1963)
Baxter, Maj. Richard R. , “Modernizing the Law of War,” 78 Military L. R. 165 (1978)
Beard, Jack M. , “The Geneva Boomerang: The Military Commissions Act of 2006 and U.S. Counterterror Operations,” 101-1 AJIL 56 (Jan. 2007)
Beard, Jack M. , “The Shortcomings of Indeterminacy in Armed Control Regimes: The Case of the Biological Weapons Convention,” 101-2 AJIL 271 (April 2007)
Bederman, David J. , ed., “International Decisions,” 103-1 AJIL (Jan. 2009)
Bellinger, John B., III and William J. Haynes II, “A US Government Response to the International Committee of the Red Cross Study Customary International Humanitarian Law,” 866 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 443 (June 2007)
Ben-Naftali, O. and K.R. Michaeli , “We Must Not Make A Scarecrow of the Law: A Legal Analysis of the Israeli Policy of Targeted Killings,” 36 Cornell Int'l L. J., 233 (2003)
Bernstein, Barton J. , “Why We Didn't Use Poison Gas in World War II,” 36-5 American Heritage 40 (Aug./Sept. 1985)
Best, Geoffrey , “The Restraint of War in Historical and Philosophic Perspective,” in Astrid J.M. Delissen and Gerard J. Tanja , eds., Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict Challenges Ahead. (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991)
Boelaert-Suominen, Sonja , “Grave Breaches, Universal Jurisdiction and Internal Armed Conflict: Is Customary Law Moving Towards A Uniform Enforcement Mechanism for All Armed Conflicts?” 5-1 J. Conflict & Security L. 63 (June 2000)
Bonafé, Beatrice I. , “Finding a Proper Role for Command Responsibility,” 5-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 599 (July 2007)
Borch, Col. Frederic L. , “Targeting After Kosovo: Has the Law Changed for Strike Planners?” Vol. LVI-2 Naval War College Rev. 64 (Spring 2003)
Borrie, John , “The ‘Long Year’: Emerging International Efforts to Address the Humanitarian Impacts of Cluster Munitions, 2006–2007,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., YIHL, vol. 10, 2007 (The Hague: Asser Press, 2009)
Borum, Randy , “Approaching Truth: Behavioral Science Lessons on Educing Information from Human Sources,” in Educing Information: Interrogation: Science and Art (Washington: National Defense Intelligence College, 2006)
Bothe, Michael , “Targeting,” in Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002)
Bowden, Mark , “The Dark Art of Interrogation,” Atlantic Monthly (Oct. 2003)
Bowden, Mark , “The Ploy,” The Atlantic (May 2007)
Brady, Helen and Barbara Goy , “Current Developments in the Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunals,” 6-3 J. of Int'l. Crim. Justice 569 (1998)
Brinn, Lt. Col. Rufus T. , “U.S. Policy and the Uncertain State of Military Usage of Riot Control Agents” (U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA Strategic Research Project, 1998)
Buergenthal, Thomas , “The Evolving International Human Rights System,” 100-4 AJIL 783, 785 (Oct. 2006)
Burchard, Christoph , “Torture in the Jurisprudence of the Ad Hoc Tribunals,” in 6-2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice, 159 (May 2008)
Burnett, Lt. Cmdr. Weston D. , “Command Responsibility and a Case Study of the Criminal Responsibility of Israeli Military Commanders for the Pogrom at Shatila and Sabra,” 107 Mil. L. Rev. 71 (1985)
Cannizzaro, Enzo , “Contextualizing Proportionality: jus ad bellum and jus in bello in the Lebanese War,” 864 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 779 (Dec. 2006)
Carnahan, Burris M. , “Lincoln, Lieber and the Laws of War: The Origins and Limits of the Principle of Military Necessity,” 92-2 AJIL 213 (April 1998)
Caron, David D. , “War and International Adjudication: Reflections on the 1899 Peace Conference,” 94-4 AJIL 4 (2000)
Cassese, Antonio , “The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Some Preliminary Reflections,” 10-1 European J. of Int'l L. 144 (1999)
Cassese, Antonio , “Under What Conditions May Belligerents be Acquitted of the Crime of Attacking an Ambulance?” 6-2 J. of Int'l Crim Justice 385 (May 2008)
Cassese, Antonio , “The Italian Court of Cassation Misapprehends the Notion of War Crimes,” 6-3 J. of Int'l. Crim. Justice 1077 (Nov. 2008)
Cavaleri, Lt. Col. David P. , “The Law of War: Can 20th-Century Standards Apply to the Global War on Terrorism?” (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2005)
Center for Law And Military Operations (CLAMO) , “Rules of Engagement: What Are They and Where Do They Come From?” Marine Corps Gazette (April 2002)
Center for Law And Military Operations (CLAMO) , “‘ROE’ Rhymes With ‘We’,” Marine Corps Gazette (Sept. 2002)
Chomsky, Carol , “The United States-Dakota War Trials: A Study in Military Justice,” 43 Stanford L. Rev. 13 (1990)
Clapham, Andrew , “Extending International Criminal Law Beyond the Individual to Corporations and Armed Opposition Groups,” 6-5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 899 (Nov. 2008)
Clark, R.S. , “Medina: An Essay on the Principles of Criminal Liability for Homicide,” 5 Rutgers-Camden L. J. 59 (1975)
Cobb, Capt. James T. , 1st Lt. Christopher A. LaCour and SFC William H. Hight , “TF 2-2 in FSE AAR: Indirect Fires in the Battle of Fallujah,” Field Artillery, 23 (March–April 2005)
Coil, George L. , “War Crimes in the American Revolution,” 82 Mil. L. Rev. 171, 197 (1978)
Commentator , “The Spanish Indictment of High-ranking Rwandan Officials,” 6-5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 1003 (Nov. 2008)
Corn, Maj. Geoffrey , “International and Operational Law Note,” The Army Lawyer (July 1998)
Corn, Maj. Geoffrey , “International and Operational Law Note; Principle 2: Distinction,” The Army Lawyer (Aug. 1998)
Corn, Maj. Geoffrey , “International and Operational Law Note: Principle 4: Preventing Unnecessary Suffering,” The Army Lawyer (Nov. 1998)
Corn, Maj. Geoffrey , “‘Snipers in the Minaret – What Is the Rule?’ The Law of War and the Protection of Cultural Property: A Complex Equation,” The Army Lawyer (July 2005)
Correa, Cristián , “Waterboarding Prisoners and Justifying Torture: Lessons for the U.S. from the Chilean Experience,” 14-2 Human Rights Brief 21 (Winter 2007), Washington: Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, American University, Washington College of Law (Winter 2007)
Crook, John R. , ed., “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law,” 99-2 AJIL (April 2005)
Crook, John R. , “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law: United States Supports Geneva Convention Protocol Authorizing New Emblem,” 100-1 AJIL 244 (2006)
Crook, John R. , “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law: United States Seeks Limits on Persistent and Non-detectable Landmines,” 100-3 AJIL 690 (July 2006)
Crook, John R. , “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law: United States Policy Regarding Landmines,” 102-1 AJIL 190 (Jan. 2008)
Crook, John R. , “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law: President Vetoes Legislation to Limit CIA Interrogation Methods,” 102-3 AJIL 650 (July 2008)
Crook, John R. , “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law: United States Opposes Ban on Cluster Munitions,” 102-4 AJIL 889 (Oct. 2008)
Crook, John R. , “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law: United States Responds to ICRC Study on Customary International Law,” 101-3 AJIL 639 (2009)
Cryer, Robert , “The Boundaries of Liability in International Criminal Law, or ‘Selectivity by Stealth’,” 6-1 Conflict & Security L. 3 (June 2001)
Cryer, Robert , “Of Custom, Treaties, Scholars and the Gavel: The Influence of the International Criminal Tribunals on the ICRC Customary Law Study,” 11-2 J. of Conflict & Security L. 239 (Summer 2006)
D'Amato, Anthony , “Editorial Comment,” 84-3 AJIL 705 (July 1990)
Danelski, David J. , “The Saboteur's Case,” vol. 1, J. of S. Ct. History (1996)
Daniel, Aubrey M.. III, “The Defense of Superior Orders, 7-3 U. Rich. L. Rev., 477 (Spring 1973)
Davis, George B. , “The Geneva Convention of 1906,” 1-2 AJIL 409 (April 1907)
Davis, Col. (Dr.) Jim A. , USAF, “The Looming Biological Warfare Storm,” Air & Space Power J., 57 (Spring 2003)
Davis, Robert S. , “Escape from Andersonville: A Study in Isolation and Imprisonment,” 67-4 J. of Military History 1065 (Oct. 2003)
de Belle, Stéphanie Bouchié , “Chained to Cannons or Wearing Targets on Their T-Shirts,” 872 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 883 (Dec. 2008)
Dehn, Maj. John C. , “Permissible Perfidy,” 6-4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 627 (Sept. 2008)
Dehn, Maj. John C. , “Why Article 5 Status Determinations are not ‘Required’ at Guantanamo,” 6-2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice, 371 (May 2008)
Demarest, Geoff , “In Columbia – A Terrorist Sanctuary?” Military Review, n.p. (March–April 2002)
Dennis, Michael J. , “Current Developments: Newly Adopted Protocols To the Convention on the Rights of the Child,” 94-4 AJIL 789 (Oct. 2000)
DeVour, R. , “Possible Psychological and Societal Effects of Sudden Permanent Blindness of Military Personnel Caused by Battlefield Use of Laser Weapons,” in Louise Doswald-Beck , ed., Blinding Weapons (Geneva: ICRC, 1993)
Dinstein, Yoram , “Human Rights in Armed Conflict,” in Theodor Meron , ed., Human Rights in International Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984)
Dinstein, Yoram , “The Distinction Between Unlawful Combatants and War Criminals,” in Yoram Dinstein , ed., International Law at a Time of Perplexity (Dordrecht: Nijhoff Publishers, 1989)
Dinstein, Yoram , “Comments on Protocol I,” 320 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 515 (Oct. 1997)
Dinstein, Yoram , “Discussion: Reasonable Military Commanders and Reasonable Civilians,” in Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002)
Dinstein, Yoram , “Legitimate Military Objectives Under The Current Jus In Bello,” in Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002)
Dinstein, Yoram , “ Ius ad Bellum Aspects of the ‘War on Terrorism,’” in Wybo P. Heere , ed., Terrorism and the Military (The Hague: Asser Press, 2003)
Dinstein, Yoram , “Unlawful Combatancy,” in Fred L. Boch and Paul S. Wilson , eds., International Law Studies, vol. 79; International Law and the War on Terror (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2003)
Dorf, Michael C. , “The Orwellian Military Commissions Act of 2006,” 5-1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice, 10 (March 2007)
Dörmann, Knut , “The Legal Situation of ‘Unlawful/Unprivileged Combatants,’” 85 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 45 (March 2003)
Doswald-Beck, Louise , “New Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons,” 312 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 272 (May–June 1996)
Doswald-Beck, Louise , “International Humanitarian Law and the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons,” 316 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 33 (1997)
Doswald-Beck, Louise , and Sylvain Vité , “International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law,” 293 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 94 (April 1993)
The Dover Castle Case, 16 Am. J. Int'l L. 704 (1921)
Downey, William H. , “The Law of War and Military Necessity,” 47-2 AJIL 251 (April 1953)
Draper, G.I.A.D. , “The Interaction of Christianity and Chivalry In the Historical Development of the Laws of War,” 5 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 3 (1965)
Draper, G.I.A.D. , “The Development of International Humanitarian Law,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflict (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998)
Draper, G.I.A.D. , “Development of the Law of War,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflict (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998)
Draper, G.I.A.D. , “The Historical Background and General Principles of the Geneva Conventions of 1949,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , Reflections on Law and Armed Conflict (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998)
Draper, G.I.A.D. , “Personnel and Issues of Status,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflicts (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998)
Draper, G.I.A.D. , “Rules Governing the Conduct of Hostilities – the Laws of War and Their Enforcement,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds. Reflections on Law and Armed Conflicts (The Hague: Kluwer Law, 1998)
Draper, G.I.A.D. , “War Criminality,” in Michael A. Meyer and Hilaire McCoubrey , eds., Reflections on Law and Armed Conflicts (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998)
Droege, Cordula , “‘In Truth the Leitmotiv’: The Prohibition of Torture and Other Forms of Ill-Treatment in International Humanitarian Law.” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 515 (Sept. 2007)
Droege, Cordula , “Elective Affinities? Human Rights and Humanitarian Law,” 871 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 501 (Sept. 2008)
Dunlap, BGen. Charles , “The End of Innocence: Rethinking Noncombatancy in the Post-Kosovo Era,” Strategic Rev. 14 (Summer 2000)
Durham, Helen , “International Humanitarian Law and the Gods of War: The Story of Athena Versus Ares,” 8-2 Melbourne J. of Int'l L. 248 (2007)
Duxbury, Alison , “Drawing Lines in the Sand – Characterising Conflicts For the Purposes of Teaching International Humanitarian Law,” 8-2 Melbourne J. of Int'l L. 258 (2007)
Eckhardt, Col. William G. , “Command Criminal Responsibility: A Plea For A Workable Standard.” 97 Military L. Rev. 10 (1982)
Edman, Angela J. , “Crimes of Sexual Violence in the War Crimes Chamber of the State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Successes and Challenges,” 16-1 Human Rights Brief 21 American U. Washington College of L. (Spring 2004)
Edwards, Alice , “The Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture and the Detention of Refugees,” 57-4 Int'l and Comp. L. Quarterly 789 (2008)
Eflein, Maj. Dawn R. , “A Case Study of Rules of Engagement in Joint Operations,” 44 A.F.L. Rev. 33 (Jan. 1998)
Eichensehr, Kristen , “On the Offensive: Assassination Policy Under International Law,” 25(3) Harvard Int'l Rev. (Fall 2003)
Fenrick, William J. , “The Rule of Proportionality and Protocol I in Conventional Warfare,” 98 Military L. Rev. 91 (Fall 1982)
Fenrick, William J. , “The Conventional Weapons Convention: A Modest but Useful Treaty,” 279 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 498 (1990)
Ferdinandusse, Ward , “On the Question of Dutch Courts' Universal Jurisdiction,” 4-4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 881 (Sept. 2006)
Ferrell, Maj. William H. III, “No Shirt, No Shoes, No Status: Uniforms, Distinction, and Special Operations in International Armed Conflict,” 178 Military L. Rev. 94 (Winter 2003)
Fichtelberg, Aaron , “Liberal Values in International Criminal Law: A Critique of Erdemović,” 6-1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 3 (March 2008)
Fidler, David P. , “The Meaning of Moscow: ‘Non-lethal’ Weapons and International Law in the Early 21st Century,” 859 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 525 (Sept. 2005)
Fidler, David P. , “The Use of White Phosphorus Munitions by U.S. Military Forces in Iraq, ASIL Insights (6 Dec. 2005), at http://www.asil.org/insights051206.cfm
Fischer, Horst , “Television Footage of Prisoners of War: From Violations to War Crimes,” Bofaxe, No. 244E (24 March 2003)
Fisher, Don C. and John E. Doerr , “Outline of Events in the History of the Modoc War,” Crater Lake Nat'l Park Nature Notes (Aug. 1937)
Fletcher, George P. , “Against Universal Jurisdiction,” 1-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 580 (Dec. 2003)
Fletcher, George P. , “The Indefinable Concept of Terrorism,” 4 J. of Int'l Criminal Justice 894 (Nov. 2006)
Fontenot, Col. Gregory , LTC E.J. Degen , and LTC David Tohn , On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2004)
Franck, Thomas M. , “The Taliban, al Qaeda, and the Determination of Illegal Combatants,” 96-4 AJIL 891 (Oct. 2002)
Franck, Thomas M. , “On Proportionality of Countermeasures in International Law,” 102-4 AJIL 715 (Oct. 2008)
Garcia, Michael John , “The War Crimes Act: Current Issues,” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Order Code RS22504 (15 Sept. 2006)
Gardam, Judith Gail , “Proportionality and Force in International Law,” 87-3 AJIL 391 (July 1993)
Gariepy, Maj. Steven A. , “On Self-Defense,” (2008) (Unpublished paper in partial fulfillment of Master of Laws degree, Judge Advocate General's Legal Center and School)
Garner, J.W. , “Punishment of Offenders Against the Laws and Customs of War,” 14 AJIL, 70 (1920)
Garraway, Charles H.B. , “Superior Orders and the International Criminal Court: Justice Delivered or Justice Denied,” 836 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 785 (Dec. 1999)
Garraway, Charles H.B. , “Discussion: Reasonable Military Commanders and Reasonable Civilians,” in Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002)
Garraway, Charles H.B. , “‘England Does Not Love Coalitions.’ Does Anything Change?” in Anthony M. Helm , ed., International Law Studies, Vol. 82, The Law of War in the 21st Century: Weaponry and the Use of Force (Newport RI: Naval War College, 2006)
Garraway, Charles H.B. , “The ‘War on Terror’: Do the Rules Need Changing?” 3 Chatham House (2006)
Garraway, Charles H.B. , “‘Combatants’ – Substance or Semantics?,” in Michael Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007)
Gasser, Hans-Peter , “An Appeal for Ratification by the United States,” 81 AJIL (Oct. 1987)
Gasser, Hans-Peter , “Acts of Terror, ‘Terrorism’ and International Humanitarian Law,” 847 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 547 (Sept. 2002)
Gazzini, Tarcisio , “A Response to Amos Guiora: Pre-Emptive Self-Defence Against Non-State Actors?” 13-1 J. of Conflict & Security L. 25 (Spring 2008)
Geiß, Robin , “Asymmetric Conflict Structures,” 864 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 757 (Dec. 2006)
“German War Trials: Judgment in Case of Commander Karl Neumann,” 16-4 AJIL 704-08 (Oct. 1922)
Gill, Terry D. , “The Eleventh of September and the Right of Self-Defense,” in Wybo P. Heere , ed., Terrorism and the Military (The Hague: Asser Press, 2003)
Glasser, H.P. , “Prohibition of Terrorist Acts in International Humanitarian Law,” Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (1986)
Goldblat, Jozef , “The Biological Weapons Convention – An Overview,” 318 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 251 (June 1997)
Goldman, Robert K. and Brian D. Tittemore , “Unprivileged Combatants and the Hostilities in Afghanistan: Their Status and Rights Under International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law,” ASIL Task Force on Terrorism report (Dec. 2002)
Goldstone, Richard , “The Tension Between Combating Terrorism and Protecting Civil Liberties,” in Richard Ashby Wilson , ed., Human Rights in the ‘War on Terror’ (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005)
Goodman, Ryan , “Editorial Comment: The Detention of Civilians in Armed Conflict,” 103-1 AJIL 48 (Jan. 2009)
Graham, Col. David E. , USA, “The Law of Armed Conflict and the War on Terrorism,” in Richard B. Jaques , ed., International Law Studies: Issues in International Law and Military Operations, vol. 80 (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2006)
Granovsky, Maria , “When the Right Action is Illegal: Russian Use of Toxic Chemicals to End the Theater Hostage Crisis in October 2002,” unpublished seminar research paper, Georgetown University Law Center (May 2003)
Grant, Rebecca , “An Air War Like No Other,” Air Force (Nov. 2002)
Green, Leslie C. , “Aftermath of Vietnam: War Law and the Soldier,” in Richard A. Falk , ed., The Vietnam War and International Law, vol. 4 (NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976)
Green, Leslie C. , “‘Grave Breaches’ or Crimes Against Humanity,” 8 J. of Legal Studies 19 (1997–1998)
Greenwood, Christopher , “Customary Law Status of the 1977 Geneva Protocols,” in Astrid J.M. Delissen and Gerard J. Tanja , eds., Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict Challenges Ahead. (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991)
Greenwood, Christopher , “Scope of Application of Humanitarian Law,” in Dieter Fleck , ed., The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflict, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)
Grunawalt, Richard J. , “The JCS Standing Rules of Engagement: A Judge Advocate's Primer,” Air Force L. Rev. 245 (1997)
Hampson, Françoise J. , “The Relationship Between International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law from the Perspective of A Human Rights Treaty Body,” 871 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 549, 550 (Sept. 2008)
Hansen, Maj. Michelle A. , “Preventing the Emasculation of Warfare: Halting the Expansion of Human Rights Law into Armed Conflict,” 194 Military L. Rev. 1 (Winter 2007)
Hanson, Victor Davis , “The Right Man,” in Robert Cowley , ed., No End Save Victory (NY: Putnam, 2001)
Harel, Alon and Assaf Sharon , “What is Really Wrong With Torture?” 6-2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 241 (May 2008)
Hersh, Seymour M. , “Overwhelming Force,” The New Yorker (22 May 2000)
Hersh, Seymour M. , “King's Ransom: How Vulnerable Are the Saudi Royals,” New Yorker (22 Sept. 2001)
Hersh, Seymour M. , “Manhunt,” The New Yorker (Dec. 23 & 30, 2002)
Hersh, Seymour M. , “The General's Report,” The New Yorker (25 June 2007)
Hershey, Amos S. , “History of International Law Since the Peace of Westphalia,” 6 AJIL 31 (1912)
Hladík, Jan , “The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and the Notion of Military Necessity,” 835 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 621 (Sept. 1999)
Hoffman, Michael H. , “Rescuing the Law of War: A Way Forward in an Era of Global Terrorism,” Parameters (Summer 2005)
Human Rights Watch , “Ticking Time Bombs: NATO's Use of Cluster Munitions in Yugoslavia,” Human Rights Watch Report 11-6(D), (June 1999)
ICRC , “Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law,” 872 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2008)
International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, Judgment and Sentences , 1946, 41 AJIL 172, 248–9 (1947)
Jackson, Richard B. , “Lasers Are Lawful as Non-Lethal Weapons,” The Army Lawyer, 15 (Aug. 2006)
Jacobs, Cmdr. Jan C. , “U.S. Naval Aviation and Weapon Development in Review,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (May 2008)
Jacobsen, Lt. Cmdr. Walter L. , “A Juridical Examination of the Israeli Attack on the U.S.S. Liberty ,” 36 Naval L. Rev. 1 (Winter 1986)
Jain, Neha , “Forced Marriage as a Crime Against Humanity,” 6-5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 1013 (Nov. 2008)
Jescheck, Hans-Heinrich , “The General Principles of International Criminal Law Set Out in Nuremberg, as Mirrored in the ICC Statute,” 2-1 J. of Int'l Crim L. 38 (March 2004)
Jessberger, Florian , “Bad Torture – Good Torture?” 3-5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 1059 (Nov. 2005)
Jinks, Derek , “The Applicability of the Geneva Conventions to the ‘Global War on Terrorism’,” 46-1 Virginia J. of Int'l L. 1 (2006)
Jochnick, Chris af and Roger Normand , “The Legitimation of Violence: A Critical History of the Laws of War,” 35-1 Harvard Int'l L. J. 49 (Winter 1994)
Johnson, Loch K. , “On Drawing A Bright Line for Covert Operations,” 86-2 AJIL 284 (April 1992)
Kalshoven, Frits , “The Conference of Government Experts on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts (Second Session), 3 May – 2 June, 1972,” in Kalshoven, Reflections on the Law of War: Collected Essays (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007)
Kasher, Asa and Amos Yadlin , “Assassination and Preventive Killing,” XXV no. 1, SAIS Rev. of Int'l Affairs, 41 (Winter–Spring 2005)
Kelsen, Hans , “Collective and Individual Responsibility in International Law With Particular Regard to the Punishment of War Criminals,” 31 Cal. L. Rev. 530 (1943)
Kervers, Onno , “Strengthening Compliance with the Biological Weapons Convention: The Protocol Negotiations,” 7-2 J. of Conflict & Security L. 275 (Oct. 2002)
Kinacioglu, Muge , “A Response to Amos Guiora: Reassessing the Parameters of Use of Force in the Age of Terrorism,” 13-1 J. of Conflict & Security L. 33 (Spring 2008)
Kissinger, Henry A. , “The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction,” Foreign Affairs (July/August 2001)
Koplow, David A. , 94-1 AJIL 221 (Jan. 2000) (reviewing Michael Bothe , Natalino Ronzitti , and Allan Rosas , eds.,The New Chemical Weapons Convention (2000)
Koskenniemi, Martti , “Hersch Lauterpacht and the Development of International Criminal Law,” 2-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 810 (Sept. 2004)
Kretzmer, David , “Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists: Extra-Judicial Executions or Legitimate Means of Defence?” 16-2 European J. of Int'l L., 171 (2005)
Krieger, Heike , “A Conflict of Norms: The Relationship Between Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law in the ICRC Customary Law Study,” 11-2 J. of Conflict & Security L., 265 (Summer 2006)
Lacey, Maj. Michael , “Passage of Amended Protocol II,” The Army Lawyer (March 2000)
Landrum, Maj. Bruce D. , “The Yamashita War Crimes Trial: Command Responsibility Then and Now,” 149 Mil. L. Rev. 293 (1995)
Langbein, John H. , “The Legal History of Torture,” in Sanford Levinson , ed., Torture: A Collection (NY: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Langston, Emily , “The superior responsibility doctrine in international law: Historical continuities, innovation and criminality: Can East Timor's Special Panels bring militia leaders to justice?” 4-2 Int'l Crim. L. Rev. 141 (2004)
LaRosa, Anne-Marie and Carolin Wuerzner , “Armed Groups, Sanctions and the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law,”870 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 327 (June 2008)
Lauterpacht, Hersch , “The Law of Nations and the Punishment of War Crimes,” 21 British Yearbook of Int'l L. 58 (1944)
Levie, Col. Howard S. , “The Rise and Fall of an Internationally Codified Denial of the Defense of Superior Orders,” 30 Mil. L. & L. of War Rev. 204 (1991)
Levie, Col. Howard S. , “Command Responsibility,” 8 USAF Academy J. of Legal Studies, 1, 3 (1997–98)
Lewis, Michael W. , “The Law of Aerial Bombardment in the 1991 Gulf War,” 97-3 AJIL 481 (July 2003)
Lewy, Guenter , “Superior Orders, Nuclear Warfare, and Conscience,” in, Richard Wasserstrom , ed., War and Morality (Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1970)
Liaropoulos, Andrew N. , “Revolutions in Warfare: Theoretical Paradigms and Historical Evidence – The Napoleonic and First World War Revolutions in Military Affairs,” 70-2 J. of Military History 363 (April 2006)
Lijnzaad, Liesbeth , “Developments in International Humanitarian Law Since 1977,” in, Protecting Human Dignity in Armed Conflict (The Hague: Netherlands Red Cross, 2008)
Linton, Suzannah , “New approaches to international justice in Cambodia and East Timor,” 845 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 93 (2002)
The Llandovery Castle Case, 16 Am. J. Int'l L. 705 (1921)
Lofgren, Stephen J. , ed., “Diary of First Lieutenant Sugihara Kinryû: Iwo Jima, January– February 1945” 59 J. Military History, 97 (Jan. 1995)
Lootsteen, Lt. Col. Yair M. , “The Concept of Belligerency in International Law,” 166 Military L. Rev. 109 (Dec. 2000)
Lorenz, Col. Frederick M. , “Law and Anarchy in Somalia,” 23 Parameters 39 (1993–1994)
Luban, David , “Liberalism, Torture, and the Ticking Bomb,” 91 Va. L. Rev. 1425 (2005)
MacLeod, I.J. and A.P.V. Rogers , “The Use of White Phosphorous and the Law of War,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (The Hague: Asser Press, 2009)
Maged, Adel , “International Legal Cooperation: An Essential Tool in the War Against Terrorism,” in Wybo P. Heere , ed., Terrorism and the Military: International Legal Implications (The Hague: Asser Press, 2003)
Mallison, W. Thomas , “The Disturbing Questions,” 63 Freedom at Issue 9 (Nov.–Dec. 1981)
Mann, Christopher , “Combined Operations, the Commandos, and Norway, 1941–1944,” 73-2 J. of Military History 471 (April 2009)
Maogoto, Jackson N. , “The Superior Orders Defense: A Game of Musical Chairs and the Jury is Still Out,” 10 Flinders J. of L. Reform 1 (2007)
Maresca, Louis , “A New Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War: The History and Negotiation of Protocol V to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons,” 86 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 815 (Dec. 2004)
Maridakis, Georges S. (1890–1979), “An Ancient Precedent to Nuremberg,” re-published in 4-4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Sept. 2006)
Marsh, Maj. J. Jeremy , “Lex Lata or Lex Ferenda? Rule 45 of the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law,” 198 Military L. Rev. 116 (Winter 2008)
Martinez, Jenny S. , “Understanding Mens Rea in Command Responsibility, 5-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice, 638 (July 2007)
Martins, Maj. Mark S. , “Rules of Engagement for Land Forces: A Matter of Training, Not Lawyering,” 143 Military L. Rev. 3 (Winter 1994)
Matheson, Michael J. , “Additional Protocol I as Expressions of Customary International Law,” 2-2 Am. U. J. Int'l L. & Policy 415 (Fall 1987)
Matheson, Michael J. , “The Law of Internal Armed Conflict,” 97-2 AJIL 466, 467 (reviewing Lindsay Moir, The Law of Internal Armed Conflict (April 2003))
Mathews, Robert J. , “The 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons: A Useful Framework Despite Earlier Disappointments,” 844 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 991 (2001)
Mathews, Robert J. and Timothy L.H. McCormack , “The Influence of Humanitarian Principles in the Negotiation of Arms Control Treaties,” 834 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 331 (June 1999)
Mayer, Lt. Col. Terry N. , USAF, “The Biological Weapon: A Poor Nation's Weapon of Mass Destruction,” in Berry R. Schneider and Lawrence E. Grinter , eds., Battlefield of the Future: 21st Century Warfare Issues (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Warfare College, Sept. 1995)
McCall, Sherman, M.D. , “A Higher Form of Killing,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 38 (Feb. 1995)
McCormack, Timothy L. H. , “From Sun Tzu to the Sixth Committee: The Evolution of an International Criminal Law Regime,” in McCormack and Gerry J. Simpson , eds., The Law of War Crimes: National and International Approaches (The Hague: Kluwer, 1997)
McDonald, Avril , “Terrorism, Counter-terrorism and the Jus in Bello ,” in Int'l Institute of Humanitarian Law, Terrorism and International Law: Challenges and Responses (Sanremo Italy: IIHL, 2002)
McDonnell, Thomas M. , “Cluster Bombs Over Kosovo: A Violation of International Law?” 44 Ariz. L. Rev. 31 (2002)
“Means of Warfare: Interview with Terence Taylor,” 859 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 419 (Sept. 2005)
Meisels, Tamar , “Combatants – Lawful and Unlawful,” 26-1 L. & Phil. 31 (2007)
Meloni, Chantal , “Command Responsibility,” 5-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice, 619 (July 2007)
“Memorandum for Commander, United States Army Special Operations Command; Subject: Sniper Use of Open-Tip Ammunition”, (23 Sept. 1985), 86 The Army Lawyer (Feb. 1991)
Menon, Jaykumar A. , “Guantánamo Torture Litigation,” 6-2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 323 (May 2008)
Meron, Theodor , “The Geneva Conventions as Customary Law,” 81-2 AJIL 348 (April 1987)
Meron, Theodor , “Rape as a Crime Under International Humanitarian Law,” 87-3 AJIL 424 (July 1993)
Meron, Theodor , “The Time Has Come for the United States to Ratify Geneva Protocol I,” 88 AJIL 678 (1994)
Meron, Theodor , “International Criminalization of Internal Atrocities,” 89-3 AJIL 554 (July 1995)
Meron, Theodor , “The Humanization of Humanitarian Law,” 94 AJIL 239 (2000)
Meron, Theodor , “Leaders, Courtiers and Command Responsibility in Shakespeare,” in Michael Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007)
Meron, Theodor , “Reflections on the Prosecution of War Crimes by International Tribunals,” 100-3 AJIL 551 (July 2007)
Meselson, Matthew S. , “Chemical and Biological Weapons,” 222-5 Scientific American, 3 (May 1970)
Mettraux, Guénaël , “US Courts-Martial and the Armed Conflict in the Philippines (1899–1902): Their Contribution to National Case Law on War Crimes,” 1-1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 134 (April 2003)
Mettraux, Guénaël , “Dutch Courts' Universal Jurisdiction over Violations of Common Article 3 qua War Crimes,” 4-2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 362 (May 2006)
Meyer, Maj. Richard V. , “When a Rose is Not a Rose: Military Commissions v. Courts-Martial,” 5-1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice, 48 (March 2007)
Meyrowitz, Henri , “The Principle of Superfluous Injury or Unnecessary Suffering,” 299 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 98 (March–April 1994)
Milanovic, Marko , “Lessons for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in the War on Terror: Comparing Hamdan and the Israeli Targeted Killing Case,” 866 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 373 (June 2007)
Miles, Col. James R. , “Francis Lieber and the Law of War.” XXIX-1-2 Revue de Droit Militaire et de Droit de la Guerre, 256 (1990)
Montgomery, Col. Tony , “Legal Perspective from the EUCOM Targeting Cell,” in Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport RI: Naval War College, 2002)
Murphy, John F. , “Some Legal (and a Few Ethical) Dimensions of the Collateral Damage Resulting from NATO's Kosovo Campaign,” 31 Israel Yearbook on Human Rights 51 (2001)
Murphy, Sean D. , ed., “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law: U.S. Rejection of Protocol to Biological Weapons Convention,” 95-4 AJIL 899 (Oct. 2001)
Murphy, Sean D. , “Terrorism and the Concept of ‘Armed Attack’ in Article 51 of the U.N. Charter,” 43 Harvard Int'l L. J. 41 (2002)
Murray, Williamson , “The Meaning of World War II,” 8 Joint Forces Quarterly 50 (Summer 1995)
Nahlik, Stanislaw E. , “A Brief Outline of International Humanitarian Law,” in Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (July–August, 1984)
Nash, Marian , “Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law,” 88-2 AJIL (April 1994), 312, 323.
Neuborne, Burt , “Spheres of Justice: Who Decides?”, 74-5/6 The George Washington L. R. 1090 (Aug. 2006)
Ohlin, Jens David , “The Bounds of Necessity,” 6-2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 289 (May 2008)
Ohls, Col. Gary J. , “Eastern Exit: Rescue ‘From the Sea’,” 61-4 Naval War College Rev. 125 (Autumn 2008)
Ohman, Maj. Mynda G. , “Integrating Title 18 War Crimes into Title 10: A Proposal to Amend the Uniform Code of Military Justice,” 57 Air Force L. R. 1 (2005)
O'Reilly, Arthur T. , “Command Responsibility: A Call to Realign Doctrine with Principles,” 20-1 Am. U. Int'l L. Rev. 71 (2004)
Oxman, Bernard H. , “International Decisions,” 91-3 AJIL 518 (July 1997)
Parkerson, John Embry, Jr., “United States Compliance with Humanitarian Law Respecting Civilians During Operation Just Cause,” 133 Mil. L. Rev. 31 (1991)
Parks, Maj. W. Hays , “Command Responsibility for War Crimes,” 62 Military L. Rev., 1 (1973)
Parks, Maj. W. Hays , “Righting the Rules of Engagement,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 83 (May 1989)
Parks, Maj. W. Hays , “Air War and the Law of War,” 32-1 Air Force L. Rev. 1 (1990)
Parks, Maj. W. Hays , “Joint Service Combat Shotgun Program,” The Army Lawyer (Oct. 1997)
Parks, Maj. W. Hays , Friendly Fire: The Accidental Shootdown of U.S. Black Hawks Over Northern Iraq, (book review) U.S. Naval Institute's Proceedings (Aug. 1999)
Parks, Maj. W. Hays , “Deadly Force Is Authorized,” Proceedings (Jan. 2001)
Parks, Maj. W. Hays , “‘Special Forces’ Wear of Non-Standard Uniforms,” 4 Chicago J. of Int'l L. 519 (2003)
Parks, Maj. W. Hays , “Conventional Weapons and Weapons Reviews,” in 8 Yearbook of IHL (2005)
Patch, Cmdr. John , “Taking Out Saddam's Floating Pleasure Palace,” U.S. Naval Institute's Proceedings (Sept. 2008)
Patton, Maj. George S. , Jr., “The Effect of Weapons on War,” Cavalry Journal (Nov. 1930)
Paust, Jordan J. , “My Lai and Vietnam: Norms, Myths and Leader Responsibility,” 57 Military L. Rev. 99 (1972)
Paust, Jordan J. , Letter of J.J. Paust, 25 Naval War College Rev. (Jan.–Feb 1973)
Paust, Jordan J. , “Detention and Due Process Under International Law,” in Wybo P. Heere , ed., Terrorism and the Military (The Hague: Asser Press, 2003)
Pejic, Jelena , “Terrorist Acts and Groups: A Role for International Law?” 75 BYIL 71 (2004)
Pejic, Jelena , “‘Unlawful/Enemy Combatants:’ Interpretations and Consequences,” in Michael Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007)
Pfanner, Toni , “Editorial,” 859 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 413 (Sept. 2005)
Pfanner, Toni , “Interview with General Sir Rupert Smith,” 864 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 720 (Dec. 2006)
Pfanner, Toni , “Editorial,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Sept. 2007)
Polmar, Norman and Thomas B. Allen , “The Most Deadly Plan,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Jan. 1998)
Proulx, Vincent Joël , “If the Hat Fits, Wear It, If the Turban Fits, Run for Your Life: Reflections on the Indefinite Detention and Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists,” 56 Hastings L. J., 801 (2004–2005)
Prugh, Maj. Gen. George S. , “Armed Forces and Development of the Law of War,” Armed Forces and the Development of the Law of War (Recueils de la Société Internationale de Droit Pénal Militaire et de Droit de la Guerre) (1982)
Pustogarov, Vladimir V. , “Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens (1845–1909) – A Humanist of Modern Times,” 312 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 300 (1966)
Quéguiner, Jean-François , “Precautions Under the Law Governing the Conduct of Hostilities,” 864 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 793 (Dec. 2006)
Ratner, Steven R. , “Predator and Prey: Seizing and Killing Suspected Terrorists Abroad,” 15-3 J. of Pol. Philosophy 251 (2007)
Reeves, Jesse S. , “The Neutralization of Belgium and the Doctrine of Kriegsraison,” XIII, No. 3 Michigan L. Rev. 179 (1914–1915)
Reisman, W. Michael , “Assessing Claims to Revise the Laws of War,” 97-1 AJIL 82, 86 (Jan. 2003)
Reisman, W. Michael , “Editorial Comment: Holding the Center of the Law of Armed Conflict,” 100-4 AJIL 852 (Oct. 2006)
Reisman, W. Michael , “Respect for Human Dignity in Today's Germany,” 4-4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 862 (Sept. 2006)
Reisman, W. Michael and James Silk , “Which Law Applies To the Afghan Conflict?”, 82-3 AJIL 459 (July, 1988)
Reydams, Luc , “Belgium Reneges on Universality,” 1-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice (Dec. 2003)
Reydams, Luc , “ ‘A la Guerre Comme à la guerre:’ Patterns of Armed Conflict, Humanitarian Law Responses and New Challenges,” 864 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 729 (Dec. 2006)
Reyes, Hernán , “The Worst Scars Are in the Mind: Psychological Torture,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross, 591 (Sept. 2007)
Reynolds, Maj. Jefferson D. , “Collateral Damage on the 21st Century Battlefield: Enemy Exploitation of the Law of Armed Conflict and the Struggle for a Moral High Ground,” 56 Air Force L. Rev. (Jan. 2005)
Riggs, Maj. Ronald M. , “The Grenada Intervention: A Legal Analysis,” 109 Military L. Rev. 1 (1985)
Roach, Capt. Ashley , “Rules of Engagement,” Naval War College Rev. (Jan.–Feb., 1983)
Roberts, Adam , “Environmental Issues in International Armed Conflict: The Experiences of the 1991 Gulf War,” 69 Int'l. L. Studies 222 (1996)
Roberts, Adam , “The Laws of War in the War on Terror,” in Wybo P. Heere , ed., Terrorism and the Military: International Legal Implications (The Hague: Asser Press, 2003)
Roberts, Adam , “The Equal Application of the Laws of War: A Principle under Pressure,” 872 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross (Dec. 2008)
Rogers, MGen. A.V.P. , “Zero-Casualty Warfare,” 837 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 165 (March 2000)
Röling, Bert V.A. , “Are Grotius' Ideas Obsolete in an Expanded World?” in Hedley Bull , Benedict Kingsbury , and Adam Roberts , eds., Hugo Grotius and International Relations (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990)
Rona, Gabor , “An Appraisal of US Practice Relating to ‘Enemy Combatants’,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., Yearbook of I.H.L., Vol. 10, 2007 (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2009)
Roos, John G. , “Editorial: Torture and Terrorists,” Armed Forces J. (May 2005)
Rose, Cmdr. Stephen , “The Coming Explosion of Silent Weapons,” 42 Naval War College Rev. 6 (Summer 1989)
Rosenbaum, Eli M. , “An Introduction to the Work of the Office of Special Investigations,” 54-1 United States Attorneys' Bulletin 1 (Jan. 2006)
Rosenthal, Joel , “New Rules For War?” Vol. LVII, No. 3/4, Naval War College Rev. (2004)
Ross, James , “A History of Torture,” in Kenneth Roth , Minky Worden , and Amy Bernstein , eds., Torture (NY: The New Press, 2005)
Ross, James , “Black Letter Abuse: the Legal Response to Torture Since 9/11,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 561 (Sept. 2007)
Rowe, Peter , “Kosovo 1999: The Air Campaign – Have the Provisions of Additional Protocol I Withstood the Test?” 837 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 147 (2000)
Rowe, Peter , “The Rules of Engagement in Occupied Territory: Should They Be Published?” 8-2 Melbourne J. of Int'l L. 327 (2007)
Rubin, Uzi , “Hizballah's Rocket Campaign Against Northern Israel: A Preliminary Report,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (31 Aug. 2006)
Sassòli, Marco , “The Status of Persons Held in Guantanamo under International Humanitarian Law,” 2-1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 96 (March 2004)
Sassòli, Marco , “Query: Is There a Status of “Unlawful combatant?',” in Richard B. Jaques , ed., International Law Studies: Issues in International Law and Military Operations, vol. 80 (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2006)
Sassòli, Marco , “Terrorism and War, in 4-5 J. of Int'l Criminal Justice 958 (Nov. 2006)
Sassòli, Marco , “The Implementation of International Humanitarian Law: Current and Inherent Challenges,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack , ed., Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (The Hague: Asser Press, 2009)
Sassòli, Marco and Lindsey Cameron , “The Protection of Civilian Objects – Current State of the Law and Issues de lege ferenda ,” in, Natalino Ronzitti and Gabriella Venturini , eds., The Law of Air Warfare (Utrecht, Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing, 2006)
Sassòli, Marco and Laura M. Olson , “The Relationship Between International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law Where it Matters: Admissible Killing and Internment of Fighters in Non-international Armed Conflicts,” 871 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 599 (Sept. 2008)
Schmider, Klaus , “The Last of the First: Veterans of the Jagdwaffe Tell Their Story,” 73-1 J. of Military History 231 (Jan. 2009)
Schmitt, Michael N. , “War and the Environment: Fault Lines in the Prescriptive Landscape,” in, Jay E. Austin and Carl E. Bruch , eds. (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2000)
Schmitt, Michael N. , “Targeting and Humanitarian Law: Current Issues,” 33 Israel Yearbook on Human Rights 59 (2003)
Schmitt, Michael N. , “Precision Attack and International Humanitarian Law,” 859 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 445 (Sept. 2005)
Schmitt, Michael N. , “War, Technology and the Law of Armed Conflict,” in Anthony M. Helm , ed., International Law Studies, Vol. 82, The Law of War in the 21st Century: Weaponry and the Use of Force (Newport RI: Naval War College, 2006)
Schmitt, Michael N. , “Responding to Transnational Terrorism Under the Jus ad Bellum: A Normative Framework,” in Michael Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007)
Schomburg, Wolfgang and Ines Peterson , “Genuine Consent to Sexual Violence Under International Criminal Law,” 101-1 AJIL 121 (Jan. 2007)
Schutte, Julian J.E. , “The System of Repression of Breaches of Additional Protocol I,” in, Astrid J.M. Delissen and Gerard J. Tanja , eds., Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict Challenges Ahead (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991)
Schwarzenberger, Georg , “Judgment of Nuremberg,” 21 Tulsa L. Rev. (1947)
Seaquist, Capt. Larry, USN , “Community War,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Aug. 2000)
Sennott, Maj. Daniel J. , “Interpreting Recent Changes to the Standing Rules for the Use of Force,” The Army Lawyer (Nov. 2007)
Shatz, Adam , “The Torture of Algiers,” The New York Review of Books (21 Nov. 2002)
Shelton, Lt. Col. Raymond S. , “No Democracy Can Feel Secure,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Aug. 1998)
Simpson, Gerry J. , “War Crimes: A Critical Introduction,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack and Gerry J. Simpson , eds., The Law of War Crimes: National and International Approaches (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1997)
Smidt, Maj. Michael L. , “Yamashita, Medina, and Beyond: Command Responsibility in Contemporary Military Operations,” 164 Military L. Rev. 155 (June 2000)
Sofaer, Abraham D. , “Agora: The Rationale for the United States Decision,” 82 AJIL 784 (1988)
Sofaer, Abraham D. , “Terrorism, the Law, and the National Defense.” 126 Military L. Rev. 89 (1989)
Solf, Waldemar , “Article 52,” in Michael Bothe , Karl Partsch , and Waldemar Solf , eds., New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflict: Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 (Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982)
Solf, Waldemar , “A Response to Douglas J. Feith's Law in the Service of Terror – The Strange Case of the Additional Protocol,” 20 Akron L. Rev. 261 (1986)
Solis, Lt. Col. Gary , “Obedience of Orders and the Law of War: Judicial Application in American Forums,” 15 American U. Int'l L. Rev. 481 (2000)
Solis, Lt. Col. Gary , “Military Justice?” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Oct. 2006)
Spataro, Armando , “Why Do People Become Terrorists?” 6-3 J. of Int'l. Crim. Justice 507 (July 2008)
Spence, Cmdr. Mike , “Lessons for Combined Rules of Engagement,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Oct. 2000)
Stafford, Lt. Col. W.A. , “How to Keep Military Personnel from Going to Jail for Doing the Right Thing: Jurisdiction, ROE & the Rules of Deadly Force,” The Army Lawyer (Nov. 2000)
Stewart, James G. , “The Military Commissions Act's Inconsistency with the Geneva Conventions: An Overview, 5-1 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 26 (March 2007)
Subedi, Suurya P. , “The Concept in Hinduism of ‘Just War’,” 8-2 J. of Conflict & Security L. (Oct. 2003)
Sutter, Philip , “The Continuing Role for Belligerent Reprisals,” 13-1 J. of Conflict & Security L. 93 (Spring 2008)
Tafur, Gabriel Chavez , “Using International Law to By-pass Domestic Legal Hurdles,” 6-5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 1060 (Nov. 2008)
Thürer, Daniel , “Dunant's Pyramid: Thoughts on the ‘Humanitarian Space’,” 865 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 47 (March 2007)
Trainin, I.P. , “Questions of Guerrilla Warfare in the Law of War, 40-3 AJIL 534 (July 1946)
Tremblay, Col. E. Gerald , “Charles Lindbergh Saved My Life,” Marine Corps Gazette (May 1990)
Turns, David , “Weapons in the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law,” 11-2 J. of Conflict & Security L. 201 (Summer, 2006)
Utley, Robert M. , “The Ordeal of Plenty Horses,” 26-1 American Heritage (Dec. 1974)
van der Wilt, Harmen , “Genocide v. War Crimes in the Van Anraat Appeal,” 6-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 557 (July 2008)
Verhaegen, Jaques , “Legal Obstacles to Prosecution of Breaches of Humanitarian Law,” 261 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 607 (Nov.–Dec. 1987)
Villa, Sergio M. , “The Philosophy of International Law: Suárez, Grotius and Epigones,” 320 Int'l. R. of the Red Cross 324 (Oct. 1997)
von Heinegg, Wolff H. , “Commentary,” in Andru E. Wall , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 78, Legal and Ethical Lessons of NATO's Kosovo Campaign (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2002)
Walker, Clive , “Clamping Down on Terrorism in the United Kingdom,” 4-5 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice, 1137 (Nov. 2006)
Wall, Illan Rua , “Duress, International Criminal Law and Literature,” 4-4 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 724 (Sept. 2006)
Wallace, Col. David A. , “Torture v. the Basic Principles of the US Military,” 6-2 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 309 (May 2008)
Wallach, Evan , “Drop by Drop: Forgetting the History of Water Torture in U.S. Courts,” 45-2 Columbia J. of Transnational L. 468 (2007)
Walsh, David C. , “Friendless Fire,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (June 2003)
Walzer, Michael , “Two Kinds of Military Responsibility,” in Lloyd J. Matthews and Dale E. Brown , eds., The Parameters of Military Ethics (VA: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1989)
Watkin, BGen. Kenneth , “Controlling the Use of force: A Role for Human Rights Norms in Contemporary Armed Conflict,” 98-1 AJIL 1 (Jan. 2004)
Watkin, BGen. Kenneth , “Humans in the Cross-Hairs: Targeting and Assassination in Contemporary Armed Conflict,” in David Wippman and Matthew Evangelista , eds. New Wars, New Laws? Applying the Laws of War in 21st Century Conflicts (Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2005)
Watkin, BGen. Kenneth , “Chemical Agents and “Expanding Bullets: Limited Law Enforcement Exceptions or Unwarranted Handcuffs?”, in Anthony M. Helm , ed., International Law Studies, vol. 82, The Law of War in the 21st Century: Weaponry and the Use of Force (Newport RI: Naval War College, 2006)
Watkin, BGen. Kenneth , “21st Century Conflict and International Humanitarian Law: Status Quo or Change?”, in Michael N. Schmitt and Jelena Pejic , eds., International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007)
Wedgwood, Ruth , “Responding to Terrorism: The Strikes Against bin Laden,” 24 Yale J. of Int'l L. 559 (1999)
Weill, Sharon , “The Targeted Killing of Salah Shehadeh, 7-3 J. of Int'l Crim. Justice 617 (July 2009)
Weingartner, James J. , “Massacre at Biscari: Patton and an American War Crime,” vol. LII, No. 1, The Historian, 24 (Nov. 1989)
Werrell, Kenneth P. , “Across the Yalu: Rules of Engagement and the Communist Air Sanctuary During the Korean War,” 72-2 J. of Military History 451 (April 2008)
Wheelis, Mark , “Will the New Biology Lead to New Weapons,” Arms Control Today (July/Aug. 2004)
White, Maj. Martin N. , “Charging War Crimes: A Primer for the Practitioner,” The Army Lawyer (Feb. 2006)
Whittle, Richard , “A Test, Not a Final Exam,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (Feb. 2008)
Wiebe, Virgil , “Footprints of Death: Cluster Bombs as Indiscriminate Weapons Under International Humanitarian Law,” 22 Mich. J. Int'l L. 85 (2000)
Wiener, Col. Frederick Bernays , “Comment, The Years of MacArthur, Volume III: MacArthur Unjustifiably Accused of Meting Out ‘Victor's Justice’ in War Crimes Cases,” 113 Military L. Rev. 203 (1986)
Williams, Sarah and Lena Sherif , “The Arrest Warrant for President Al-Bashir,” 14-1 J. of Conflict & Security L. 71 (Spring 2009)
Williams, Sharon A. , “Laudable Principles Lacking Application: The Prosecution of War Criminals in Canada,” in Timothy L.H. McCormack and Gerry J. Simpson , eds., The Law of War Crimes (The Hague: Kluwer Law Int'l, 1997)
Williamson, Jamie Allan , “Some Considerations on Command Responsibility and Criminal Liability,” 870 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 303 (June 2008)
Wilner, Alan M. , “Superior Orders As A Defense to Violations of International Criminal Law,” 26 Maryland Law Review 127 (1966)
Yoo, John , “Enemy Combatants and the Problem of Judicial Competence,” in Peter Berkowitz , ed., Terrorism, the Laws of War, and the Constitution (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2005)
Yost, Mark J. and Douglas S. Anderson , “The Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act of 2000: Closing the Gap,” 95-2 AJIL 446, 447 (April 2001)
Zanders, Jean Pascal , “International Norms Against Chemical and Biological Warfare: An Ambiguous Legacy,” 8-2 J. of Conflict & Security L. 391 (Oct. 2003)

Reference Title: U.S. Government and ICRC Articles/Documents Cited

Reference Type: reference-list

ALMSC 017/06 , “Standing Rules for the Use of Force (SRUF) by MSC [Military Sealift Command] Personnel,” (10 July 2006)
Assembly of the ICRC , “Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law,” 872 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 991 (Dec. 2008)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 3121.01B , “Standing Rules of Engagement/Standing Rules for the Use of Force for US Forces” (13 June 2005)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 5810.01 , “Implementation of the DOD Law of War Program” (12 Aug. 1996)
Department of the Army, Army Regulation 15-6: Final Report; Investigation into FBI Allegations of Detainee Abuse at Guantanamo Bay , Cuba Detention Facility (1 April 2005, amended 9 Jun 2005)
Department of Defense Directive 2310.01E , “The Department of Defense Detainee Program” (5 Sept. 2006)
Department of Defense Directive 5100.77 , “DoD Law of War Program” (9 Dec. 1998)
Department of Defense Instruction 5525.11 , Criminal Jurisdiction Over Civilians Employed by or Accompanying the Armed Forces Outside the United States, Certain Service Members, and Former Service Members (3 March 2005)
Executive Order 13,440 , “Interpretation of the Geneva Conventions, Common Article 3 as Applied to a Program of Detention and Interrogation Operated by the Central Intelligence Agency (July 2007), cited at 101-4 AJIL 866 (Oct. 2007)
International Committee of the Red Cross , “Conference of Government Experts on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons” (Geneva: ICRC, 1975)
International Committee of the Red Cross , “Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: Report on the Meeting of Experts” (Geneva: ICRC, 2002)
International Committee of the Red Cross , “ICRC Position on Hostage-Taking,” 846 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 467 (June 2002)
International Committee of the Red Cross , “International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of Contemporary Armed Conflicts,” 867 Int'l Rev. of the Red Cross 719 (Sept. 2007)
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia , Final Report to the Prosecutor by the Committee Established to Review the NATO Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia” (13 June 2000)
Military Advisory Command – Vietnam (MAC-V) Directive 20-5, “Inspections and Investigations: Prisoner of War Determinations of Status” (17 May 1966)
United Nations : “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility,” Report of the U.N. Secretary-General's High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (2 Dec. 2004)
U.S. Air Force Policy Directive 51-4, “Compliance With the Law of Armed Conflict” (26 April 1993)
U.S. Central Command Regulation 27-13, “Captured Persons, Determination of Eligibility for Enemy Prisoner of War Status” (7 Feb. 1995)
U.S. Navy, SECNAVINST 3300.1B , “Law of Armed Conflict (Law of War) Program To Ensure Compliance by the Naval Establishment” (27 Dec. 2005)

Reference Title: Documentary Film

Reference Type: reference-list

Ranucci, Sigfrido and Maurizio Torrealta , “Fallujah: The Hidden Massacre” (Italy: Radiotelevisione Italiana, 2005)