The Politics of Official Apologies


The Politics of Official Apologies

This book examines the political uses of official apologies in the United States, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Nobles explores why minority groups demand such apologies and why governments do or do not offer them. She argues that apologies can help to alter the terms and meanings of national membership. Minorities demand apologies in order to focus attention on historical injustices, the rectification of which, they argue, should guide changes in present-day government policies. When employed by political actors, apologies play an important, if under appreciated, role in bringing certain views about history and moral obligation to bear in public life.


 Reviews:

“This is a very interesting book on a compelling topic. Nobles makes a strong case that official apologies are under-appreciated and are worthy of sustained analytical attention. The book is well researched and written, solidly grounded in the relevant literatures, and innovative in its approach to its important subject matter. It is an accomplished and influential book that will have a substantial impact.”
Robert C. Lieberman, Columbia University

“A book with interdisciplinary appeal, Melissa Nobles’ The Politics of Official Apologies injects a sustained comparative dimension into the international discussion about the public use of history. The tension between nation-building elites and indigenous minorities who stubbornly refuse to assimilate is shown to renew the political culture of nation-states by questioning the terms of civic inclusion. At once intellectually rigorous and morally sensitive, Nobles’ book demonstrates the potency of symbolic politics surrounding official apologies in Anglophone settler societies.”
A. Dirk Moses, University of Sydney

“In our age of apology, Melissa Nobles expertly explains why apologies are given, why they are withheld, and the political importance they have. Nobles skillfully presents a theory of political membership that makes sense of why apologies arise and the political work they do. For those looking to understand the rise of public apologies, Nobles’ book is the best place to start.”
Jeff Spinner-Halev, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

"...a professionally executed and though-provoking explanation and interpretation of the role of such statements. Historians should be equally impressed and stimulated by this MIT political scientist's contribution to historiographical discussion." --J.R. Miller, University of Saskatchewan: Canadian Journal of History

"There is much to be learned from Melissa Noble's account of contemporary political apologies..." --Stephen Esquith, Michigan STate Univ: Political Theory Book Reviews

“100th Anniversary of the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.” 1993. Congressional Record, October 27, p. S14479.
“Apology to Natives Gets Wide Support in Poll.” 1998. Vancouver Sun, January 9, p. A2.
“Australia Apologizes for Treatment of Aborigines.” 1999. New York Times, August 27.
“Black Power on the March.” 1988. Sun (Melbourne), January 27.
“Brash's Race Card Trumps Labour Treaty of Waitangi: Policy,” 2005. Press (Christchurch), September 13, p. 4.
“Chiefs Asked to Accept Apology, Money.” 1998. Globe and Mail, March 10, p. A6.
“Cold Comfort: Japan.” 1996. Economist, May 18, p. 36.
“Elizabeth II to Approve Maori Land Settlement.” 1995. New York Times, November 2, p. A11.
“Ex-Students Want Apology for Residential School Abuse.” 2006. Gazette (Montreal), July, 26, p. A13.
“France Admits Role in Deporting Jews, Country Shares Responsibility for ‘Criminal Folly’.” 1995. Toronto Star, July 17, p. A2.
“Germany Urges Herero to Drop Lawsuit.” 2004. Deutsche Welle, May 8. Available online at http://www.dw-world.de/.
“Japan Apologizes to Koreans for Occupation.” 1998. Washington Post, October 8, p. A28.
“Japan: Koreans' Plea Rejected.” 1999. New York Times, August 31, p. A10.
“Maori Warn of Battle over Water.” 2006. Press (Christchurch), August 2, p. 1.
“Menem's Visit to Britain: Views from Argentina and the Falkland Islands about …” 1998. Guardian (London), October 31, p. 6.
“PM's Apology Draws Protest.” 1997. Sydney Morning Herald, May 27, p. A1.
“Pope Repeats an Apology.” 1999. New York Times, September 2, p. A8.
“Resident Schools, National Scandal.” 1998. Globe and Mail, January 8, p. A16.
“The Leaders' Apologies.” 1993. Guardian (London), October 13, p. 25.
“The Long Trail to Apology.” 2004. New York Times, June 28, p. A18.
“The Race Debate: Maori Say Paychecks Are Part of Treaty.” 2004. New Zealand Herald, February 28.
“Um, Sorry about That.” 1997. Time. October 13. Available online at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0.9171.987181.00.html.
“What's Eating Pakeha.” 2004. New Zealand Herald, February 21.
“Who's Sorry Now?” 1993. Time, September 13. Available online at http://www.time.com.
Advisory Board of the President's Initiative on Race. 1998. “One America in the 21st Century: Forging a New Future.” Available online at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/173431.pdf.
Agence France-Presse. 2001. “Report Reproves Belgium in Lumumba's Death,” New York Times, November 17, p. A5.
Agence France-Presse. 2002. “Belgium: Apology for Lumumba Killing,” New York Times, February 6, p. A6.
Aleinikoff, T. Alexander. 2002. Semblances of Sovereignty: The Constitution, the State, and American Citizenship. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Allen, James, et al. 2000. Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Santa Fe: Twin Palms.
Altman, J. C., and B. H. Hunter. 2003. “Monitoring ‘Practical’ Reconciliation: Evidence from the Reconciliation Decade, 1991–2001,” Discussion Paper No. 254, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University, November.
Altman, J. C., Biddle, N., and B. Hunter. 2004. “Indigenous Socioeconomic Change 1971–2001: A Historical Perspective,” Discussion Paper No. 266, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University.
Alves, Dora. 1999. The Maori and the Crown: An Indigenous People's Struggle for Self-Determination. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Anderssen, Erin, and Edward Greenspon. 1998. “Federal Apology Fails to Mollify Native Leaders,” Globe and Mail, January 8, p. A4.
Armitage, Andrew. 1995. Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Asada, Sadao. 1997. “The Mushroom Cloud and National Psyches,” in Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflict in the Nuclear Age, eds. Laura Hein and Mark Selden. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Assembly of First Nations. 2006. “Royal Commission on Aboriginal People at 10 Years: A Report Card.” Available online at http://www.afn.ca/cmslib/general/afn_rcap.pdf.
Attwood, Bain, and Andrew Markus. 1997. The 1967 Referendum, or When Aborigines Didn't Get the Vote. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
Attwood, Bain, and Andrew Markus. 1999. The Struggle for Aboriginal Rights: A Documentary History. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Attwood, Bain, and S. G. Foster, eds. 2003. Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience. Canberra: National Museum of Australia.
Attwood, Bain, ed. 1996. In the Age of Mabo: History, Aborigines and Australia. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Attwood, Bain. 2003. Rights for Aborigines. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Aubry, Jack. 1998a. “Peace Offering Gets Mixed Reaction,” Gazette (Montreal), January 8, p. B5.
Aubry, Jack. 1998b. “Public Backs Apology to Aboriginals,” Gazette (Montreal), January 9, p. A10.
Aubry, Jack. 2006. “Tories Replace Aboriginal Accord: Two-Year Plan, One-Fourth the Cost,” Gazette (Montreal), May 3, p. A6.
Australian Commonwealth Government. 2002.“Commonwealth Government Response to the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation Final Report.” Canberra.
Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) Info Centre. 2006. “Electoral Milestones/Timeline for Indigenous Australians.” Available online at http://www.aec.gov.au/_content/When/history/ab_time.htm, accessed July 10.
Bailey, Sue. 2004. “Martin Outlines New Deal for Canada's Aboriginals; Goal Is Native Self-Government,” Windsor Star (Ontario), April 20, p. A6.
Bakewell, Peter. 1997. A History of Latin America. Oxford: Blackwell.
Barkan, Elazar, and Alexander Karn, eds. 2006. Taking Wrongs Seriously: Apologies and Reconciliation. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Barkan, Elazar. 2000. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. New York: W. W. Norton.
Bartlett, Richard H. 1988. The Indian Act of Canada, 2nd ed. Saskatchewan: University of Saskatchewan Native Law Centre.
Bass, Gary Jonathan. 2000. Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bassett, C. Jeanne. 1994. “Comments: House Bill 591: Florida Compensates Rosewood Victims and Their Families for a Seventy-One-Year-Old Injury,” Florida State University Law Review 22: 503–23.
Bazyler, Michael J. 2002. “The Holocaust Restitution Movement in Comparative Perspective,” Berkeley Journal of International Law 20: 11–44.
Bazyler, Michael J.. 2003. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press.
Beale, Sara Sun. 2000. “Federalizing Hate Crimes: Symbolic Politics, Expressive Law, or Tool for Criminal Enforcement?” Boston University Law Review 80: 1227–81.
Bean, Clive, et al. 1997. The Politics of Retribution: The 1996 Federal Election. St. Leonard's: Allen & Unwin.
Behrendt, Larissa. 2000.”The Protection of Indigenous Rights: Contemporary Canadian Comparisons,” Research Paper 27, Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library.
Behrendt, Larissa. 2003. Achieving Social Justice: Indigenous Rights and Australia's Future. Sydney: Federation Press.
Bennett, Scott. 1996. Winning and Losing: Australian National Elections. Carlton South: Melbourne University Press.
Bennett, Scott. 1999. White Politics and Black Australians. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Berger, Michael. 1993. “The Hidden Japanese,” New Leader, September 6, p. 13.
Berlin, Ira. 2001.“Overcome by Slavery,” New York Times, July 13, p. A21.
Bieder, Robert E. 1986. Science Encounters the Indian, 1820–1880: The Early Years of American Ethnology. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Blight, David. 2001. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Bobo, Lawrence D., Michael C. Dawson, and Devon Johnson. 2001. “Enduring Two-Ness,” Public Perspective, May/June: 12–16.
Bohlen, Celestine. 1992. “Russian Files Show Stalin Ordered Massacre of 20,000 Poles in 1940,” New York Times, October 15, p. A1.
Bohlen, Celestine. 1998. “Vatican Repents Failure to Save Jews from Nazis,” New York Times, March 17, p. A1.
Bonnell, Andrew G., and Martin Crotty. 2004. “An Australian ‘Historikerstreit?” Review Article, Australian Journal of Politics and History 50: 425–33.
Boven, Theo van. 1996. “Revised Set of Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law.” UN Doc:E/CN4/Sub 2/1996/17, May 24.
Bradford, William. 2005. “Beyond Reparations: Justice as Indigenism,” Human Rights Review, April–June: 5–79.
Bragg, Rick. 1995. “Wallace Offers Apology at March Re-enactment,” Houston Chronicle, March 11, p. A14.
Branscombe, Nyla R., and Bertjan Dooseje, eds. 2004. Collective Guilt: International Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brantlinger, Patrick. 2003. Dark Vanishings: Discourse on the Extinction of Primitive Races, 1800–1930. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brash, Don. 2004. “Nationhood.” New Zealand Herald, January 1.
Brennan, Frank. 1998. The Wik Debate: Its Impact on Aborigines, Pastoralists and Miners. Sydney: University of New South Wales.
Broder, John M. 1999. “Clinton Offers His Apologies to Guatemala,” New York Times, March 11, p. A1.
Brooks, Roy L., ed. 1999. When Sorry Isn't Enough: The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice. New York: New York University Press.
Brooks, Roy L.. 2004. Atonement and Forgiveness: A New Model for Black Reparations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Brophy, Alfred L. 2002. Reconstructing the Dreamland: The Tulsa Riot of 1921. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brown, Michael E., and Sumit Ganguly, eds. 1997. Government Policies and Ethnic Relations in Asia and the Pacific. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Brysk, Allison. 2000. From Tribal Village to Global Village. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Buck, Christopher. 2006. “‘Never Again’: Kevin Gover's Apology for the Bureau of Indian Affairs,” Wicazo SA Review, Spring: 97–126.
Burgmann, Verity. 1993. Power and Protest: Movements for Change in Australian Society. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Burns, John F. 1997. “Queen Bows Head over Massacre in India,” New York Times, October 15, p. A6.
Buruma, Ian. 2005. “A Sorry State: A New Breed of Rightwing Patriots Say That Japan Has Apologized Enough for War Crimes.” Financial Times Weekend Magazine, May 28, p. 18.
Bushinsky, Jay. 1995. “Asking Forgiveness Is Just First Step.” Chicago Sun-Times, March 6, p. 25.
Byrnes, Giselle. 2004. The Waitangi Tribunal and New Zealand History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cairns, Alan C. 2000. Citizens Plus: Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian State. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Cairns, Alan C., 2003. “Coming to Terms with the Past,” in Politics and the Past: On Repairing Historical Injustices, ed. John Torpey. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 63–90.
California Department of Insurance, Slavery Era Insurance Registry. 2002. “Report to the California Legislature.” Available online at http://www.insurance.ca.gov.
Canada Indian and Northern Affairs. n.d. Available online at http:www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/gs/schl_e.html.
Cardinal, Harold. 1969. The Unjust Society. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.
Carens, Joseph H. 2000. Culture, Citizenship, and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness. New York: Oxford University Press.
Carty, R. Kenneth, William Cross, and Lisa Young. 2000. Rebuilding Canadian Party Politics. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Castellano, Marlene Brant. 1999. “Renewing the Relationship: A Perspective on the Impact of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,” in Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada, 2nd ed., ed. John H. Hylton. Saskatoon: Purich, pp. 92–111.
Cauvin, Henri E. 2000. “In Africa, a Mea Culpa for Apartheid Tests Whites,” New York Times, December 17, p. A23.
Chesterman, John, and Brian Galligan. 1997. Citizens without Rights: Aborigines and Australian Citizenship. Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press.
Chrétien, Honourable Jean, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 1969. Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy. Ottawa.
Christian, William, and Colin Campbell. 1990. Political Parties and Ideologies in Canada, 3rd ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Clarke, Jennifer. 2001. “Case Note: Cubillo v. Commonwealth,” Melbourne University Law Review 25: 218–94.
Clarkson, Stephen. 2005. The Big Red Machine: How the Liberal Party Dominates Canadian Politics. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Coates, Ken S. 1998. “International Perspectives on Relations with Indigenous Peoples,” in Living Relationships: Kokiri Ngatahi: The Treaty of Waitangi in the New Millennium, eds. Ken Coates and P. G. McHugh. Wellington: Victoria University Press, pp. 19–103.
Coates, Ken S., and P. G. McHugh, eds. 1998. Living Relationships: Kokiri Ngatahi: The Treaty of Waitangi in the New Millennium. Wellington: Victoria University Press.
Cohen, Felix S. [1941] 1988. Handbook of Federal Indian Law. Buffalo: William S. Hein.
Cohen, Richard. 1998. “A Fitting Apology,” Op-Ed, Washington Post, March 31, p. A17.
Cook, Curtis, and Juan D. Lindau, eds. 2000. Aboriginal Rights and Self-Government. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Cornell, Stephen. 1988. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cott, Donna Lee Van. 2000. The Friendly Liquidation of the Past: The Politics of Diversity in Latin America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Cott, Donna Lee Van. 2005. From Movements to Parties in Latin America: The Evolution of Ethnic Parties. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation. 2000. “Reconciliation” (final report of the Council of Aboriginal Reconciliation to the prime minister and the Commonwealth Parliament). December.
Coyne, Andrew. 1998. “Two, Three, Many Nations: Behind the Apology to Aborigines, Is Ottawa Preparing a Negotiations Binge?” Time, January 19, pp. 43–4.
Cunningham, Michael. 1999. “Saying Sorry: The Politics of Apology,” Political Quarterly 70: 285–93.
Dahl, Robert. 1989. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dalrymple, William. 2005. “India: The War over History,” New York Review of Books, April 7, pp. 62–5.
Davidson, Alastair. 1997. From Subject to Citizen: Australian Citizenship in the Twentieth Century. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
Davis, David Brion. 2001. “The Enduring Legacy of the South's Civil War Victory,” New York Times, August 26, section 4, p. 1.
Dawson, Michael C., and Rovana Popoff. 2004. “Reparations: Justice and Greed in Black and White,” DuBois Review 1: 47–91.
Deans, Bob. 2007. “Virginia Regrets Role in Slavery, Abuse of Native Americans,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, February 25, p. 3A.
DePalma, Anthony. 1998. “Indigenous Tribes in Canada Receive a Formal Apology,” New York Times, January 8, p. A1.
Dew, Charles B. 2001. Apostles of Disunion: Southern Secession Commissioners and the Causes of the Civil War. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
DiAlto, Stephanie. 2002. “Frame Wars: The Case of “Reconciliation” with Native Hawaiians and Native Americans.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, August 29–September 1.
Dickason, Olive Patricia. 1997. Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dippie, Brian. 1982. The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.
Dodds, Graham G. 1999 “Political Apologies and Public Discourse.” University of Pennsylvania. Unpublished paper.
Dodds, Graham G., 2003. “Political Apologies and Public Discourse,” in Public Discourse in America: Conversation and Community in the Twenty-First Century, eds. Judith Rodin and Stephen P. Steinberg. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 135–60.
Dodson, Mick. 1999. “The Human Rights Situation of Indigenous Peoples in Australia,” Indigenous Affairs 1.
Dodson, Patrick. 2004. “Why I've Changed My Mind,” Australian, December 7.
Donnelly, John. 2004. “Wounds of Colonialism Reopen in Namibia, German Apology for Massacres Poses Questions,” Boston Globe, February 8, p. A10.
Dow, Coral, and Dr. John Gardiner-Garden. 1998. “Indigenous Affairs in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, United States of America, Norway and Sweden,” Background Paper No. 15 1997–98, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Canberra.
Dudden, Alexis. 2005. “Apologizing for the Past between Japan and Korea,” in Partisan Histories, eds. Max Paul Friedman and Padraic Kenny. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 39–54.
Durie, Mason. 1998. Te Mana, Te Kawanatanga: The Politics of Maori Self-Determination. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
Editorial. 1998. “A Path from Shame and Dependence,” Vancouver Sun, January 8, p. A18.
Editorial. 2004. “The Long Trail to Apology,” New York Times, June 28, p. A18.
Editorial. 2006. “Closure, at Least, on Residential Schools,” Gazette (Montreal), May 1, p. A16.
Elie, Paul. 1998. “John Paul's Jewish Dilemma,” New York Times Sunday Magazine, April 26, pp. 34–9.
Elster, Jon. 2004. Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Environics Research Group. 1998. First Nations Issues Study Preliminary Report. December 10.
Fallow, Michael. 2005. “A Sorry State of Affairs,” Southland Times (New Zealand), February 26, p. 3.
Fears, Darryl. 2002. “Slaves' Descendants Sue Firms,” Washington Post, September 4, p. A22.
Fears, Darryl. 2005. “Seeking More Than Apologies for Slavery: Activists Hope Firms' Disclosure of Ties Will Lead to Reparations,” Washington Post, June 20, p. A01.
Feist, Paul. 2003. “Davis Apologizes for State's Sterilization Program; Those with Hereditary Flaws Were Victims,” San Francisco Chronicle, March 12, p. A20.
Fickling, David. 2003. “One Country, Two Histories: Conservative Australian Historians Rewrite Accepted View That Colonists Massacred Aborigines,” Guardian (London), January 27, p. 19.
Field, Norma. 1995. “The Stakes of Apology,” Japan Quarterly 42: 405–18.
Fisher, Ian. 2001. “At Site of Massacre, Polish Leader Asks Jews for Forgiveness,” New York Times, July 11, p. A1.
Flanagan, Tom. 2000. First Nations? Second Thoughts. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Fleras, Augie, and Jean Leonard Elliott. 1992. The Nations Within: Aboriginal-State Relations in Canada, the United States, and New Zealand. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Fleras, Augie, and P. Spoonley. 1999. Recalling Aotearoa: Indigenous Politics and Ethnic Relations in New Zealand. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
Fletcher, Christine. 1997.“Federalism and Indigenous Peoples in Australia,” in Government Policies and Ethnic Relations in Asia and the Pacific, eds. Michael E. Brown and Sumit Ganguly. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 395–420.
Forum. 2000. “Making the Case for Racial Reparations,” Harper's Magazine, November, pp. 37–51.
Foss, Clive. 1992. “The Turkish View of Armenian History: A Vanishing Nation,” in The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 250–79.
Fredrickson, George M. 2004.”America's Original Sin,” New York Review of Books, March 25: 34–6.
Freiden, Jaymi. 2003. “S. Carolina Issues Apology for Years of Sterilizations; Forced Procedure Used into the 1960s,” San Diego Union-Tribune, January 9, p. A8.
Frideres, James S. 1998. Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: Contemporary Conflicts. Scarborough: Prentice Hall.
Furi, Megan, and Jill Wherrett. [1996] 2003. Indian Status and Band Membership Issues. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Research Branch.
Gallagher, Gary W., and Alan T. Nolan. 2000. The Myth of the Lost Cause and Civil War History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Gardiner-Garden, John. 1999. “From Dispossession to Reconciliation.” Research Paper 27, Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Library, Canberra.
George, Alexander L., and Andrew Bennett. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Ghannam, Jeffrey. 2000. “Repairing the Past,” ABA Journal, November, pp. 39–70.
Gibney, Mark, and Erik Roxstrom. 2001.“The Status of State Apologies,” Human Rights Quarterly 23: 911–39.
Gibson, James L. 2004. Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile a Divided Nation? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Gibson, James L.. 2005. “The Truth about Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa,” International Political Science Review 26: 341–61.
Gibson, James L.. 2006.”The Contributions of Truth to Reconciliation: Lessons from South Africa,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 50: 409–32.
Glaberson, William. 2004. “Putting a Price on Holocaust Survivors' Hopes.” New York Times, March 13, p. B15.
Glynn, Carroll J., et al. 2004. Public Opinion, 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press.
Gordon, Michael, and Claire Harvey. 1997. “PM's Advice on Payouts in Question.” Weekend Australian, May 31–June 1, p. 2.
Gordon-Reed, Annette. 1997. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings: An American Controversy. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
Gover, Kevin. 2000. “Remarks of Kevin Gover, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, at the Ceremony Acknowledging the 175th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.” Available online at http://www.doi.gov/bia/as-ia/175gover.htm.
Grattan, Michelle, ed. 2000. Reconciliation: Essays on Australian Reconciliation. Melbourne: Black Inc.
Green, Shane. 2003. “Sex Slaves Fail in Compensation Bid,” The Age, March 27, p. 15.
Greiff, Pablo de, ed. 2006. The Handbook of Reparations. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gross, Emma R. 1989. Contemporary Federal Policy toward American Indians. New York: Greenwood Press.
Guembe, María José. 2006. “Economic Reparations for Grave Human Rights Violations: The Argentinean Experience,” in The Handbook of Reparations, ed. Pablo de Greiff. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 21–54.
Hall, Tony. 1997. H. Con. Res. 96, June 12, 1997, 105th Congress.
Hatamiya, Leslie T. 1993. Righting a Wrong: Japanese Americans and the Passage of the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Havemann, Paul, ed. 1999. Indigenous Peoples' Rights in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
Havemann, Paul. 1995. “‘What's in the Treaty?’ Constitutionalizing Maori Rights in Aotearoa/New Zealand 1975–1993,” in Legal Pluralism and the Colonial Legacy, ed. Kayleen Hazlehurst. Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 73–101.
Hawaii Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. 2001. Reconciliation at the Crossroads: The Implications of the Apology Resolution and Rice v. Cayetano for Federal and State Programs Benefiting Native Hawaiians. Summary report.
Hazlehurst, Kayleen M., ed. 1995. Legal Pluralism and the Colonial Legacy. Aldershot: Avebury.
Hein, Laura Elizabeth, and Mark Seldon, eds. 1997. Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Herf, Jeffrey. 1997. Divided Memory: The Nazi Past in the Two Germanys. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Herron, Senator the Hon. John, Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs. 2000. “Inquiry into the Stolen Generation.” Federal Government Submission to the Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, Canberra.
Hijino, Ken. 2002. “Japan's Cabinet Give to Fund for Comfort Women,” Financial Times (London), July 3, p. 12.
Hirsch, James S. 2002. Riot and Remembrance: The Tulsa Race War and Its Legacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Hirsch, James S.. 2003. “Can Justice Be Done in Tulsa?” Washington Post, March 16, p. B02.
Hodgson, Dorothy L. 2002. “Introduction: Comparative Perspectives on the Indigenous Rights Movement in Africa and the Americas,” American Anthropologist 104: 1037–49.
Holmes, Steven A. 1997. “Idea of Apologizing for Slavery Loses Steam, at Least for Now,” New York Times, August 6, p. A15.
Hooker, Juliet. 2005.“Indigenous Inclusion/Black Exclusion: Race, Ethnicity and Multicultural Citizenship in Latin America,” Journal of Latin American Studies 37: 285–310.
Howard, Hon. John. 1997. “Opening Ceremony Speech: The Prime Minister,” Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation Convention, Melbourne, May 26–8. Available online at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/car/1997/4/pmspoken.html.
Howard, Hon. John. 2000. “Practical Reconciliation,” in Reconciliation: Essays on Australian Reconciliation, ed. Michelle Gratton. Melbourne: Black Inc., pp. 88–96.
Howard, Hon. John. 2004. Transcript of the Prime Minister, Joint Press Conference with Senator Amanda Vanstone. Canberra: Parliament House. Available online at http://www.pm.gov.au/news/interviews/Interview795.html.
Hugo, Graeme. 2002. “Australian Immigration Policy: The Significance of the Events of September 11,” International Immigration Review 26: 37–40.
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. 1997. Bringing Them Home: National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Hunter, B. H., and R. G. Schwab. 2003. “Practical Reconciliation and Continuing Disadvantage in Indigenous Education,” Drawing Board: An Australian Review of Public Affairs 4: 83–98.
Hurley, Mary C., and Jill Wherrett. [1999] 2000a. “Aboriginal Self-Government.” PRB 99–19E. Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Research Branch, Ottawa. Available online at http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/962-e.htm.
Hurley, Mary C., and Jill Wherrett. [1999] 2000b. “The Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.” PRB 99–24-3. Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Research Branch, Ottawa. Available online at http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/prb9924-e.htm.
Hylton, John H., ed. 1999. Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada, 2nd ed. Saskatoon: Purich.
Iggers, George G. 1997. Historiography in the Twentieth Century. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press.
Indian Residential Schools Resolution Canada. n.d. Statistics page. Available online at http://www.irsr-rqpi.gc.ca/english/statistics.html, accessed October 1, 2005.
Irving Saulwick & Associates. 2000.“Research into Issues Related to a Document of Reconciliation.” Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation. Report No. 2, Indigenous Qualitative Research. Available online at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/car/.
Ivison, Duncan, Paul Patton, and Will Sanders. 2000. “Introduction,” in Political Theory and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, eds. Duncan Ivison, Paul Patton, and Will Sanders. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–21.
Ivison, Duncan. 2000. “Political Community and Historical Injustice,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 78: 360–73.
Ivison, Duncan. 2002. Postcolonial Liberalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jenson, Jane, and Martin Papillon. 2000. “Challenging the Citizenship Regime: The James Cree and Transnational Action,” Politics and Society 28: 245–64.
Jhappan, C. Radha. 1990. “Indian Symbolic Politics: The Double-Edged Sword of Publicity,” Canadian Ethnic Studies 22:19–39.
Jonas, Dr. William. 2000. “Reconciliation and Human Rights,” Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission: Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Report. Available online at http://www.hreoc.gov.au/social_justice/index.html.
Jupp, James. 1995. “From ‘White Australia’ to ‘Part of Asia’: Recent Shifts in Australian Immigration Policy towards the Region,” International Migration Review 29: 207–29.
Jupp, James. 1997. “The Ethnic Dimension,” in The Politics of Retribution: The 1996 Australian Federal Election, eds. Clive Bean et al. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin, pp. 80–7.
Kalt, Joseph P., and Joseph William Singer. 2004. “Myths and Realities of Tribal Sovereignty: The Law and Economics of Indian Self-Rule.” Research Working Paper Series RWP04–016. Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government Faculty, Cambridge.
Kelley, Matt. 2000. “Indian Affairs Head Makes Apology,” Excite.News, September 8.
Kettner, James H. 1978. The Development of American Citizenship, 1608–1870. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Kidd, Rosalind. 2000. Black Lives, Government Lies. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.
Klinkner, Philip A., and Rogers M. Smith. 1999. The Unsteady March. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2006. “Dead Reckoning: The Armenian Genocide and the Politics of Silence,” New Yorker, November 6, pp. 120–4.
Kymlicka, Will. 2001. Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism, and Citizenship. New York: Oxford University Press.
Legg, Michael. 2002. “Indigenous Australians and International Law: Racial Discrimination, Genocide and Reparations,” Berkeley Journal of International Law 20: 387–436.
Lehman, Russ, and Alyssa Macy. “Native Vote 2004: A National Survey and Analysis to Increase the Native Vote in 2004 and the Results Achieved,” First American Education Project, National Congress of American Indians. Available online at http://www.ncai.org.
Lemont, Eric. N/A. “Developing Effective Processes of American Indian Constitutional and Governmental Reform: Lessons from the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, Hualapai Nation, Navajo Nation and Northern Cheyenne Tribe.” Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development. Available online at http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/hunap.
Lewin, Tamar. 2001. “Calls for Slavery Restitution Getting Louder,” New York Times, June 4, p. A15.
Libesman, Heidi. 2005. “In Search of a Postcolonial Theory of Normative Integration: Reflections on A. C. Cairns' Theory of Citizens Plus,” Canadian Journal of Political Science 38: 955–76.
Lind, Jennifer M. 2004. “Apologies in International Politics,” Dartmouth College. Unpublished paper.
Lyall, Sarah. 1997. “The Irish Famine and the English.” New York Times, June 8, section 4, p. 2.
Macintyre, Stuart, and Anna Clark. 2003. The History Wars. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.
Magin, Janis L. 2006. “Hawaiians Weigh Options as Native-Status Bill Stalls.” New York Times, June 11, p. 37.
Maier, Charles S. 1988. The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Mallet, Robyn K., and Janet K. Swim. 2004. “Collective Guilt in the United States: Predicting Support for Social Policies That Alleviate Social Injustice,” in Collective Guilt: International Perspectives, eds. Nyla R. Branscombe and Bertjan Dooseje. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 56–74.
Manne, Robert, ed. 2003. Whitewash: On Keith Windschuttle's Fabrication of Aboriginal History. Melbourne: Black Inc. Agenda.
Manne, Robert. 2001.“In Denial: The Stolen Generations and the Right,” Australian Quarterly Essay 1, pp. 1–113
Manuel, George, and Michael Poslums. 1974. The Fourth World: An Indian Reality. New York: Free Press.
Markus, Andrew. 1994. Australian Race Relations. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Martin, D. F. 2001. “Is Welfare Dependency ‘Welfare Poison’? An Assessment of Noel Pearson's Proposals for Aboriginal Welfare Reform,” Discussion Paper No. 213, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University.
Mason, W. Dale. 2000. Indian Gaming: Tribal Sovereignty and American Politics. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Masumi, Fukatsu. 1995. “The Eclipse of Showa Taboos and the Apology Resolution,” Japanese Quarterly 42: 419–25.
Matthews, Gregory H. 2005. “Apologies Can Make All the Difference in Dispute Resolution,” Legal Intelligencer, June 1, p. 5.
McAdam, Doug. 1999. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency 1930 –1970, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McAllister, Ian. 1992. Political Behaviour: Citizens, Parties and Elites in Australia. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.
McBeath, Gerald. 1992. “Political Structure and Native Self-Government in the United States, Canada, and Australia,” in Indigenous Rights in the Pacific and North America: Race and Nation in the Late Twentieth Century, eds. Henry Reynolds and Richard Nile. London: University of London, Sir Robert Menzies Centre for Australian Studies.
McCool, Daniel, Susan M. Olson, and Jennifer L. Robinson. 2007. Native Vote: American Indians, the Voting Rights Act, and the Right to Vote. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McDonald, Michael. 1976. “Aboriginal Rights,” in Contemporary Issues in Political Philosophy, eds. William R. Shea and John King-Farlow. New York: Science History, pp. 27–48.
McGarty, Craig, et al. 2005. “Group-Based Guilt as a Predictor of Commitment to Apology,” British Journal of Social Psychology 44: 659–80.
McGraw, Kathleen M. 1998. “Manipulating Public Opinion with Moral Justification,” Annals, American Association for Political and Social Science 560: 129–42.
McGregor, Russell. 1996. “An Aboriginal Caucasian: Some Uses for Racial Kinship in Early Twentieth Century Australia,” Australian Aboriginal Studies 1: 11–20.
McGregor, Russell. 1997. Imagined Destinies: Aboriginal Australians and the Doomed Race Theory, 1880–1939. Carlton South: Melbourne University Press.
McGregor, Russell. 2004. “Governance, Not Genocide: Aboriginal Assimilation in the Postwar Era,” in Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History, ed. A. Dirk Moses. New York: Berghahn, pp. 290–307.
McKenna, Mark. 1997–8. “Different Perspectives on Black Armband History.” Research Paper 5, Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library, Canberra.
McNeil, Kent. 2001. Emerging Justice? Essays on Indigenous Rights in Canada and Australia. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Native Law Centre.
Metzger, Yona. 2005. “Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Catholic-Jewish Relations 40 Years after Nostra Aetate,” America, October 24, p. 12.
Milloy, Courtland. 1994. “Triumph of Justice in Florida,” Washington Post, April 17, p. B1.
Milloy, James S. 1999. A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System, 1879–1986. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.
Mitchell, Emily. 1998. “Apologies: Who's Sorry Now?” Index on Censorship 3: 46–7.
Mofina, Rick. 2002.“Anglican Church to Pay up to $25M for Native Abuse: Church to Pay 30%, Government 70%, of Residential School Abuse Claims,” Ottawa Citizen, November 21, p. A6.
Mollison, Andrew. 2004a. “U.S. Apology to Indians Considers Bill, ‘Acknowledges Years of Official Depredations,’” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 25. Available online at http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/174821_indian25.html.
Mollison, Andrew. 2004b. “Congress Considers Apology to Indians,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 25, p. 10A.
Morley, James W. 1965. Japan and Korea: America's Allies in the Pacific. New York: Walker.
Morse, Bradford W. 1999. “The Inherent Right of Aboriginal Governance,” in Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada, 2nd ed., ed. John H. Hylton. Saskatoon: Purich, p. 16–44.
Moses, A. Dirk, ed. 2004. Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History. New York: Berghahn.
Moses, A. Dirk. 2001.”Coming to Terms with Genocidal Pasts in Comparative Perspective: Germany and Australia,” Aboriginal History 25: 91–115.
Mowbray, Rebecca. 2005. “Bank Reveals Slavery Link; 2 La. Firms Named,” Times-Picayune, January 21, p. 1.
Mukae, Ryuji. 1996. “Japan's Diet Resolution on World War II: Keeping History at Bay,” Asian Survey 36: 1011–30.
Mulgan, Richard. 2005. Politics in New Zealand, 3rd ed. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
Murphy, Dean E. 1994. “German President Apologizes; Leader Asks Forgiveness for W.W. II Acts against Poland,” Houston Chronicle, August 2, p. A13.
Murphy, Dean E.. 2005. “Bill Giving Native Hawaiians Sovereignty Is Too Much for Some, Too Little for Others,” New York Times, July 17, p. 14.
Murray, Maureen. 2003. “Native Protest Slams New Legislation,” Toronto Star, March 21, p. B4.
NAACP Washington Bureau. 2004. “How Congress Voted: NAACP Civil Rights, Federal Legislative Record Card, 108th Congress 2003–2004.”
Neal, Terry M. 2005. “Symbolic Lynching Resolution Forced Concrete Political Choice,” Washington Post, June 2. Available online at http://www.washingtonpost.com.
Neill, Rosemary. 2002. White Out: How Politics Is Killing Black Australia. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.
New Zealand Electoral Commission and the Ministry of Maori Development. n.d. “Maori Roll or General Roll? It's Your Choice.” Available online at http://www.elections.org.nz/elections/esyst/mroll.html.
New Zealand Electoral Commission. 2005. “Maori and the Vote.” Available online at http://www.elections.org.nz/study/history/maori-vote.html.
Newspoll Market Research. 2000. “Summary of Findings: Quantitative Research into Issues Relating to the Document of Reconciliation.” Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation. Available online at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/car/.
Newspoll, Saulwick & Muller, and Hugh Mackay. 2000. “Public Opinion on Reconciliation: Snap Shot, Close Focus, Long Lens,” in Reconciliation: Essays on Australian Reconciliation, ed. Michelle Grattan. Melbourne: Black Inc., pp. 33–52.
Nichols, Roger L. 1998. Indians in the United States and Canada: A Comparative History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Nobles, Melissa. 2005. “The Myth of Latin American Multiracialism.” Daedalus, Winter: 82–7.
Norberry, Jennifer. 2001–2. “Voters and the Franchise: the Federal Story.” Research Paper No.17, Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library, Canberra.
O'Connor, Colleen. 2004. “Who's Sorry Now? An Orgy of Apologies Spreading across the World,” Denver Post, April 15, p. L-01.
O'Neill, Barry. 1999. Honor, Symbols, and War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Ogletree, Charles J., Jr. 2002. “Litigating the Legacy of Slavery,” New York Times, Op-Ed, March 31, section 4, p. 9.
Oliver, W. H. 2001.”The Future behind Us,” in Histories, Power and Loss: Uses of the Past – A New Zealand Commentary, eds. Andrew Sharp and Paul McHugh. Wellington: Bridget Williams, pp. 9–29.
Onishi, Norimitsu. 2005a. “In Japan's New Texts, Lessons in Rising Nationalism,” New York Times, April 17, p. 4.
Onishi, Norimitsu. 2005b. “A War Shrine, for a Japan Seeking a Not Guilty Verdict,” New York Times, June 22. Available online at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/22/international/asia/22letter.html?.
Parliament of New South Wales Legislative Council, Standing Committee on Social Issues. 1997. “Aboriginal Representation in Parliament Issues Paper.”
Patton, Paul. 2005.“Historic Injustice and the Possibility of Supersession,” Journal of Intercultural Studies 26: 255–66.
Paul, Peralte C. 2005. “Wachovia Apologizes for Its Ties to Slavery,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, June 2, p. 3E.
Pells, Eddie. 1997. “Ala. Syphilis Victims Meet Clinton Today,” Boston Globe, May 16, p. A3.
Peterson, Nicholas, and Will Sanders, eds. 1998. Citizenship and Indigenous Australians: Changing Conceptions and Possibilities. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
Pevar, Stephen L. 1992. The Rights of Indians and Tribes. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Pocock, J. P. A. 2001. “The Treaty between Histories,” in Histories, Power and Loss: Uses of the Past – A New Zealand Commentary, eds. Andrew Sharp and Paul McHugh. Wellington: Bridget Williams, pp. 75–95.
Pollara Research and Earnscliffe Research and Communications. 2001. “Summary of Key Findings.” Indian Residential Schools Resolution Canada. Available online at http://www.irsr.gc.ca/english/polling_10_02.html.
Pratt, Angela. 2003. “Make or Break? A Background to the ATSIC Changes and the ATSIC Review,” Current Issues Brief No. 29, Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library, Canberra.
Pritchard, Sarah, ed. 1998. Indigenous Peoples, the United Nations and Human Rights. Leichhardt: Federation Press.
Pritchard, Sarah.1998. “The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and Indigenous Peoples,” in Indigenous Peoples, the United Nations and Human Rights, ed. Sarah Pritchard. Leichhardt: Federation Press, pp. 184–202.
Pross, Christian. 1998. Paying for the Past: The Struggle over Reparations for Surviving Victims of the Nazi Terror. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty. 2005. “Erdogan Urges France to Drop Armenian Genocide Recognition.” 2005. February 4. Available online at http://www.rferl.org.
Ray, Arthur J. 2003. “Aboriginal Title and Treaty Rights Research: A Comparative Look at Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States,” New Zealand Journal of History 37: 5–21.
Reed, Terrell. 2002. “Sins of the Past,” Black Enterprise, June.
Reuters. 2003. “British Columbia Apologizes to Its Indians,” New York Times, February 12, p. A7.
Reynolds, Henry. 1996. Aboriginal Sovereignty: Three Nations, One Australia? St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Reynolds, Henry. 1999. Why Weren't We Told? A Personal Search for the Truth about Our History. Ringwood: Viking.
Reynolds, Henry. 2001. An Indelible Stain? The Question of Genocide in Australia's History. Ringwood: Viking.
Riley, Mark. 2003a. “Sorry, But the PM Says the Culture Wars Are Over,” Sydney Morning Herald, September 10, p. 1.
Riley, Mark. 2003b. “Sorry Issue Is Unreconciled,” Sydney Morning Herald, September 12, p. 4.
Robinson, Randall. 2000. The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks. New York: Dutton.
Roorda, Eric Paul. 1998. The Dictator Next Door: The Good Neighbor Policy and the Trujillo Regime in the Dominican Republic, 1930–1945. Durham: Duke University Press.
Rose, Deborah Bird. 2003. “Oral Histories and Knowledge,” in Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience, eds. Bain Attwood and S. G. Foster. Canberra: National Museum of Australia.
Rose, Michael, ed. 1996. For the Record: 160 Years of Aboriginal Print Journalism. St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. 1993. Partners in Confederation: Aboriginal Peoples, Self-Government, and the Constitution. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. 1997. For Seven Generations: An Information Legacy of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. 5 vol. CD-ROM. Ottawa: Libraxus.
Russell, Dan. 2000. A People's Dream: Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Russell, Peter, and Roger Jones. 1997. “Aboriginal Peoples and Constitutional Reform,” in For Seven Generations: An Information Legacy of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples CD-ROM, ed. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Ottawa: Libraxus.
Salzberger, Ronald P., and Mary C. Turck, eds. 2004. Reparations for Slavery: A Reader. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Sanger, David E., and Steven Lee Meyers. 2001. “Collision with China: Washington; Delicate Diplomatic Dance Ends Bush's First Crisis,” New York Times, April 12, p. A1.
Schouls, Tim. 2003. Shifting Boundaries: Aboriginal Identity, Pluralist Theory, and the Politics of Self-Government. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee. 2000. Healing: A Legacy of Generations. Canberra: Senate of Australia.
Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee. 2003. Reconciliation: Off Track. Canberra: Senate of Australia.
Sharp, Andrew, and Paul McHugh, eds. 2001. Histories, Power and Loss: Uses of the Past – A New Zealand Commentary. Wellington: Bridget Williams.
Sharp, Andrew. 1997a. “Civil Rights, Amelioration, and Reparation in New Zealand,” in Government Policies and Ethnic Relations in Asia and the Pacific, eds. Michael Brown and Sumit Ganguly. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 421–56.
Sharp, Andrew. 1997b. Justice and the Maori: The Philosophy and Practice of Maori Claims in New Zealand since the 1970s. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
Sharp, Andrew. 2001. “Recent Juridical and Constitutional Histories of Maori,” in Histories, Power and Loss: Uses of the Past- A New Zealand Commentary, eds. Andrew Sharp and Paul McHugh. Wellington: Bridget Williams, pp. 31–60.
Sharrock, David. 1999. “Nine Hundred Years Later, a Christian Apology for Crusades; Thousands Expected in Israel to Seek Forgiveness from Jews, Muslims,” Globe and Mail, July 3, p. A18.
Shelby, Tommie. 2005. We Who Are Dark: The Philosophical Foundations of Black Solidarity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Shepard, Scott. 2005. “Critics: Frist Vetoed Roll Call on Anti-Lynching Vote,” Palm Beach Post, June 15.
Shogren, Elizabeth. 1998. “Clinton Condemns Silence on Rwanda,” Chicago Sun-Times, March 26, p. 24.
Shriver, Donald. 1995. An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Silva, Alexandre da. 2005. “Hawaiians Unite against Ruling, But Also against Themselves,” Associated Press State & Local Wire, August 3.
Sims, Calvin. 2001. “Japan Apologizes to Lepers and Declines to Fight Isolation Ruling,” New York Times, May 24, p. A3.
Singleton, Gwynneth. 2000. The Howard Government: Australian Commonwealth Administration 1996–1998. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.
Smith, Roger W. 1992. “The Armenian Genocide: Memory, Politics, and the Future,” in The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 1–20.
Smith, Rogers M. 2003. Stories of Peoplehood: The Politics and Morals of Political Membership. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sorrenson, Keith. 1993. “The Position of Indigenous People in National Constitutions,” in Speeches from the Conference, Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation, Canberra, June 4–5, pp. 28–37.
Sorrenson, M. P. K. 1989. “Towards a Radical Reinterpretation of New Zealand History: The Role of the Waitangi Tribunal,” in Maori and Pakeha Perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi, ed. I. H. Kawharu. Auckland: Oxford University Press, pp. 158–78.
Speirs, Rosemary. 1998. “PM Must Take the Lead: Government's Apology to Indians Should Have Come from Chrétien,” Gazette (Montreal), January 9, p. B3.
Steffenhagen, Janet. 1998. “Apology to Abused Natives Elicits Powerful Emotions,” Vancouver Sun, January 8, p. A3.
Stephenson, M. A., ed. 1995. Mabo: The Native Title Legislation: A Legislative Response to the High Court's Decision. Queensland: University of Queensland Press.
Stern, Alexandra Minna. 2005. “Eugenics and Historical Memory in America,” History Compass 3: 1–11.
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. 2005a. “Senate Issues Apology over Failure on Lynching Law,” New York Times, June 1, p. 15.
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. 2005b. “The Senate Apologizes, Mostly,” New York Times, June 19, section 4, p. 3.
Stout, David. 2000. “Indian Office No Place for John Wayne,” New York Times, September 22, p. A14.
Struck, Doug. 2002a. “Increasingly, Japanese Look Back in Anger: On Anniversary of Defeat in WWII, an Unrepentant View Is Gaining Favor,” Washington Post, August 16, p. A15.
Struck, Doug. 2002b. “Japan Expected to Aid N. Korea; Communists Seek $10 Billion in World War II Reparations,” Washington Post, September 14, p. A12.
Summers, John. 2000–1. “The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia and Indigenous Peoples, 1901–1967.” Research Paper No. 10. Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library, Canberra.
Swardson, Anne. 1997. “Swiss Regrets Remarks on Jewish Demands,” Washington Post, January 16, p. A28.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1994. Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tate, Katherine. 2003. Black Faces in the Mirror: African Americans and Their Representatives in the U.S. Congress. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Tavuchis, Nicholas. 1991. Mea Culpa: A Sociology of Apology and Reconciliation. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Taylor, Kevin. 2004. “Poll: Maori Equal, Special,” New Zealand Herald, February 28.
Teather, David. 2005. “Bank Admits It Owned Slaves,” Guardian (London), January 22, p. 17.
Teitel, Ruti. 1997. “Transitional Jurisprudence: The Role of Law in Political Transformation,” Yale Law Journal 106: 2009–80.
Teitel, Ruti. 2000. Transitional Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Temple, Philip. 2004. “New Book on Treaty Takes Political Line,” New Zealand Herald, July 15.
Thomas, Edward K. 2005. “Testimony on an Apology to Native Americans.” Submitted to U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, May 25.
Thomas-Lester, Avis. 2005. “Repairing Senate's Record on Lynching,” Washington Post, June 11, p. A1.
Thompson, Elizabeth. 2006. “‘Let the Government Hear from Canadians’: Former PM Defends Bill to Close the Gap between Aboriginals, other Canadians,” Gazette (Montreal), June 2, p. A10.
Thornton, Emily. 1995. “Final Mea Culpa?” Far Eastern Economic Review, August 24, p. 18.
Tobias, John L. 1983. “Protection, Civilization, Assimilation: An Outline History of Canada's Indian Policy,” in As Long as the Sun Shines and Water Flows: A Reader in Canadian Native Studies, eds. Ian A. L. Getty and Antoine S. Lussier. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, pp. 39–64.
Torpey, John, ed. 2003. Politics and the Past: On Repairing Historical Injustices. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Torpey, John. 2006. Making Whole What Has Been Smashed: On Reparations Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Totsuka, Etsuro. 1999. “Translations: Commentary on a Victory for ‘Comfort Women,’” Pacific Rim Law and Policy 8: 47–6.
Trigger, Bruce G. 1985. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's “Heroic Age” Reconsidered. Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Tsosie, Rebecca. 2006. “The BIA's Apology to Native Americans: An Essay on Collective Memory and Collective Conscience,” in Taking Wrongs Seriously, eds. Elazar Barkan and Alexander Karn. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 185–212.
Turner, Charles C. 2005. The Politics of Minor Concerns: American Indian Policy and Congressional Dynamics. Lanham: University Press of America.
U.S. Congress. 2000. H. Con. Res. 356, June 19, 106th Congress, 2nd session.
U.S. House of Representatives, Senate. 1993. “To Acknowledge the 100th Anniversary of the January 17, 1893 Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and to Offer an Apology to Native Hawaiians on Behalf of the United States for the Overthrow….” 103rd Congress, S. J. Res.19. Available online at http://www.thomas.gov.
U.S. House of Representatives. 1997. “Resolution Apologizing for Slavery.” June 1. Available online at http://thomas.loc.gov/, accessed July 23, 2004.
Utley, Robert M. 1984. The Indian Frontier of the American West, 1865–1890. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Waitangi Tribunal. n.d. “Frequently Asked Questions.” Available online at http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/about/frequentlyaskedquestions.asp#3, accessed August 7, 2006.
Waldmeir, Patti. 2001. “Slavery Reparations Case Heads to Court,” Financial Times, September 2, p. 3.
Waldrep, Christopher. 2000. “War of Words: The Controversy over the Definition of Lynching, 1899–1940,” Journal of Southern History 1: 75–100.
Waldron, Jeremy. 1992. “Superseding Historic Injustice,” Ethics 103: 4–28.
Waldron, Jeremy. 2002. “Redressing Historical Injustice,” University of Toronto Law Journal 52: 135–60.
Waldron, Jeremy. 2004. “The Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: Theoretical Perspectives: Settlement, Return, and the Supersession Thesis,” Theoretical Inquiries in Law 5: 237–68.
Wallace, Anthony F. C. 1999. Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ward, Alan. 1999. An Unsettled History: Treaty Claims in New Zealand Today. Wellington: Bridget Williams.
Watson, Jamal. 2001. “Blacks, Jews Found Still to Have Rifts,” Boston Globe, August 16, p. A3.
Watts, Jonathan. 1998. “‘Comfort Women’ Win Damages in Landmark Ruling; Breakthrough for Japan's Sex Slaves,” Guardian (London), April 28, p. 15.
Weaver, Sally M. 1981. Making Canadian Indian Policy: The Hidden Agenda 1968–1970. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Weaver, Sally M.. 1990. “A New Paradigm in Canadian Indian Policy for the 1990s,” Canadian Ethnic Studies 22: 12–18.
Weisman, Steven R. 1997. “India Wrestles with the Raj: A Queen's Gesture of Penitence Reignites a 50-Year-Old Debate,” New York Times, October 26, section 4, p. 14.
Wiencek, Henry. 2003. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
Wilkie, Curtis. 1997. “Divisions Arise on Slavery Apology,” Boston Globe, June 29, p. A13.
Wilkins, David E. 1997. American Indian Sovereignty and the U.S. Supreme Court: The Masking of Justice. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Wilkins, David E.. 2002. American Indian Politics and the American Political System. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Williams, John A. 1969. Politics of the New Zealand Maori: Protest and Cooperation, 1891–1909. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Williams, Linda Faye. 2003. The Constraint of Race: Legacies of White Skin Privilege in America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Williamson, Edwin. 1992. The Penguin History of Latin America. Allen Lane: Penguin Press.
Wilson, Honorable Margaret. n.d. Available online at http://www.Beehive.govt.nz.
Windschuttle, Keith. 2002. The Fabrication of Aboriginal History. Sydney: Macleay Press.
Winsor, Hugh. 1998. “Chrétien Skipped His Share of Moment,” Globe and Mail, January 9, p. A4.
Wolfe, Patrick. 2001. “Land, Labor, and Difference: Elementary Structures of Race,” American Historical Review, June. Available online at http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/106.3/ah000866.html, accessed January 12, 2006.
Wood, Gordon S. 2003. “Slaves in the Family,” New York Times Book Review, December 14, p. 10.
Woodward, Kenneth L., 1995. “Who's Sorry Now?” Newsweek, July 17, p. 65.
Yamamoto, Eric K. 1999. Interracial Justice: Conflict and Reconciliation in Post-Civil Rights America. New York: New York University Press.
Yashar, Deborah J. 1999. “Democracy, Indigenous Movements, and the Postliberal Challenge in Latin America,” World Politics 52: 76–104.
Yashar, Deborah J.. 2005. Contesting Citizenship in Latin America: The Rise of Indigenous Movements and the Postliberal Challenge. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Yoshibumi, Wakamiya. 1999. The Postwar Conservative View of Asia. Tokyo: LTCB International Library Foundation.
Young, Audrey. 2004. “Clark Set to Go on Inquiry into Place of Treaty,” New Zealand Herald, March 11.
Young, Iris Marion. 1995. “Polity and Group Difference: A Critique of the Ideal of Universal Citizenship,” in Theorizing Citizenship, ed. Ronald Beiner. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 175–207.
Zeuthen, Kasper. 1999. “WWII Internees get 5,000 Dollars, Official Apology,” Daily Yomiuri (Tokyo), January 9, p. 3.
Zweig, Ronald W. 2001. German Reparations and the Jewish World, 2nd ed. London: Frank Cass.