Lizard Ecology

The Evolutionary Consequences of Foraging Mode

Lizard Ecology

The foraging mode of lizards has been a central theme in guiding research in lizard biology for three decades. Foraging mode has been shown to be a pervasive evolutionary force molding the diet, ecology, behavior, anatomy, biomechanics, life history, and physiology of lizards. This 2007 volume reviews the knowledge on the effects of foraging mode on these and other organismal systems to show how they have evolved, over a wide taxonomic survey of lizard groups. The reviews presented here reveal the continuous nature of foraging strategies in lizards and snakes, providing the reader with a review of the field, and will equip researchers with fresh insights and directions for the sit-and-wait vs. wide foraging paradigm. This will serve as a reference book for herpetologists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists and animal behaviorists.


 Reviews:

"This publication will certainly be a useful resource for those interested in the evolution of animal foraging and traits associated with different foraging strategies, but it will also appeal to other herpetologists, behavioral ecologists, and evolutionary ecologists."
Jerry F. Husak, The Quarterly Review of Biology

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Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1994a). Prey chemical discrimination, foraging mode, and phylogeny. In Lizard Ecology: Historical and Experimental Perspectives, ed. L. J. Vitt and E. R. Pianka , pp. 95–116. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1994b). Chemical discrimination by tongue-flicking in lizards: a review with hypotheses on its origin and its ecological and phylogenetic relationships. J. Chem. Ecol. 20, 439–87.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1994b). Prey chemical discrimination, foraging mode, and phylogeny. In Lizard Ecology: Historical and Experimental Perspectives, ed. L. J. Vitt and E. R. Pianka , pp. 95–116. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1994b). Prey chemical discrimination, foraging mode, and phylogeny. In Lizard Ecology: Historical and Experimental Perspectives, ed. L. J. Vitt and E. R. Pianka , pp. 97–116. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995). Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards. Anim. Behav. 50, 973–85.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995). Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards. Anim. Behav. 50, 973–85.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995). Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards. Anim. Behav. 50, 973–85.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995). Prey chemical discrimination and foraging mode in gekkonoid lizards. Herp. Monogr. 9, 120–9.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995a). Evolution and function of lingual shape in lizards, with emphasis on elongation, extensibility, and chemical sampling. J. Chem. Ecol. 21, 477–505.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995a). Evolution and function of lingual shape in lizards, with emphasis on elongation, extensibility, and chemical sampling. J. Chem. Ecol. 21, 477–505.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995a). Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards. Anim. Behav. 50, 973–85.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995a). Prey chemical discrimination and foraging mode in gekkonoid lizards. Herpetol. Monogr. 9, 120–9.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995b). Evolution and function of lingual shape in lizards, with emphasis on elongation, extensibility, and chemical sampling. J. Chem. Ecol. 21, 477–505.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995b). Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards. Anim. Behav. 50, 973–85.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995b). Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards. Anim. Behav. 50, 973–85.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995b). Prey chemical discrimination and foraging mode in gekkonoid lizards. Herp. Monogr. 9, 120–9.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1995c). Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards. Anim. Behav. 50, 973–85.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1996). Variation and evolution of forked tongues in squamate reptiles. Herp. Nat. Hist. 4, 135–50.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1996a). Preliminary reconstructions of nasal chemosensory evolution in Squamata. Amph.-Rept. 17, 395–415.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1996b). Variation and evolution of forked tongues in squamate reptiles. Herpetol. Nat. Hist. 4, 135–50.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1997). Correlated evolution of prey chemical discrimination with foraging, lingual morphology and vomeronasal chemoreceptor abundance in lizards. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 41, 257–65.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1997). Correlated evolution of prey chemical discrimination with foraging, lingual morphology, and vomeronasal chemoreceptor abundance in lizards. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 41, 257–65.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1997). Independent evolution of squamate olfaction and vomerolfaction and correlated evolution of vomerolfaction and lingual structure. Amph.-Rept. 18, 85–105.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1997a). Correlated evolution of prey chemical discrimination with foraging, lingual morphology, and vomeronasal chemoreceptor abundance in lizards. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 41, 257–65.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1997a). Independent evolution of squamate olfaction and vomerolfaction and correlated evolution of vomerolfaction and lingual structure. Amph.-Rept. 18, 85–105.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1997b). Correlated evolution of prey chemical discrimination with foraging, lingual morphology and vomeronasal chemoreceptor abundance in lizards. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 41, 257–65.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1997b). Independent evolution of squamate olfaction and vomerolfaction and correlated evolution of vomerolfaction and lingual structure. Amph.-Rept. 18, 85–105.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1998). Evaluation of swab and related tests as a bioassay for assessing responses by squamate reptiles to chemical stimuli. J. Chem. Ecol. 24, 841–66.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1998). Prey chemical discrimination indicated by tongue-flicking in the eublepharid gecko Coleonyx variegatus . J. Exp. Zool. 281, 21–5.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (1999). Supplementation of phylogenetically correct data by two species comparison: support for correlated evolution of foraging mode and prey chemical discrimination in lizards extended by first intrageneric evidence. Oikos 86, 97–104.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2000). An adaptive difference in the relationship between foraging mode and responses to prey chemicals in two congeneric scincid lizards. Ethology 106, 193–206.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2000). Effect of temperature on escape behaviour by an ectothermic vertebrate, the keeled earless lizard (Holbrookia propinqua). Behaviour 137, 1299–315.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2000a). Correspondence between diet and food chemical discriminations by omnivorous geckos (Rhacodactylus). J. Chem. Ecol. 26, 755–63.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2000b). An adaptive difference in the relationship between foraging mode and responses to prey chemicals in two congeneric scincid lizards. Ethology 106, 193–206.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2002). Convergent evolution of plant chemical discrimination by omnivorous and herbivorous scleroglossan lizards. J. Zool. Lond. 257, 53–66.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2002). Convergent evolution of plant chemical discrimination by omnivorous and herbivorous scleroglossan lizards. J. Zool. Lond. 257, 53–66.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2003). Risk factors affecting escape behavior by the desert iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis: speed and directness of predator approach, degree of cover, direction of turning by a predator, and temperature. Can. J. Zool. 81, 979–84.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2003a). Correlated evolution of herbivory and food chemical discrimination in iguanian and ambush foraging lizards. Behav. Ecol. 14, 409–6.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2003b). Prey chemicals do not affect perch choice by an ambushing lizard, Sceloporus malachiticus . J. Herpetol. 37, 197–9.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2003c). Foraging mode and evolution of strike-induced chemosensory searching in lizards. J. Chem. Ecol. 29, 995–1008.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2005). The foraging mode controversy: both continuous variation and clustering of foraging movements occur. J. Zool. Lond. 267, 179–90.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2005a). The foraging mode controversy: both continuous variation and clustering of foraging modes occur. J. Zool. Lond. 267, 179–90.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. (2005b). Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61, 363–72.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Burghardt, G. M. and Brown, W. S. (2000). Behavioural responses by hatchling racers (Coluber constrictor) from two geographically distinct populations to chemical stimuli from prey and predators. Amph.-Rept. 21, 103–15.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Buth, D. G. and Vitt, L. J. (1990). Prey odor discrimination by ingestively naive coachwhip snakes (Masticophis flagellum). Chemoecology 1, 86–91.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Caldwell, J. P. , Vitt, L. J. , Pérez-Mellado, V. and Baird, T. A. (2002a). Food chemical discriminations and correlated evolution between plant diet and plant chemical discrimination in lacertiform lizards. Can. J. Zool. 80, 655–63.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Caldwell, J. P. , Vitt, L. J. , Pérez-Mellado, V. and Baird, T. A. (2002a). Food-chemical discrimination and correlated evolution between plant diet and plant-chemical discrimination in lacertiform lizards. Can. J. Zool. 80, 655–63.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Caldwell, J. P. , Vitt, L. J. , Perez-Mellado, V. and Baird, T. A. (2002). Food-chemical discrimination and correlated evolution between plant diet and plant-chemical discrimination in lacertiform lizards. Can. J. Zool. 80, 655–63.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Deperno, C. S. and Arnett, J. (1994a). Prolonged poststrike elevation in tongue-flicking rate with rapid onset in gila monster, Heloderma suspectum: relation to diet and foraging and implications for evolution of chemosensory searching. J. Chem. Ecol. 20, 2867–81.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , DePerno, C. S. and Steele, L. J. (1996a). Do lingual behaviors and locomotion by two gekkotan lizards after experimental loss of bitten prey indicate chemosensory search. Amph.-Rept. 17, 217–31.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , DePerno, C. S. and Steele, L. J. (1996b). Effects of movement and eating on chemosensory tongue-flicking and on labial-licking in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Chemoecology 7, 179–83.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Ferguson, G. W. and Habegger, J. J. (2001a). Responses to animal and plant chemicals by several iguanian insectivores and the tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus . J. Herpetol. 35, 255–63.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , McDowell, S. G. and Ruffer, J. (1989). Strike-induced chemosensory searching in the colubrid snakes Elaphe g. guttata and Thamnophis sirtalis . Ethology 81, 19–28.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Pérez-Mellado, V. , Vitt, L. J. and Budzinsky, B. (2002b). Behavioral responses to plant toxins by the omnivorous Balearic lizard, Podarcis lilfordi . Physiol. Behav. 76, 297–303.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Pérez-Mellado, V. , Vitt, L. J. and Budzynski, B. (2002c). Behavioral responses to plant toxins by two omnivorous lizard species. Physiol. Behav. 76, 297–303.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Pérez-Mellado, V. and Vitt, L. J. (2002b). Responses to major categories of food chemicals by the lizard Podarcis lilfordi . J. Chem. Ecol. 28, 689–700.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Pérez-Mellado, V. and Vitt, L. J. (2003). Cologne as a pungency control in tests of lizard chemical discrimination: effects of concentration, brand, and simultaneous and sequential presentation. J. Ethol. 21, 101–6.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Perez-Mellado, V. and Vitt, L. J. (2002). Responses to major categories of food chemicals by the lizard Podarcis lilfordi . J. Chem. Ecol. 28, 689–700.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Vitt, L. J. , Caldwell, J. P. and Fox, S. F. (2001). Foraging modes of some American lizards: relationships among measurement variables and discreteness of modes. Herpetologica 57, 65–76.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Vitt, L. J. , Caldwell, J. P. and Fox, S. F. (2001). Foraging modes of some American lizards: relationships among measurement variables and discreteness of modes. Herpetologica 57, 65–76.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Vitt, L. J. , Caldwell, J. P. and Fox, S. F. (2001b). Foraging modes of some American lizards: relationships among measurement variables and discreteness of modes. Herpetologica 57, 65–76.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Vitt, L. J. , Caldwell, J. P. and Fox, S. F. (2005). Relationships among foraging variables, phylogeny, and foraging modes, with new data for nine North American lizard species. Herpetologica 57, 65–76.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Vitt, L. J. , Caldwell, J. P. and Fox, S. F. (2005). Relationships among foraging variables, phylogeny, and foraging modes, with new data for nine North American lizard species. Herpetologica 61, 250–9.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Vitt, L. J. and Caldwell, J. P. (1994b). Movement and substrate tongue flicks in Phrynosomatid lizards. Copeia 1994, 234–7.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Whiting, M. J. , Van Wyk, J. H. and Mouton, P. F. N. (1999). Movement- and attack-based indices of foraging mode and ambush foraging in some gekkonid and agamine lizards from southern Africa. Amph.-Rept. 20, 391–9.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Whiting, M. J. , Van Wyk, J. H. and Mouton, P. F. N. (1999). Movement- and attack-based indices of foraging mode and ambush foraging in some gekkonid and agamine lizards from southern Africa. Amph.-Rept. 20, 391–9.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Whiting, M. J. , Van Wyk, J. H. and Mouton, P. le F. N. (1999). Movement and attack-based indices of foraging mode and ambush foraging in some gekkonid and agamine lizards from southern Africa. Amph.-Rept. 20, 391–9.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Whiting, M. J. , Van Wyk, J. H. and Mouton, P. leF. N. (1999). Movement- and attack-based indices of foraging mode and ambush foraging in some gekkonid and agamine lizards from southern Africa. Amph.-Rept. 20, 391–9.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Whiting, M. J. and Van Wyk, J. H. (1997). Foraging modes of cordyliform lizards. S. Afr. J. Zool. 32(1), 9–13.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Whiting, M. J. and Van Wyk, J. H. (1997). Foraging modes of cordyliform lizards. S. Afr. J. Zool. 32, 9–13.
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Cooper, W. E. Jr. , Whiting, M. J. and Van Wyk, J. H. (1997). Foraging modes of cordyliform lizards. S. Afr. J. Zool. 32, 9–13.
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Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Alberts, A. C. (1990). Responses to chemical food stimuli by an herbivorous actively foraging lizard, Dipsosaurus dorsalis . Herpetologica 46, 259–6.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Alberts, A. C. (1991). Tongue flicking and biting in response to chemical food stimuli by an iguanid lizard (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) having sealed vomeronasal ducts: vomerolfaction may mediate these behavioural responses. J. Chem. Ecol. 17, 135–46.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Alberts, A. C. (1991). Tongue-flicking and biting in response to chemical food stimuli by an iguanid lizard (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) having sealed vomeronasal ducts: Vomerolfaction may mediate these behavioral responses. J. Chem. Ecol. 17, 135–46.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Arnett, J. (2003). Correspondence between diet and chemosensory responsiveness by helodermatid lizards. Amph.-Rept. 24, 86–91.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Burghardt, G. M. (1990a). Volmerolfaction and vomodor. J. Chem. Ecol. 16, 103–5.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Burghardt, G. M. (1990b). A comparative analysis of scoring methods for chemical discrimination of prey by squamate reptiles. J. Chem. Ecol. 16, 45–65.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Habegger, J. J. (2000). Lingual and biting response to food chemicals by some eublepharid and gekkonid geckos. J. Herpetol. 34, 360–8.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Habegger, J. J. (2000). Lingual and biting responses to food chemicals by some eublepharid and gekkonid geckos. J. Herpetol. 34, 360–8.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Hartdegen, R. (1999). Discriminative response to animal, but not plant, chemicals by an insectivorous, actively foraging lizard, Scincella lateralis, and differential response to surface and internal prey cues. J. Chem. Ecol. 25, 1531–41.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Pérez-Mellado, V. (2001a). Location of fruit using only airborne odor cues by a lizard. Physiol. Behav. 74, 339–2.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Pérez-Mellado, V. (2001b). Chemosensory responses to sugar and fat by the omnivorous lizard Gallotia caesaris with behavioral evidence suggesting a role for gustation. Physiol. Behav. 73, 509–6.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Pérez-Mellado, V. (2002a). Responses by a generalist predator, the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi, to chemical cues from taxonomically diverse prey. Acta Ethol. 4, 119–24.
Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Perez-Mellado, V. (2002b). Responses to food chemicals by two insectivorous and one omnivorous species of lacertid lizards. Neth. J. Zool. 52, 11–28.
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Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Vitt, L. J. (2002). Distribution, extent, and evolution of plant consumption by lizards. J. Zool. Lond. 257, 487–517.
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Cooper, W. E. Jr. and Whiting, M. J. (2000). Ambush and active foraging modes both occur in the Scincid genus Mabuya . Copeia 2000, 112–18.
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