“Bowron Asks Removal of All Japanese Inland.” 1942. Los Angeles Times
(1886–Current File), ProQuest Historical Newspapers, http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.unl.edu/pqdweb?index=48&did=414380641&SrchMode=1&sid=5&Fmt=10&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=HNP&TS=1195583182&clientId=14215
(accessed 20 November 2007), 6 February: 1.
“Private Donations Raised $20 Million for Hurricane Relief Fund.” 2005. Associated Press State & Local Wire
, 15 August, BC cycle.
“Pro-war Demonstrators Show Support for U.S. Troops.” 2003. FoxNews.com. 23 March. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,81936,00.html
(accessed 11 September 2007).
“Some Texas Stations Stop Playing Dixie Chicks Songs after Bush Remarks.” 2003. FoxNews.com. 16 March. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,81177,00.html
(accessed 11 September 2007).
“Thousands Rally in Support of War.” 2003. FoxNews.com. 22 February. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,79333,00.html
(accessed 7 November 2007).
Abrams, Dominic, Margaret Wetherell, Sandra Cochran, Michael A. Hogg, and John C. Turner. 1990. “Knowing What to Think by Knowing Who You Are: Self-Categorization and the Nature of Norm Formation, Conformity and Group Polarization.” British Journal of Social Psychology 29:97–119.
Abrams, Dominic, Michael A. Hogg, and José M. Marques. 2005. The Social Psychology of Inclusion and Exclusion. New York: Psychology Press.
Albrecht, Brian E. 2001. “Patriotism on Display in NE Ohio.” Plain Dealer, 13 September, A16.
Alesina, Alberto, Reza Baqir, and William Easterly. 1999. “Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 (4):1243–84.
Alford, John R., and John R. Hibbing. 2004. “The Origin of Politics: An Evolutionary Theory of Political Behavior.” Perspectives on Politics 2 (4):707–23.
Allport, Gordon W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Alwin, Duane F., Ronald L. Cohen, and Theodore M. Newcomb. 1991. Political Attitudes over the Life Span: The Bennington Women after Fifty Years. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Ambrose, Jean. 2001. “National Make a Difference Day Volunteering Makes Heroes of All of Us Each Day.” Charleston Gazette, 22 October, P5A.
Ambrose, Jean. 2003. “Americans on Both Sides Take to the Streets.” FoxNews.com. 17 March. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,81227,00.html
(accessed 7 November 2007).
Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. 2nd ed. London: Verso.
Andrews, Molly. 1991. Lifetimes of Commitment: Aging, Politics, Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aronson, Elliot, Timothy D. Wilson, and Robin M. Akert. 2002. Social Psychology, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Asch, Solomon E. 1958. “Effects of Group Pressure Upon the Modification and Distortion of Judgments.” In Readings in Social Psychology, 3rd ed., ed. E.E. Maccoby, T.M. Newcomb and E.L. Hartley. New York: Henry Holt.
Ashmore, R. D, L. Jussim, and David Wilder, ed. 2001. Social Identity, Intergroup Conflict, and Conflict Reduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bar-Tal, Daniel, and Ervin Staub. 1997. “Introduction: Patriotism: Its Scope and Meaning.” In Patriotism: In the Lives of Individuals and Nations, ed. D. Bar-Tal and E. Staub. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Barkow, Jerome H., Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby. 1992. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
Barrett, Louise, R.I.M. Dunbar, and John Lycett. 2002. Human Evolution-ary Psychology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Beaucar, Kelley O. 2001. “Coming Protests Are Principled to Some, ‘Un-American’ to Others.” FoxNews.com. 24 September. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,34879,00.html
(accessed 11 September 2007).
Billig, Michael. 1995. Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.
Blank, Thomas, and Peter Schmidt. 2003. “National Identity in a United Germany: Nationalism or Patriotism? An Empirical Test with Representative Data.” Political Psychology 24 (2):289–312.
Bodvarsson, Orn B., and William A. Gibson. 1997. “Economics and Restaurant Gratuities: Determining Tip Rates.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 56 (2):187–204.
Bohnet, Iris, and Bruno S. Frey. 1999. “Social Distance and Other-Regarding Behavior in Dictator Games: Comment.” American Economic Review 89 (1):335–9.
Boyd Bell, Gregory. 2004. “Go, Canada! Northern Lights Look Bright to ‘Dubya Dodgers’.” Newsday, 10 November, A41.
Branscombe, Nyla R., Naomi Ellemers, Russell Spears, and Bertjan Doosje. 1999. “The Context and Content of Social Identity Threat.” In Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content, ed. N. Ellemers, R. Spears and B. Doosje. Oxford: Blackwell.
Breakwell, Glynis M., and Evanthia Lyons, ed. 1996. Changing European Identities: Social Psychological Analyses of Social Change. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Brewer, Marilynn B. 1999. “The Psychology of Prejudice: Ingroup Love or Outgroup Hate?” Journal of Social Issues 55 (3):429–44.
Brewer, Marilynn B. 2001. “Ingroup Identification and Intergroup Conflict: When Does Ingroup Love Become Outgroup Hate?” In Social Identity, Intergroup Conflict, and Conflict Reduction, ed. R.D. Ashmore, L. Jussim and D. Wilder. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brewer, Marilynn B. 2003. Intergroup Relations, 2nd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Brewer, Marilynn B. 2004. “What Does It Mean to Be an American? Patriotism, Nationalism, and American Identity after 9/11.” Political Psychology 25 (5):727–39.
Brewer, Marilynn B., and Donald T. Campbell. 1976. Ethnocentrism and Intergroup Attitudes: East African Evidence. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Brewer, Marilynn B., and Roderick M. Kramer. 1985. “The Psychology of Intergroup Attitudes and Behavior.” Annual Review of Psychology 36:219–43.
Brooks, Arthur C. 2006. Who Really Cares: The Surprising Truth about Compassionate Conservatism. New York: Basic.
Brown, Rupert. 2000. Group Processes, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bruner, Jerome S. 1957. “On Perceptual Readiness.” Psychological Review 64:123–51.
Bryce, James. 1891. The American Commonwealth. 2 vols. Vol. 2. London: Macmillan.
Burr, Thomas. 2001. “4-Year-Old Praised Anew for Sept. 11 Fund Donation.” Salt Lake Tribune, 22 November, B3.
Buss, David M. 1999. Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Caporael, Linnda R. 2001. “Parts and Wholes: The Evolutionary Importance of Groups.” In Individual Self, Relational Self, Collective Self, ed. C. Sedikides and M.B. Brewer. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Cialdini, Robert B. and Melanie R. Trost. 1998. “Social Influence: Social Norms, Conformity, and Compliance.” In Handbook of Social Psychology Vol. 2, D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, and G. Lindzey, Eds., pp.151–92. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Citrin, Jack, Beth Reingold, and Donald P. Green. 1990a. “American Identity and the Politics of Ethnic Change. Journal of Politics 52 (4):1124–54.
Citrin, Jack, Beth Reingold, Evelyn Walters, and Donald P. Green. 1990b. “The ‘Official English’ Movement and the Symbolic Politics of Language in the United States.” Western Political Quarterly 43 (3):535–59.
Citrin, Jack, Cara Wong, and Brian Duff. 2001. “The Meaning of American National Identity: Patterns of Ethnic Conflict and Consensus.” In Social Identity, Intergroup Conflict, and Conflict Reduction, ed. R.D. Ashmore, L. Jussim and D. Wilder. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Citrin, Jack, Ernst B. Haas, Christopher Muste, and Beth Reingold. 1994. “Is American Nationalism Changing? Implications for Foreign Policy.” International Studies Quarterly 38 (1):1–31.
Citrin, Jack. 1990. “Language Politics and American Identity.” Public Interest (99):96–109.
Commerce, U.S. Department of. 1980. Statistical Abstract of the United States 1980
(accessed 21 September 2007).
Commerce, U.S. Department of. 1994. Statistical Abstract of the United States 1994
(accessed 21 September 2007).
Commerce, U.S. Department of. 2007. “Federal Government Finances & Employment: Federal Budget – Receipts, Outlays, and Debt.” Statistical Abstract of the United States 2007
. http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/federal_govt_finances_employment/federal_budgetreceipts_outlays_and_debt/ 2007
(accessed 21 September 2007).
Costa, Dora L., and Matthew E. Kahn. 2003. “Civic Engagement and Community Heterogeneity: An Economist's Perspective.” Perspectives on Politics 1 (1):103–11.
Darley, John M., and Bibb Latané. 1968. “Bystander Intervention in Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 8:377–83.
Dawson, Michael C. 1994. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
de Figueiredo, Rui J.P. Jr., and Zachary Elkins. 2003. “Are Patriots Bigots? An Inquiry into the Vices of In-group Pride.” American Journal of Political Science 47 (1):171–88.
Deaux, Kay. 2000. “Models, Meanings and Motivations.” In Social Identity Processes: Trends in Theory and Research, ed. D. Capozza and R. Brown. London: Sage.
Delli Carpini, Michael X., and Scott Keeter. 1996. What Americans Know about Politics and Why It Matters. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Devine, Patricia G. 1989. “Stereotypes and Prejudice: Their Automatic and Controlled Components.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56 (1):5–18.
Devos, Thierry, and Mahzarin R. Banaji. 2005. “American = White?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88 (3):447–66.
Devos, Thierry, Debbie S. Ma, and Travis Gaffud. 2008. “Is Barack Obama American Enough To Be The Next President?” Poster presented at the IXth Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque.
Diamond, Jared M. 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W. W. Norton.
Doherty, Carroll. 2006. “Attitudes Toward Immigration: In Black and White.” In Pew Research Center Publications: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. http://pewresearch.org/pubs/21/attitudes-toward-immigration-in-black-and-white
(accessed 15 October 2007).
Doob, Leonard W. 1964. Patriotism and Nationalism: Their Psychological Foundations. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Doosje, Bertjan, Naomi Ellemers, and Russell Spears. 1999. “Commitment and Intergroup Behaviour.” In Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content, ed. N. Ellemers, R. Spears and B. Doosje. Oxford: Blackwell.
Doosje, Bertjan, Nyla R. Branscombe, Russell Spears, and Antony S.R. Manstead. 1998. “Guilty by Association: When One's Group Has a Negative History.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75:872–86.
Dovidio, John F., and W.N. Morris. 1975. “Effects of Stress and Commonality of Fate on Helping Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31:145–9.
Ellemers, Naomi, Russell Spears, and Bertjan Doosje. 1999a. “Introduction.” In Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content, ed. N. Ellemers, R. Spears and B. Doosje. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ellemers, Naomi, Russell Spears, and Bertjan Doosje. 1999b. Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ellemers, Naomi, Russell Spears, and Bertjan Doosje. 2002. “Self and Social Identity.” Annual Review of Psychology 53:161–86.
Esses, Victoria M., John F. Dovidio, Lynne M. Jackson, and Tamara L. Armstrong. 2001. “The Immigration Dilemma: The Role of Perceived Group Competition, Ethnic Prejudice, and National Identity.” Journal of Social Issues 57 (3):389–412.
Feshbach, Seymour, and Noboru Sakano. 1997. “The Structure and Correlates of Attitudes Toward One's Nation in Samples of United States and Japanese College Students: A Comparative Study.” In Patriotism: In the Lives of Individuals and Nations, ed. D. Bar-Tal and E. Staub. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Flippen, A.R., H.A. Hornstein, W.E. Siegal, and E.A. Weitzman. 1996. “A Comparison of Similarity and Interdependence as Triggers for Ingroup Formation.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22:882–93.
Foundation Center. 2004. “September 11: The Philanthropic Response.” New York: Foundation Center.
Freeman, Stephen, Marcus R. Walker, Richard Borden, and Bibb Latané. 1975. “Diffusion of Responsibility and Restaurant Tipping: Cheaper by the Bunch.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 1 (4):584–7.
Gaertner, Samuel L., and John F. Dovidio. 2000. Reducing Intergroup Bias: The Common Ingroup Identity Model. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Gaertner, Samuel L., John F. Dovidio, Phyllis A. Anastasio, Betty A. Bachman, and Mary C. Rust. 1993. “The Common Ingroup Identity Model: Recategorization and the Reduction of Intergroup Bias.” European Review of Social Psychology 4 (1):1–26.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
George, Jennifer M. 1990. “Personality, Affect, and Behavior in Groups.” Journal of Applied Psychology 75:107–16.
Gibson, James L., and Amanda Gouws. 2003. Overcoming Intolerance in South Africa: Experiments in Democratic Persuasion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gibson, James. 1988. “Political Intolerance and Political Repression During the McCarthy Red Scare.” American Political Science Review 82 (2):511–29.
Gibson, James. 2006. “Do Strong Group Identities Fuel Intolerance? Evidence From the South African Case.” Political Psychology 27 (5):665–705.
Gilens, Martin. 1995. “Racial Attitudes and Opposition to Welfare.” Journal of Politics 57 (4):994–1014.
Gilens, Martin. 1996. “‘Race Coding’ and White Opposition to Welfare.” American Political Science Review 90 (3):593–604.
Gilens, Martin. 1999. Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goodin, Robert E. 1988. “What Is So Special about Our Fellow Countrymen?” Ethics 98 (4):663–86.
Goodstein, Laurie. 2001. “After the Attacks: Finding Fault; Falwell's Finger-pointing Inappropriate, Bush Says.” New York Times, 15 September, A15.
Green, Donald P., Bradley Palmquist, and Eric Schickler. 2002. Partisan Hearts and Minds: Political Parties and the Social Identities of Voters. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Greenfeld, Liah. 1992. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. 1961. The Federalist Papers. Edited by C.L. Rossiter. New York: New American Library.
Hasenfeld, Yeheskel, and Jane A. Rafferty. 1989. “The Determinants of Public Attitudes toward the Welfare State.” Social Forces 67:1027–48.
Hayden, S.R., T.T. Jackson, and J.N. Guydish. 1984. “Helping Behavior of Females: Effects of Stress and Commonality of Fate.” Journal of Psychology 117:233–7.
Hedberg, Kathy. 2005. “Students Replace What Charley Took; Lewiston Elementary Students Send 1,600 Books to School in Florida Wrecked by Hurricane.” Lewiston Morning Tribune, 5 January, 1A.
Held, David. 1996. Models of Democracy, 2nd ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Henny, Ed, and Ed Hornick. 2008. “Rage Rising on the McCain Campaign Trail.” CNN, 11 October, http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/10/mccain.crowd/index.html?iref=newssearch
(accessed 14 October 2008).
Herrmann, Richard K., Thomas Risse-Kappen, and Marilynn B. Brewer, ed. 2004. Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Hewstone, Miles, Mark Rubin, and Hazel Willis. 2002. “Intergroup Bias.” Annual Review of Psychology 53:575–604.
Hibbing, John R., and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse. 2002. Stealth Democracy: Americans' Beliefs about How Government Should Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hill, Lawrence. 2001. Black Berry, Sweet Juice: On Being Black and White in Canada. Toronto: HarperCollins.
Hilton, James L., and William von Hippel. 1996. “Stereotypes.” Annual Review of Psychology 47:237–71.
Hoffman, Elizabeth, Kevin McCabe, and Vernon L. Smith. 1996. “Social Distance and Other-Regarding Behavior in Dictator Games.” American Economic Review 86 (3):653–60.
Hoge, Warren. 2002. “Britain's Nonwhites Feel Un-British, Report Says.” New York Times, 4 April, 13A.
Hogg, Michael A. 2001a. “Social Categorization, Depersonalization, and Group Behavior.” In Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Group Processes, ed. M.A. Hogg and S. Tindale. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hogg, Michael A. 2001b. “Social Identity and the Sovereignty of the Group: A Psychology of Belonging.” In Individual Self, Relational Self, Collective Self, ed. C. Sedikides and M.B. Brewer. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Hogg, Michael A. 2005. “All Animals Are Equal But Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others: Social Identity and Marginal Membership.” In The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying, ed. K.D. Williams, J.P. Forgas and W. von Hippel. New York: Psychology Press.
Hogg, Michael A., and Dominic Abrams. 1988. Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. London: Routledge.
Hogg, Michael A., and Scott A. Reid. 2006. “Social Identity, Self-Categorization, and the Communication of Group Norms.” Communication Theory 16:7–30.
Hogg, Michael A., Kelly S. Fielding, and John M. Darley. 2005. “Fringe Dwellers: Processes of Deviance and Marginalization in Groups.” In The Social Psychology of Inclusion and Exclusion, ed. D. Abrams, M.A. Hogg and J.M. Marques. New York: Psychology Press.
Hornsey, Matthew J. 2005. “Why Being Right Is Not Enough: Predicting Defensiveness in the Face of Group Criticism.” European Review of Social Psychology 16:301–34.
Hornsey, Matthew J., and Armin Imani. 2004. “Criticizing Groups from the Inside and the Outside: An Identity Perspective on the Intergroup Sensitivity Effect.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (3):365–83.
Hornsey, Matthew J., Tina Oppes, and Alicia Svensson. 2002. “‘It's OK If We Say It, But You Can't’: Responses to Intergroup and Intragroup Criticism.” European Journal of Social Psychology 32:293–307.
Hornstein, Harvey A. 1976. Cruelty and Kindness: A New Look at Aggres-sion and Altruism. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Huddy, Leonie, and Nadia Khatib. 2007. “American Patriotism, National Identity, and Political Involvement.” American Journal of Political Science 51 (1):63–77.
Huddy, Leonie, Stanley Feldman, Charles Taber, and Gallya Lahav. 2005. “Threat, Anxiety, and Support of Antiterrorism Policies.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (3):593–608.
Huddy, Leonie, Stanley Feldman, Theresa Capelos, and Colin Provost. 2002. “The Consequences of Terrorism: Disentangling the Effects of Personal and National Threat.” Political Psychology 23 (3):485–509.
Huddy, Leonie. 2001. “From Social to Political Identity: A Critical Examina-tion of Social Identity Theory.” Political Psychology 22 (1):127–56.
Hulse, Carl. 2008a. “McCain's Canal Zone Birth Prompts Queries about Whether That Rules Him Out.” New York Times, 28 February, A21.
Hulse, Carl. 2008b. “Senate Says McCain Is Eligible.” New York Times, 1 May, A22.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1997. “The Erosion of American National Interests.” Foreign Affairs 76 (5):28–49.
Huntington, Samuel P. 2004. Who Are We?: The Challenges to America's Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hurwitz, Jon, and Mark Peffley. 1990. “Public Images of the Soviet Union: The Impact on Foreign Policy Attitudes.” Journal of Politics 52 (1):3–28.
Ignatieff, Michael. 1994. Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism. 1st American ed. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux.
Isenberg, D.J. 1986. “Group Polarization: A Critical Review and Meta-analysis.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50:1141–51.
Jetten, Jolanda, Tom Postmes, and Brendan J. McAuliffe. 2002. “‘We're All Individuals’: Group Norms of Individualism and Collectivism, Levels of Identification and Identity Threat.” European Journal of Social Psychology 32:189–207.
Kakar, Sudhir. 1996. The Colors of Violence: Cultural Identities, Religion, and Conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kallen, Horace. 1924. Culture and Democracy in the United States. New York: Boni and Liveright.
Kaplan, Joel. 2005. One Nation Under Law
1 April 2005 (accessed 26 May 2005).
Kelman, Herbert C., and V. Lee Hamilton. 1989. Crimes of Obedience: Toward a Social Psychology of Authority and Responsibility. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Kilborn, Peter T. 2001. “After the Attacks: Voices; Fellow Americans Opening Hearts, Wallets, Veins.” New York Times, 13 September, A19.
King, Gary. 1986. “How Not to Lie with Statistics.” American Journal of Political Science 39:666–87.
Kinket, Barbara, and Maykel Verkuyten. 1997. “Levels of Ethnic Self-Identification and Social Context.” Social Psychology Quarterly 60 (4):338–54.
Kluegel, James R., and Eliot R. Smith. 1986. Beliefs About Inequality: Americans' Views of What Is and What Ought to Be. New York: A. de Gruyter.
Konigsmark, Anne Rochell, and Rick Hampson. 2005. “Amid Ruins, Volunteers Are Emerging as Heroes; as Government Agencies Delay, Non-Profits Are Energizing Rebuilding Efforts on Gulf Coast – and Giving Hope.” USA Today, 22 December, 1A.
Kosterman, Rick, and Seymour Feshbach. 1989. “Toward a Measure of Patriotic and Nationalistic Attitudes.” Political Psychology 10 (2):257–74.
Kramer, Roderick M., and Marilynn B. Brewer. 1984. “Effects of Group Identity on Resource Utilization in a Simulated Commons Dilemma.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46:1044–57.
Labaton, Stephen. 2007. “McCain Casts Muslims as Less Fit to Lead.” New York Times, 30 September, 22.
Ladd, Everett Carll. 1999. The Ladd Report. New York: Free Press.
Lakoff, George. 1987. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Large, Jerry. 2005. “Katrina: Race and Class Separate Yet Connected.” Seattle Times, 18 September, M1.
Larimer, Christopher W. 2003. “Behavior a Function of Publicity.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Latané, Bibb. 1981. “The Psychology of Social Impact.” American Psychologist 36:343–56.
Lavrakas, Paul J. 1993. Telephone Survey Methods: Sampling, Selection, and Supervision. 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Levine, John M., and Richard L. Moreland. 1998. “Small Groups.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, 4th ed., ed. D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske and G. Lindzey. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Li, Qiong, and Marilynn B. Brewer. 2004. “What Does It Mean to Be an American? Patriotism, Nationalism, and American Identity after 9/11.” Political Psychology 25 (5):727–39.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1996. American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword. New York: W. W. Norton.
Liptak, Adam. 2008. “A Hint of New Life to a McCain Birth Issue.” New York Times, 11 July, A11.
Lodge, Milton, and Charles Taber. 2000. “Three Steps toward a Theory of Motivated Political Reasoning.” In Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality, ed. A. Lupia, M. McCubbins, and S. Popkin. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lodge, Milton, and Charles Taber. 2005. “The Automaticity of Affect for Political Leaders, Groups, and Issues: An Experimental Test of the Hot Cognition Hypothesis.” Political Psychology 26: 455–82.
Lodge, Milton, Charles Taber, and Inna Burdein. 2003. “The Impact of Self-Identifications on Political Attitudes: An Experimental Test Employing Subliminal Priming.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.
Luskin, Robert. 1991. “Abusus non tollit usum: Standardized Coefficients, Correlations, and R2s.” American Journal of Political Science 35:1032–46.
Mackie, Diane M., and Joel Cooper. 1984. “Attitude Polarization: Effects of Group Membership.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46:575–85.
Magaro, Peter A., and Richard M. Ashbrook. 1985. “The Personality of Societal Groups.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48:1479–89.
Mahtani, Minelle. 2002. “Interrogating the Hyphen-Nation: Canadian Multicultural Policy and ‘Mixed Race’ Identities.” Social Identities 8 (1):67–90.
Marcus, George E., John L. Sullivan, Elizabeth Theiss-Morse, and Sandra Wood. 1995. With Malice toward Some: How People Make Civil Liberties Judgments. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Markus, Hazel Rose, and Shinobu Kitayama. 1994. “A Collective Fear of the Collective: Implications for Selves and Theories of Selves.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20 (5):568–79.
Marques, Jose M., and Dario Paez. 1994. “The ‘Black Sheep Effect’: Social Categorization, Rejection of Ingroup Deviates and Perception of Group Variability.” European Review of Social Psychology 5:37–68.
Marques, Jose M., Dominic Abrams, and Rui G. Serodio. 2001. “Being Better by Being Right: Subjective Group Dynamics and Derogation of In-Group Deviants When Generic Norms Are Undermined.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81:436–47.
Marques, Jose M., Dominic Abrams, Dario Paez, and Michael A. Hogg. 2001. “Social Categorization, Social Identification, and Rejection of Deviant Group Members.” In Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Group Processes, ed. M.A. Hogg and S. Tindale. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Mathur, Shruti L. 2004. “In Brief; Orono; Hurricane Fund Doubles Goal.” Minneapolis Star Tribune, 3 November, 3W.
Maurer, Kristin L., Bernadette Park, and Myron Rothbart. 1995. “Subtyping Versus Subgrouping Processes in Stereotype Representation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (5):812–24.
McCarthy, Joseph R. 1950. “Enemies from Within.” Speech given in Wheeling, West Virginia, 9 February, at History Matters, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6456
(accessed 25 October 2007).
McClosky, Herbert, and Alida Brill. 1983. Dimensions of Tolerance: What Americans Believe about Civil Liberties. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
McClosky, Herbert, and John Zaller. 1984. The American Ethos: Public Attitudes toward Capitalism and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McConahay, John B. 1986. “Modern Racism, Ambivalence, and the Modern Racism Scale.” In Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism, ed. J. F. Dovidio and S. L. Gaertner. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
McCord, Julia. 2001. “Across the Midlands, People Open Their Hearts, and Wallets; Everyone from Kids to Corporations Digs Deep to Help Victims of the Sept. 11 Terrorist Attacks.” Omaha World Herald, 27 September, 6B.
McKinley, James. 2000. “Sports Psychology; It Isn't Just a Game.” New York Times, 11 August, 1.
Meacham, Jon. 2007. “Op-Ed: A Nation of Christians Is Not a Christian Nation.” New York Times, Section 4, page 15.
Mendelberg, Tali. 2001. The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implicit Messages, and the Norm of Equality. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Milgram, Stanley. 1974. Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View. New York: Harper Colophon.
Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mink, Gwendolyn. 1986. Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party, and State, 1875–1920. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Mlicki, Pawel P., and Naomi Ellemers. 1996. “Being Different or Being Better? National Stereotypes and Identifications of Polish and Dutch Students.” European Journal of Social Psychology 26 (1):97–114.
Moscovici, S., and M. Zavalloni. 1969. “The Group as a Polarizer of Attitudes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 12:125–35.
Mullen, Brian, Rupert J. Brown, and C. Smith. 1992. “Ingroup Bias as a Function of Salience, Relevance, and Status: An Integration?” European Journal of Social Psychology 22:103–22.
Mummendey, Amelie, Andreas Klink, and Rupert Brown. 2001. “Nationalism and Patriotism: National Identification and Out-group Rejection.” British Journal of Social Psychology 40:159–72.
Myers, D.G., and H. Lamm. 1976. “The Group Polarization Phenomenon.” Psychological Bulletin 83:602–62.
Nathanson, Stephen. 1997. “Should Patriotism Have a Future?” In Patriotism: In the Lives of Individuals and Nations, ed. D. Bar-Tal and E. Staub. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Newcomb, Theodore M. 1943. Personality and Social Change: Attitude and Social Formation in a Student Community. New York: Dryden Press.
Newcomb, Theodore M., Kathryn E. Koenig, Richard Flacks, and Donald P. Warwick. 1967. Persistence and Change: Bennington College and Its Students after Twenty-five Years. New York: Wiley.
Newsweek Poll. 2007. www.pollingreport.com/terror.htm
. 11–12 July (accessed 5 May 2008).
O'Reilly, Bill. 2007. “Talking Points: ‘Bill Moyers, the Far Left, and Blatant Dishonesty.’” FoxNews.com. 27 April. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,268979,00.html
(accessed 11 September 2007).
Oakes, Penelope J. 2003. “The Root of All Evil in Intergroup Relations? Unearthing the Categorization Process.” In Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Processes, ed. R. Brown and S.L. Gaertner. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Ouwerkerk, Jaap W., Naomi Ellemers, and Dick De Gilder. 1999. “Group Commitment and Individual Effort in Experimental and Organizational Contexts.” In Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content, ed. N. Ellemers, R. Spears and B. Doosje. Oxford: Blackwell.
Packer, George. 2001. “The Way We Live Now: 9–30–01; Recapturing the Flag.” New York Times, 30 September, 15.
Pappu, Sridhar. 2007. “Walking a Hard Line on Campaign Trail in Iowa; Can Anti-Immigration Fervor Keep Tancredo in the Race?” Washington Post, 11 August, C01.
Perdue, C.W., John F. Dovidio, M.B. Gurtman, and R.B. Tyler. 1990. “‘Us’ and ‘Them’: Social Categorization and the Process of Intergroup Bias.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59:475–86.
Perreault, Stephane, and Richard Y. Bourhis. 1999. “Ethnocentrism, Social Identification, and Discrimination.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25 (1):92–103.
Petrocik, John R. 1974. “An Analysis of Intransitivities in the Index of Party Identification.” Political Methodology 1:31–47.
Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2006. “Many Americans Uneasy with Mix of Religion and Politics.” http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=153
(accessed 5 May 2008.)
Pew Research Center. 2005. “Katrina Relief Effort Raises Concern over Excessive Spending, Waste: Growing Number Sees U.S. Divided between ‘Haves’ and ‘Have-Nots’.” http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=260
2005 (accessed 13 March 2006).
Pew Research Center. 2006. “Americans Taking Abramoff, Alito and Domestic Spying in Stride: Democrats Hold Huge Issue Advantage.” Washington: Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 11 January. http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=267
(accessed 21 November 2007).
Pew Research Center. 2007. “How Young People View Their Lives, Futures and Politics: A Portrait of ‘Generation Next’.” Washington: Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 9 January. http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/300.pdf
(accessed 21 November 2007).
Pew Research Center. 2008. “12% – Still Think Obama Is Muslim.” Washington: Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. http://pewresearch.org/databank/dailynumber/?NumberID=509
(accessed 14 October 2008).
Phillips, Timothy L. 1996. “Symbolic Boundaries and National Identity in Australia.” British Journal of Sociology 47 (1):113–34.
Pickett, Cynthia L., and Marilynn B. Brewer. 2005. “The Role of Exclusion in Maintaining Ingroup Inclusion.” In The Social Psychology of Inclusion and Exclusion, ed. D. Abrams, M.A. Hogg and J.M. Marques. New York: Psychology Press.
Prescott, Jean. 2006. “Ham Operators among Katrina's Unsung Heroes; Radio Amateurs Lauded for Handling Hundreds of Messages after Disaster.” Contra Costa Times, 1 May, F4.
Prothro, James W., and Charles W. Grigg. 1960. “Fundamental Principles of Democracy: Bases of Agreement and Disagreement.” Journal of Politics 22 (2):276–94.
Reicher, Stephen, and Nick Hopkins. 2001. Self and Nation: Categorization, Contestation, and Mobilization. London: Sage.
Reimers, David M. 1998. Unwelcome Strangers: American Identity and the Turn against Immigration. New York: Columbia University Press.
Reno, Raymond R., Robert B. Cialdini, and Carl A. Kallgren. 1993. “The Transsituational Influence of Social Norms.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64:104–12.
Renshon, Stanley A. 2005. The 50% American: Immigration and National Identity in an Age of Terror. Washington: Georgetown University Press.
Richards, Zoe, and Miles Hewstone. 2001. “Subtyping and Subgrouping: Processes for the Prevention and Promotion of Stereotype Change.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 5 (1):52–73.
Ridley, Matt. 1996. The Origins of Virtue. New York: Penguin.
Rothbart, Myron. 2001. “Category Dynamics and the Modification of Outgroup Stereotypes.” In Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Processes, ed. R. Brown and S.L. Gaertner. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Saad, Lydia. 2006. “Anti-Muslim Sentiments Fairly Commonplace: Four in Ten Americans Admit Feeling Prejudice against Muslims.” Gallup News Service. http://www.gallup.com/poll/24073/AntiMuslim-Sentiments-Fairly-Commonplace.aspx
(accessed 5 May 2008).
Salamon, Lester M. 2002. “What Really Matters about September 11.” Chronicle of Philanthropy 14 (22):47.
Sandaine, Kerri. 2001. “Where Heroes Died; Clarkston Firefighters Visit Group Zero in NYC.” Lewiston Morning Tribune, 28 November, 1A.
Schatz, Robert T., Ervin Staub, and Howard Lavine. 1999. “On the Varieties of National Attachment: Blind versus Constructive Patriotism.” Political Psychology 20 (1):151–74.
Schervish, Paul G., and John J. Havens. 1997. “Social Participation and Charitable Giving: A Multivariate Analysis.” Voluntas 8 (3):235–60.
Schildkraut, Deborah J. 2003. “American Identity and Attitudes toward Official-English Policies.” Political Psychology 24 (3):469–99.
Schildkraut, Deborah J. 2005. Press One for English: Language Policy, Public Opinion, and American Identity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Schlegelmilch, Bodo B., Alix Love, and Adamantios Diamantopoulos. 1997. “Responses to Different Charity Appeals: The Impact of Donor Characteristics on the Amount of Donations.” European Journal of Marketing 31 (8):548–60.
Schlesinger, Arthur M. 1993. The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society. New York: W. W. Norton.
Schwartz, Barry. 2000. Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sedikides, Constantine, and Marilynn B. Brewer. 2001. Individual Self, Relational Self, Collective Self. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Sherif, Carolyn W., Muzafer Sherif, and Roger E. Nebergall. 1965. Attitudes and Attitude Change. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Sherif, Muzafer, and Carl I. Hovland. 1961. Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Sherif, Muzafer, and Carolyn W. Sherif. 1969. Social Psychology. New York: Harper and Row.
Sherif, Muzafer. 1958. “Group Influence upon the Formation of Norms and Attitudes.” In Readings in Social Psychology, 3rd ed., ed. E.E. Maccoby, T.M. Newcomb and E.L. Hartley. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Sherman, David K., and Geoffrey L. Cohen. 2006. “The Psychology of Self-Defense: Self-Affirmation Theory
.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 38, ed. M.P. Zanna. San Diego: Academic Press.
Sidanius, Jim, and Felicia Pratto. 1999. Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Sidanius, Jim, and John R. Petrocik. 2001. “Communal and National Identity in a Multiethnic State: A Comparison of Three Perspectives.” In Social Identity, Intergroup Conflict, and Conflict Resolution, ed. R.D. Ashmore, L. Jussim and D. Wilder. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sidanius, Jim, Seymour Feshbach, Shana Levin, and Felicia Pratto. 1997. “The Interface between Ethnic and National Attachment: Ethnic Pluralism or Ethnic Dominance?” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (1):102–33.
Skocpol, Theda. 2002. “From Membership to Advocacy.” In Democracies in Flux, ed. R.D. Putnam. New York: Oxford University Press.
Smith, Craig S. 2003. “Threats and Responses: Brussels; Chirac Scolding Angers Nations That Back U.S.” New York Times, 19 February, A1.
Smith, H.J., and Tom R. Tyler. 1997. “Choosing the Right Pond: The Impact of Group Membership on Self-Esteem and Group-Oriented Behavior.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 33 (2):146–70.
Smith, Rogers M. 1988. “The ‘American Creed’ and American Identity: The Limits of Liberal Citizenship in the United States.” Western Political Quarterly 41 (2):225–51.
Smith, Tom W., and Seokho Kim. 2006. “National Pride in Comparative Perspective: 1995/96 and 2003/04.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 18 (1):127–36.
Sniderman, Paul M., Pierangelo Peri, Rui J.P. de FigueiredoJr., and Thomas Piazza. 2000. The Outsider: Prejudice and Politics in Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sober, Elliott, and David Sloan Wilson. 1998. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Spears, Russell, Bertjan Doosje, and Naomi Ellemers. 1999. “Commitment and the Context of Social Perception.” In Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content, ed. N. Ellemers, R. Spears and B. Doosje. Oxford: Blackwell.
Spears, Russell. 2001. “The Interaction between the Individual and the Collective Self: Self-Categorization in Context.” In Individual Self, Relational Self, Collective Self, ed. C. Sedikides and M.B. Brewer. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Spinner-Halev, Jeff, and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse. 2003. “National Identity and Self-Esteem.” Perspectives on Politics 1 (3):515–32.
Staub, Ervin. 1989. The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Staub, Ervin. 2000. “Genocide and Mass Killing: Origins, Prevention, Healing and Reconciliation.” Political Psychology 21 (2):367–82.
Stone, Andrea. 2007. “Poll: Founders Intended Christian USA; Survey Shows Limits Public Sees on Freedoms of Religion, Press.” USA Today, 12 September, 2A.
Strom, Stephanie. 2005. “Giving in ‘04 Was Up 2.3% in Rebound.” New York Times, 14 June, A12.
Stuckey, Mary E. 2004. Defining Americans: The Presidency and National Identity. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Sullivan, John L., Amy Fried, and Mary G. Dietz. 1992. “Patriotism, Politics, and the Presidential Election of 1988.” American Journal of Political Science 36 (1):200–34.
Sullivan, John L., James Piereson, and George E. Marcus. 1982. Political Tolerance and American Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sun, Key. 1993. “The Implications of Social Psychological Theories of Group Dynamics for Gang Research.” Journal of Gang Research 1 (3):39–44.
Tajfel, Henri, and A.L. Wilkes. 1963. “Classification and Quantitative Judgement.” British Journal of Psychology 54 (2):101–14.
Tajfel, Henri, and John C. Turner. 1986. “The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Relations.” In The Psychology of Intergroup Relations, ed. S. Worchel and W.G. Austin. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Tajfel, Henri, Michael Billig, R.P. Bundy, and Claude Flament. 1971. “Social Categorization and Intergroup Behavior.” European Journal of Social Psychology 1:149–78.
Tajfel, Henri. 1978. Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.
Tajfel, Henri. 1982. Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, Charles. 1998. “The Dynamics of Democratic Exclusion.” Journal of Democracy 9 (4):143–56.
Terry, Deborah J., and Michael A. Hogg. 1996. “Group Norms and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship: A Role for Group Identification.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22:776–93.
Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth. 1993. “Conceptualizations of Good Citizenship and Political Participation.” Political Behavior 15:355–80.
Thompson, Suzanne C., Jeffrey C. Kohles, Teresa A. Otsuki, and Douglas R. Kent. 1997. “Perceptions of Attitudinal Similarity in Ethnic Groups in the U.S.: Ingroup and Outgroup Homogeneity Effects.” European Journal of Social Psychology 27:209–20.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. 1969. Democracy in America. Translated by G. Lawrence. Edited by J.P. Mayer. Garden City, NY: Anchor.
Transue, John E. 2007. “Identity Salience, Identity Acceptance, and Racial Policy Attitudes: American National Identity as a Uniting Force.” American Journal of Political Science 51 (1):78–91.
Trew, Karen, and Denny E. Benson. 1996. “Dimensions of Social Identity in Northern Ireland.” In Changing European Identities: Social Psychological Analyses of Social Change, ed. G.M. Breakwell and E. Lyons. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Tumulty, Karen. 2008. “In Battleground Virginia, a Tale of Two Grand Games.” Time, 12 October, http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1849422,00.html
(accessed 14 October 2008).
Turner, John C. 1999. “Some Current Issues in Research on Social Identity and Self-Categorization Theories.” In Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content, ed. N. Ellemers, R. Spears and B. Doosje. Oxford: Blackwell.
Tyler, Tom R., and Steven Blader. 2000. Cooperation in Groups: Procedural Justice, Social Identity, and Behavioral Engagement. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Uslaner, Eric M. 2001. “Volunteering and Social Capital: How Trust and Religion Shape Civic Participation in the United States.” In Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, ed. P. Dekker and E.M. Uslaner. London: Routledge.
Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E. Brady. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walzer, Michael. 1992. What It Means to Be an American. New York: Marsilio.
Wann, Daniel L. 2001. Sport Fans: The Psychology and Social Impact of Spectators. New York: Routledge.
Wann, Daniel L., and Nyla R. Branscombe. 1990. “Die-Hard and Fair-Weather Fans: Effects of Identification on BIRGing and CORFing Tendencies.” Journal of Sport and Social Issues 14 (2):103–17.
Weisberg, Herbert F., and Edward B. Hasecke. 1999. “The Psychological Underpinnings of Party Identification.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, 2–5 September.
Wilgoren, Jodi. 2005. “In a Multitude of Forms, the Offers of Help Pour In.” New York Times, 2 September, A21.
Worchel, Stephen, and Dawna Coutant. 1997. “The Tangled Web of Loyalty: Nationalism, Patriotism, and Ethnocentrism.” In Patriotism: In the Lives of Individuals and Nations, ed. D. Bar-Tal and E. Staub. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Wuthnow, Robert. 1998. Loose Connections: Joining Together in America's Fragmented Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Zerubavel, Yael. 1995. Recovered Roots: Collective Memory and The Making of Israeli National Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.