Child Pornography and Sexual Grooming

Legal and Societal Responses

Child Pornography and Sexual Grooming

Child pornography and sexual grooming provide case study exemplars of problems that society and law have sought to tackle to avoid both actual and potential harm to children. Yet despite the considerable legal, political and societal concern that these critical phenomena attract, they have not, thus far, been subjected to detailed socio-legal and theoretical scrutiny. How do society and law construct the harms of child pornography and grooming? What impact do constructions of the child have upon legal and societal responses to these phenomena? What has been the impetus behind the expanding criminalisation of behaviour in these areas? Suzanne Ost addresses these and other important questions, exploring the critical tensions within legal and social discourses which must be tackled to discourage moral panic reactions towards child pornography and grooming, and advocating a new, more rational approach towards combating these forms of exploitation.


'… uniquely well-informed … consistently deep coverage … she raises some uncomfortingly convincing arguments …' Family Law

'Ost puts forward a new approach to tackle the harms of child pornography and sexual grooming rationally and effectively. … a decidedly valuable contribution to the literature and debates on sex offending against children … It is the first British book to provide a balanced perspective by going beyond purely legalistic discourses … providing a detailed theoretical and critical account … readable and accessible … perhaps the greatest strength and contribution of this book are its important message …' British Journal of Criminology

'Suzanne Ost … pushes her materials in new directions to argue that we should be less concerned with child sexual abuse and also consider the various other ways that children are exploited. … Crucial in all of this is her contention that we need to abandon the dominant social construct of childhood vulnerability and, instead, empower children to let them explain how childhood should be understood and experienced. … Ost … was … able … to open up the space that we call 'childhood' and how that construction exploits children whether we are considering Norway or England.' The Howard Journal

'This book is a timely, rational antidote to the sex panic urging people to remove the naked body of a child from art galleries, photo albums, and the beach.' Dany Lacombe, Simon Fraser University

Sexual Offences Act: Explanatory Notes 2004. London: Stationery Office.
Adelman, Ronald W. 1996. ‘The Constitutionality of Congressional Efforts to Ban Computer-Generated Child Pornography’, John Marshall Journal of Computer and Information Law 14(3): 483–92.
Adler, Amy 2001a. ‘Inverting the First Amendment’, University of Pennsylvania Law Review 149(4): 921–1002.
Adler, Amy 2001b. ‘The Perverse Law of Child Pornography’, Columbia Law Review 101(2): 209–73.
Akdeniz, Yaman 1996. ‘Computer Pornography: a Comparative Study of the US and UK Obscenity Laws in Relation to the Internet’, International Review of Law, Computers and Technology 10(2): 235–61.
Akdeniz, Yaman 1997a. ‘Governance of Pornography and Child Pornography on the Global Internet: A Multi-Layered Approach’ in Edwards, Lilian and Waelde, Charlotte (eds.), Law and the Internet: Regulating Cyberspace. Oxford: Hart, pp. 223–41.
Akdeniz, Yaman 1997b. ‘The Regulation of Pornography and Child Pornography on the Internet’, Journal of Information, Law and Technology 1.
Akdeniz, Yaman 2008. Internet Child Pornography and the Law: National and International Responses. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Alexy, Eileen M., Burgess, Ann W. and Baker, Timothy 2005. ‘Internet Offenders: Traders, Travelers and Combination Traders-Travelers’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence 20(7): 804–12.
American Psychiatric Association 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychological Association 2007. Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Araji, Sharon and Finkelhor, David 1986. ‘Abusers: A Review of Research’ in Finkelhor, David (ed.), A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse. Newbury Park: Sage, pp. 89–118.
Archard, David 1993. Children: Rights and Childhood. London: Routledge.
Archard, David 1999. ‘Can Child Abuse be Defined?’ in King (ed.), pp. 74–89.
Aries, Philippe 1962. Centuries of Childhood. New York: Vintage Books.
Ashworth, Andrew 2006. Principles of Criminal Law. 5th edn. Oxford University Press.
Baker, Dennis J. 2007. ‘The Moral Limits of Criminalizing Remote Harms’, New Criminal Law Review 10: 370–91.
Beauregard, Eric and Leclerc, Benoit 2007. ‘An Application of the Rational Choice Approach to the Offending Process of Sex Offenders: A Closer Look at the Decision-Making’, Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 19: 115–33.
Beck, Ulrich 1992. Risk Society. London: Sage.
Becker, Gary S. 1976. The Economic Approach to Human Behavior. University of Chicago Press.
Beech, Anthony R., Elliott, Ian A., Birgden, Astrid and Findlater, Donald 2008. ‘The Internet and Child Sexual Offending’, Aggression and Violent Behaviour 13(3): 216–28.
Bell, Vikki 2002. ‘The Vigilant(e) Parent and the Paedophile: The News of the World Campaign 2000 and the Contemporary Governmentality of Child Sexual Abuse’ Feminist Theory 3(1): 83–102.
Berger, Peter L. and Luckmann, Thomas 1967. The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Anchor Books.
Bergmann, Jörg R. 1998. ‘Introduction: Morality in Discourse’ Research on Language and Social Interaction 31: 279–94.
Best, Joel 1990. Threatened Children. University of Chicago Press.
Bowling, Ann 1997. Research Methods in Health: Investigating Health and Health Services. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Boyden, Jo 1997. ‘Childhood and the Policy Makers: A Comparative Perspective on the Globalization of Childhood’ in James and Prout (eds.) 1997, pp. 190–229.
Brazier, Margaret and Bridge, Caroline 1996. ‘Coercion or Caring: Analysing Adolescent Autonomy’, Legal Studies 15: 84–109.
Burke, Debra 1997. ‘The Criminalization of Virtual Child Pornography: A Constitutional Question’, Harvard Journal on Legislation 34: 439–72.
Carol, Avedon and Pollard, Nettie 1993. ‘Changing Perceptions in the Feminist Debate’ in Assiter, Alison and Carol, Avedon (eds.), Bad Girls and Dirty Pictures: The Challenge to Reclaim Feminism. London: Pluto Press, pp. 44–56.
Carr, John 2003. Child Abuse, Child Pornography and the Internet. London: NCH.
Cavanagh, Allison 2007. ‘Taxonomies of Anxiety: Risks, Panics, Paedophilia and the Internet’, Electronic Journal of Sociology. Available at
Chalmers, James and Leverick, Fiona 2008. ‘Fair Labelling in Criminal Law’, Modern Law Review 71(2): 217–46.
Childs, Mary 1991. ‘Outraging Public Decency: The Offence of Offensiveness’, Public Law Spring 20–9.
Christiansen, John R. and Blake, Reed H. 1990. ‘The Grooming Process in Father-Daughter Incest’ in Horton, Anne L., Johnson, Barry L., Roundy, Lynn M. and Williams, Doran (eds.), The Incest Perpetrator. London: Sage, pp. 88–98.
Clarke, Ronald V. (ed.) 1997. Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. 5th edn. New York: Harrow and Heston.
Clegg, Christine, Lebeau, Vicky and Myerscough, Paul 2001. ‘The Ruins of Childhood: Editorial’, New Formations 42: 5–12.
Cohen, Stanley 1972. Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. London: MacGibbon and Kee.
Cohen, Stanley 2007. Folk Devils and Moral Panics. 3rd edn. London: Routledge.
Committee on Homosexual Offences, and Prostitution 1957. Report of the Committee on Homosexual Offences and Prostitution. Cmnd 247. London: Stationery Office.
Committee on Obscenity and Film Censorship 1979. Report of the Home Office Committee on Obscenity and Film Censorship. Cmnd 7772. London: Stationery Office.
Conservative Party 2002. Protecting Children: Strengthening the Laws on Paedophiles. London: Conservative Party.
Conte, Jon R. and Berliner, Lucy 1981. ‘Sexual Abuse of Children: Implications for Practice’, Social Casework 62: 601–6.
Conte, Jon R., Wolf, Steven and Smith, Tim 1989. ‘What Sexual Offenders Tell Us about Prevention Strategies’, Child Abuse and Neglect 13: 293–301.
Cooper, Sharon W., Estes, Richard J., Giardino, Angelo P., Kellogg, Nancy D. and Vieth, Victor I. (eds.) 2004. Medical, Legal and Social Science Aspects of Child Sexual Exploitation, vols. 1 and 2. Louis MO: GW Medical Publishing.
Corsaro, William 1997. The Sociology of Childhood. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press.
Cowburn, Malcolm and Dominelli, Lena 2001. ‘Masking Hegemonic Masculinity: Reconstructing the Paedophile as the Dangerous Stranger’, British Journal of Social Work 31: 399–415.
Cox, Roger 1996. Shaping Childhood. London: Routledge.
Craissati, Jackie and McClurg, Grace 1996. ‘The Challenge Project: Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse in South East London’, Child Abuse and Neglect 20(11): 1067–77.
Craven, Samantha, Brown, Sarah and Gilchrist, Elizabeth 2006. ‘Sexual Grooming of Children: Review of Literature and Theoretical Considerations’, Journal of Sexual Aggression 12(3): 287–99.
Craven, Samantha, Brown, Sarah and Gilchrist, Elizabeth 2007. ‘Current Responses to Sexual Grooming: Implications for Prevention’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 46(1): 60–71.
Critcher, Chas (ed.) 2006. Critical Readings: Moral Panics and the Media. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Critcher, Chas 2002. ‘Media, Government and Moral Panic: The Politics of Paedophilia in Britain 2000–1’, Journalism Studies 3(4): 521–35.
Critcher, Chas 2003. Moral Panics and the Media. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Dan-Cohen, Meir 2002. Harmful Thoughts: Essays on Law, Self and Morality. Princeton University Press.
Danay, Robert J. 2005. ‘The Danger of Fighting Monsters: Addressing the Hidden Harms of Child Pornography Law’, Review of Constitutional Studies 11(1): 151–91.
Demaré, Dano, Lips, Hilary M. and Biere, John 1993. ‘Sexually Violent Pornography, Anti-Women Attitudes and Sexual Aggression: A Structural Equation Model’, Journal of Research in Personality 27: 285–300.
Dennis, Ian 2007. The Law of Evidence. 3rd edn. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
Densen-Gerber, Judianne 1977 (August). ‘What Pornographers Are Doing to Children: A Shocking Report’, Redbook 86.
Densen-Gerber, Judianne and Hutchinson, Stephen F. 1978. ‘Medical-Legal and Societal Problems Involving Children – Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Drug-Related Abuse’, in Smith, Selwyn M. (ed.), The Maltreatment of Children. Baltimore: University Park Press, pp. 317–50.
Devlin, Patrick 1968. The Enforcement of Morals. London: Oxford University Press.
Diduck, Alison 1999. ‘Justice and Childhood’ in King (ed.), pp. 120–37.
Dubber, Markus D. 2005. ‘The Possession Paradigm: The Special Part and the Police Power Model of the Criminal Process’, in Duff, R. Anthony and Green, Stuart P. (eds.) Defining Crimes: Essays on the Criminal Law's Special Part. Oxford University Press, pp. 91–118.
Duff, R. Anthony 2007. Answering for Crime. Oxford: Hart.
Duncan, Kyle 2007. ‘Child Pornography and First Amendment Standards’ Mississippi Law Journal 76: 677–703.
Durkin, K. F. 1997. ‘Misuse of the Internet by Paedophiles: Implications for Law Empowerment’, Federal Probation 61: 14–18.
Edge, Sarah and Baylis, Gail 2004. ‘Photographing Children: The Works of Tierney Gearon and Sally Mann’, Visual Culture in Britain 5(1): 75–90.
Edwards, Susan H. 1994. ‘Pretty Babies: Art, Erotica or Kiddie Porn?’ History of Photography 18(1): 38–46.
Edwards, Susan S. M. 1996. Sex and Gender in the Legal Process. London: Blackstone.
Edwards, Susan S. M. 2000. ‘Prosecuting “Child Pornography”: Possession and Taking of Indecent Photographs’, Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 22(1): 1–21.
Edwards, Susan S. M. 2003. ‘Discourses of Denial and Moral Panics: The Pornographisation of the Child in Art, the Written Word, Film and Photograph’ in Rowbotham and Stevenson (eds.), pp. 177–92.
Elliott, Michelle, Browne, Kevin and Kilcoyne, Jennifer 1995. ‘Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: What Offenders tell Us’, Child Abuse and Neglect 19(5): 579–94.
Ennew, Judith 1986. The Sexual Exploitation of Children. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Feinberg, Joel 1984. The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law: Harm to Others. Oxford University Press.
Feinberg, Joel 1985. The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law: Offense to Others. Oxford University Press.
Feinberg, Joel 1988. The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law: Harmless Wrongdoing. Oxford University Press.
Finkelhor, David 1984. Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research. New York: Free Press.
Finkelhor, David and Araji, Sharon 1986. ‘Explanations of Pedophilia: A Four Factor Model’, The Journal of Sex Research 22(2): 145–61.
Finkelhor, David, Mitchell, Kimberly J. and Wolak, Janis 2000. Online Victimization: A Report on the Nation's Youth. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.
Fischer, Donald G. and McDonald, Wendy L. 1998. ‘Characteristics of Intrafamilial and Extrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse’, Child Abuse and Neglect 22(9): 915–29.
Foucault, Michel 1972. The Archaeology of Knowledge (Sheridan Smith, A. M. trans.) London: Tavistock.
Foucault, Michel 1986. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction, vol. 1. London: Penguin Books.
Foucault, Michel 1990. Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings 1977–1984. Kritzman, L. (ed.). London: Routledge.
Friel, Samantha L. 1997. ‘Porn By Any Other Name? A Constitutional Alternative to Regulating “Victimless” Computer-Generated Child Pornography’, Valparaiso University Law Review 32: 208–67.
Furedi, Frank and Bristow, Jenny 2008. Licensed to Hug. London: Civitas.
Gallagher, Bernard, Christmann, Kris, Fraser, Claire and Hodgson, Beth 2003. ‘International and Internet Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation’, Child and Family Law Quarterly 15: 353–70.
Gardner, Will 2003. ‘The Sexual Offences Bill: Progress and the Future’. Keynote Speech. Available at
Gergen, Kenneth 1999. Invitation to Social Construction. London: Sage.
Gibbons, Tom 1995. ‘Computer Generated Pornography’, International Yearbook of Law, Computers and Technology 9: 83–95.
Gillespie, Alisdair A. 2002. ‘Child Protection on the Internet – Challenges For Criminal Law’, Child and Family Law Quarterly 14: 411–28.
Gillespie, Alisdair A. 2004. ‘The Sexual Offences Act 2003 (3) Tinkering With “Child Pornography”’ Criminal Law Review 361–8.
Gillespie, Alisdair A. 2005. ‘Child Pornography: Balancing Substantive and Evidential Law to Safeguard Children Effectively from Abuse’, International Journal of Evidence and Proof 9: 29–49.
Gillespie, Alisdair A. 2006. ‘Indecent Images, Grooming and the Law’, Criminal Law Review 412–21.
Gillespie, Alisdair A. and Bettinson, Vanessa 2006. ‘European Court of Human Rights: “Indecent” Images: European Convention on Human Rights, Article 7’, Journal of Criminal Law 70(2): 127–30.
Gillespie, Alisdair A. and Bettinson, Vanessa 2007. ‘Preventing Secondary Victimisation Through Anonymity’, Modern Law Review 70(1): 114–27.
Gittins, Diana 1998. The Child in Question. London: Macmillan Press.
Glasser, M, 1990. ‘Paedophilia’ in Walker, Nigel, Bluglass, Robert and Bowden, Paul (eds.), Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 739–48.
Goode, Erich and Ben-Yehuda, Nachman 1994. Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance. Oxford: Blackwell.
Goodin, Robert E. 1985. Protecting the Vulnerable: A Reanalysis of Our Social Responsibilities. University of Chicago Press.
Goodin, Robert E. 1987. ‘Exploiting a Situation and Exploiting a Person’ in Reeve, Andrew (ed.), Modern Theories of Exploitation. London: Sage, pp. 166–200.
Gorham, Deborah 1978. ‘The “Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon” Re-examined’, Victorian Studies 21(3): 353–79.
Gottfredson, Michael and Hirschi, Travis 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford University Press.
Grasz, L. Steven and Pfaltzgraff, Patrick J. 1998. ‘Child Pornography and Child Nudity: Why and How States may Constitutionally Regulate the Production, Possession and Distribution of Nude Visual Depictions of Children’, Temple Law Review 71: 609–35.
Grosz, Candace A., Kempe, Ruth S. and Kelly, Michele 2000. ‘ExtraFamilial Sexual Abuse: Treatment for Child Victims and their Families’, Child Abuse and Neglect 24(1): 9–23.
Hacking, Ian 1999, The Social Construction of What? Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Hall, Stuart, Critcher, Charles, Jefferson, Tony, Clarke, John and Roberts, Brian 1978. Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: Macmillan.
Harcourt, Bernard E. 1999. ‘The Collapse of the Harm Principle’, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 90(1): 109–94.
Hart, Herbert L. A. 1982. Law, Liberty and Morality. Oxford University Press.
Heinze, Eric (ed.) 2000. On Innocence and Autonomy: Children, Sex and Human Rights. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Hendrick, Harry 1994. Child Welfare, England 1872–1989. London: Routledge.
Hendrick, Harry 1997. ‘Constructions and Reconstructions of British Childhood: An Interpretative Survey, 1800 to the Present’ in James and Prout (eds.) 1997, pp. 34–62.
Higonnet, Anne 1998. Pictures of Innocence: The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood. London: Thames and Hudson.
Hirschi, Travis 1969. Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Holland, Patricia 2006. Picturing Childhood: The Myth of the Child in Popular Imagery. London: Tauris.
Home Affairs Committee 1994. First Report, Computer Pornography. 126. London: Stationery Office.
Home Office 2000. Setting the Boundaries: Reforming the Law on Sex Offences. London: Stationery Office.
Home Office 2002. Protecting the Public. Cmnd 5668. London: Stationery Office.
Home Office 2007a. Consultation on the Possession of Non-photographic Visual Depictions of Child Sexual Abuse. London: Home Office.
Home Office 2007b. Review of the Protection of Children from Sex Offenders. London: Home Office.
Horder, Jeremy 1996. ‘Crimes of Ulterior Intent’ in Simester and Smith (eds.), pp. 153–72.
Howitt, Dennis 1995a. Paedophiles and Sexual Offences Against Children. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Howitt, Dennis 1995b. ‘Pornography and the Paedophile: Is it Criminogenic?’ British Journal of Medical Psychology 69: 15–27.
Husak, Douglas 2008. Overcriminalization: The Limits of the Criminal Law. Oxford University Press.
International Centre for Missing, and Exploited Children 2007. Child Pornography: Model Legislation and Global Review, 3rd edn. Available at
Jackson, Stevi 1982. Childhood and Sexuality. Blackwell: Oxford.
Jackson, Stevi and Scott, Sue 1999. ‘Risk Anxiety and the Social Construction of Childhood’ in Lupton, Deborah (ed.), Risk and Sociocultural Theory. Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–107.
Jacobson, Michael and Mazur, Laurie 1995. ‘Sexism and Sexuality in Advertising’ in Jacobson, Michael and Mazur, Laurie (eds.), Marketing Madness: A Survival Guide for a Consumer Society. Boulder: Westview Press, pp. 74–87.
James, Allison and James, Adrian L. 2004. Constructing Childhood. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
James, Allison and Prout, Alan (eds.) 1990. Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood. London: Falmer Press.
James, Allison and Prout, Alan (eds.) 1997. Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood. 2nd edn. London: Falmer Press.
James, Allison and Prout, Alan 1997. ‘Re-presenting Childhood: Time and Transition in the Study of Childhood’, in James and Prout (eds.) 1997, pp. 230–50.
James, Allison, Jenks, Chris and Prout, Alan 1998. Theorizing Childhood. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Jenkins, Philip 1992. Intimate Enemies: Moral Panics in Contemporary Great Britain. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Jenkins, Philip 1998. Moral Panic: Changing Concepts of the Child Molester in Modern America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Jenkins, Philip 2001. Beyond Tolerance: Child Pornography on the Internet. New York University Press.
Jenks, Chris 1996. Childhood. London: Routledge.
Johnson, Travis 2006. ‘Child Pornography in Canada and the United States: The Myth of Right Answers’, Dalhousie Law Journal 29: 375–411.
Kappeler, Susanne 1986. The Pornography of Representation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Kaufman, Keith L., Mosher, Megan, Carter, Heather and Estes, Laura 2006. ‘An Empirically Based Situational Prevention Model for Child Sexual Abuse’ in Wortley and Smallbone (eds.), pp. 101–44.
Kenney, Cortelyou 2006. ‘Questioning the Image: The Constitutionality of Child Pornography’, Dartmouth Law Journal 4: 30–55.
Kincaid, James R. 1998. Erotic Innocence. London: Duke University Press.
King, Michael (ed.) 1999. Moral Agendas for Children's Welfare. London: Routledge.
King, Michael and Piper, Christine 1995. How the Law Thinks About Children. Aldershot: Arena.
Kitzinger, Jenny 1997. ‘Who Are You Kidding? Children, Power and the Struggle Against Sexual Abuse’ in James and Prout (eds.) 1997, pp. 165–89.
Kitzinger, Jenny 1998. ‘Defending Innocence: Ideologies of Childhood’, Feminist Review 28: 77–87.
Kitzinger, Jenny 2004. Framing Abuse: Media Influence and Public Understandings of Sexual Violence Against Children. London: Pluto.
Kleinhans, Martha-Marie 2002. ‘Criminal Justice Approaches to Paedophilic Sex Offenders’, Social and Legal Studies 11: 233–55.
Knight, Robert A., Carter, Daniel L. and Prentky, Robert A. 1989. ‘A System for the Classification of Child Molesters: Reliability and Application’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence 4: 3–23.
Knudson, Dean D. 1988. ‘Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography: Is There a Relationship?’, Journal of Family Violence 3(4): 254–67.
Kuran, Timur, and Sunstein, Cass R. 1999. ‘Availability Cascades and Risk Regulation’, Stanford Law Review 51: 683–768.
Labour Party 2001. Ambitions for Britain. London: Labour Party.
Lanning, Kenneth V. 1984. ‘Collectors’ in Burgess, Ann W. (ed.), Child Pornography and Sex Rings. Massachusetts: Lexington Books, pp. 83–92.
Lanning, Kenneth V. 2004. ‘Acquaintance Child Molesters: A Behavioural Analysis’ in Cooper et al. (eds.), vol. 2, pp. 529–94.
Lanning, Kenneth V. 2005. ‘Compliant Child Victims: Confronting an Uncomfortable Reality’ in Quayle and Taylor (eds.), pp. 49–60.
Lansdown, Gerison 1994. ‘Children's Rights’ in Mayall (ed.), pp. 33–44.
Law Commission 1996. Evidence in Criminal Proceedings. CP 141. London: Stationery Office.
Law Commission 2001. Evidence of Bad Character in Criminal Proceedings Com. no. 273. Cmnd 5257. London: Stationery Office.
Leclerc, Benoit, Carpentier, Julie and Proulx, Jean 2006. ‘Strategies Adopted by Sexual Offenders to Involve Children in Sexual Activity’ in Wortley and Smallbone (eds.), pp. 251–70.
Liu, Shephard 2007. ‘Ashcroft, Virtual Child Pornography and First Amendment Jurisprudence’, UC Davis Journal of Juvenile Law and Policy 11(1): 1–54.
Lloyd-Bostock, Sally 2000. ‘The Effects on Juries of Hearing About the Defendant's Previous Criminal Record: A Simulation Study’, Criminal Law Review 734–55.
Lodato, Vincent 1998. ‘Computer-Generated Child Pornography: Exposing Prejudice in Our First Amendment Jurisprudence?’, Seton Hall Law Review 28: 1328–64.
Loizidou, Elena 2000. ‘Lolita at the Interface of Obscenity: Children and the Right to Free Expression’ in Heinze (ed.), pp. 124–39.
Looman, Jan, Gauthier, Claudine and Boer, Douglas 2001. ‘Replication of The Massachusetts Treatment Center Child Molester Typology in a Canadian Sample’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence 16: 753–67.
Mackinnon, Catharine A. 1991. Toward A Feminist Theory of The State. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Mann, Patricia, S. 1997. ‘Glancing at Pornography’ in Meyers, Diana T. (ed.), Feminist Social Thought: A Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 417–39.
Marshall, William L. 1988. ‘The Use of Sexually Explicit Stimuli by Rapists, Child Molestors, and Nonoffenders’, The Journal of Sex Research 25(2): 267–88.
Marshall, William L., Serran, Geris A. and Marshall, Liam E. 2006. ‘Situational and Dispositional Factors in Child Sexual Molestation’ in Wortley and Smallbone (eds.), pp. 37–63.
Mayall, Berry (ed.) 1994. Children's Childhoods: Observed and Experienced. London: Falmer Press.
McAlinden, Anne-Marie 2006. ‘ ”Setting ‘Em Up”: Personal, Familial and Institutional Grooming in the Sexual Abuse of Children’, Social and Legal Studies 15(3): 339–62.
McCarthy, M. A. and Moodie, R. A. 1981. ‘Parliament and Pornography: The 1978 Child Protection Act’, Parliamentary Affairs xxxiv(1): 47–62.
McElroy, Wendy 1995. A Woman's Right to Pornography. New York: StMartin's Press.
McRobbie, Angela 1994. Postmodernism and Popular Culture. London: Routledge.
Meyer, Anneke, 2007. The Child at Risk: Paedophiles, Media Responses and Public Opinion. Manchester University Press.
Middleton, David, Beech, Anthony R. and Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca 2005. ‘What Sort of Person Could Do That? Psychological Profiles of Internet Pornography Users’ in Quayle and Taylor (eds.), pp. 99–107.
Middleton, David, Elliott, Ian A., Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca and Beech, Anthony R. 2006. ‘An Investigation into the Applicability of the Ward and Siegert Pathways Model of Child Sexual Abuse with Internet Offenders’, Psychology, Crime and Law, 12(6): 589–603.
Mill, John Stuart 1993. On Liberty in Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism, On Liberty, Considerations on Representative Government. London: Orion, pp. 69–185.
Mitchell, Sebastian 2001. “ 'But Cast Their Eyes on These Little Wretched Beings': The Innocence and Experience of Children in the Late Eighteenth Century', New Formations 42: 115–30.
Najafi, Sina 2002. ‘Picturing Innocence: An Interview with Anne Higonnet’, Cabinet Magazine 9. Available at
National Viewers' and Listeners' Association Archives, Albert Sloman Library, University of Essex.
Nicholas, Stan, Kershaw, Chris and Walker, Alison 2007. Crime in England and Wales 2006/7, Home Office Statistical Bulletin 12/06. Home Office: London.
Nielsen, Kai and Ware, Robert (eds.) 1997. Exploitation. New Jersey: Humanities Press.
O'Brien, Mark 2006. ‘The Witchfinder-General and the Will-o’-the Wisp: The Myth and Reality of Internet Control', Information and Communications Technology Law 15(3): 259–73.
O'Connell, Rachel 2000. ‘Child Sex Iconography. Iconic Narratives of Child Sex Myths’ in Von Feilitzen, Cecilia and Carlsson, Ulla (eds.), Children in the New Media Landscape. Games Pornography Perceptions. Gothenburg: Nordicom, pp. 211–32.
O'Connell, Rachel 2003. A Typology of Child Cybersexploitation and Online Grooming Practices. Available at
O'Donnell, Ian and Milner, Claire 2007. Child Pornography: Crime, Computers and Society. Cullompton: Willan.
O'Riordan, Maurice 2008 (July). ‘Editorial: To Dream a Child’, Art Monthly 211.
Ogus, Anthony 2006. Costs and Cautionary Tales: Economic Insights for the Law. Oxford: Hart.
Ormerod, David 2001. ‘Indecent Photographs of Children: Making an Indecent Photograph of a Child Whether Breach of European Convention on Human Rights, Articles 8 and 10’, Criminal Law Review 657–9.
Ormerod, David 2002. ‘Indecent of Children’, Criminal Law Review 659–63.
Ormerod, David 2007. ‘Sexual Offences: Sexual Offences Act 2003 – Sexual Gratification’, Criminal Law Review 184–6.
Ost, Suzanne 2002. ‘Children at Risk: Legal and Societal Perceptions of the Potential Threat that the Possession of Child Pornography Poses to Society’, Journal of Law and Society 29: 436–60.
Ost, Suzanne 2004. ‘Getting to Grips with Sexual Grooming? The New Offence Under the Sexual Offences Act 2003’, Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 26: 147–59.
Oswell, David 2006. ‘When Images Matter: Internet Child Pornography, Forms of Observation and an Ethics of the Virtual’, Information, Communication and Society 9: 244–65.
Parker, David 1989. ‘Original Sin: A Study In Evangelical Theory’, Evangelical Quarterly 61(1): 51–69.
Persak, Nina 2007. Criminalising Harmful Conduct. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Persky, Stan and Dixon, John 2001. On Kiddie Porn: Sexual Representation, Free Speech and the Robin Sharpe Case. Vancouver: New Start Books.
Peysakhovich, Sofya 2004. ‘Virtual Child Pornography: Why American and British Laws Are at Odds With Each Other’, Albany Law Journal of Science and Technology, 14: 799–823.
Piper, Christine 1999. ‘Moral Campaigns for Children's Welfare in the Nineteenth Century’ in King (ed.), pp. 33–52.
Piper, Christine 2000. ‘Historical Constructions of Childhood Innocence: Removing Sexuality’ in Heinze (ed.), pp. 26–45.
Prentky, Robert A., Knight, Raymond A. and Lee, Austin F. S. 1997. Child Sexual Molestation: Research Issues. Washington: National Institute of Justice.
Proulx, Jean and Ouimet, Marc 1995. ‘Criminologie de l'Acte et pédophile? Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique 48: 294–310.
Quayle, Ethel and Taylor, Max (eds.) 2005. Viewing Child Pornography on the Internet. Dorset: Russell House Publishing.
Quayle, Ethel, Erooga, Marcus, Wright, Louise, Taylor, Max and Harbinson, Dawn 2006. Only Pictures? Therapeutic Work with Internet Sex Offenders. Dorset: Russell House Publishing.
Quigley, John 1991. ‘Child Pornography and the Right to Privacy’, Florida Law Review 43: 347–404.
Radin, Margaret J. 2000. ‘Humans, Computers and Binding Commitment’, Indiana Law Journal 75: 1125–62.
Rendel, M. 2000. ‘The Convention on the Rights of the Child and British Legislation’ in Heinze (ed.), pp. 64–76.
Renvoize, Jean 1993. Innocence Destroyed: A Study of Child Sexual Abuse. London: Routledge.
Robins, Sydney 2000. Protecting Our Students: A Review to Identify and Prevent Sexual Misconduct in Ontario Schools. Ontario: Queen's Printer.
Robinson, Paul H. and Darley, John M. 2004. ‘Does Criminal Law Deter? A Behavioural Science Investigation’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 24: 173–205.
Rodgerson, Gillian and Wilson, Elizabeth 1991. Pornography and Feminism. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 1979 (1762). Émile or On Education. (Bloom, Allan trans.) New York: Basic Books.
Rowbotham, Judith and Stevenson, Kim (eds.) 2003. Behaving Badly: Social Panic and Moral Outrage – Victorian and Modern Parallels. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Russell, Diana E. H. 1984. Sexual Exploitation: Rape, Child Sexual Abuse and Workplace Harassment. London: Sage.
Ryder, Bruce 2003. ‘The Harms of Child Pornography Law’, University of British Columbia Law Review 36: 101–35.
Saatchi Gallery 2001. I Am A Camera: The Saatchi Gallery. London: Booth-Clibborn Editions.
Sachsenmaier, Susan J. 1998. ‘Investigating Child Sexual Abuse Allegations: Do Experts Agree on Anything?’, The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, Inc. Available at
Salter, Anna 2004. Predators: Pedophiles, Rapists, and Other Sex Offenders. New York: Basic Books.
Schonsheck, Jonathan 1994. On Criminalization. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Schuijer, Jan and Rossen, Benjamin 1992. ‘The Trade in Child Pornography’, Issues in Child Abuse Accusations 4(2): 55–107.
Searle, John, R. 1995. The Construction of Social Reality. London: Penguin.
Select Committee on Home Affairs 2003. Fifth Report – Sexual Offences Bill, HC 639. London: Stationery Office.
Sentencing Advisory Panel 2002. Offences Involving Child Pornography. Available at
Sentencing Advisory Panel 2004. ‘The Sexual Offences Act 2003 – The Exploitation Offences: A Consultation’, Justice of the Peace and Local Government Law 168(17): 308–23.
Seto, Michael C. and Eke, Angela W. 2005. ‘The Criminal Histories and Later Offending of Child Pornography Offenders’, Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 17(2): 201–10.
Seto, Michael C., Cantor, James M. and Blanchard, Ray 2006. ‘Child Pornography Offenses are a Valid Diagnostic Indicator of Pedophilia’, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 115(3): 610–15.
Shute, Stephen 2004. ‘The Sexual Offences Act 2003: (4) New Civil Preventative Orders – Sexual Offences Prevention Orders; Foreign Travel Orders; Risk of Sexual Harm Orders’, Criminal Law Review 417–40.
Silverman, Jon and Wilson, David 2002. Innocence Betrayed: Paedophilia, the Media and Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Simester, A. P. and Smith, A. T. H. (eds.) 1996. Harm and Culpability. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Simon, Leonore 2000. ‘An Examination of the Assumptions of Specialization, Mental Disorder, and Dangerousness of Sex Offenders’, Behavioural Sciences and the Law 18: 275–308.
Simon, Leonore and Zgoba, Kristen 2006. ‘Sex Crimes against Children: Legislation, Prevention and Investigation’ in Wortley and Smallbone (eds.), pp. 65–100.
Simon, Leonore, Sales, Bruce, Kaszniak, Alfred and Khan, Marvin 1992. ‘Characteristics of Child Molesters: Implications for the Fixated-Regressed Dichotomy’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence 7(2): 211–25.
Smallbone, Stephen and Wortley, Richard 2000. Child Sexual Abuse in Queensland: Offender Characteristics and Modus Operandi. Brisbane: Queensland Crime Commission.
Smallbone, Stephen and Wortley, Richard 2001. ‘Child Sexual Abuse: Offender Characteristics and Modus Operandi’, Australian Institute of Criminology Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice #193. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
Smallbone, Stephen and Wortley, Richard 2004. ‘Criminal Diversity and Paraphilic Interests Among Adult Males Convicted of Sexual Offenses Against Children’, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48: 175–88.
Smart, Carol 1989 Feminism and the Power of Law. London: Routledge.
Spencer, John R. 2004. ‘The Sexual Offences Act 2003: (2) Child and Family Offences’, Criminal Law Review 347–60.
Stainton Rogers, Rex 1989. ‘The Social Construction of Childhood’ in Stainton Rogers, Wendy, Hevey, Denise and Ash, Elizabeth (eds.), Child Abuse and Neglect. London: Open University, pp. 23–9.
Stainton Rogers, Wendy and Stainton Rogers, Rex 1999. ‘What is Good and Bad Sex for Children?’ in King (ed.), pp. 179–97.
Sullivan, Joe and Beech, Anthony R. 2002. ‘Professional Perpetrators’, Child Abuse Review 11: 153–67.
Summit, Roland 1990. ‘The Specific Vulnerability of Children’ in Oates, R. Kim (ed.), Understanding and Managing Child Sexual Abuse. Sydney: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp. 59–74.
Summit, Roland and Kryso, JoAnn 1978. ‘Sexual Abuse of Children: A Clinical Spectrum’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 48(2): 237–51.
Surette, Ray and Otto, Charles 2001. ‘The Media's Role in the Definition of Crime’ in Henry, Stuart and Lanier, Mark M. (eds.), What is Crime? Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 139–54.
Sutter, Gavin 2003. ‘Penny Dreadfuls and Perverse Domains: Victorian and Modern Moral Panics’ in Rowbotham and Stevenson (eds.), pp. 159–75.
Tate, Tim 1990. Child Pornography: An Investigation. London: Methuen.
Taylor, Max and Quayle, Ethel 2003. Child Pornography: An Internet Crime. Hove: Brunner-Routledge.
Taylor, Max and Quayle, Ethel 2006. ‘The Internet and Abuse Images of Children: Search, Pre-Criminal Situations and Opportunity’ in Wortley and Smallbone (eds.), pp. 169–95.
Taylor, Max, Holland, Gemma and Quayle, Ethel 2001. ‘Typology of Paedophile Picture Collections’, Police Journal 74: 97–107.
Thompson, Kenneth 1998. Moral Panics. London: Routledge.
Tien, Lee 1994. ‘Children's Sexuality and the New Information Technology: A Foucaultian Approach’, Social and Legal Studies 3: 121–47.
Townsend, Cyril 1979. ‘Protecting Our Children’, Contemporary Review 234(1356): 1–7.
Trenholm, Sarah 1991. Human Communication Theory. 2nd edn. Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Uniacke, Suzanne 2004. ‘Harming and Wronging: The Importance of Normative Context’ in Oderberg, David, S. and Chappell, Timothy (eds.), Human Values: New Essays on Ethics and Natural Law. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 166–83.
van Dam, Carla 2001. Identifying Child Molesters: Preventing Child Sexual Abuse by Recognizing the Patterns of the Offenders. New York: Haworth Press.
Victor, Jeffrey S. 1998. ‘Moral Panics and the Social Construction of Deviant Behaviour: A Theory and Application to the Case of Ritual Child Abuse’, Sociological Perspectives 41(3): 541–65.
von Hirsch, Andrew, Bottoms, Anthony E., Burney, Elizabeth and Wikström, P-O. 2000. Criminal Deterrence and Sentence Severity. Oxford: Hart.
von Hirsch, Andrew. 1996. ‘Extending the Harm Principle: “Remote” Harms and Fair Imputation’ in Simester and Smith (eds.), pp. 259–76.
Waddington, P. A. J. 1986. ‘Mugging as a Moral Panic: A Question of Proportion’, British Journal of Sociology 37(2): 245–59.
Waites, Matthew 2005. The Age of Consent: Young People, Sexuality and Citizenship. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Walkowitz, Judith, R. 1992. City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London. University of Chicago Press.
Ward, Tony and Keenan, Thomas 1999. ‘Child Molesters’ Implicit Theories', Journal of Interpersonal Violence 14: 821–38.
Ward, Tony and Siegert, Richard J. 2002. ‘Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Child Sexual Abuse: A Theory Knitting Perspective’, Psychology, Crime and Law 8: 319–51.
Ward, Tony, Louden, Kirsten, Hudson, Stephen M. and Marshall, William L. 1995. ‘A Descriptive Model of the Offense Chain for Child Molesters’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence 10: 452–72.
Wasserman, Adam J. 1998. ‘Virtual.Child.Porn.Com: Defending the Constitutionality of Computer Generated Child Pornography by the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996’, Harvard Journal on Legislation 35: 245–82.
Watney, Simon 1993. Policing Desire: Pornography, AIDS and the Media. 2nd edn. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Watson, Bruce and Lefever, Shyla R. 2004. ‘Understanding the Impact of Pornography on Adults and Children’ in Cooper, Estes, Giardino, Kellogg and Vieth (eds.), pp. 193–202.
Wertheimer, Alan 1996. Exploitation. Princeton University Press.
Williams, Glanville 1961. Criminal Law: The General Part. 2nd edn. London: Stevens & Sons.
Williams, Katherine S. 2003. ‘Controlling Internet Child Pornography and Protecting the Child’, Information and Communication Technology Law 12(1): 3–24.
Williams, Katherine S. 2004. ‘Child Pornography Law: Does it Protect Children?’, Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 26(3): 245–61.
Wolak, Janis, Finkehor, David and Mitchell, Kimberly J. 2005. ‘The Varieties of Child Pornography Production’ in Quayle and Taylor (eds.), pp. 31–48.
Wolak, Janis, Finkelhor, David, Mitchell, Kimberly J. and Ybarra, Michele L. 2008. ‘Online “Predators” and Their Victims’, American Psychologist 63(2): 111–28.
Wolak, Janis, Mitchell, Kimberly J. and Finkelhor, David 2006. Online Victimization of Youth: Five Years Later. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.
Wolff, Jonathan 1999. ‘Marx and Exploitation’, The Journal of Ethics 3: 105–20.
Wood, Allen W. 1997. ‘Exploitation’ in Nielsen and Ware (eds.), pp. 2–26.
Wortley, Richard and Smallbone, Stephen (eds.) 2006. Situational Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: Crime Prevention Studies 19. Cullompton: Willan.
Wortley, Richard and Smallbone, Stephen 2006. ‘Applying Situational Principles to Sexual Offenses against Children’ in Wortley and Smallbone (eds.), pp. 7–35.
Young, Alison 1996. Imagining Crime: Textual Outlaws and Criminal Conversations. London: Sage.
Young, Jock 1971. ‘The Role of the Police As Amplifiers of Deviance, Negotiators of Drug Control As Seen in Notting Hill’ in Cohen, Stanley (ed.), Images of Deviance. London: Penguin, pp. 27–61.