The Global Governance of Knowledge

Patent Offices and their Clients

The Global Governance of Knowledge

Patent offices around the world have granted millions of patents to multinational companies. Patent offices are rarely studied and yet they are crucial agents in the global knowledge economy. Based on a study of forty-five rich and poor countries that takes in the world's largest and smallest offices, Peter Drahos argues that patent offices have become part of a globally integrated private governance network, which serves the interests of multinational companies, and that the Trilateral Offices of Europe, the USA and Japan make developing country patent offices part of the network through the strategic fostering of technocratic trust. By analysing the obligations of patent offices under the patent social contract and drawing on a theory of nodal governance, the author proposes innovative approaches to patent office administration that would allow developed and developing countries to recapture the public spirit of the patent social contract.


 Reviews:

'Professor Peter Drahos, one of the most influential scholars in the area of intellectual property rights, explores in this book a subject largely ignored by the existing literature. His interdisciplinary study unveils how patent offices actually work in about 20 countries, and how they contribute to make up the global patent system. Based on a solid theoretical framework and on a vast and rigorous empirical research, Drahos makes an outstanding contribution to the understanding of international governance and regulation in this area of crucial importance for developed and developing countries alike.' Carlos M. Correa, Director of the Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies on Industrial Property and Economics Law, at the University of Buenos Aires

'… the lightness and clarity of his writing makes the book remarkably entertaining as well as hugely informative. It will be an invaluable resource for everyone involved in or concerned about the Knowledge Society and that should mean all of us!' Sir John Sulston, Chair of the Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation, University of Manchester

'… Professor Drahos' book offers a timely and thought-provoking review … Suitable for readers in law, politics, and the wider social sciences, Global Governance of Knowledge is a highly readable and engaging analysis … This is a book that deserves to be widely read not only for the serious implications it carries for economic development, but also as a work that is well researched, cogently argued and written with a clarity of conception that marks distinguished scholarship.' European Intellectual Property Review

'The book is well-researched, engaging, and filled to the brim with thought-provoking nuggets of current and historical information.' Margot A. Bagley, The IP Law Book Review

A. Bogsch, Brief History of the First 25 Years of the World Intellectual Property Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, 1992, 37
A. Gomme, Patents of Invention: Origin and Growth of the Patent System in Britain, Longmans, London, 1946
A. Somogyi et al., ‘Inside the Isomers: The Tale of Chiral Switches’, 27(2) 2004 Australian Prescriber, 24
A. Somogyi, F. Bochner and D. Foster, ‘Inside the Isomers: The Tale of Chiral Switches’, 27(2) (2004) Australian Prescriber, 47
A.D. Heher, ‘Return on Investment in Innovation: Implications for Institutions and National Agencies’, 31 (2006) Journal of Technology Transfer, 403
Aaron S. Kesselheim, ‘Intellectual Property Policy in the Pharmaceutical Sciences: The Effect of Inappropriate Patents and Market Exclusivity Extensions on the Health Care System’, 9(3) (2007) The AAPS J E306
Adam B. Jaffe and Josh Lerner, Innovation and its Discontents, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2004
Adam B. Jaffe and Josh Lerner, Innovation and its Discontents, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2004, 136
Albert P. Blaustein (ed.), Fundamental Legal Documents of Communist China, Fred B. Rothman & Co., New Jersey, 1962
Alfred Carpmael and Edward Carpmael, The Patent Laws of the World, Collected, Edited and Indexed, 2nd edn., William Clowes and Sons, London, 1889
Amiya Kumar Bagchi, ‘The Past and the Future of the Developmental State’, 2 (2000) Journal of World-Systems Research, 398
Amy Kapczynski, ‘The Access to Knowledge Mobilization and the New Politics of Intellectual Property’, 117 (2008) Yale Law Journal, 804
Amy Kapczynski, ‘The Access to Knowledge Mobilization and the New Politics of Intellectual Property’, 117 (2008) Yale Law Journal, 804.
Andrew Mertha, The Politics of Piracy, Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, 2005
Anitha Ramanna, ‘Shifts in India's Policy on Intellectual Property: The Role of Ideas, Coercion and Changing Interests’ in P. Drahos (ed.), Death of Patents, Lawtext Publishing, London, 2005, 150
Anne-Marie Slaughter, ‘The Accountability of Government Networks’, 8 (2001) Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 347
Anson R. Tracy, ‘Visit to the British, French, and German Patent Offices’, 18 (1936) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 208
Arpad Bogsch, Brief History of the First 25 Years of the World Intellectual Property Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, 1992
Ashok Chakravarti, Aid, Institutions and Development, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2005
Aubrey Silbertson, The British Patent System, Volume 1, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1967
B.E. Lanham, ‘Chemical Patent Searches,’ 34 (1952) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 315, 315–16
Barden N. Gale, ‘The Concept of Intellectual Property in the People's Republic of China: Inventors and Inventions’, 74 (1978) The China Quarterly, 334
Beth S. Noveck, ‘ “Peer to Patent”, Collective Intelligence, Open Review, and Patent Reform’, 20 (2006) Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 123
Bruce W. Bugbee, Genesis of American Patent and Copyright Law, Public Affairs Press, Washington, DC, 1967
Buddhima Lokuge, Peter Drahos and Warwick Neville, ‘Pandemics, Antiviral Stockpiles and Biosecurity in Australia: What About the Generic Option?’, 184 (2006) Medical Journal of Australia, 16
Buddhima Lokuge, Peter Drahos and Warwick Neville, ‘Pandemics, Antiviral Stockpiles and Biosecurity in Australia: What About the Generic Option?’, 184(1) (2006) Medical Journal of Australia, 16–20
C. P. Fitzgerald, The Birth of Communist China, Penguin, England, 1964, 47
C.F. Bastable, ‘Taxation Through Monopoly’, 1 (1891) The Economic Journal, 307
Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species (1859), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008, 50
Charles Short, ‘Guilt by Machine: The Problem of Source Code Discovery in Florida DUI Prosecutions’, 61 (2009) Florida Law Review, 177
Chas H. Keel, ‘Patent Office Backlog’, 30 (1948) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 73–5
Chidi Oguamanam, International Law and Indigenous Knowledge, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2006
Christine MacLeod, Inventing the Industrial Revolution: The English Patent System, 1660–1800, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988, 41
Christine MacLeod, Inventing The Industrial Revolution: The English Patent System, 1660–1800, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988, 48–9
Christine MaCleod, Jennifer Tan, James Andrew and Jeremy Stein, ‘Evaluating Inventive Activity: The Cost of Nineteenth-century UK Patents and the Fallibility of Renewal Data’, 3 (2003) Economic History Review, 537, 540
Christoph Antons, Intellectual Property Law in Indonesia, Kluwer Law International, The Hague, London, Boston, 2000
Christopher Arup, The World Trade Organization Knowledge Agreements, 2nd edn., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008, 6–9
Christopher Heath, ‘Industrial Policy and Intellectual Property in Japan and Beyond’ in Christoph Antons (ed.), Law and Development in East and Southeast Asia, Routledge Curzon, London and New York, 2003
D. Borges, ‘Porque o Brasil entrou na Convenção de Paris em 1883’, 2 Jornal do Brasil 26/09/1982
Dan L. Burk and Brett H. McDonnell, ‘The Goldilocks Hypothesis: Balancing Intellectual Property Rights at the boundary of the Firm’, 2 (2007) University of Illinois Law Review, 575
Daniel Fitzpatrick, ‘Evolution and Chaos in Property Rights Systems: The Third World Tragedy of Contested Access’, 115 (2006) Yale Law Journal, 996
David Ben Kay, ‘The Patent Law of the People's Republic of China in Perspective’, 33 (1985) UCLA L. Rev. 331, 343
David Cyranoski, ‘Property Rights Go East’, 438, Nature, 24 November 2005, 420
David Encauoua, Dominque Guellec and Catalina Martinez, ‘Patent Systems for Encouraging Innovation: Lessons from Economic Analysis’, 35 (2006) Research Policy, 1423
David Hricik, ‘Aerial Boundaries: The Duty of Candor as a Limitation on the Duty of Patent Practitioners to Advocate for Maximum Patent Coverage’, 44 (2002) South Texas Law Review, 205
David J. Brennan, ‘The Evolution of English Patent Claims as Property Definers’, 4 (2005) Intellectual Property Quarterly, 361
David J. Brennan, ‘The Evolution of English Patent Claims as Property Definers’, 4 (2005) Intellectual Property Quarterly, 361
David J. Brennan, ‘The Evolution of English Patent Claims as Property Definers’, [2005] (4) Intellectual Property Quarterly, 361
David Shand and Morten Arnberg, ‘Background Paper’ in Responsive Government: Service Quality Initiatives, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, 1996
David Vivas-Eugui, Regional and Bilateral Agreements and a TRIPS-plus World: The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), Quaker United Nations Office, Geneva, 2003
Deming Liu, ‘The Transplant Effect of the Chinese Patent Law’, 5 (2006) Chinese Journal of International Law, 733
Dennis R. Trune and Lewis N. Goslin, ‘University Technology Transfer Programs: A Profit/Loss Analysis’, 57 (1998) Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 197
Dennis Thompson, ‘The Draft Convention for a European Patent’, 22 (1973) International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 52
Dennis Thompson, ‘The Draft Convention for a European Patent’, 22 (1973) International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 52
Dennis Thompson, ‘The Draft Convention for a European Patent’, 22 (1973) International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 52
Donald F. Kettl, The Global Public Management Revolution: A Report on the Transformation of Governance, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 2000
Donald H. Sweet, ‘On Delay in the Issuance of Patents’, 7 (1924–5) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 535
Douglass C. North, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1990, 3,
E. Wyndham Hulme, ‘On the Consideration of the Patent Grant, Past and Present’, 13 (1897) Law Quarterly Review, 313
E. Wyndham Hulme, ‘On the History of Patent Law in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries’, 18 (1902) Law Quarterly Review, 280
Edith Tilton Penrose, The Economics of the International Patent System, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1951
Edward C. Walterscheid, ‘Markush Practice Revisited’, 61 (1979) Journal of Patent Office Society, 270
Edward Coke, The Third Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England (1628), Garland Publishing, New York and London, 1979, 184
Edward J. Brenner, ‘Patent Office Activities during Fiscal year 1966 – Outlook for Fiscal Year 1967’, 48 (1966) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 475
Edwin Urquidi, ‘Technological Information in the Patent Office of the MERCOSUR Countries and Mexico’, 27 (2005) World Patent Information, 244
Elizabeth Garnsey and James McGlade (eds.), Complexity and Co-Evolution: Continuity and Change in Socio-Economic Systems, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2006
Eran Vigoda, ‘Are You Being Served? The Responsiveness of Public Administration to Citizens’ Demands: An Empirical Examination in Israel', 78 (2000) Public Administration, 165
Eric Schiff, Industrialization without National Patents, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1971
Eric Schiff, Industrialization without National Patents, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1971, 93
F.M. Scherer and Dietmar Harhoff, ‘Technology Policy for a World of Skew-distributed Outcomes’, 29 (2000) Research Policy, 559
Francesca Cornelli and Mark Schankerman, ‘Patent Renewals and R&D Incentives’, 30 (1999) RAND Journal of Economics, 197
Frank D. Prager, ‘A History of Intellectual Property From 1545 to 1787’, 26 (1944) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 711
Frank D. Prager, ‘A History of Intellectual Property From 1545 to 1787’, 26 (1944) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 711, 734
Frank D. Prager, ‘Brunelleschi's Patent’, 28 (1946) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 109, 127–8
Frederick Breitenfeld, ‘Complex Terminology in Patent Claims’, 34 (1952) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 904.
Frederick M. Abbott, ‘The WTO Medicines Decision: World Pharmaceutical Trade and the Protection of Public Health’, 99 (2005) American Journal of International Law, 317, 349–54
Frederick M. Ritchie, ‘So, You Want A Commercially Important Patent in Japan!’, 74 (1992) Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society, 186
Fritz Machlup and Edith Penrose, ‘The Patent Controversy in the Nineteenth Century’, 10 (1950) Journal of Economic History, 1
Fritz Machlup and Edith Penrose, ‘The Patent Controversy in the Nineteenth Century’, 10 (1950) Journal of Economic History, 1
Fulvio Castellacci and Daniele Archbugi, ‘The Technology Clubs: The Distribution of Knowledge across Nations’, 37 (2008) Research Policy, 1659
G. Doorman, ‘Patent Law in the Netherlands’, Part I, 30 (1948) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 225, 228
G. Doorman, ‘Patent Law in the Netherlands’, Part III, 30 (1948) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 347
G. Doorman, ‘Patent Law in the Netherlands, Part I’, 30 (1948) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 225
G.W.A. Milne, ‘Very Broad Markush Claims: A Solution or a Problem? Proceedings of a Round Table Discussion Held on August 29, 1990’, 31 (1991) Journal of Chemical Information and Computing Science, 9
Georg Meyer-Thurow, ‘The Industrialization of Invention: A Case Study From the German Chemical Industry’, 73 (1982) Isis, 363
Giulio Mandich, ‘Venetian Origins of Inventors’ Rights', 42 (1960) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 378
Giulio Mandich, ‘Venetian Origins of Inventors’ Rights', 42 (1960) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 378, 380
Giulio Mandich, ‘Venetian Patents (1450–1550)’, 30 (1948) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 166
Giulio Mandich, ‘Venetian Patents (1450–1550)’, 30 (1948) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 166, 173
H. G. Fox, Monopolies and Patents: A Study of the History and Future of the Patent Monopoly, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1947
H. I. Dutton, The Patent System and Inventive Activity During the Industrial Revolution 1750–1852, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1984, 22
H. I. Dutton, The Patent System and Inventive Activity During the Industrial Revolution 1750–1852, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1984, 86
H.W.E. Potts, ‘British Claims’, 6 (1923–4) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 218
Hamed El-Said and Mohammed El-Said, ‘TRIPS, Bilateralism, Multilateralism & Implications for Developing Countries: Jordan's Drug Sector’, 2 (2005) Manchester Journal of International Economic Law, 59
Hannah E. Kettler and Rajiv Modi, ‘Building Local Research and Development Capacity for the Prevention and Cure of Neglected Diseases: The Case of India’, 79 (2001) Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 742
Hanns Ullrich, ‘Patent Protection in Europe: Integrating Europe into the Community or the Community into Europe?’, 8 (2002) European Law Journal, 433
Hariolf Grupp and Ulrich Schmoch, ‘Patent Statistics in the Age of Globalisation: New Legal Procedures, New Analytical Methods, New Economic Interpretation’, 28 (1999) Research Policy, 377
Harold C. Wegner, Patent Harmonization, Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1993.
Heinz Bardehle, ‘Patent Harmonization: Quo Vadis?’, 88 (2006) Journal of Patent and Trademark Office Society, 644
Henk van den Belt and Arie Rip, ‘The Nelson-Winter-Dosi Model and Synthetic Dye Chemistry’ in W.E. Byker, T.P. Hughes and T. J. Pinch (eds.), The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology, MIT Press, Cambridge Mass. and London, 1987
Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior, Macmillan Company, New York, 1951, 95–6
Hiroki Kitamura and Yuki Shimizu, ‘Outline of the Proposed New Route for Patent Applications Abroad’, 31 (2006) AIPPI Journal, 55
Hisamitsu Arai, ‘Intellectual Property Policies for the Twenty-First Century: The Japanese Experience in Wealth Creation’, 3 (2000) Journal of World Intellectual Property, 423
Host-Madsen, ‘Danish Patent System’, 30 (1948) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 160
Hugh Collins, The Law of Contract, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1986, 25
I. Ayres and J. Braithwaite, Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate, Oxford Unibversity Press, New York, 1992
Ikechi Mgbeoji, ‘TRIPS And TRIPS-Plus Impacts in Africa’ in Daniel J. Gervais (ed.), Intellectual Property, Trade and Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007, 259, 266
Jürgen Schade, ‘Europe and the International Community of States on the Path Towards a Common Patent Strategy’, 38 (2007) International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 517
J. Braithwaite and P. Drahos, Global Business Regulation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000
J. Braithwaite and P. Drahos, Global Business Regulation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.
J. Braithwaite, Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation, Oxford University Press, NY, 2002
J. P. Murmann, Knowledge and Competitive Advantage: The Coevolution of Firms, Technology, and National Institutions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003
J. P. Murmann, Knowledge and Competitive Advantage: The Coevolution of Firms, Technology, and National Institutions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003
J. W. Baxter, World Patent Law and Practice, 2nd edn., Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1973
J. W. Baxter, World Patent Law and Practice, 2nd edn., Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1973, 202–8
J.M. Roberts, Europe: 1880–1945, Longman, London and New York, 105
James Bessen and Michael J. Meurer, Patent Failure: How Judges, Bureaucrats, and Lawyers Put Innovators at Risk, Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford, 2008, 109
James Fraser, A Handy-Book of Patent and Copyright Law English and Foreign, Sampson Low, Son, and Co., 1860
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, The Federalist Papers (Isaac Kramnick ed.), Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1987, 320
James Reardon-Anderson, ‘Chemical Industry in China, 1860–1949’, 2 (1986) Osiris, 2nd Series, 177
Jan Vojacek, A Survey of the Principal National Patent Systems, Prentice-Hall Inc., New York, 1936, 153
Jan Vojacek, A Survey of the Principal National Patent Systems, Prentice-Hall, NY, 1936
Jan Vojacek, A Survey of the Principal National Patent Systems, Prentice-Hall, NY, 1936
Jan Vojacek, A Survey of the Principal National Patent Systems, Prentice-Hall, NY, 1936, 116
Janet Hope, Biobazaar: The Open Source Revolution and Biotechnology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2008
Janet Hope, Biobazaar: The Open Source Revolution and Biotechnology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., London, England, 2008
Janice M. Mueller, ‘The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation of India's Patent System and the Rise of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation’, 68 (2007) University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 491, 508
Janusz A. Ordover, ‘A Patent System for Both Diffusion and Exclusion’, 5 (1991) Journal of Economic Perspectives, 43
Jean O. Lanjouw and Mark Schankerman, ‘Enforcement of Patent Rights in the United States’ in Wesley M. Cohen and Stephen A. Merrill (eds.), Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy, National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2003
Jean-Christophe Dore, Christian Dutheuil, Jean-Francois Miquel, ‘Multidimensional analysis of trends in patent activity’, 47 (2000) Scientometrics, 475, 486
Jerome H. Reichman and Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss, ‘Harmonization without Consensus: Critical Reflections on Drafting a Substantive Patent Law Treaty’, 57 (2007) Duke Law Journal, 85
Joachim Beier, ‘Actual Costs of Patenting in European and National Procedure – Results of a FICPI Study’, 26 (1995), International Review of Industrial Property and Copyright Law, 213
Joe Tidd and Frank M. Hull (eds.), Service Innovation: Organizational Responses to Technological Opportunities and Market Imperatives, Imperial College Press, London, 2003
John Braithwaite and Peter Drahos, Global Business Regulation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000
John Braithwaite, ‘On Speaking Softly and Carrying Big Sticks: Neglected Dimensions of a Republican Separation of Powers’, 47 (1997) University of Toronto Law Journal, 305
John Braithwaite, Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, Boston, Melbourne and Henley, 1984
John Braithwaite, To Punish or Persuade: Enforcement of Coal Mine Safety, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1985
John L. King, ‘Patent Examination Procedures and Patent Quality’ in Wesley M. Cohen and Stephen A. Merrill (eds.), Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy, National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2003, 54
John N. Adams and Gwen Averley, ‘The Patent Specification: The Role of Liardet v. Johnson’, 7 (1986) Journal of Legal History, 156
John R. Thomas, ‘The Responsibility of the Rulemaker: Comparative Approaches to Patent Administration Reform’, 17 (2002) Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 727
John R. Thomas, ‘The Responsibility of the Rulemaker: Comparative Approaches to Patent Administration Reform’, 17 (2002) Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 727, 756
John Sulston, ‘Intellectual Property and the Human Genome’, in Peter Drahos and Ruth Mayne (eds.), Global Intellectual Property Rights: Knowledge, Access and Development, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, 2002
Johnson A. Ekpere, ‘The African Union Model Law for the Protection of the Rights of Local Communities Farmers and Breeders and the Regulation of Access to Biological Resources’ in Christophe Bellman, Graham Dutfield and Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz (eds.), Trading in Knowledge, Earthscan, London, 2003, 231
Jorge Rodriguez, ‘The Internationalization of the Small and Medium-Sized Firm’, 25 (2007) Prometheus, 305
Joseph Farrell and Robert Merges, ‘Incentives to Challenge and Defend Patents: Why Litigation Won't Reliably Fix Patent Office Errors and Why Administrative Patent Review Might Help’, 19 (2004) Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 943
Joseph L. Ebersole, ‘Patent Information Dissemination by Patent Offices: Striking the Balance’, 25 (2003) World Patent Information, 5
Julie Ayling and Peter Grabosky, ‘Policing by Command: Enhancing Law Enforcement Capacity Through Coercion’, 28 (2006) Law and Policy, 420, 430
Karl B. Lutz, ‘Evolution of the Claims of U.S. Patents’, 20 (1938) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 134
Karl B. Lutz, ‘Evolution of the Claims of U.S. Patents’, 20 (1938) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 134, 143
Karl Fenning, ‘Growth of American Patents’, 52 (1925–26) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 52, 54
Keith E. Maskus and Jerome H. Reichman, ‘Globalization of Private Knowledge goods and the Privatization of Global Public Goods’, in Keith E. Maskus and Jerome H. Reichman (eds.), International Public Goods and Transfer of Technology Under a Globalized Intellectual Property Regime, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005, 3
Kenneth L. Sokoloff, ‘Inventive Activity in Early Industrial America: Evidence From Patent Records, 1790–1846’, 48 (1988) Journal of Economic History, 813, 818
Lachlan James, ‘A Neuropsychological Analysis of the Law of Obviousness’ in Peter Drahos (ed.), Death of Patents, Lawtext Publishing, London, 2005, 67, 82
Laura A. Pitta, ‘Intellectual Property Laws in the Former Soviet Republics: A Time of Transition’, 8 (1992) Santa Clara Computer and High Technology L. J., 499, 502
Lawrence C. Kingsland, ‘The United States Patent Office’, 13 (1948) Law and Contemporary Problems, 354, 359
Lee G. Branstetter, ‘Do Stronger Patents Induce More Local Innovation?’ in Keith E. Maskus and Jerome H. Reichman (eds.), International Public Goods and Transfer of Technology Under a Globalized Intellectual Property Regime, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005
Liwei Wang, ‘The Chinese Traditions Inimical to the Patent Law’, 14 (1993) Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business, 15
Louise Davies, ‘Technical Cooperation and the International Coordination of Patentability of Biotechnological Inventions’, 29 (2002) Journal of Law and Society, 137, 151
Louise Davies, ‘Technical Cooperation and the International Coordination of Patentability of Biotechnological Inventions’, 29 (2002) Journal of Law and Society, 137, 158–61
Lucille J. Brown, ‘The Markush Challenge’, 31 (1991) Journal of Chemical Information and Computing Science, 2
M. Cruz, A Entrada do Brasil na Convenção internacional para a Proteção da Propriedade industrial, Paris, 1883, 1982
M. Van Empel, The Granting of European Patents, A.W. Sijthoff, Leyden, 1975, 10–11
M. Wantanabe and IP Study Group of Tsukuni & Associates, How to Read and Write Japanese Patent Specifications in Chemistry and Biotechnology, Maruzen Planet Co. Ltd, Tokyo, 2007
Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1965
Manuel C. Rosa, ‘Outline of Practice Relative to “Markush” Claims’, 34 (1952) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 324
Manuel C. Rosa, ‘Patent Office Organization, Viewpoint and Classification’ 31 (1949) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 414
Margaret Llewelyn, ‘Schrodinger's Cat: An Observation on Modern Patent Law’ in Peter Drahos (ed.), Death of Patents, Lawtext Publishing, London, 2005
Mark A. Lemley and Kimberly A. Moore, ‘Ending Abuse of Patent Continuations’, 82 (2004) B.U. L. Rev., 63
Mark A. Lemley and Kimberly A. Moore, ‘Ending Abuse of Patent Continuations’, 84 (2004) Boston University Law Review, 63
Mark A. Lemley, ‘Rational Ignorance at The Patent Office’, 95 (2001) Northwestern University Law Review, 1495.
Mark Rose, ‘Nine-Tenths of the Law: the English Copyright Debates and the Rhetoric of the Public Domain’, 66 (2003) Law and Contemporary Problems, 75, 83
Mark Schankerman, ‘How valuable is patent protection? Estimates by technology field’, 29 (1998) Rand Journal of Economics, 77, 81–5
Michael M. Atkinson and William D. Coleman, ‘Strong States and Weak States: Sectoral Policy Networks in Advanced Capitalist Economies’, 19 (1989) British Journal of Political Science, 47
Michael Todd Helfand, ‘How Valid Are U.S. Criticisms of the Japanese Patent System?’, 15 (1992) Hastings Communications and Environmental Law Journal, 123, 150
Miranda Forsyth, ‘Intellectual Property Laws in the South Pacific: Friend or Foe?’, 7 (2003) Journal of South Pacific Law, available at www.paclii.org/journals/fJSPL/.
Mohamed F. Al-Hajeri, ‘The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Patent Office’, 28 (2006) World Patent Information, 14
Mohammed El Said, The Development of Intellectual Property Protection in the Arab World, The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York, 2008, 180–1.
Moureen Coulter, Property in Ideas: The Patent Question in Mid-Victorian Britain, Thomas Jefferson University Press, Kirksville, Missouri, 1991
Moureen Coulter, Property in Ideas: The Patent Question in Mid-Victorian Britain, Thomas Jefferson University Press, Kirksville, Missouri, 1991
Nathaniel H. Leff, ‘Economic Retardation in Nineteenth-Century Brazil’, 25 (1972) The Economic History Review (New Series), 489
Nobuyuki Yasuda, ‘Law and Development from the Southeast Asian Perspective: Methodology, History, and Paradigm Change’ in Christoph Antons (ed.), Law and Development in East and Southeast Asia, Routledge Curzon, London and New York, 2003
Ove Granstrand, The Economics and Management of Intellectual Property, Edward Elgar, UK, 1999
P. Drahos with J. Braithwaite, Information Feudalism, Earthscan, London, 2000
P. Drahos with J. Braithwaite, Information Feudalism, Earthscan, London, 2000
P. Drahos with J. Braithwaite, Information Feudalism, Earthscan, London, 2002
P. Drahos with J. Braithwaite, Information Feudalism, Earthscan, London, 2002, 170–1
P. Drahos, ‘Developing Countries and International Intellectual Property Standard-Setting’, 5 (2002) Journal of World Intellectual Property, 765
P. Drahos, ‘Four Lessons for Developing Countries from the Trade Negotiations Over Access to Medicines, 28 (2007) Liverpool Law Review, 11
P. Drahos, ‘Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Markets: A Nodal Governance Approach’, 77 (2004) Temple Law Review, 401
P. Drahos, A Philosophy of Intellectual Property, Dartmouth, Aldershot, 1996
P. Drahos, A Philosophy of Intellectual Property, Dartmouth, Aldershot, 1996
P. J. Federico, ‘Operation of the Patent Act of 1790’, 18 (1936) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 237
P. J. Federico, ‘Renewal Fees and Other Patent Fees in Foreign Countries’, 36 (1954), Journal of the Patent Office Society, 827, 848
P. Narayanan, Intellectual Property Law, 2nd edn., Eastern Law House, Calcutta, 1997
Paul A. David and Louise C. Keely, ‘The Economics of Scientific Research Coalitions: Collaborative Network Formation in the Presence of Multiple Funding Agencies’, in Ado Geuna, Ammon J. Salter and W. Edward Steinmueller (eds.), Science and Innovation: Rethinking the Rationales for Funding and Governance, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2003, 251
Peter Drahos with John Braithwaite, Information Feudalism, Earthscan, London, 2002
Peter Drahos, ‘BITS and BIPS: Bilateralism in Intellectual Property’, 4 (2001) Journal of World Intellectual Property, 791
Peter Drahos, ‘BITS and BIPS: Bilateralism in Intellectual Property’, 4 (2001) Journal of World Intellectual Property, 791
Peter Drahos, ‘Global Property Rights in Information: The Story of TRIPS at the GATT’, 13 (1995) Prometheus, 6
Peter Drahos, Buddhima Lokuge, Tom Faunce, Martyn Goddard and David Henry, ‘Pharmaceuticals, Intellectual Property and Free Trade: The Case of the US–Australia Free Trade Agreement’, 22 (2004) Prometheus, 243
Peter L. Giunta, ‘Quid Pro Whoa!: An Exponential Fee Structure for Patent Applications’, 25 (2004) Cardozo L. Rev., 2317, 2337–8
Philip E. Siggers, ‘The Nursing of an Infant Patent Office’, 30 (1948) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 531
Philip Leith, Harmonisation of Intellectual Property in Europe: A Case Study of Patent Procedure, Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1998
Philip Leith, Harmonisation of Intellectual Property in Europe: A Case Study of Patent Procedure, Sweet and Maxwell, London, 1998
R. K. Merton, ‘Singletons and Multiples in Scientific Discovery’, 105 (1961) Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 470
R.A. Weiss and A.J. McMichael, ‘Social and Environmental Risk Factors in the Emergence of Infectious Diseases’, 10(12) (2004) Nature Medicine Supplement, S70, S72
Rana Gosain, ‘A Worthless Investment?: Hurdles to Obtaining Patents in Brazil’, 163 (2004) Patent World, 13
Richard A. Epstein, Simple Rules for a Complex World, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1995
Richard B. Owen, Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights, Departmental Practice, Washington, New York, 1925
Richard Jefferson, ‘Science as Social Enterprise: The Cambia BiOS Initiative’, 1 (2006) Innovations, 13, 28
Richard Jefferson, ‘Science as Social Enterprise: The Cambia BiOS Initiative’, 1 (2006) Innovations, 13, 28–9
Robert C. Post, ‘ “Liberalizers” versus “Scientific Men” in the Antebellum Patent Office’, 17 (1976) Technology and Culture, 24
Robert C. Post, ‘ “Liberalizers” versus “Scientific Men” in the Antebellum Patent Office’, 17 (1976) Technology and Culture, 24
Ron D. Katznelson, ‘Bad Science in Search of “Bad” Patents’, 17 (2007) Federal Circuit Bar Journal, 1
Rosana Ceron Di Giorgio, ‘From University to Industry: The Brazilian Revolution in Technology Transfer and Innovation, the Case of State University of Campinas’, 141(2) (2006) Les Nouvelles, 90
Russell Hardin, ‘Trust in Government’ in Valerie Braithwaite and Margaret Levi (eds.), Trust and Governance, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1998, 9, 12–13
S.P. Ladas, Patents, Trademarks, and Related Rights: National and International Protection, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1975
Samuel A. Morley and Gordon W. Smith, ‘Import Substitution and Foreign Investment in Brazil’, 23(1) (1971) Oxford Economic Papers (New Series), 120
Scott Burris, Peter Drahos and Clifford Shearing, ‘Nodal Governance’, 30 (2005) Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy, 30
Shamnad Basheer, ‘ “Policy Style” Reasoning at the Indian Patent Office’, [2005] (3) IPQ, 309
Shu-yun Ma, ‘Recent Changes in China's Pure Trade Theory’, 106 (1986) The China Quarterly, 291
Shubha Ghosh, ‘Patents and the Regulatory State: Rethinking the Patent Bargain Metaphor After Eldred’, 19 (2004) Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 1315
Stanley Fish, ‘Don't Know Much About the Middle Ages: Posner on Law and Literature’, 97 (1988) Yale Law Journal, 777
Stephen A. Merrill, Richard C. Levin and Mark B. Myers (eds.), A Patent System for the 21st Century, National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2001
Stephen A. Merrill, Richard C. Levin and Mark B. Myers (eds.), A Patent System for the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2004
Stephen A. Merrill, Richard C. Levin and Mark B. Myers, (ed.), A Patent System for the 21st Century, National Academies Press, Washington, 2004, 120–1
Stephen A. Merrill, Richard C. Levin, and Mark B. Myers, (eds), A Patent System for the 21st Century, National Academies Press, Washington, 2004, 31
Stephen A. Merrill, Richard C. Levin, and Mark B. Myers, (eds.), A Patent System for the 21st Century, National Academies Press, Washington, 2004
Stephen G. Kunin and Bradley D. Lytle, ‘Patent Eligibility of Signal Claims’, 87 (2005) Journal of Patent and Trademark Office Society, 991
Stephen P. Ladas, Patents, Trademarks, and Related Rights: National and International Protection, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass., 1975
Stephen P. Ladas, The International Protection of Industrial Property, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass., 1930
Stuart J. H. Graham, Bronwyn H. Hall, Dietmar Harhoff and, David C. Mowery, ‘Patent Quality Control: A Comparison of U.S. Patent Re-examinations and European Patent Oppositions’ in Wesley M. Cohen and Stephen A. Merrill (eds.), Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy, National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2003, 74, 89
Stuart Macdonald, ‘Exploring the Hidden Costs of Patents’ in Peter Drahos and Ruth Mayne (eds.) Global Intellectual Property Rights, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire and NY, 2002, 13
Susan K. Sell, Power and Ideas: North-South Politics of Intellectual Property and Antitrust, State University of New York Press, Albany NY, 1998
Susan Sell, Private Power, Public Law: The Globalization of Intellectual Property Rights, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003
Thandika Mkandawire, ‘Thinking About Developmental States in Africa’, 25 (2001) Cambridge Journal of Economics, 289, 290
Theotonio Dos Santos, ‘Brazil: The Origins of a Crisis’ in Ronald H. Chilcote and Joel C. Edelstein (eds.), Latin America: The Struggle with Dependency and Beyond, Schenkman Publishing, Cambridge Mass., 1974
Thomas J. Kowalski, ‘Analyzing the USPTO's Revised Utility Guidelines’, 18 March 2000, Nature Biotechnology, 349–50
Tony Butcher, ‘Modernizing civil services: an era of reform’ in Tony Butcher and Andrew Massey (eds), Modernizing Civil Services, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2003
United Nations Conference on Trade And Development, The TRIPS Agreement and Developing Countries, United Nations, New York and Geneva, 1996, 23
Ved P. Mithal, ‘Patents in India’, 30 (1948) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 62
W. A. Van Caenegem, ‘Inventions in Russia: From Public Good to Private Property’, 4 (1993) Australian Intellectual Property Journal, 232
W. L. Thurber (Examiner), ‘A Suggestion for Improving Patent Office Searches’, 1 (1918–19) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 167–8
W.C. Robinson, ‘Money, Population and Economic Change in Late Medieval Europe’, 12 (1959) Economic History Review (New Series), 63
Warren C. Scoville, ‘State Policy and the French Glass Industry, 1640–1789’, 56 (1942) Quarterly Journal of Economics, 430, 437
Wesley M. Cohen and Stephen A. Merrill (eds.), Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy, National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2003
William A. Niskanen, Jr., Bureaucracy and Public Economics, Edward Elgar, UK, 1994, 37
William P. Alford, To Steal a Book is an Elegant Offense, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1995, 143
William R. Ballard, ‘Money for the Patent Office’, 37 (1955) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 435
William van Caenegem, ‘Inventions in Russia: From the Public Good to Private Property’, 4 (1993) Australian Journal of Intellectual Property, 232
Wm. I. Wyman, ‘Examiners’ Salaries', 1 (1918–19) Journal of the Patent Office Society, 392–5
Y. Y. Kueh and Christopher Howe, ‘China's International Trade: Policy and Organizational Change and their Place in the “Economic Readjustment”’, 100 (1984) The China Quarterly, 813, 814
Yutaka Wada, ‘Recent Developments in Japan's Intellectual Property Industry’, 27 (2005) World Patent Information, 31
Zachary Elkins and Beth Simmons, ‘On Waves, Clusters, and Diffusion: A Conceptual Framework’, 598 (2005) The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 33
Zafar Mirza, ‘WTO, TRIPs, Pharmaceuticals and Health: Impacts and Strategies’, 42 (1999) Development, 92
Zvi Griliches, ‘Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey’, 28 (1990) Journal of Economic Literature, 1661