Making Transnational Law Work in the Global Economy

Essays in Honour of Detlev Vagts

Making Transnational Law Work in the Global Economy

This tribute to Professor Detlev Vagts of the Harvard Law School brings together his colleagues at Harvard and the American Society of International Law, as well as academics, judges and practitioners, many of them his former students. Their essays span the entire spectrum of modern transnational law: international law in general; transnational economic law; and transnational lawyering and dispute resolution. The contributors evaluate established fields of transnational law, such as the protection of property and investment, and explore new areas of law which are in the process of detaching themselves from the nation-state such as global administrative law and the regulation of cross-border lawyering. The implications of decentralised norm-making, the proliferation of dispute settlement mechanisms and the rising backlash against global legal interdependence in the form of demands for preserving state legal autonomy are also examined.


"No short review can do justice to the rich content and fine craftsmanship found in each contribution to this Festschrift,...each has ably demonstrated the full measure of his or her devotion to Vagts as professor, mentor, coauthor, colleague, and friend."
-Peter D. Trooboff,Covington & Burling LLP

‘ Alfred Conard , Corporations in Perspective’, Business Lawyer, 33 (1978), 2063–84
‘ Arthur Eyffinger , The 1899 Hague Peace Conference. The Parliament of Man, The Federation of the World’, American Journal of International Law, 94 (2000), 599–600
‘ Bardo Fassbender , Studien zur auswärtigen Gewalt und zur Völkerrechtssubjektivität bundesstaatlicher Teilstaaten in Europa’, American Journal of International Law 102 (2008), 211–12
‘ Carsten Ebenroth and Joachim Heidelberg , Die Multilaterale Investitions-Garantie Agentur’, International Lawyer, 24 (1990), 854–6
‘ Christian Joerges and Navraj Singh Ghalleigh (eds.), The Darker Legacies of Law in Europe. The Shadow of National Socialism and Fascism over Europe and Its Legal Traditions’, American Journal of Comparative Law, 51 (2003), 959–62
‘ Christopher Stone , Where the Law Ends’, Southern California Law Review, 49 (1976), 635–9
‘ Craig Scott (ed.), Torture as Tort. Comparative Perspectives on the Development of Human Rights Litigation’, American Journal of International Law, 95 (2001), 1002–3
‘ David Westfall ’, Harvard Law Review, 119 (2006), 956–8
‘ Erwin Smigel , The Wall Street Lawyer. Professional Organization Man?’, Harvard Law Review, 78 (1964), 491–6
‘ Günther Grassman , System des internationalen Gesellschaftsrechtes’, American Journal of Comparative Law, 18 (1970), 863–4
‘ Hans-Georg Koppensteiner , Internationale Unternehmen in deutschen Aktienrecht’, American Journal of International Law, 66 (1972), 683–5
‘ Harold Berman , Soviet Law, From its Challenge to the West to Dissolution’, Emory Law Journal, 57 (2008), 1451–3
‘ Heinrich Kronstein and Carsten Claussen , Publizität und Gewinnverteilung im neuen Akienrecht’, Harvard Law Review, 75 (1962), 1046–51
‘ Inga Markovitz , Die Abwicklung. Ein Tagebuch Zum Ende der DDR-Justiz’, Texas International Law Journal, 29 (1994), 511–18
‘ Lawrence Ebb , Regulation and Protection of International Business’, American Journal of International Law, 59 (1965), 184–6
‘ Leo Gross (1903–90)’, American Journal of International Law, 85 (1991), 149–50
‘ Lori Damrosch (ed.), The International Court of Justice at a Crossroads’, Michigan Law Review, 87 (1989), 1712–17
‘ Louis Loss ’, Harvard Law Review, 111 (1998), 2144–6
‘ Louis Sohn ’, Harvard Journal of International Law, 48 (2007), 19–21
‘ M. Steinberg , Corporate Internal Affairs. A Corporate and Securities Law Perspective’, Journal of Corporate Law, 10 (1985), 551–2
‘ Michael Byers and Georg Nolte , United States Hegemony and the Foundations of International Law’, American Journal of International Law, 98 (2004), 214–16
‘ Peter Judson Richards , Extraordinary Justice’, Law & History Review, 26 (2007), 434
‘ Robert Campbell , Accounting in Soviet Planning and Management’, Harvard Law Review, 77 (1964), 590–5
‘ Rudolf Bernhardt (ed.), Encyclopedia of Public International Law’, American Journal of International Law, 95 (2001), 726–7
‘ Susan Marks (ed.), International Law on the Left. Re-Examining Marxist Legacies’, American Journal of International Law, 103 (2009), 178–80
‘ Walter Weyrauch , Gestapo V-Leute’ , Florida Law Review, 42 (1990), 425–8
‘ Werner Feld , Multinational Corporations and UN Politics’, Harvard International Law Journal, 22 (1981), 257–9
‘“War” in the American Legal System’, ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, 12 (2006), 541–6
‘A Reply to A Critical Evaluation of the Mexican–American Transfer of Penal Sanctions Treaty’, Iowa Law Review, 64 (1979), 325–38
‘A Turnabout in Extraterritoriality’, American Journal of International Law, 76 (1982), 591–4
‘Ajuri v. IDF Commander in West Bank. Case No. HCJ 7015/02’, American Journal of International Law, 97 (2003), 173–5
‘American International Law. A Sonderweg?’, in K. Dicke , S. Hobe , K. O. Meyn , A. Peters , E. Riedel , H. J. Schütz and C. Tietje (eds.), Weltinnenrecht. Liber Amicorum Jost Delbrück (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2005), 835–47
‘American Restraints on Foreign Banks’, in Marcus Lutter (ed.), Festschrift für Johannes Bärmann (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1975), 981–94
‘An Introduction to International Civil Practice’, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 17 (1984), 1–10
‘Are There No International Lawyers Anymore?’, American Journal of International Law, 75 (1981), 134–7
‘Bär and Karrer. Connecting Two Legal Systems’, in N. Vogt (ed.), The International Practice of Law. Liber Amicorum for Thomas Bär and Robert Karrer (Basel: Helbing & Lichtenhahn, 1997), 247–62
‘Balance of Power’ and ‘Minimum Standard’, in Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Rudolf Bernhardt (ed.), EPIL, resp. vol. I and vol. III (Amsterdam and New York: North-Holland, 1992), resp. 313–15 and 468–70
‘Balance of Powers’, in R. Wolfrum (ed.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3rd edn. (Oxford University Press, 2007),
‘Canada's Foreign Investment Policy. An International Perspective’, Boston University International Law Journal, 1 (1982), 27–32
‘Carl Schmitt in Context. Reflections on a Symposium’, Cardozo Law Review, 23 (2002), 2157–63
‘Challenges to Executive Compensation. For the Markets or the Courts?’, Journal of Corporation Law, 8 (1983), 231–76
‘Coercion and Foreign Investment Rearrangements’, American Journal of International Law, 72 (1978), 17–36
‘Comparative Company Law – The New Wave’, in R. J Schweizer , H. Burkert and U. Gasser (eds.), Festschrift für Nicolas Druey zum 65. Geburtstag (Zurich: Schulthess, 2002), 595–605
‘Currency Translation Accounting’, Wirtschaftsprüfer Mitteilungen, 36 (special Issue, June 1997), 61–7
‘Das Gefälle bei den Gehältern von Spitzenmanager – Amerika gegen den Rest der Welt’, in U. Schneider et al. (eds.), Festschrift für Marcus Lutter zum 70. Geburtstag (Cologue: O. Schmidt, 2000), 767–77
‘Disclosure and the Multinational Enterprise. The Costs of Illumination’, in N. Horn (ed.), Legal Problems of codes of conduct for Multinational Enterprise' (Deventer: Kluwer, 1980)
‘Dispute-Resolution Mechanisms in International Business’, Hague RdC, 203 (1987), 1–94
‘Editorial Comment. Taking Treaties Less Seriously’, American Journal of International Law, 92 (1998), 458–62
‘Essay in Honor of Oscar Schachter, Rebus Revisited. Changed Circumstances in Treaty Law’, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 43 (2005), 459–76
‘European Perspectives. A Foreword’, Hastings Law Journal, 30 (1979), 1413–18
‘Extraterritoriality and the Corporate Governance Law’, American Journal of International Law, 97 (2003), 289–94
‘Foreign Investment Risk Reconsidered. The View from the 1980s’, ICSID Review, 2 (1987) 1–18
‘Foreword to the Backlash against Investment Arbitration’, in M. Waibel , A. Kaushal , K.-H. L. Chung and C. Balchin (eds.), The Backlash against Investment Arbitration. Perceptions and Reality (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2010), xxiii–xxvi.
‘Formal and Structural Problems of International Organization for Control of Investment’, in Don Wallace (ed.), International Control of Investment. The Düsseldorf Conference on Multinational Corporations (New York: Praeger, 1974), 235–83
‘Freedom of Speech in the Armed Forces’, Columbia Law Review, 57 (1957), 187–218
‘Going to Court, Internationally’, Michigan Law Review, 87 (1989), 1712–17, 1717
‘Hegemonic International Law’, American Journal of International Law, 95 (2001), 843–8
‘International Economic Law and the American Journal of International Law’, American Journal of International Law, 100 (2006), 769–82
‘International Law in the Third Reich’, American Journal of International Law, 84 (1990), 661–704
‘International Law under Time Pressure. Grading the Grenada Take-Home Examination’, American Journal of International Law, 78 (1984), 169–72
‘International Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility’, American Society of International Law Proceedings, 92 (1998), 378–9
‘International Relations Looks at Customary International Law. A Traditionalist's Defence’, European Journal of International Law, 15 (2004), 1031–40
‘Introduction’, in I. Müller , Hitler's Justice. The Courts of the Third Reich (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991), 341–2
‘Konzernrecht in den Vereinigten Staaten’, in J.-N. Druey (ed.), Das St Galler Konzernrechtsgespräch (Bern and Stuttgart: Paul Haupt, 1988), 31–41
‘Law and Accounting in Business Associations and Private Organizations’, International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, XIII CL. 12A (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1972), 1–91
‘Legal Opinions in Quantitative Terms. The Lawyer as Haruspex or Bookie’, Business Lawyer, 34 (1979), 421–8
‘Litigating the Nazi Labor Claims. The Path not Taken’, Harvard Journal of International Law, 43 (2002), 503–31 (with Peter Murray ), German trans., Zeitschrift für Zivilprozessrecht International, 7 (2002), 333–68
‘Military Commission Law’, The Army Lawyer, 47 (December 2005), 47–53 (with Eugene Fidell and Dwight Sullivan )
‘Military Commissions. A Concise History’, American Journal of International Law, 101 (2007), 35–48
‘Military Commissions. The Forgotten Reconstruction Chapter’, American University International Law Review, 23 (2008), 231–74
‘Multinational Corporations and International Guidelines’, Common Market Law Review, 18 (1981), 463–74
‘Nationalism and International Lawyers. Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces in the International Legal System’, Thesaurus Acroasium, 19 (1992), 7–44
‘Neutrality Law in World War II’, Cardozo Law Review, 20 (1998), 459–82
‘Political Threats to Overseas Scholars’, Fletcher Forum, 32 (2008), 181–8
‘Professional Responsibility in Transborder Practice. Conflict and Resolution’, Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics, 13 (2000), 677–98
‘Railroads, Private Enterprise and Public Policy’, in N. Horn and J. Kocka (eds.), Law and the Formation of the Big Enterprises in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1979), 604–18
‘Reforming the “Modern” Corporation’, Harvard Law Review, 80 (1966), 23–89
‘Repealing the Cold War’, American Journal of International Law, 88 (1994), 506–11
‘Restitution for Historic Wrongs. The American Courts and International Law’, American Journal of International Law, 92 (1998), 232–5
‘Restricting Business in the Public Interest’, Europarecht, 1 (2004) 51–60
‘Rethinking the Conceptual Framework of Extraterritoriality Issues and the Methods for Resolving Conflicts’, in M. K. Young and Y. Iwasawa (eds.), Trilateral Perspectives on International Legal Issues. Relevance of Domestic Law and Policy (Irvington, NY: Transnational Publishers, 1996), 199–212
‘Risk Management in International Bank Financing and Payment’, in N. Horn (ed.), Law of International Trade Finance, (Deventer: Kluwer, 1989), 23–37
‘Securities Regulation – An Introduction’, in D. F. Vagts (ed.), Business and Private Organizations, vol. XIII, International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law (Dordrecht: Mohr Siebeck and Martinus Nijhoff, 2000)
‘Senate Materials and Treaty Interpretation. Some Research Hints for the Supreme Court’, American Journal of International Law, 83 (1989), 546–50
‘Sovereign Bankruptcy, In re Germany (1963), In re Iraq (2004)’, American Journal of International Law, 98 (2004), 302–6
‘Sovereign Immunity Decisions of the Department of State, May 1952 to January 1977’, 1977 Digest of United States Practice in International Law (Washington, DC: Government Printing office, 1979), 1017–82 (with Michael Sandler and Bruno Ristau )
‘Speaking Law to Power. Lawyers and Torture’, American Journal of International Law, 98 (2004), 689–95 (with Richard Bilder )
‘State Succession. The Codifiers’ View', Virginia Journal of International Law, 33 (1993), 275–97
‘Strict Equity, Law and the Corporation’, in R. Newman (ed.), The Unity of Strict Law. A Comparative Study (Brussels: Bruylant, 1978), 35–54
‘Switzerland, International Law and World War II’, American Journal of International Law 91 (1997), 466–75
‘The “Other” Case Method. Education for Counting House and Court House Compared’, Journal of Legal Education, 28 (1977), 403–22
‘The Accounting Principles Board and Differences and Inconsistencies in Accounting Practice. An Interim Appraisal’, Law and Contemporary Problems, 30 (1965), 706–26 (with Robert Sprouse )
‘The Balance of Power in International Law. A History of an Idea’, American Journal of International Law, 73 (1979), 555–80 (with Alfred Vagts )
‘The Corporate Alien. Definitional Questions in Federal Restraints on Foreign Enterprise’, Harvard Law Review, 74 (1961), 1489–1551
‘The Financial Meltdown and its International Implications’, American Journal of International Law, 103 (2009), 684–91
‘The Global Corporation and International Law’, Journal of International Law and the Economy, 6 (1972), 247–62
‘The Governance of the Corporation. The Options Available and the Power to Prescribe’, Business Lawyer, 31 (1976), 929–38
‘The Governance of the Multinational’, Wisconsin International Law Journal, 23 (2005), 525–40
‘The Hague Peace Conference and Arms Control’, American Journal of International Law, 94 (2000), 31–41
‘The Helms–Burton Act. Exercising the Presidential Option’, American Journal of International Law 91 (1997), 83–4 (with Theodor Meron )
‘The Host Country Faces the Multinational Enterprise’, Boston University Law Review, 53 (1973), 261–77
‘The Ideology and Politics of American Tort Litigation’, Bitburger Gespräche, 61 (2003), 61–70
‘The Impact of Globalization on the Legal Profession’, EJLR, 2 (2000), 403–14, reprinted in J. Drolshammer and M. Pfeifer (eds.), The Internationalization of the Practice of Law (The Hague: Kluwer, 2001), 31–42
‘The Impact of Globalization on the Legal Profession’, European Journal of International Law, 2 (2000), 403–14
‘The Impact of the Uniform Commercial Code on the Oil and Gas Mortgage’, Texas Law Review, 43 (1965), 825–41
‘The International Law Communications Network. Four Decades of Change’, in U. Beyerlin (ed.), Recht zwischen Umbruch und Bewahrung. Festschrift für Rudolph Bernhardt (Berlin: Springer, 1995), 279–88
‘The International Legal Profession. A Need for More Governance?’, American Journal of International Law, 90 (1996), 250–62
‘The Leveraged Buyout and Management's Share’, Lake Forest Law Review, 25 (1990), 129–40
‘The Logan Act. Paper Tiger or Sleeping Giant?’, American Journal of International Law, 60 (1966), 268–302
‘The Multinational Enterprise. A New Challenge for Transnational Law’, Harvard Law Review, 83 (1970), 739–92
‘The Pipeline Controversy. An American Viewpoint’, German Yearbook of International Law, 27 (1984), 38–53
‘The Proposed Expatriation Tax. A Human Rights Violation?’, American Journal of International Law, 89 (1995), 578–80
‘The Question of a Reference to International Obligations in the United Nations Code of Conduct on Transnational Corporations. A Different View’ (New York: United Nations, 1986) (pamphlet)
‘The Scope of Application and Enforcement of US Law’, Wirtschaft und Recht, 35 (1983), 72–97
‘The Societas Europea. A Future Option for US Corporations?’, Business Lawyer, 29 (1974), 823–33 (with Thomas Wälde )
‘The Traditional Legal Concept of Neutrality in a Changing World’, American University International Law Review, 14 (1998), 83–102
‘The UN Norms for Transnational Corporations’, Leiden Journal of International Law, 16 (2003), 795–802
‘The United States and its Multinationals. Protection and Control’, Harvard Journal of International Law, 20 (1979), 235–51
‘The United States and its Treaties. Observance and Breach’, American Journal of International Law, 95 (2001), 313–34
‘The United States of America's Treatment of Foreign Investment’, Rutgers Law Review, 17 (1963), 374–404
‘Transnational Litigation and Professional Ethics’, in B. Legum (ed.), International Litigation Strategies and Practice (Chicago, IL: ABA Publishing, 2005), 25–31
‘Treaty Interpretation and the New American Ways of Law Reading’, European Journal of International Law, 4 (1993), 472–505
‘Trends in International Business Law. Towards a New Ethnocentricity?’, Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 1 (1979), 11–21
‘Trial and Sentencing of Prisoners of War’, Financial Times, 30 November 2001
‘Which Courts Should Try Persons Accused of Terrorism?’, European Journal of International Law, 14 (2003), 313–26
‘Why Directors Need to Keep Records’, Harvard Business Review, (November–December 1978), 28
‘Wohin mit der beschränkten Haftung der Aktionäre’, Zeitschrift für Unternehmens- und Gesellschaftsrecht, 23 (1994), 227–336
Basic Corporation Law, 1st edn. 1973, 2nd edn. 1979, 3rd edn. 1989 (Westbury, NY: Foundation Press)
Demokratie, Marktwirtschaft und Recht/Democracy, Market Economy, and the Law (Heidelberg: Verlag Recht & Wirtschaft, 1995) (with Werner Ebke )
International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, vol. XIII, Business and Private Organizations (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006) (with Alfred Conard )
Secured Transactions under the Uniform Commercial Code (Albany, NY: Matthew Bender & Co., 1963) (with Peter Coogan and William Hogan )
Transnational Business Problems, 1st edn. 1986, 2nd edn. 1998, 3rd edn. 2003, 4th edn. 2008 (Westbury, NY: Foundation Press) (with William Dodge and Harold Hongju Koh )
Transnational Legal Problems, 1st edn. 1968, 2nd edn. 1976, 3rd edn. 1986, 4th edn. 1994 (Westbury, NY: Foundation Press) (with Henry Steiner for 1st–3rd edn. and with Henry Steiner and Harold Hongju Ko for 4th edn.)