How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science

To the Icy Slopes of Logic

How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science

This in-depth study of the development of philosophy of science studies in the United States during the Cold War documents the political vitality of logical empiricism and Otto Neurath's Unity of Science Movement when the movement emigrated to the U.S. in the 1930s. It follows its de-politicization by a convergence of intellectual, cultural and political forces in the 1950s. The volume will be of interest to philosophers and historians of science, as well as scholars of Cold War studies.


 Reviews:

"How the Cold War Transfoormed Philosophy of Science is a rich and important contribution to the history of philosophy of science, the history of philosophy, and the American postwar history." - Jordi Cat

"Reisch has written a complex, controversial, and richly documented book on the fall of logical empiricism in North America. I highly recommend it." --Francis Remedios: Philosophy in Review

“Rosenberg Clemency Backers Comment on Red Anti-Semitism.” 1953. New Leader, January 26, pp. 4–6
Aaron, Daniel. 1961. Writers on the Left: Episodes in American Literary Communism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World
Adler, Mortimer. 1941. “God and the Professors.” In Science, Philosophy and Religion: A Symposium. New York: Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life, 120–38
Allen, Raymond. 1949. “Communists Should Not Teach in American Colleges.” Educational Forum 14, no. 4
Almond, Gabriel. 1954. The Appeals of Communism. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Alston, William P., and George Nakhnikian, eds. 1963. Readings in Twentieth-Century Philosophy. New York: Free Press of Glencoe
Anshen, Ruth Nanda, ed. 1942. Science and Man. New York: Harcourt, Brace
Aron, Raymond. 2001. The Opium of the Intellectuals. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction
Ashmore, Harry. 1989. Unseasonable Truths: The Life of Robert Maynard Hutchins. Boston: Little, Brown
Awodey, Steve, and Carsten Klein, eds. 2004. Carnap Brought Home: The View from Jena. Chicago: Open Court
Ayer, A. J. 1936. Language, Truth and Logic. New York: Dover
Ayer, A. J., ed. 1959. Logical Positivism. New York: Free Press
Baumgardt, David. 1947. “Poise and Passion in Philosophy.” In Bryson et al. 358–71
Belfrage, Cedric. 1973. The American Inquisition, 1945–1960. New York: Bobbs-Merrill
Bell, Daniel. 1960. The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press
Bender, Thomas, and Carl Shorske, eds. 1997. American Academic Culture in Transformation: Fifty Years, Four Disciplines. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Bentley, Arthur. 1947. “The New ‘Semiotic.’” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 8: 107–31
Bentley, Arthur. 1949. “Signs of Error.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 10: 99–106
Bernstein, Jeremy. 1967. A Comprehensible World: On Modern Science and Its Origins. New York: Random House
Beuttler, Fred. 1997. “For the World at Large: Intergroup Activities at the Jewish Theological Seminary.” In Tradition Renewed: A History of the Jewish Theological Seminary, ed. J. Wertheimer. New York: The Seminary
Black, Max. 1947. “The Limitations of a Behavioristic Semiotic.” Philosophical Review 56: 258–72
Bloom, Allan. 1987. The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon and Schuster
Blumberg, Albert, and Herbert Feigl. 1931. “Logical Positivism: A New Movement in European Philosophy.” Journal of Philosophy 28: 281–96
Blumberg, Albert. 1958. “Science and Dialectics: A Preface to a Re-examination.” Science & Society 22: 306–29
Blumberg, Albert. 1976. Logic: A First Course. New York: Knopf
Brameld, Theodore. 1938. Letter to the Editors. The Communist 17: 381–82
Brodbeck, May. 1953. “The Nature and Function of the Philosophy of Science.” In Feigl and Brodbeck 1953, 3–7
Bryson, Lyman, L. Finkelstein, and R. MacIver, eds. 1947. Conflicts of Power in Modern Culture. Seventh Symposium, Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life. New York: Harper
Bryson, Lyman, L. Finkelstein, and R. MacIver, eds. 1948. Learning and World Peace. Eighth Symposium, Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life. New York: Harper
Buckley, William. F. 1951. God and Man at Yale: The Superstitions of “Academic Freedom.” Chicago: Henry Regnery
Buckley, William. F.. 1976. “The Road to Serfdom: The Intellectuals and Socialism.” In Essays on Hayek, ed. F. Machlup. New York: NYU Press, 95–106
Bush, Vannevar. 1960. Science: The Endless Frontier. (Originally published in 1945.) Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation
Carnap, Rudolf. 1932. “Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache.” Erkenntnis 2: 219–41
Carnap, Rudolf. 1934a. “On the Character of Philosophical Problems.” Trans. W. Malisoff. Philosophy of Science 1: 5–19
Carnap, Rudolf. 1934b. The Unity of Science. (Originally published in 1932 as “Die physikalische Sprache als Universalsprache der Wissenschaft.”) Trans. M. Black. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
Carnap, Rudolf. 1935. “Philosophy and Logical Syntax.” In Alston and Nakhnikian 1963, 424–60
Carnap, Rudolf. 1936/37. “Testability and Meaning.” Philosophy of Science. 3: 419–71; 4: 1–40
Carnap, Rudolf. 1936a. Radio interview on the occasion of conferences celebrating Harvard University's tercentenary. NBC broadcast, September 5, 1936 (see Carnap 1937b for Carnap's published contribution to this conference)
Carnap, Rudolf. 1936b. “Über die Einheitssprache der Wissenschaft: Logische Bemerkungen zum Project einer Enzyklopädie.” Actes du congrès international de philosophie scientifique, Sorbonne, Paris 1935 [fasc.]. 2. L 'Unité de la science Actualités scientifiques et industrielles no. 388. Paris: Hermann & Cie, 60–70
Carnap, Rudolf. 1937a. “Einheit der Wissenschaft durch Einheit der Sprache.” In Travaux du IXe congrès international de philosophie, Congrès Descartes [fasc.]. 4. L'Unité de la science: La méthod et les méthodes Actualitiés scientifiques et industrielles no. 533. Paris: Hermann & Cie, 51–57
Carnap, Rudolf. 1937b. “Logic.” In Factors Determining Human Behavior. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 107–18
Carnap, Rudolf. 1937c. The Logical Syntax of Language. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
Carnap, Rudolf. 1938. “Logical Foundations of the Unity of Science.” In Neurath et al. 1938, 42–62
Carnap, Rudolf. 1939. Foundations of Logic and Mathematics. International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 1, no. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Carnap, Rudolf. 1942. Introduction to Semantics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Carnap, Rudolf. 1944. Note on values, quoted in Lepley 1944, 137–38
Carnap, Rudolf. 1950. “Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology.” Reprinted in Meaning and Necessity, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956, 205–21
Carnap, Rudolf. 1953. “Inductive Logic and Science.” Contributions to the Analysis and Synthesis of Knowledge, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 80, pp. 189–97
Carnap, Rudolf. 1956. “The Methodological Character of Theoretical Concepts.” In The Foundations of Science and the Concepts of Psychology and Psychoanalysis, ed. Herbert Feigl and Michael Scriven. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 1. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 38–76
Carnap, Rudolf. 1959a. “The Elimination of Metaphysics through the Logical Analysis of Language.” (Originally published in 1932 as “Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache.”) Trans. A. Pap. In Ayer 1959, 60–81
Carnap, Rudolf. 1959b. “Psychology in Physical Language.” (Originally published in 1932 as “Psychologie in Physikalischer Sprache.”) In Ayer 1959, 165–98
Carnap, Rudolf. 1963a. “Intellectual Autobiography.” In Schilpp, 1963, 3–84
Carnap, Rudolf. 1963b. “Replies and Systematic Expositions.” In Schilpp, 1963, 859–1013
Carnap, Rudolf. 1966. Philosophical Foundations of Physics: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Ed. M. Gardner. New York: Basic Books
Carnap, Rudolf. 1969. The Logical Structure of the World. (Originally published in 1928 as Der Logische Aufbau der Welt.) Trans. R. George. Berkeley: University of California Press
Carnap, Rudolf. 1970. “My Visit with Two Imprisoned Philosophers in Mexico.” Journal of Philosophy 67: 1026–29
Carter, Philip. 1938. “Professor Levy's Approach to Marxism.” The Communist 17: 667–70
Carter, Philip. 1939a. “Marxist Philosophy and the Sciences.” The Communist 18: 572–74
Carter, Philip. 1939b. “Pitfalls of Pragmatic Logic.” The Communist 18: 163–69
Cartwright, Nancy, and Thomas Uebel. 1996. “Philosophy in the Earthly Plane.” In Encyclopedia and Utopia: The Life and Work of Otto Neurath (1882–1945), ed. Friedrich Stadler and Elisabeth Nemeth. Boston: Kluwer, 39–52
Cartwright, Nancy, Jordi Cat, Lola Fleck, and Thomas. E. Uebel. 1996. Otto Neurath: Philosophy between Science and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Carus, A. W. 2004. “Sellars, Carnap, and the Logical Space of Reasons.” In Awodey and Klein 2004, 317–55
Cat, Jordi, Hasok Chang, and Nancy Cartwright. 1991. “Otto Neurath: Unification as the Way to Socialism.” In Einheit der Wissenschaften, ed. J. Mittelstrass. New York: Walter de Gruyter
Cat, Jordi. 1995. “The Popper-Neurath Debate and Neurath's Attack on Scientific Method.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 26: 219–50
Chamberlin, William Henry. 1950. “Apologia pro Vita Sua: Why I Once Fellow-Traveled.” New Leader, May 20, p. 20
Chamberlin, William Henry. 1955. “Communism and the Intellectuals.” New Leader, June 13, p. 20
Chambers, Whittaker. 1952. Witness. Washington, D.C.: Regnery
Chislett, Clive. 1992. “Damned Lies. And Statistics: Otto Neurath and Soviet Propaganda in the 1930s.” Visible Language 26: 298–321
Churchman, C. West, and R. Ackoff. 1946. “Varieties of Unification.” Philosophy of Science 13: 287–300
Churchman, C. West, and R. Ackoff. 1947. “Ethics and Science.” Philosophy of Science 14: 269–71
Churchman, C. West, and T. A. Cowan. 1945. “A Challenge.” Philosophy of Science 12: 219–20
Churchman, C. West, and T. A. Cowan. 1946. “On the Meaningfulness of Questions.” Philosophy of Science 13: 20–24
Churchman, C. West. 1946. “Discussion: Carnap's ‘On Inductive Logic.’” Philosophy of Science 13: 341–42
Churchman, C. West. 1948. “Editorial.” Philosophy of Science 15: 81–82
Churchman, C. West. 1957. “A Pragmatic Theory of Induction.” In Frank, ed. 1957, 18–24
Cohen, Morris, and Ernest Nagel. 1934. Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method. New York: Harcourt Brace
Conant, James Bryant. 1951. “Science Views the Future.” New Leader, September 17, pp. 2–4
Condon, Edward U. 1950. “The Attack on the Intellect.” The Nation, March 25, pp. 267–68
Cooney, Terry A. 1986. The Rise of the New York Intellectuals: Partisan Review and Its Circle. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press
Cork, Jim. 1950. “The Politics of Albert Einstein.” Review of A. Einstein, Out of My Later Years. New Leader, June 24, p. 22
Cornforth, Maurice. 1949. “Logical Empiricism.” In Sellars et al. 1949, 495–521
Cornforth, Maurice. 1950. In Defense of Philosophy: Against Positivism and Pragmatism. New York: International
Crossman, Richard, ed. 1949. The God That Failed. New York: Harper & Brothers
Dahms, Hans-Joachim. 1994. Positivismusstreit. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp
Dahms, Hans-Joachim. 2004. “Neue Sachlichkeit in the Architecture and Philosophy of the 1920s.” In Awodey and Klein 2004, 357–75
Davis, Wallace Martin. 1952. “Who Listens to the Intellectuals?” New Leader, June 16, pp. 19–21
Dewey, John, and Horace Kallen, eds. 1941. The Bertrand Russell Case. New York: Viking
Dewey, John, S. Hook, and E. Nagel. 1945. “Are Naturalists Materialists?” Journal of Philosophy 42: 515–30
Dewey, John. 1929. Impressions of the Soviet Russia and the Revolutionary World, Mexico–China–Turkey. New York: New Republic
Dewey, John. 1938. “Unity of Science as a Social Problem.” In Neurath et al. 1938, 29–38
Dewey, John. 1939. “Theory of Valuation.” International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 2, no. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Dewey, John. 1943. “Anti-Naturalism in Extremis.” Partisan Review 10: 24–39
Dewey, John. 1946a. “Peirce's Theory of Linguistic Signs, Thought, and Meaning.” Journal of Philosophy 43: 85–95
Dewey, John. 1946b. “To the Editors of the Journal of Philosophy.” Journal of Philosophy 43: 280
Diggins, John Patrick. 1992. The Rise and Fall of the American Left. New York: Norton
Dilling, Elizabeth. 1934. The Red Network: A “Who's Who” and Handbook of Radicalism for Patriots. Kenilworth, Ill.: the author
Dommeyer, Frederick. 1950. Review of Morris 1946a. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 10: 451–53
Duhem, Pierre. 1954. The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Dupré, John. 1993. The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Ebenstein, Alan. 2001. Friedrich Hayek: A Biography. New York: Palgrave
Edel, Abraham. 1939. Review of Bridgman, The Intelligent Individual and Society. Science & Society 3: 131–34
Edel, Abraham. 1961. “Science and the Structure of Ethics.” International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 2, no. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Engel, Leonard. 1947. “Warning All Scientists.” The Nation, August 2, pp. 117–19
Engel, Leonard. 1948. “Fear in Our Laboratories.” The Nation, January 17, pp. 63–65
Faludi, A. 1989. “Planning According to the ‘Scientific Conception of the World’: The Work of Otto Neurath.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 7: 397–418
Fast, Howard. 1990. Being Red. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Feferman, Anita Burdman. 1993. Politics, Logic, and Love: The Life of Jean Van Heijenoort. Wellesley, Mass.: A. K. Peters
Feigl, Herbert, and Charles Morris. 1970. “Bibliography and Index.” International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 2, no. 20, 947–1023 in two-volume set
Feigl, Herbert, and Grover Maxwell, eds. 1959. Current Issues in the Philosophy of Science. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston
Feigl, Herbert, and May Brodbeck. 1953. Readings in the Philosophy of Science. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts
Feigl, Herbert. 1943. “Logical Empiricism.” In Twentieth Century Philosophy, ed. D. Runes. New York: Philosophical Library, 373–416
Feigl, Herbert. 1953. “The Scientific Outlook: Naturalism and Humanism.” In Feigl and Brodbeck 1953, 8–18
Feigl, Herbert. 1959. “Philosophical Tangents of Science.” In Feigl and Maxwell 1959, 1–17
Feuer, Lewis. 1941. “The Development of Logical Empiricism.” Science & Society 5: 222–33
Feuer, Lewis. 1942. “Ethics and Historical Materialism.” Science & Society 6: 242–72
Feuer, Lewis. 1969. The Conflict of Generations: The Character and Significance of Student Movements. New York: Basic Books
Field, Mike. 1996. “Self Taught and Stubbornly Independent.” Johns Hopkins Magazine online issue, April
Fisiak, Jacek. 1984. “Old and Middle English Language Studies in Poland.” Mediaeval English Studies Newsletter, no. 11 (December): 1–7
Flewelling, Ralph. 1948. “Philosophy as a Medium of World Understanding.” In Bryson et al. 372–83
Flynn, John. T. 1953. “Twenty-Four Steps to Communism.” American Mercury, December, 3–6
Fodor, J. A. 1974. “Special Sciences (Or: The Disunity of Science as a Working Hypothesis.” Synthese 28: 97–115
Folsom, Franklin. 1994. Days of Anger, Days of Hope: A Memoir of the League of American Writers, 1937–1942. Niwot: University Press of Colorado
Foucault, Michel. 1970. The Order of Things. New York: Pantheon
Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and Punish. New York: Pantheon
Frank, Philipp, and C. West Churchman. 1948. “In Memoriam: Dr. William M. Malisoff.” Philosophy of Science 15: 1–3
Frank, Philipp, ed. 1957. The Validation of Scientific Theories. Boston: Beacon
Frank, Philipp. 1938. Interpretations and Misinterpretations of Modern Physics. Paris: Hermann & Cie
Frank, Philipp. 1941. Between Physics and Philosophy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Frank, Philipp. 1946. “Foundations of Physics.” International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 1, no. 7. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Frank, Philipp. 1947. Einstein: His Life and Times. New York: Knopf
Frank, Philipp. 1949a. “Einstein, Mach, and Logical Positivism.” In Schilpp 1949, 269–86
Frank, Philipp. 1949b. Modern Science and Its Philosophy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Frank, Philipp. 1950. Relativity: A Richer Truth. Boston: Beacon
Frank, Philipp. 1951a. “Introductory Remarks.” Contributions to the Analysis and Synthesis of Knowledge, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 80, pp. 5–8
Frank, Philipp. 1951b. “The Logical and Sociological Aspects of Science.” Contributions to the Analysis and Synthesis of Knowledge, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 80, pp. 16–30
Frank, Philipp. 1957. Philosophy of Science: The Link between Science and Philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall
Frank, Philipp. 1958. “Contemporary Science and the Contemporary World View.” Daedalus 58: 57–66
Frank, Philipp. 1963. “The Pragmatic Components in Carnap's ‘Elimination of Metaphysics.’” In Schilpp 1963, 159–64
Frank, Philipp. 1998. The Law of Causality and Its Limits. Ed. R. S. Cohen trans. M. Neurath and R. S. Cohen. Originally published as Kausalgesetz und seine Grenzen. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic
Frank, Richard. 1937. “The Schools and the People's Front” The Communist v. 16, 432–45
Frenkel-Brunswik, Else. 1954. “Psychoanalysis and the Unity of Science.” Contributions to the Analysis and Synthesis of Knowledge, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 80, pp. 271–350
Friedman, Michael. 1991. “The Re-Evaluation of Logical Empiricism.” Journal of Philosophy 88, 505–19
Friedman, Michael. 2000. A Parting of the Ways. Chicago: Open Court
Frowen, Stephen. 1997. “Introduction.” In Hayek: Economist and Social Philosopher, ed. Frowen. New York: St. Martin's Press, ⅹⅺ–ⅹⅹⅵ
Fuller, Steve. 2000. Thomas Kuhn: A Philosophical History for Our Times. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Gabriel, Gottfried. 2004. “Introduction: Carnap Brought Home.” In Awodey and Klein 2004, 3–23
Galison, Peter, and David Stump, eds. 1996. The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts and Power. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Galison, Peter. 1990. “Aufbau/Bauhaus: Logical Positivism and Architectural Modernism.” Critical Inquiry 16: 709–52
Galison, Peter. 1996. “Constructing Modernism: The Cultural Location of Aufbau.” In Giere and Richardson 1996, 17–44
Gardner, Martin. 1950a. “H. G. Wells: Premature Anti-Communist.” New Leader, October 7, pp. 20–21
Gardner, Martin. 1950b. “Relativity: Hope Chest or Pandora's Box?” New Leader, August 12, p. 26
Gardner, Martin. 1951. “Philosophy as Poetic Speculation.” New Leader, June 11, pp. 23–24
Gentry, George. 1947. “Signs, Interpretants, and Significata.” Journal of Philosophy 44: 318–24
Giere, Ron, and Alan Richardson, eds. 1996. Origins of Logical Empiricism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
Giere, Ron. 1996. “From Wissenschaftliche Philosophie to Philosophy of Science.” In Giere and Richardson 1996, 335–54
Glazer, Nathan. 1969. “Student Politics and the University.” Atlantic Monthly 224: 43–53
Gordon, Elizabeth. 1953. “The Threat to the Next America.” House Beautiful, April
Grünbaum, Adolf. 1954. “Science and Ideology.” Scientific Monthly 79 (July): 13–19
Grinker, Roy, ed. 1956. Toward a Unified Theory of Human Behavior. New York: Basic Books
Gruen, William. 1939. “What Is Logical Empiricism?” Partisan Review 6: 64–77
Hacking, Ian. 1992. “Disunified Sciences.” In The End of Science, ed. Richard Q. Elvee. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 33–52
Haller, Rudolf. 1991. “The First Vienna Circle.” In Uebel 1991, 95–108
Haskins, Caryl P. 1956. “Science and the Whole Man.” Daedalus 86, no. 2: 113–21
Hayek, Friedrich A. 1944. The Road to Serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Hayek, Friedrich A.. 1999. The Road to Serfdom: Condensed Version. Institute of Economic Affairs
Haynes, James Earl, and Harvey Klehr. 1999. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. New Haven: Yale University Press
Heidelberger, Michael, and Friedrich Stadler, eds. 2003. Wissenschaftsphilosophie und Politik. Philosophy of Science and Politics. Vienna and New York: Springer
Helmer, Olaf, and Nicholas Rescher. 1960. “On the Epistemology of the Inexact Sciences” Management Science 6: 25–52
Hempel, Carl. 1942. “The Function of General Laws in History.” Journal of Philosophy 39: 35–48
Herberg, Will. 1954. “Why They Became True Believers” (review of Gabriel Almond, The Appeals of Communism). New Leader, December 13, pp. 12–13
Hicks, Granville. 1950. “McCarthy and the Homosexuals.” New Leader, June 17, p. 9
Hoffer, Eric. 1951. The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements. New York: Harper
Hollinger, David. 1996. Science, Jews, and Secular Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Hollinger, David. N. D. “The Unity of Knowledge and the Diversity of Knowers: Science as an Agent of Cultural Integration in the Interwar United States.” Unpublished ms
Holton, Gerald. 1958. “Perspectives on the Issue ‘Science and the Modern World View.’” Daedalus 58: 3–7
Holton, Gerald. 1993. Science and Anti-Science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Hook, Sidney. 1940. “The New Medievalism.” New Republic, October 28
Hook, Sidney. 1941. “The General Pattern.” in Dewey and Kallen 1941, 185–210
Hook, Sidney. 1943. “The New Failure of Nerve.” Partisan Review 10: 2–23
Hook, Sidney. 1947. “Philosophy and the Police” (review of John Somerville, Soviet Philosophy). The Nation, February 15, pp. 188–89
Hook, Sidney. 1949. “International Communism.” Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, March
Hook, Sidney. 1953. Heresy, Yes – Conspiracy, No. New York: John Day
Hook, Sidney. 1954. “Robert Hutchins Rides Again.” New Leader, April 19, pp. 16–19
Hook, Sidney. 1987. Out of Step: An Unquiet Life in the 20th Century. New York: Harper and Row
Horkheimer, Max. 1937. “Der neueste Angriff auf die Metaphysik.” Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, vol. 6, pp. 4–51 (translated in Horkheimer 1982, 132–87)
Horkheimer, Max. 1982. Critical Theory: Selected Essays. Trans. Matthew O'Connell et al. New York: Seabury
Howard, Don. 2003. “Two Left Turns Make a Right: On the Curious Political Career of North American Philosophy of Science at Midcentury.” In Logical Empiricism in North America, ed. G. Hardcastle and A. Richardson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 25–93
Hughes, H. Stuart. 1956. “Is the Intellectual Obsolete?” Commentary 22: 313–19
Hutchins, Robert M. 1936. The Higher Learning in America. New Haven: Yale University Press
Hutchins, Robert M.. 1954. “Are Our Teachers Afraid to Teach?” Look 18: 27–29
Irzik, Gürol, and Teo Grünberg. 1995. “Carnap and Kuhn: Arch Enemies or Close Allies?” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46: 285–307
Jacoby, Russell. 1987. The Last Intellectuals. New York: Basic Books
James, William. 1981. Pragmatism. Indianapolis: Hackett
Jerome, V. J. 1937. “Marxism-Leninism for Science and Society” (first of two parts). The Communist 16: 1146–63
Jerome, V. J.. 1938. “Marxism-Leninism for Science and Society” (second of two parts). The Communist 17: 75–91
Joergensen, Joergen. 1951. “The Development of Logical Empiricism.” International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 2, no. 9. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Johnson, David K. 2004. The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Kaelin, E. F. 1958. Review of R. Lepley, ed., The Language of Value. Philosophy of Science 25: 307–8
Kaempffert, Waldemar. 1937a. “On Increasing the Span of Life” (review of William Malisoff, The Span of Life). New York Times Book Review, December 19, p. 4
Kaempffert, Waldemar. 1937b. “Science Encyclopedia.” New York Times, February 14
Kaempffert, Waldemar. 1938. “Toward Bridging the Gaps between the Sciences.” New York Times Book Review, April 7, pp. 2, 18
Kaempffert, Waldemar. 1939. “Facts March On – with Neurath.” Survey Graphic, September, pp. 538–40
Kallen, Horace. 1940. “The Meanings of ‘Unity’ among the Sciences.” Educational Administration and Supervision 26, no. 2: 81–97
Kallen, Horace. 1946a. “An Annotation to the Annotation.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6: 528–29
Kallen, Horace. 1946b. ‘The Meanings of ‘Unity’ among the Sciences, Once More.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6: 493–96
Kallen, Horace. 1946c. “Postscript: Otto Neurath, 1882–1945.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6: 529–33
Kallen, Horace. 1946d. “Reply.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6: 515–26
Kallen, Horace. 1956. Cultural Pluralism and the American Idea. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
Kaplan, Abraham. 1958. “American Ethics and Public Policy.” Daedalus 87: 48–77
Kaplan, Abraham. 1963. “Logical Empiricism and Value Judgments.” In Schilpp 1963, 827–56
Kecskemeti, Paul. 1948. “Advice from Philosophy.” In Bryson et al. 1948, 319–28
Kegley, Charles. 1959. “Reflections on Philipp Frank's Philosophy of Science.” Philosophy of Science 26: 35–40
Kimball, Roger. 1990. Tenured Radicals. New York: HarperCollins
Kitcher, Philip. 1989. “Some Puzzles About Species.” In What the Philosophy of Biology Is, ed. M. Ruse. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 183–208
Klingaman, William K., ed. 1996. Encyclopedia of the McCarthy Era. New York: Facts on File
Kluckhohn, Clyde, ed. 1953. Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture, 2nd ed. New York: Knopf
Koestler, Arthur. 1944. “The Intelligentsia.” Partisan Review 11: 265–77
Koestler, Arthur. 1949. Untitled essay. In Crossman 1949, 15–75
Korzybski, Alfred. 1933. Science and Sanity. Lakeville, Conn.: International Non-Aristotelian Library Publishing
Kucklick, Bruce. 2001. A History of Philosophy in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Kuhn, Thomas. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 2, no. 2). Rpt., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970
Landauer, Carl. 1950. “The Communist Oath at California University.” New Leader October 14, pp. 12–14
Lenin, Vladimir I., 1908. Materialism and Empirio-Criticism. Trans. 1927. New York: International Publishers, 1972 reprint
Lepley, Ray. 1944. Verifiability of Value. New York: Columbia University Press
Lewontin, R. C. 1997. “The Cold War and the Transformation of the Academy.” In Shiffrin 1997, 1–34
Leys, Wayne. 1949. Review of Charles Morris, The Open Self. Philosophical Review 58: 284–86
Lipset, Seymour M. 1959. “American Intellectuals: Their Politics and Status.” Daedalus 88: 460–86
Malisoff, William M. 1930. A Calendar of Doubts and Faiths. New York: G. Howard Watt
Malisoff, William M.. 1932. Meet the Sciences. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins
Malisoff, William M.. 1937. The Span of Life. Philadelphia: Lippincott
Malisoff, William M.. 1944. “Philosophy of Science after Ten Years.” Philosophy of Science 11: 1–2
Malisoff, William M.. 1945. Review of R. Linton, ed., The Science of Man in the World Crisis. Philosophy of Science 12: 228
Malisoff, William M.. 1946a. “A Science of the People, by the People and for the People.” Philosophy of Science 13: 166–69
Malisoff, William M.. 1946b. “On the Non-Existence of the Atomic Secret.” Philosophy of Science 13: 1–2
Malisoff, William M.. 1947a. Review of The Authoritarian Attempt to Capture Education. Philosophy of Science 14: 103–4
Malisoff, William M.. 1947b. Review of N. Cousins, Modern Man Is Obsolete. Philosophy of Science 14: 171
Malisoff, William M.. 1947c. Review of L. Bryson, Science and Freedom. Philosophy of Science 14: 171
Malisoff, William M.. 1947d. Review of J. Baker, Science and the Planned State. Philosophy of Science 14:, 171–72
Malisoff, William M.. 1947e. Review of H. Waxman, The Source of Human Good. Philosophy of Science 14: 173
Malisoff, William M.. 1947f. Review of J. Somerville, Soviet Philosophy. Philosophy of Science 14: 172
Marcuse, Herbert. 1939. Review of International Encyclopedia of Unified Science. Studies in Philosophy and Social Science 8: 228–32
Marcuse, Herbert. 1964. One-Dimensional Man. Boston: Beacon
Matthews, J. B. 1953. “Communism in the Colleges.” American Mercury, (May): 111–44
McCarthy, Mary. 1951. “The Groves of Academe.” New Yorker, February 3, pp. 28–32
McCumber, John. 1996. “Time in the Ditch: American Philosophy and the McCarthy Era.” Diacritics (Spring): 33–49
McCumber, John. 2001. Time in the Ditch: American Philosophy and the McCarthy Era. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press
McGill, J. V., 1936. “An Evaluation of Logical Positivism.” Science & Society 1: 45–80
McGill, J. V.. 1937. “Logical Positivism and the Unity of Science.” Science & Society 1: 550–61
McNeill, W. 1991. Hutchins' University: A Memoir of the University of Chicago, 1929–1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Menand, Louis. 2001. The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Meyer, Frank S. 1957. Review of Charles Morris, The Varieties of Human Value. National Review 3: 118
Meyer, Frank S.. 1958. “The Bigotry of Science.” The Nation 5: 234
Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The Power Elite. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Mirowski, Philip. N.d. “The Social Dimensions of Social Knowledge and their Distant Echoes in 20th-Century American Philosophy of Science.” Unpublished ms
Moore, Barrington. 1957. “Influence of Political Creeds on the Acceptance of Theories.” In Frank 1957, 29–36
Morris, Charles, and Ferruccio Rossi-Landi. 1992. “The Correspondence between Charles Morris and Ferruccio Rossi-Landi.” Semiotica 88½: 37–122
Morris, Charles, and Frank Sciadini. 1956. “Paintings, Ways to Live, and Values.” In Sign, Image, Symbol, ed. G. Kepes. New York: George Braziller, 144–49
Morris, Charles. 1932. Six Theories of Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Morris, Charles. 1934a. “Introduction: George H. Mead as Social Psychologist and Social Philosopher.” In Mind, Self and Society, ed. Charles W. Morris. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ⅸ–ⅹⅹⅹⅴ
Morris, Charles. 1934b. “Pragmatism and the Crisis of Democracy.” Public Policy Pamphlet, no. 12
Morris, Charles. 1935. “The Relation of the Formal and Empirical Sciences within Scientific Empiricism.” In Morris 1937, 46–55
Morris, Charles. 1936. “Opening Speech (for the American Delegates).” Actes du Congrès international de philosophie scientifique, Sorbonne, Paris 1935 [fasc.]. 2. Unité de la science Actualités scientifiques et industrielles 388. Paris: Hermann & Cie, 22
Morris, Charles. 1937. Logical Positivism, Pragmatism, and Scientific Empiricism. Actualités Scientifiques et Industrielles, 449, Paris: Hermann et Cie
Morris, Charles. 1938a. Foundations of the Theory of Signs. International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 1, no. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Morris, Charles. 1938b. “The Unity of Science Movement and the United States.” Synthese, (November): 25–29
Morris, Charles. 1939. “General Education and the Unity of Science Movement.” In John Dewey and the Promise of America, Progressive Education Booklet no. 14. Columbus, Ohio, 26–40
Morris, Charles. 1942. Paths of Life: Preface to a World Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Morris, Charles. 1946a. “The Significance of the Unity of Science Movement.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6: 508–15
Morris, Charles. 1946b. Signs, Language, and Behavior. New York: George Braziller
Morris, Charles. 1946c. “To the Editors of the Journal of Philosophy.” Journal of Philosophy 43: 196
Morris, Charles. 1948a. “Comments on Mr. Storer's Paper.” Philosophy of Science 15: 330–32
Morris, Charles. 1948b. The Open Self. New York: Prentice-Hall
Morris, Charles. 1948c. “Signs about Signs about Signs.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9: 115–33
Morris, Charles. 1951. “The Science of Man and Unified Science.” Contributions to the Analysis and Synthesis of Knowledge, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 80, pp. 37–44
Morris, Charles. 1956. The Varieties of Human Value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Morris, Charles. 1960. “On the History of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science.” Synthese 12: 517–21
Morris, Charles. 1966. Festival. New York: George Braziller
Morris, Charles. 1970. The Pragmatic Movement in American Philosophy. New York: George Braziller
Morris, Charles. 1973. “Memories of Otto Neurath.” In Neurath 1973, 64–68
Nagel, Ernest, et al. 1937. “Four Letters on Ernest Nagel's Review of Lovejoy's ‘The Great Chain of Being.’” Science & Society 1: 412–13
Nagel, Ernest. 1936. Review of A. Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being. Science & Society 1: 252–56
Nagel, Ernest. 1939. “Principles of the Theory of Probability.” International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 1, no. 7. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Nagel, Ernest. 1943. “Malicious Philosophies of Science.” Partisan Review 10: 40–57
Nagel, Ernest. 1950. “Memorial Address for Felix Kaufmann.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 10: 464–68
Nagel, Ernest. 1951. “Mumford on Modern Man.” New Leader, November 12, pp. 21–22
Nagel, Ernest. 1952. Review of Cornforth 1950, Journal of Philosophy, v. 49, 648–50
Nehemas, Alexander. 1997. “Trends in Recent American Philosophy.” In Bender and Schorske 1997, 227–41
Nemeth, Elisabeth. 2003. “Philosophy of Science and Democracy: Some Reflections on Philipp Frank's Relativity – A Richer Truth.” In Heidelberger and Stadler 2003, 119–38
Neurath, Otto, and J. A. Lauwerys. 1944. “Nazi Text-books and the Future.” Journal of Education 76, nos. 904 and 905
Neurath, Otto, and J. A. Lauwerys. 1945. “Plato's Republic and German Education.” Journal of Education 77, nos. 907, 910, and 913
Neurath, Otto, Niels Bohr, John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, Rudolf Carnap, and Charles Morris. 1938. “Encyclopedia and Unified Science.” International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 1, no. 1, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Neurath, Otto, Rudolf Carnap, and Hans Hahn. 1929. “The Scientific Conception of the World: The Vienna Circle.” In Neurath 1973, 299–319
Neurath, Otto. 1913. “The Lost Wanderers of Descartes and the Auxiliary Motive (On the Psychology of Decision).” In Neurath 1983, 1–12
Neurath, Otto. 1919. “Through War Economy to Economy in Kind.” In Neurath 1973, 123–57
Neurath, Otto. 1921. “Anti-Spengler.” In Neurath 1973, 158–213
Neurath, Otto. 1928. “Personal Life and Class Struggle.” In Neurath 1973, 249–98
Neurath, Otto. 1930. “Ways of the Scientific World Conception.” In Neurath 1983, 32–47
Neurath, Otto. 1931a. “Empirical Sociology: The Scientific Content of History and Political Economy.” In Neurath 1973, 317–421
Neurath, Otto. 1931b. “Physicalism.” In Neurath 1983, 52–57
Neurath, Otto. 1932/33. “Protocol Statements.” In Neurath 1983, 91–99
Neurath, Otto. 1934. “Radical Physicalism and the ‘Real World.’” In Neurath 1973, 100–114
Neurath, Otto. 1935. “Pseudorationalism of Falsification.” In Neurath 1983, 121–31
Neurath, Otto. 1936a. “An International Encyclopedia of Unified Science.” In Neurath 1983, 139–44
Neurath, Otto. 1936b. “Encyclopedia as ‘Model.’” In Neurath 1983, 145–58
Neurath, Otto. 1936c. “Individual Sciences, Unified Science, Pseudorationalism.” In Neurath 1983, 132–38
Neurath, Otto. 1936d. “Physicalism and Knowledge.” In Neurath 1983, 159–71
Neurath, Otto. 1937. “Unified Science and Its Encyclopedia.” In Neurath 1983, 172–82
Neurath, Otto. 1938a. “Encyclopedism as a Pedagogical Aim: A Danish Approach.” Philosophy of Science 5: 484–92
Neurath, Otto. 1938b. “Unified Science as Encyclopedic Integration.” International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 1, no. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Neurath, Otto. 1939. Modern Man in the Making. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
Neurath, Otto. 1941. “Universal Jargon and Terminology.” In Neurath 1983, 213–29
Neurath, Otto. 1942. “International Planning for Freedom.” In Neurath 1973, 422–40
Neurath, Otto. 1944. Foundations of the Social Sciences. International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 2, no. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Neurath, Otto. 1945a. “Germany's Education and Democracy.” Journal of Education 77, no. 912
Neurath, Otto. 1945b. Review of Friedrich Hayek, The Road to Serfdom. London Quarterly of World Affairs (January): 121–22
Neurath, Otto. 1946. “After Six Years.” Synthese 5: 77–82
Neurath, Otto. 1946a. “For the Discussion: Just Annotations, Not a Reply.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6, no. 4: 526–28
Neurath, Otto. 1946b. “Orchestration of the Sciences by the Encyclopedism of Logical Empiricism.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6, no. 4: 496–508
Neurath, Otto. 1973. Empiricism and Sociology. Ed. M. Neurath and R. S. Cohen, trans. M. Neurath and Paul Foulkes. Boston: Reidel
Neurath, Otto. 1983. Philosophical Papers: 1913–1946, Ed. and trans. R. S. Cohen and M. Neurath. Boston: Reidel
Nussbaum, Martha. 2002. “Making Philosophy Matter to Politics.” New York Times, December 2
Oppenheim, Paul, and Hillary Putnam, 1958. “Unity of Science as a Working Hypothesis.” Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 2: 3–36
Oppenheimer, Robert. 1958. “The Growth of Science and the Structure of Culture.” Daedalus 87: 67–76
Packard, Vance. 1957. Hidden Persuaders. New York: David McKay
Passmore, John. 1953. “Can the Social Sciences Be Value-Free?” In H. Feigl and M. Brodbeck, 1953, 674–76
Petrilli, Susan. 1992. “Introduction.” Semiotica 88 ½: 1–36
Popper, Karl. 1935. Die Logik der Forschung. Schriften zur Wissenschaftlichen Weltauffasung, vol. 9. Vienna: Springer. Translated as The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London: Hutchinson, 1958
Popper, Karl. 1969. “Science: Conjectures and Refutation.” In Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, 3rd ed. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 33–59
Quine, W. V. O. 1951. “Two Dogmas of Empiricism.” Philosophical Review 60: 20–43
Radosh, Ronald. 2001. Commies: A Journey through the Old Left, the New Left and the Leftover Left. San Francisco: Encounter
Rahv, Phillip. 1940. “What Is Living and What Is Dead.” Partisan Review 7: 175–80
Rahv, Phillip. 1948. “Comment: Disillusionment and Partial Answers.” Partisan Review 15: 519–29
Rautenstrauch, Walter. 1945. “What Is Scientific Planning?” Philosophy of Science 12: 8–18
Reck, Erich. 2004. “From Frege and Russell to Carnap: Logic and Logicism in the 1920s.” In Carnap Brought Home: The View from Jena, ed. S. Awodey and C. Klein. Chicago: Open Court, 151–80
Reichenbach, Hans. 1938. Experience and Prediction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Reichenbach, Hans. 1946. “Language as Behavior” (review of Charles Morris, Signs, Language, and Behavior). The Nation, June 22
Reichenbach, Hans. 1951. The Rise of Scientific Philosophy. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press
Reisch, George. 1991. “Did Kuhn Kill Logical Empiricism?” Philosophy of Science 58: 264–77
Reisch, George. 1994. “Planning Science: Otto Neurath and the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science.” British Journal for the History of Science 27: 153–75
Reisch, George. 1995. “A History of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science.” Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1995
Reisch, George. 1997a. “Epistemologist, Economist … and Censor? On Otto Neurath's Infamous Index Verborum Prohibitorum.” Perspectives on Science 5: 452–80
Reisch, George. 1997b. “How Postmodern Was Neurath's Idea of Unified Science.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 28: 439–51
Reisch, George. 1998. “Pluralism, Logical Empiricism, and the Problem of Pseudoscience.” Philosophy of Science 65: 333–48
Reisch, George. 2001a. “Against a Third Dogma of Logical Empiricism: Otto Neurath and ‘Unpredictability in Principle.’” International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15: 199–209
Reisch, George. 2001b. “‘The Cultural Significance of Science’: An Unpublished Lecture by Charles Morris.” RS/SI 21: 73–99
Reisch, George. 2003a. “Disunity within the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science.” In Logical Empiricism in North America, ed. G. Hardcastle and A. Richardson. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press
Reisch, George. 2003b. “On the International Encyclopedia, the Neurath-Carnap Disputes, and the Second World War.” In Logical Empiricism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, ed. P. Parrini, W. Salmon, and M. Salmon. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press
Rieff, Philip. 1953. “Are Intellectuals Chained to Policy?” New Leader, August 24, pp. 16–17
Romerstein, Herbert, and Eric Breindel. 2000. The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors. Washington, D.C.: Regnery
Rosenberg, Alexander. 1994. Instrumental Biology or the Disunity of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Rudner, Richard. 1951. “On Semiotic Aesthetics.” Journal of Aesthetics & Art Criticism 10: 67–77
Rudner, Richard. 1957. “Value Judgements in the Acceptance of Scientific Theories.” In Frank 1957, 24–28
Rudner, Richard. 1966. Philosophy of Social Science. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall
Runes, Dagobert, ed. 1960. Dictionary of Philosophy. Ames, Ia.: Littlefield, Adams
Russel, Bertrand, John Dewey, Morris Cohen, Sidney Hook, and Sherwood Eddy. 1934. The Meaning of Marx: A Symposium. New York: Farrar and Rinehart
Russell, Bertrand, and Editors of New Leader. 1952. “Is America in the Grip of Hysteria?” New Leader, March 3, pp. 2–4
Russell, Bertrand. 1929. Marriage and Morals. New York: H. Liveright
Russell, Bertrand. 2002. Yours Faithfully, Bertrand Russell, ed. R. Perkins, Jr. Chicago: Open Court
Russell, Jeffrey Burton. 1991. Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians. New York: Praeger
Rutherford, James F. 1960. “Discussion: Frank's Philosophy of Science Revisited.” Philosophy of Science 27: 183–85
Saunders, Frances S. 1999. The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters. New York: New Press
Schilpp, Paul A. 1948. “The Task of Philosophy in an Age of Crisis.” In Bryson et al. 1948, 300–10
Schilpp, Paul A., ed. 1949. Albert Einstein: Philosopher Scientist. New York: MJF Books
Schilpp, Paul A.. 1963. The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court
Schlauch, Margaret. 1942. “Semantics as Social Evasion.” Science & Society 6: 315–30
Schlauch, Margaret. 1947. “The Cult of the Proper Word.” New Masses, April 15, pp. 15–18
Schlesinger, James M., Jr. 1947. “The Perspective Now.” Partisan Review 14: 229–42
Schlick, Moritz. 1985. General Theory of Knowledge. (Originally published in 1918 as Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre.) Trans. A. Blumberg. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court
Schrecker, Ellen W. 1986. No Ivory Tower: McCarthyism and the Universities. New York: Oxford University Press
Schrecker, Ellen W.. W. 2002. The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. New York and Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's
Schrickel, H. G. 1943. “Philosophy of Science and Social Philosophy.” Philosophy of Science 10: 208–12
Scott, Stephen. 1987. “Enlightenment and the Spirit of the Vienna Circle.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17: 695–710
Sellars, Wilfred, V. J. McGill, and Marvin Farber, eds. 1949. Philosophy for the Future: The Quest of Modern Materialism. New York: Macmillan
Sellars, Wilfred, V. J. McGill, and Marvin Farber. 1949. “Foreword.” In Sellars et al. 1949, ⅴ–ⅻ
Shapiro, Edward S., ed. 1995. Letters of Sidney Hook: Democracy, Communism, and the Cold War. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe
Sheldon, William. 1940. The Varieties of Human Physique. New York: Harper
Sheldon, William. 1945. “Critique of Naturalism.” Journal of Philosophy 42: 253–70
Sheldon, William. 1946. “Are Naturalists Materialists?” Journal of Philosophy 43: 197–209
Sheldon, William. 1949. Varieties of Delinquent Youth. New York: Harper
Sheldon, William. 1954. Atlas of Men. New York: Harper
Shiffrin, André, ed., 1997. The Cold War and the University. New York: New Press
Singer, Milton, and Abraham Kaplan. 1941. “Unifying Science in a Disunified World.” Scientific Monthly 52: 79–80
Smullyan, Arthur “Social Showman.” 1936. Survey Graphic (November): 618–19
Smullyan, Arthur. 1947. Review of Charles Morris, Signs, Language, and Behavior. Journal of Symbolic Logic 12: 49–51
Somerville, John. 1936. “The Social Ideas of the Wiener Kreis's International Congress.” Journal of Philosophy 33: 295–301
Somerville, John. 1945. “Soviet Science and Dialectical Materialism.” Philosophy of Science 12: 23–29
Somerville, John. 1946. Soviet Philosophy: A Study of Theory and Practice. New York: Philosophical Library
Somerville, John. 1947. “Ethics and Social Science: Case History of a Sharp Practice.” Philosophy of Science 14: 345–47
Stadler, Friedrich. 2001. The Vienna Circle: Studies in the Origins, Development, and Influence of Logical Empiricism. Vienna: Springer Verlag
Stein, Howard. 1992. “Was Carnap Entirely Wrong, After All?” Synthese 93: 275–95
Storer, Thomas. 1948. “The Philosophical Relevance of a ‘Behavioristic Semiotic.’” Philosophy of Science 15: 316–30
Sullivan, Kelly. 2000. “Putting the ‘Liberal’ in Liberal Arts.” Editorial essay published at www.heritage.org, February 16
Suppe, Fred “Toward Unity.” 1938. Time, August 1
Suppe, Fred, ed. 1977. The Structure of Scientific Theories. Chicago: University of Illinois Press
Traiger, Saul. 1984. “The Hans Reichenbach Correspondence: An Overview.” Philosophy Research Archives 10: 501–11
U.S. Senate. 1956. The Communist Party of the United States of America. What It Is. How It Works. A Handbook for Americans. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office
Uebel, Thomas E. “Unity at Cambridge.” 1939. Time, September 18, pp. 72–73
Uebel, Thomas E. 1992. Overcoming Logical Positivism from Within: The Emergence of Neurath's Naturalism in the Vienna Circle's Protocol Sentence Debate. Atlanta: Rodopi
Uebel, Thomas E., ed. 1991. Rediscovering the Forgotten Vienna Circle: Austrian Studies on Otto Neurath and the Vienna Circle. Boston: Kluwer
Uebel, Thomas E.. 1998. “Enlightenment and the Vienna Circle's Scientific World-Conception.” In Philosophers on Education: Historical Perspectives, ed. A. Rorty. London: Routledge
Uebel, Thomas E.. 2000. “Some Scientism, Some Historicism, Some Critics: Hayek's and Popper's Critiques Revisited.” In The Proper Ambition of Science, eds. M. W. F. Stone and J. Wolff. London: Routledge
Uebel, Thomas. E. 2003a. “History and Philosophy of Science and the Politics of Race and Ethnic Exclusion.” In Heidelberger and Stadler 2003, 91–117
Uebel, Thomas. E.. 2003b. “Philipp Frank's History of the Vienna Circle: A Programmatic Retrospective.” In Logical Empiricism in North America, eds. G. Hardcastle and A. Richardson. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 149–69
Uebel, Thomas. E.. 2004. “Carnap, the Left Vienna Circle, and Neopositivist Antimetaphysics.” In Awodey and Klein 2004, 247–77
Viereck, Peter. 1953. The Shame and Glory of the Intellectuals: Babbit Jr. vs. the Rediscovery of Values. Boston: Beacon
W. V. O.. 1953. “On Mental Entities.” Contributions to the Analysis and Synthesis of Knowledge, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 80, pp. 198–203
W. V. O.. 1986. “Autobiography of W. V. Quine.” In The Philosophy of W. V. Quine, ed. P. A. Schilpp. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 3–46
Whitehill, Walter Muir. 1955. “A Foreword to Daedalus.” Daedalus.: Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 86, no. 1: 3–5
Wohlstetter, Albert, and Morton White. 1939. “Who Are the Friends of Semantics?” Partisan Review 6: 50–57