Refugees, Asylum Seekers and the Rule of Law

Comparative Perspectives

Refugees, Asylum Seekers and the Rule of Law

Contributors to this volume examine how the legislative, executive and administrative arms of government have responded to issues concerning the rights and status of refugees and asylum seekers in five common law jurisdictions: the UK, Australia, Canada, the USA and New Zealand. Who and what determines the legislative agenda in this context? Is the legislative agenda driven by the legislators or by the executive? Where does the ‘community’ fit into this picture? Together the essays explain the international context for the responses of the jurisdictions, evaluate the responses from a human rights perspective and assess the integrity and coherency of legal responses as shown by their impact on the rule of law.


 Reviews:

'… a nice mixture of legal theory and practical analysis of the Australian legal and political scenes. … clear analysis … excellent empirical analysis, a good bibliography and useful appendixes.' The Australian Law Journal

'[This] book is highly recommended because it offers a valuable comparison of national responses to the essential question [of] how to implement the international rule of law into national laws. Furthermore, it places these responses within a theoretical framework of the rule of law, fundamental to a modern legal system.' Carolus Grütters, European Journal of Migration and Law

(UNHCR) ‘The Nansen Refugee Award Flash Presentation’, www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/events?id=3fb359bd4 (accessed 8 November 2007).
(UNHCR) Basic Facts, www.unhcr.org/basics.html (accessed 14 April 2008).
(UNHCR) Statistical Yearbook 2006: Trends in Displacement, Protection and Solutions (Geneva: UNHCR, 2007).
Aleinikoff, T. A., ‘State Centred Refugee Law: From Resettlement to Containment’, Michigan Journal of International Law, 14 (1992), 120.
Allan, James, Fried, Charles and Dworkin, Ronald, ‘“The Supreme Court Phalanx”: An Exchange’ (6 December 2007) 54 New York Review of Books, 19 (2007).
Allan, T. R. S., Law Liberty and Justice: The Legal Foundations of British Constitutionalism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).
Allan, T.R.S., ‘Justice and Fairness in Law's Empire’, Cambridge Law Journal, 52 (1993), 64.
Anker, D., Fitzpatrick J. and Shacknove, A., ‘Crisis and Cure: A Reply to Hathaway/Neve and Schuck’, Harvard Human Rights Journal, 11 (1998), 295.
Anker, D., Law of Asylum in the United States, 3rd edition (Boston, MA: Refugee Law Center, 1999).
Baldaccini, Annelise, Guild, Elspeth and Toner, Helen (eds.), Whose Freedom, Security and Justice? EU Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy (Oxford: Hart, 2007).
Balkin, R., ‘International Law and Domestic Law’ in S. Blay (ed.), Public International Law: An Australian Perspective (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1997), Chapter 5.
Barnett, L., ‘Global Governance and the Evolution of the International Refugee Regime’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 14 (2002), 238.
Barutciski, M., ‘A Critical View on UNHCR's Mandate Dilemmas’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 14 (2002), 365.
Bayne, Peter., ‘The Common Low Basis of Judicial Review’ 67 Australian Law Journal, 781 (1993).
Beaton-Wells, C., ‘Disclosure of Adverse Information to Applicants under the Migration Act 1958, 11’ Australian Journal of Administrative La, 61, (2004).
Beaton-Wells, C., ‘Judicial Review of Migration Decisions: Life after S157’, Federal Law Review, 33 (2005), 142.
Beaton-Wells, Caron, ‘Disclosure of Adverse Information to Applicants under the Migration Act 1958’ 11 Australian Journal of Administrative Law, 61 (2004).
Beatty, D. M., The Ultimate Rule of Law (Oxford University Press, 2004).
Betts, A. and Durieux, J.-F., ‘Convention Plus As a Norm-Setting Exercise’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 20 (2007), 1.
Betts, A., ‘Towards a Mediterranean Solution? Implications for the Region of Origin’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 18 (2006), 652.
Billings, P., ‘Balancing Acts: Six Acts in Search of Equilibrium’, Journal of Immigration Asylum and Nationality Law, 20 (2006), 197.
Bix, B., ‘Legal Positivism’ in M. Golding and W. Edmundson (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory (London: Blackwell, 2005), Chapter 2.
Blake, N. and Husain, R., Immigration, Asylum and Human Rights (Oxford University Press, 2003).
Blake, N., ‘The Impact of the Minimum Standards Directives 2004/83/EC on National Case Law’ in International Association of Refugee Law Judges (IARLJ) (eds.), The Asylum Process and the Rule of Law (New Delhi: Manak Publications, 2006).
Bosniak, L., The Citizen and the Alien: Dilemmas of Contemporary Membership (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006).
Bostock, C. M.-J., ‘The International Legal Obligations Owed to the Asylum Seekers on the MV Tampa’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 14 (2002), 279.
Boswell, C., The Ethics of Refugee Policy (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2005).
Brennan, G., ‘Extra-Judicial Notes’, Australian Bar Review, 17 (1998), 9.
Brennan, G., ‘Limits on the Use of Judges’, Federal Law Review, 9 (1978), 1.
Brennan, G., ‘The Impact of a Bill of Rights on the Role of the Judiciary: An Australian Response’ in Phillip Alston (ed.), Towards an Australian Bill of Rights (Canberra: Centre for International and Public Law and HREOC, 1994).
Brennan, G., ‘The Purpose and Scope of Judicial Review’ in M. Taggart (ed.), Judicial Review of Administrative Action in the 1980s: Problems and Prospects (Auckland: Oxford University Press and Legal Research Foundation Inc, 1986), pp. 18–35.
Brunnée, J. and Toope, S., ‘A Hesitant Embrace: Baker and the Application of International Law by Canadian Courts’ in D. Dyzenhaus (ed.), The Unity of Public Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2004).
Burbank, S. B., ‘The Architecture of Judicial Independence’, Southern California Law Review, 72 (1999), 315.
Byrne, R. and Shacknove, A., ‘The Safe Third Country Notion in European Asylum Law’, Harvard Human Rights Journal, 9 (1996), 185.
Byrne, R., Noll, G. and Vested-Hansen, J. (eds.), New Asylum Countries? Migration Control and Refugee Protection in an Enlarged European Union (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 2002).
Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board, Guidelines on Women Refugee Claimaints Fearing Gender-Related Persecution (Ottawa: Immigration and Refugee Board, 1993, updated 1996).
Cane, Peter, ‘Mapping the Frontiers’ in Peter Nirks (ed.), The Frontiers of Liability, Vol 1 (Oxford University Press, 1994).
Carens, J., ‘Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders’, The Review of Politics, 49 (1987), 251.
Carlin, James L., ‘Significant Refugee Crises Since World War II and the Response of the International Community’ Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies, 3 (1982).
Carrington, K., ‘Ministerial Discretion in Migration Matters: Contemporary Policy Issues in Historical Context’, Parliament of Australia, Current Issues Brief, 3 (2003–4).
Castles, S., ‘The Migration–Asylum Nexus and Regional Approaches’ in S. Kneebone and F. Rawlings-Sanaei (eds.), New Regionalism and Asylum Seekers: Challenges Ahead (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2007), Chapter 1.
Castles, S., ‘Towards a Sociology of Forced Migration and Social Transformation’, Sociology, 37 (No 1 – Global Refugees) (2003), 13.
Cholewinski, R., ‘Enforced Destitution of Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom: The Denial of Fundamental Human Rights’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 10 (1998), 462.
Clayton, G., Textbook on Immigration and Asylum Law, 2nd edition (Oxford University Press, 2006).
Cohen, R., ‘Response to Hathaway’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 20 (2007), 370.
Commission of Inquiry into the Actions of Canadian Officials in Relation to Maher Arar, Report of the Events Relating to Maher Arar (Ottawa: Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2006).
Committee against Torture, Conclusions and Recommendations: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – Dependent Territories, 10 December 2004, CAT/C/CR/33/3 para. 4(d); House of Lords, House of Commons, Joint Committee on Human Rights, Nineteenth Report, Session 2005–06, para. 131, www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt200506/jtselect/jtrights/185/18508.htm (accessed 19 April 2008).
Costello, C., ‘The Asylum Procedures Directive and the Proliferation of Safe Country Practices: Deterrence, Deflection and the Dismantling of International Protection?’, European Journal of Migration and Law, 7 (2005), 35.
Covell, C., The Defence of Natural Law: A Study of the Ideas of Law and Justice in the Writings of Lon L. Fuller, Michael Oakeshot, F.A. Hayek, Ronald Dworkin and John Finnis (New York: St Martin's Press, 1992).
Cox, A., ‘The Independence of the Judiciary: History and Purposes’, University of Dayton Law Review, 21 (1996), 565.
Crépeau, F. and Jimenez, E., ‘Foreigners and the Right to Justice After 9/11’, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 27 (2004), 609.
Crépeau, F. and Legomsky, S. H., ‘North American Responses: A Comparative Study of U.S. and Canadian Refugee Policy’ in S. Kneebone and F. Rawlings-Sanaei (eds.), New Regionalism and Asylum Seekers: Challenges Ahead (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2007), Chapter 6.
Craig, P, ‘Ultra Vires and the Foundation of Judicial Review’ Cambridge Law Journal, 63 (1998).
Craig, P., ‘Formal and Substantive Conceptions of the Rule of Law: An Analytical Framework’, Public Law (1997), 467.
Craig, Paul, ‘Competing Models of Judicial Review’ Public Law, 428 (1999).
Craig, Paul, ‘Public Law, Political Theory and Legal Theory’ Public Law, 211 (2000).
Cranwell, G., ‘Treaties and Interpretation of Statutes: Two Recent Examples in the Migration Context’, Australian Institute of Administrative Law Forum, 39 (2003), 49.
Crawford, J. and Edeson, W. R., ‘International Law and Australian Law’ in K. W. Ryan (ed.), International Law in Australia, 2nd edition (Sydney: Lawbook, 1984), Chapter 4.
Crawley, H., Refugees and Gender: Law and Process (Bristol, UK: Jordans Publishing Ltd, 2001).
Crisp, J., ‘Forced Displacement in Africa: Dimensions, Difficulties and Policy Directions’, UNHCR Research Paper No. 126 (July 2006).
Crock, M, ‘Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The High Court and the Administrative Detention of Asylum Seekers in Australia’ 15 Sydney Law Review (1993).
Crock, M., ‘A Sanctuary Under Review: Where To From Here for Australia's Refugee and Humanitarian Program?’, UNSW Law Journal, 23 (2000), 246.
Crock, M., ‘The Refugees Convention at 50: Mid-life Crisis or Terminal Inadequacy? An Australian Perspective’ in S. Kneebone (ed.), The Refugees Convention 50 Years On: Globalisation and International Law (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2003), Chapter 3.
Cronin, K., ‘A Culture of Control: An Overview of Immigration Policy Making’, in J. Jupp and M. Kabala (eds.), The Politics of Australian Immigration (Canberra: AGPS, 1993), Chapter 5.
Dauvergne, C., ‘Amorality and Humanitarianism in Immigration Law’, Osgoode Hall Law Journal, 37 (1999), 597.
Dauvergne, C., ‘Beyond Justice: the Consequences of Liberalism for Immigration Law’, Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, 10 (1997), 323.
Dauvergne, C., ‘Refugee Law and the Measure of Globalisation’ in S. Taylor (ed.), Nationality, Refugee Status and State Protection: Explorations of the Gap between Man and Citizen (Special edition of Law in Context, Federation Press, 2005), pp. 62–82.
Davies, M., Asking the Law Question (Sydney: Thomson Lawbook, 1994).
Davies, S. E., ‘Redundant or Essential? How Politics Shaped the Outcome of the 1967 Protocol’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 19 (2007), 703.
de Costa, A., ‘Assessing the Cause and Effect of Persecution in Australian Refugee Law: Sarrazola, Khawar and the Migration Legislation Amendment Act (No. 6) 2001 (Cth)’, Federal Law Review, 30 (2002), 534.
Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, Immigration, Population and Citizenship Digest (Canberra: Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, 2003).
DeWind, J., ‘Response to Hathaway’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 20 (2007), 381.
Dicey, Albert Venn, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, 10th edn (London: Macmillan, 1959).
Divine, R. A., American Immigration Policy, 1924–1952 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1957).
Douglas-Scott, S., Constitutional Law of the European Union (Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2002).
Dworkin, R., A Matter of Principle (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985).
Dworkin, R., Justice in Robes (Cambridge, MA; London: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press, 2006).
Dworkin, R., Law's Empire (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1986).
Dworkin, R., Taking Rights Seriously, 2nd edition with a Reply to Critics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978).
Dyzenhaus D., ‘Recrafting the Rule of Law’ in D. Dyzenhaus (ed.), Recrafting the Rule of Law: The Limits of Legal Order (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1999), Chapter 1.
Dyzenhaus, D. (ed.), The Unity of Public Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2004).
Dyzenhaus, D., ‘Reuniting the Brain: The Democratic Basis of Judicial Review’, Public Law Review, 9 (1998), 98.
Dyzenhaus, D., ‘The Politics of Deference: Judicial Review and Democracy’ in M. Taggart (ed.), The Province of Administrative Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1997), Chapter 13.
Elliot, Mark, ‘The Ultra Vires Doctrine in a Constitutional Setting: Still the Central Principle of Administrative Law’ 58 Cambridge Law Journal, 129 (1999).
European Council of Refugees and Exiles (ECRE), Country Report 2005, United Kingdom, August 2006, www.ecre.org/files/ECRE%20Country%20Report%202005rev.pdf (accessed 22 April 2008).
European Union, ‘Entry into Force of European Rules on the Qualification and Status of Persons in Need of International Protection’, EU at the UN, EC06-307EN, 10 October 2006, www.europa-eu-un.org/home (accessed 20 April 2008).
European Union, ‘Green Paper on the Future Common European Asylum System’, Press Release, MEMO/07/229, Brussels, 6 June 2007, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/07/229 (accessed 31 March 2008).
Feller, E., ‘Asylum, Migration and Refugee Protection: Realities, Myths and the Promise of Things to Come’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 18 (2006), 509.
Feller, E., UNCHR Assistant High Commissioner for Refugees, speaking at meeting of Institute of European Affairs: Jill Donoghue and Johnny Ryan, Rapporteurs Report (Ireland: Institute of European Affairs, 23 July 2006), www.iiea.com/images/managed/news_attachments/erika%20feller%20rep%20eport.pdf (accessed 2 April 2008).
Fitzpatrick, J. et al., ‘Current Issues in Cessation of Refugee Protection is a Subject of Confusion Mixed with Heightened Interest among States, Refugees and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)’, background paper as part of the Global Consultations on International Protection, www.unhcr.org/protect/PROTECTION/3b3889c28.pdf (accessed 20 April 2008).
Forsyth, Christopher, ‘Of Fig Leaves and Fairy Tales: The Ultra Vires Doctrine, the Sovereignty of Parliament and Judicial Review’ 55 Cambridge Law Journal, 122 (1996).
Foster, M., International Refugee Law and Socio-Economic Rights: Refuge from Deprivation (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Frecker, John, Immigration and Refugee Legal Aid Cost Drivers (Canada: Department of Justice, 2002).
Frelick, B., ‘Abundantly Clear: Refoulement’, Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, 19 (2005), 245.
Frelick, B., ‘US Detention of Asylum Seekers: What's the Problem? What's the Solution?’, Bender's Immigration Bulletin, 10 (2005), 159.
Fullerton, M., ‘Failing the Test: Germany Leads Europe in Dismantling Refugee Protection’, Texas International Law Journal, 36 (2001), 231.
Galligan, D. J., Discretionary Powers: A Legal Study of Official Discretion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986).
Galligan, D. J., Law in Modern Society (Oxford University Press, 2007).
Galloway, D., ‘Criminality and State Protection: Structural Tensions in Canadian Refugee Law’ in S. Kneebone (ed.), The Refugees Convention 50 Years On: Globalisation and International Law (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2003), Chapter 5.
Galloway, D., ‘Liberalism, Globalism and Immigration’, Queens Law Journal, 18 (1993), 266.
Galloway, D., ‘Proof and Narrative: Reproducing the Facts in Refugee Cases’, (unpublished manuscript on file with Professor Audrey Macklin).
Geiringer, C., ‘Tavita and All That: Confronting the Confusion Surrounding Unincorporated Treaties and Administrative Law’, New Zealand Universities Law Review, 21 (2004), 66.
Gibney, M. J., ‘Forced Migration, Engineered Regionalism and Justice Between States’ in S. Kneebone and F. Rawlings-Sanaei (eds.), New Regionalism and Asylum Seekers: Challenges Ahead (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2007), Chapter 3.
Gibney, M. J., The Ethics and Politics of Asylum: Liberal Democracy and the Response to Refugees (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Gil-Bazo, M. -T., ‘The Protection of Refugees under the Common European Asylum System: The Establishment of a European Jurisdiction for Asylum Purposes and Compliance with International Refugee and Human Rights Law’, Cuadernos Euopeos de Deusto, No. 36/2007, pp. 153–82, http://ssrn.com/abstract=983722 (accessed 16 April 2008).
Gil-Bazo, M.-T., ‘Refugee Status and Subsidiary Protection under EC Law: The Qualification Directive and the Right to Be Granted Asylum’ in A. Baldaccini, E. Guild and H. Toner (eds.), Whose Freedom, Security and Justice? EU Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2007).
Goldberg, P., ‘Women and Refugee Status: A Review Essay’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 7 (1995), 756.
Golding, Martin and Edmundson, William (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory (London: Blackwell, 2005).
Goldsmith, Lord, ‘Symposium: Global Constitutionalism: Keynote Address’, Stanford Law Review, 59 (2007), 1155.
Goodwin-Gill, G. S. and McAdam, J., The Refugee in International Law, 3rd edition (Oxford University Press, 2007).
Goodwin-Gill, G. S., ‘Forced Migration: Refugees, Rights and Security’ in J. McAdam (ed.), Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2008), Chapter 1.
Goodwin-Gill, G. S., ‘International Protection and Assistance for Refugees and the Displaced: Institutional Challenges and UN Reform’, Paper presented to Refugee Studies Centre Workshop, Oxford, April 2006, p. 4, http://refugeelaw.qeh.ox.ac.uk/pdfs/guy-goodwin-gill-institutional-challenges.pdf (accessed 14 April 2008).
Goodwin-Gill, G., ‘Article 31 of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Non-penalization, Detention, and Protection’ in E. Feller, V. Turk and F. Nicholson (eds.), Refugee Protection in International Law: UNHCR's Global Consultations on International Protection (Cambridge University Press, 2003), Part 3.1.
Goodwin-Gill, G., ‘Judicial Reasoning and “Social Group” after Islam and Shah’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 11 (1999), 537.
Gordon, C., Mailman, S. and Yale-Loehr, S., Immigration Law and Procedure (New York: Matthew Bender, 2006).
Gordon, J., Suburban Sweatshops: The Fight for Immigrant Rights (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005).
Gorlick, B., ‘Common Burdens and Standards: Legal Elements in Assessing Claims to Refugee Status’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 15 (2003), 357.
Gorlick, B., ‘The Convention and the Committee against Torture: A Complementary Protection Regime for Refugees’, International Journal Of Refugee Law, 11 (1999), 479.
Green, M. S., ‘Dworkin v. The Philosophers: A Review Essay on Justice in Robes’, University of Illinois Law Review, 5 (2007), 1477.
Guest, S., Ronald Dworkin (Edinburgh University Press, 1992).
Guild, E., ‘The Europeanisation of Europe's Asylum Policy’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 18 (2006), 630.
Hailbronner, K., ‘New Techniques for Rendering Asylum Manageable’ in K. Hailbronner, D. A. Martin and H. Motomura (eds.), Immigration Controls (New York: Berghahn Books, 1998), vol. IV.
Hailbronner, K., ‘The Concept of “Safe Country” and Expeditious Asylum Procedures: A Western European Perspective’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 5 (1993), 31.
Haines, Roger, ‘National Security and Non-Refoulement in New Zealand: Commentary on Zaoui v Attorney-General (No 2)’ in Jane McAdam (ed.), Moving On: Forced Migration and Human Rights (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2008).
Harlow, Carol and Rawlings, Richard, Law and Administration (London: Weidenfield and Nicholson, 1984).
Hart, H. L. A., The Concept of Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961).
Harvey, C. and Barnidge, R. P., ‘Human Rights, Free Movement, and the Right to Leave in International Law’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 19 (2007), 1.
Harvey, C., ‘Asylum Seekers, Ultra Vires and the Social Security Regulations’, Public Law, (1997) 394.
Harvey, C., ‘Refugees, Asylum Seekers, The Rule of Law and Human Rights’ in D. Dyzenhaus (ed.), The Unity of the Public Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2004), Chapter 8.
Harvey, C., ‘Regionalism, Human Rights and Forced Migration’, in S. Kneebone and F. Rawlings-Sanaei (eds.), New Regionalism and Asylum Seekers: Challenges Ahead (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2007).
Hathaway, J. C. and Neve, R. A., ‘Making International Refugee Law Relevant Again: A Proposal for Collectivised and Solution-Oriented Protection’, Harvard Human Rights Journal, 10 (1997), 115.
Hathaway, J. C., ‘Forced Migration Studies: Could We Agree Just to ‘Date’?’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 20 (2007), 349.
Hathaway, J. C., ‘The Evolution of Refugee Status in International Law: 1920–1950’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 33 (1984), 348.
Hathaway, J. C., The Rights of Refugees Under International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2005).
Hay, E. and Kneebone, S., ‘Refugee Status in Australia and the Cessation Provisions: QAAH of 2004 v. MIMIA’, Alternative Law Journal, 31 (2006), 147.
Henkin, Louis, et al., Human Rights (New York: Foundation Press, 1999).
Home Office, ‘Public Performance Target: Removing More Failed Asylum Seekers Than New Anticipated Unfounded Applications’, Statistics for First Quarter 2006 (London: Home Office RDSD).
Home Office, Asylum Statistics 2002 United Kingdom (London: Home Office RDSR, 23 August 2003).
Home Office, Asylum Statistics United Kingdom 2006, 3rd edn. (London: Home Office RDSD, 21 August 2007).
Home Office, Asylum Statistics: 4th Quarter 2007 United Kingdom (London: Home Office RDSR).
Hopper, R. and Osuna, J. P., ‘Remedies of Last Resort: Private Bills and Deferred Action’, Immigration Briefings, June (1997), 1.
Hull, E., Without Justice For All: The Constitutional Rights of Aliens (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985).
Hutchinson, Allan C. and Monahan, Patrick (eds.), The Rule of Law: Ideal or Ideology (Toronto: Carswell, 1987).
Huysmans, J., Nexus Terrorism/Immigration/Asylum/Refuge in Parliamentary Debates in the UK: Commons Debates since 11 September 2001, Report for ESRC Project MIDAS (Migration, Democracy and Security) in the New Security Challenges programme, 2 November 2005, www.midas.bham.ac.uk/researchandpolicy.htm (accessed 19 April 2008).
ICAR, ‘The History of Kosovars in the UK’ in Navigation Guide, www.icar.org.uk/?lid=307 (accessed 16 April 2008).
ICAR, Reporting Asylum: The UK Press and the Effectiveness of PCC Guidelines, January 2007, www.icar.org.uk/?lid=4775 (accessed 17 April 2008).
Immigration and Refugee Board, Concerning Preparation and Conduct of a Hearing in the Refugee Protection Division: Guidelines Issued by the Chairperson Pursuant to Section 159(1)(h) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (Ottawa: Immigration and Refugee Board, 2003).
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Report on the Situation of Human Rights of Asylum Seekers within the Canadian Refugee Determination System, 2000, www.cidh.org/countryrep/canada2000en/table-of-contents.htm (accessed 3 March 2008).
Jackson, V. C., ‘Proconstitutional Behavior, Political Actors, and Independent Courts: A Comment on Geoffrey Stone's Paper’, International Journal of Constitutional Law, 2 (2004), 368.
Jacobson, J. L., ‘At-Sea Interception of Alien Migrants: International Law Issues’, Willamette Law Review, 28 (1992), 811.
Jastram, K. and Cavalieri, S., ‘Human Rights in Refugee Tribunals’, Refugee Survey Quarterly, 24 (2005), 6.
Joint Committee on Human Rights, Government Response to the Committee's Tenth Report of this Session: The Treatment of Asylum Seekers, Seventeenth Report of 2006–7, HL Paper 134, HC 790 (London: House of Commons, 5 July 2007), www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt200607/jtselect/jtrights/134/134.pdf (accessed 18 April 2008).
Joint Committee on Human Rights, The Treatment of Asylum Seekers, Tenth Report of 2006–07, HL Paper 81, HC 60 (London: House of Commons, 30 March 2007), www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt200607/jtselect/jtrights/81/81i.pdf (accessed 18 April 2008).
Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants, ‘Parliamentary Briefing – Clauses 115–122 Special Immigration Status’, House of Commons, Second Reading, 8 October 2007, www.jcwi.org.uk/news/jcwi%5B1%5D.cjb.brief.pdf (accessed 20 April 2008).
Jowell, Jeffrey, ‘Of Vires and Vacuums: The Constitutional Context of Judicial Review’ Public Law, 448 (1999).
Kelley, N., ‘International Refugee Protection: Challenges and Opportunities’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 19 (2007), 401.
Kneebone, S. (ed.), The Refugees Convention 50 Years On: Globalisation and International Law (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2003).
Kneebone, S. and Rawlings-Sanaei, F. (eds.), New Regionalism and Asylum Seekers: Challenges Ahead (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2007).
Kneebone, S., ‘Believable Tales: Proving a Well-Founded Fear of Persecution’, Migration Action, 25 (2004), 4.
Kneebone, S., ‘Bouncing the Ball between the Courts and the Legislature: What is the Score on Refugee Issues?’ in T. Davis (ed.), Human Rights 2003: The Year in Review (Melbourne: Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Monash University, 2004), pp. 135–78.
Kneebone, S., ‘Is the Australian Refugee Review Tribunal “Institutionally” Biased?’ in F. Crépeau et al. (eds.), Forced Migration and Global Processes: A View from Forced Migration Studies (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006), Chapter 10.
Kneebone, S., ‘Natural Justice and Non-Citizens: A Matter of Integrity?’, Melbourne University Law Review, 26 (2002), 355–80.
Kneebone, S., ‘Strangers at the Gate: Refugees, Citizenship and Nationality’, Australian Journal of Human Rights, 10 (2004), 33.
Kneebone, S., ‘The Legal and Ethical Implications of Extraterritorial Processing of Asylum Seekers: The “Safe Third Country” Concept’ in J. McAdam (ed.), Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2008), Chapter 5.
Kneebone, S., ‘The Pacific Plan: The Provision of “Effective Protection”?’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 18 (2006), 696.
Kneebone, S., ‘The Refugee Review Tribunal and the Assessment of Credibility: An Inquisitorial Role?’, Australian Journal of Administrative Law, 5 (1998), 78.
Kneebone, S., ‘What is the Basis of Judicial Review?’, Public Law Review, 12 (2001), 95.
Kneebone, S., ‘What We Have Done With the Refugees Convention: The Australian Way’ in S. Taylor (ed.), Nationality, Refugee Status and State Protection: Explorations of the Gap between Man and Citizen (Special edition of Law in Context, Federation Press, 2005), pp. 83–119.
Kneebone, Susan and Pickering, Sharon, ‘Australia, Indonesia and the Pacific Plan’ in Susan Kneebone and Felicity Rawlings-Sanaei (eds.), New Regionalism and Asylum Seekers: Challenges Ahead (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2007).
Koser, K., ‘Strategies, Stories and Smuggling: Inter-regional Asylum Flows and Their Implications for Regional Responses’ in S. Kneebone and F. Rawlings-Sanaei (eds.), New Regionalism and Asylum Seekers: Challenges Ahead (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2007), Chapter 2.
Krause, D. and Knott, I., ‘Refugee Determination Processes: A View Across the Tasman’, Alternative Law Journal 27 (2002), 220.
Kurzban, I. J., ‘Restructuring the Asylum Process’, San Diego Law Review, 19 (1981), 91.
Kushner, T. and Knox, K., Refugees in an Age of Genocide (London: Frank Cass, 1999).
Lambert, H., ‘The EU Asylum Qualification Directive: Its Impact on the Jurisprudence of the United Kingdom and International Law’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 55 (2006), 161.
Langfield, Malcolm, More People Imperative: Immigration to Australia 1901–1939 (Canberra: National Archives of Australia, 1999).
Lauterpacht, E. and Bethlehem, D., ‘The Scope and the Content of the Principle of Non-Refoulement’ in E. Feller, V. Turk and F. Nicholson (eds.), UNHCR's Global Consultations on International Protection (Cambridge University Press, 2003).
LaViolette, N., ‘Gender-Related Refugee Claims: Expanding the Scope of the Canadian Guidelines’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 19 (2007), 169.
Legomsky, S. H., ‘Deportation and the War on Independence’, Cornell Law Review, 91 (2006), 369.
Legomsky, S. H., ‘Forum Choices for the Review of Agency Adjudication: A Study of the Immigration Process’, Iowa Law Review, 71 (1986), 1297.
Legomsky, S. H., ‘Refugees, Administrative Tribunals, and Real Independence: Dangers Ahead for Australia’, Washington University Law Quarterly, 76 (1998), 243.
Legomsky, S. H., ‘Secondary Refugee Movements and the Return of Asylum Seekers to Third Countries: The Meaning of Effective Protection’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 15 (2003), 567.
Legomsky, S. H., ‘The Detention of Aliens: Theories, Rules, and Discretion’, University of Miami Inter-American Law Review, 30 (1999), 531.
Legomsky, S. H., ‘The New Path of Immigration Law: Asymmetric Incorporation of Criminal Justice Norms’, Washington and Lee Law Review, 64 (2007), 469.
Legomsky, S. H., ‘The USA and the Caribbean Interdiction Program’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 18 (2006), 677.
Legomsky, S. H., Immigration and Refugee Law and Policy, 4th edition (New York: Foundation Press, 2005).
Legomsky, S. H., Immigration and the Judiciary: Law and Politics in Britain and America (Oxford University Press, 1987).
Legomsky, Stephen, ‘Learning to Live with Unequal Justice: Asylum and the Limits to Consistency’ 60 Stanford Review, 413 (2007).
Levinson, P. J., ‘The Façade of Quasi-Judicial Independence in Immigration Appellate Adjudications’, Bender's Immigration Bulletin, 9 (2004), 1154.
Lippert, R., Sanctuary, Sovereignty and Sacrifice: Canadian Sanctuary, Power and Law (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2005).
Loescher, G. and Scanlan, J. A., Calculated Kindness: Refugees and America's Half-Open Door 1945–Present (New York: Free Press, 1986).
Macklin, A., ‘Attorney-General v. Ward: A Review Essay’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 6 (1994), 362.
Macklin, A., ‘The State of Law's Borders and the Law of States’ Borders' in D. Dyzenhaus (ed.), The Unity of the Public Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2004), Chapter 7.
Magner, T., ‘A Less Than “Pacific” Solution for Asylum Seekers in Australia’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 16 (2004), 53.
Maher, Gerry, ‘Natural Justice as Fairness’ in Neil MacCormick and Peter Birks (eds.), The Legal Mind: Essays for Tony Honore (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986).
Manne, R. and Corlett, D., ‘Sending Them Home: Refugees and the New Politics of Indifference’, Quarterly Essay, 13 (2004), 1.
Martin, S. F., ‘Reforming Asylum Adjudication: On Navigating the Coast of Bohemia’, (1990) 138 University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1247.
Martin, S. F., Refugee Women, 2nd edition (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2004).
McAdam, J., ‘Complementary Protection: A Comparative Perspective’, in UNHCR Discussion Paper, No. 2 2005, Complementary Protection.
Mcadam, J., ‘The Refugee Convention as a Rights Blueprint for Persons in Need of International Protection’ in J. McAdam (ed.), Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2008), Chapter 10.
McMillan, J., ‘Federal Court v Minister for Immigration’, Australian Institute of Adminstrative Law Forum, 22 (1999), 1.
Mertus, J., ‘The State and the Post-Cold War Refugee Regime: New Models, New Questions’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 10 (1998), 321.
Millbank, A., ‘The Detention of Boat People’ Current Issues Brief, 8 (2000–1), www.aph.gov.au/Library/pubs/CIB/2000-01/01cib08.htm (accessed 10 March 2008).
Millbank, A., The Problem with the 1951 Convention (Canberra: Department of the Parliamentary Library, 2000–2001), Research Paper 5, www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rp/2000-01/01RP05.htm (accessed 1 May 2008).
Miller, T. A., ‘Blurring the Boundaries between Immigration and Crime Control after September 11’, Boston College Third World Law Review, 25 (2005), 81.
Moore, C., Review of US Refugee Resettlement Programs and Policies (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1980).
Mullan, D., Administrative Law: Essentials of Canadian Law (Toronto: Irwin Law, 2001).
Murphy, L., ‘Concepts of Law’, Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy, 30 (2005), 1.
Musalo, K., Moore, J. and Boswell, R. A., Refugee Law and Policy: A Comparative and International Approach, 2nd edition (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2001).
Musgave, Thomas, ‘Refugees’, in Sam Blay et al. (eds.), Public International Law: An Australian Perspective (South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1997).
National Association of Immigration Judges, An Independent Immigration Court: An Idea Whose Time Has Come (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2002).
Neuman, G. L., ‘Extraterritorial Violations of Human Rights by the United States’, American University Journal of International Law and Policy and Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Journal, 9 (1994), 213.
Nicholson, F. and Twomey, P. (eds.), Refugee Rights and Realities: Evolving International Concepts and Regimes (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Noll, G., ‘Seeking Asylum at Embassies: A Right of Entry under International Law?’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 17 (2005), 542.
North, A. and Decle, P., ‘Courts and Immigration Detention: Once a Jolly Swagman etc’, Australian Journal of Administrative Law, 10 (2002), 5.
Nyers, P., ‘Abject Cosmopolitanism’, Third World Quarterly, 24 (December 2003), 1069.
Nyers, Peter, ‘Taking Rights, Mediating Wrongs: Disagreements over the Political Agency of Non-Status Refugees’, in Jef Huysmans, Andrew Dobson and Raia Prokhovnik (eds.), The Politics of Protection: Sites of Insecurity and Political Agency (London: Routledge, 2006).
Oliver, D., ‘Is the Ultra Vires Rule the Basis of Judicial Review?’, Public Law (1987), 543.
Oliver, D., ‘The Underlying Values of Public and Private Law’ in M. Taggart (ed.), The Province of Administrative Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1997), pp. 217–42.
Ong Hing, B., ‘No Place for Angels: In Reaction to Kevin Johnson’, University of Illinois Law Review, (2000), 559.
Palmer, J. R. B., ‘The Nature and Causes of the Immigration Surge in the Federal Courts of Appeals: A Preliminary Analysis’, New York Law School Law Review, 51 (2006–7), 13.
Palmer, J. R. B., Yale-Loehr, S. W. and Cronin, E., ‘Why Are So Many People Challenging Board of Immigration Appeals Decisions in Federal Court? An Empirical Analysis of the Recent Surge in Petitions for Review’, Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, 20 (2005), 1.
Passel, J. S., Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population (Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Trust, 2005).
Pham, H., ‘The Inherent Flaws in the Inherent Authority Position: Why Inviting Local Enforcement of the Immigration Laws Violates the Constitution’, Florida State University Law Review, 31 (2004), 965.
Phillips, Lord Chief Justice, ‘Reflections on the Rule of Law, America's 400th Anniversary at Jamestown Addresses: Rule of Law Conference: Global Issues and the Rule of Law’, University of Richmond Law Review, 42 (2007), 37.
Pirjola, J., ‘Shadows in Paradise: Exploring Non-Refoulement as an Open Concept’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 19 (2007), 639.
Poynder, N., ‘“Mind the Gap”: Seeking Alternative Protection Under the Convention Against Torture and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’ in S. Kneebone (ed.), The Refugees Convention 50 Years On: Globalisation and International Law (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2003), Chapter 7.
Poynder, N., ‘Recent Implementation of the Refugee Convention in Australia and the Law of Accommodations to International Human Rights Treaties: Have We Gone Too Far?’, Australian Journal of Human Rights, 2 (1995), 75.
Quinn, R. and Yale-Loehr, S., ‘Private Immigration Bills: An Overview’, Bender's Immigration Bulletin, 9 (2004), 1147.
Ramji-Nogales, J., Schoenholtz, A. and Schrag, P. G., ‘Refugee Roulette: Disparities in Asylum Adjudication’, Stanford Law Review, 60 (2007), 295.
Rankin, M. B., Extending the Limits or Narrowing the Scope? Deconstructing the OAU Refugee Definition Thirty Years On, UNHCR, New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No 113 (April 2005).
Rawitz, S. B., ‘From Wong Yang Sung to Black Robes’, Interpreter Releases, 65 (1980), 453.
Rawlings, R., ‘Review, Revenge and Retreat’, Modern Law Review, 68 (2005), 378.
Rawls, John, A Theory of Justice, revised ed. (Oxford University Press, 1999).
Raz, Joseph, ‘The Authority of Constitutions and the Authority of its Authors’ in Larry Alexander (ed.), Constitutionalism: Philosophical Foundations (Cambridge University Press, 1988).
Robinson, V. and Coleman, C., ‘Lessons Learned? A Critical Review of the Government Program to Resettle Bosnian Quota Refugees in the United Kingdom’, International Migration Review, 34 (2000), 1217.
Scanlan, J. A. and Kent, O. T., ‘The Force of Moral Arguments for a Just Immigration Policy in a Hobbesian Universe: The Contemporary American Example’ in M. Gibney (ed.), Open Borders? Closed Societies? The Ethical and Political Issues (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988), pp. 61–107.
Schoenholtz, A. I., ‘Aiding and Abetting Persecutors: The Seizure and Return of Haitian Refugees in Violation of the UN Refugee Convention and Protocol’, Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, 7 (1993), 67.
Schoenholtz, A. I., ‘Refugee Protection in the United States Post September 11’, Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 36 (2005), 323.
Schuck, P. H., ‘INS Detention and Removal: A White Paper’, Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, 11 (1997), 667.
Senate Legal and Constitutional Legislation Committee, Provisions of the Migration Amendment (Designated Unauthorised Arrivals) Bill 2006 (Canberra: LCLC, June 2006).
Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, A Sanctuary Under Review: An Examination of Australia's Refugee and Humanitarian Processes (June 2000).
Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, Administration and Operation of the Migration Act 1958 (Canberra: LCRC, March 2006).
Shacknove, A., ‘From Asylum to Containment’, Administration and Operation of the Migration Act 1958 (Canberra: LCRC, March 2006).
Shacknove, A., ‘From Asylum to Containment’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 5 (1993), 516.
Shacknove, A., ‘Who is a Refugee?’, Ethics, 95 (1985), 274.
Shacknove, A., ‘Who is a Refugee?’, Ethics, 95 (1985), 274.
Shapiro, Scott J., ‘What is the Internal Point of View?’, 14 October 2006, http://ssrn.com/abstract=937337 (accessed 1 May 2008).
Sheikh Shaghaf, The Empire Strikes Back: A Critique of Ronald Dworkin's Law's Empire, April 2007, p. 15, http://ssrn.com/abstract=976312 (accessed 13 May 2008).
Showler, Peter, Refugee Sandwich (Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press, 2006).
Singer, P. and Singer, R., ‘The Ethics of Refugee Policy’ in M. Gibney (ed.), Open Borders? Closed Societies? The Ethical and Political Issues (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988), Chapter 4.
Sridharan, Swetha, ‘Material Support to Terrorism: Consequenses for Refugees amd Asylum Seekers in the United States’, Migration Fundamentals, January 2008, www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=671 (accessed 16 March 2008).
Steinbock, D. J., ‘Interpreting the Refugee Definition’, UCLA Law Review, 45 (1998), 733.
Stevens, D., UK Asylum Law and Policy: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (London: Sweet and Maxwell, 2004).
Sullivan, K., ‘The Year in Detention Law and Policy: Immigration Detention Developments May 2003–April 2004’, Bender's Immigration Bulletin, 9 (2004), 851.
Tamanaha, B. Z., ‘The Contemporary Relevance of Legal Positivism’, Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy, 32 (2007), 1.
Tamanaha, B. Z., A Concise Guide to the Rule of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, Paper 07-0082, September 2007.
Tamanaha, Brian Z., A General Jurisprudence of Law and Society (Oxford University Press, 2001).
Taylor, M. H., ‘Symbolic Detention’, In Defense of the Alien, 20 (1998), 153.
Taylor, S., ‘The Pacific Solution or a Pacific Nightmare? The Difference Between Burden Shifting and Responsibility Sharing’, Asian-Pacific Law and Policy Journal, 6 (2005), 1.
Taylor, S., ‘The Right to Review in the Australian On-Shore Refugee Status Determination Process: Is It Adequate Procedural Safeguard Against Refoulement?’, Federal Law Review, 22 (1994), 300.
Teitgen-Colly, C., ‘The European Union and Asylum: An Illusion of Protection’, Common Market Law Review, 43 (2006), 1503.
Thomas, R., ‘After the Ouster: Review and Reconsideration in a Single Tier Tribunal’, Public Law, (2006), 674.
Thomas, R., ‘The Impact of Judicial Review on Asylum’, Public Law, (2003), 479.
Towle, R., ‘Processes and Critiques of the Indo-Chinese Comprehensive Plan of Action: An Instrument of International Burden-Sharing?’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 18 (2006), 537.
UK Refugee Council, Asylum Seekers' Experiences of the New Asylum Model: Findings From a Survey With Clients at Refugee Council One Stop Services (London: UK Refugee Council, January 2008).
UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on International Protection: Report by the High Commissioner, Geneva, 29 June 2007, A/AC.96/1038.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Revised Guidelines on Applicable Criteria and Standards Relating to the Detention of Asylum-Seekers (Geneva: UNHCR 1999), confirming UNHCR Executive Committee, ‘ExCom Conclusion 44 (XXXVII)’ (1986) Detention of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers.
UNHCR ExCom, ‘Conclusion no. 22 (XXXII)’ (1981) in Protection of Asylum Seekers in Situations of Large-scale Influx, UN doc. A/AC.96/601.
UNHCR ExCom, ‘Conclusion no. 58 (XL)’ (1989) in The Problem of Refugees and Asylum Seekers Who Move in an Irregular Manner from a Country in Which They Have Already Found Protection, UN doc. A/AC.96/737, part N.
UNHCR, ‘Flight from Indochina’ in The State of the World's Refugees 2000: Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action (Oxford University Press, 2000), Chapter 4.
UNHCR, ‘Global Consultations’ in Summary Conclusions: Cessation of Refugee Status, www.unhcr.bg/global_consult/cessation_refugee_status_en.pdf (accessed 19 April 2008).
UNHCR, ‘UN High Commissioner for Refugees Responds to US Supreme Court Decision in Sale v. Haitian Centers Council’, International Legal Materials, 32 (1993), 1215.
UNHCR, Extraterritorial Effect of the Determination of Refugee Status, 17 October 1978, No. 12 (XXIX) – 1978, para. (a), www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?docid=3ae68c4447 (accessed 10 April 2008).
UNHCR, Statistical Yearbook 2002: Trends in Displacement, Protection and Solutions, July 2004, www.unhcr.org/home/STATISTICS/41206f790.pdf (accessed 16 April 2008).
UNHCR, UNHCR Annotated Comments on the EC Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004, 28 January 2005, pp. 30–1, www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?docid=4200d8354 (accessed 1 April 2008).
UNHCR, Asylum Levels and Trends in Industrialized Countries 2007 (Geneva: UNHCR, 18 March 2008).
UNHCR, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status (Geneva: UNHCR, 1979, re-edited 1992).
UNHCR, Quality Initiative Project: Fourth Report to the Minister (London: UNHCR, January 2007).
UNHCR, The State of the World's Refugees: Human Displacement in the New Millennium (Oxford University Press, 2006), Chapter 5.
US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, ‘Country Report: Australia 2007’ in World Refugee Survey, www.refugees.org/countryreports.aspx?id=1981 (accessed 13 March 2008).
US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, ‘Country Updates: Australia’, World Refugee Survey, 2001, www.refugees.org (accessed May 2008).
US Congressional Research Service, Review of US Refugee Resettlement Programs and Policies (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1980).
US Department of State, US Department of Homeland Security and US Department of Health and Human Services, Proposed Refugee Admissions for Fiscal Year 2008: Report to the Congress (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2007).
US Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1994 Statistical Yearbook (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1994).
van Selm-Thorburn, Joanne, “Exceptional Leave to Remain in the United Kingdom” in Refugee Protection in Europe: Lessons of the Yugoslav Crisis (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1998).
Vasquez, C. M., “The ‘Self-Executing’ Character of the Refugee Protocol's Non-Refoulement Obligation”, Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, 7 (1993), 39.
Wadham, John, Mountfield, Helen, Edmundson, Anna and Gallagher, Caoilfhionn, Blackstone's Guide to the Human Rights Act 1998, 4th edn. (Oxford University Press, 2007).
Wallace, J. C., ‘An Essay on Independence of the Judiciary: Independence From What and Why’, New York University Annual Survey of American Law, 58 (2001), 241.
Walters, M. D., ‘The Common Law Constitution and Legal Cosmopolitanism’ in D. Dyzenhaus (ed.), The Unity of the Public Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2004), Chapter 16.
Walters, M. D., Hercules as Legal Humanist: Historicising Dworkin's Jurisprudence, Queen's Faculty of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper Series WP No. 07-01 (September 2006), www.ssrn.com/abstract=989609 (accessed 9 May 2008).
Walzer, M., Spheres of Justice: A Defence of Pluralism and Equality (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983), pp. 31–63.
Weiss, T. G. and Korn, D. A., Internal Displacement: Conceptualization and Consequences (London: Routledge, 2006).
Whelan, F., ‘Citizenship and Freedom of Movement: An Open Admission Policy?’ in M. Gibney (ed.), Open Borders? Closed Societies? The Ethical and Political Issues (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988), pp. 3–39.
Wildes, L., ‘The Nonpriority Program of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Goes Public: The Litigative Use of the Freedom of Information Act’, San Diego Law Review, 14 (1976), 42.
Wishnie, M. J., ‘Immigrants and the Right to Petition’, New York University Law Review, 78 (2003), 667.
Zagor, M., ‘Uncertainty and Exclusion: Detention and Aliens and the High Court’, Federal Law Review, 34 (2006), 127.