The Fisherman's Cause

Atlantic Commerce and Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution

The Fisherman's Cause

In the first book-length examination of the connections between the commercial fishing industry in colonial America and the American Revolution, Christopher Magra places the origins and progress of this formative event in a wider Atlantic context. The Fisherman’s Cause utilizes extensive research from archives in the United States, Canada, and the U.K. in order to take this Atlantic approach. Dried, salted cod represented the most lucrative export in New England. The fishing industry connected colonial producers to transatlantic markets in the Iberian Peninsula and the West Indies. Parliament’s coercive regulation of this branch of colonial maritime commerce contributed to colonists’ willingness to engage in a variety of revolutionary activities. Colonists then used the sea to forcibly resist British authority. Fish merchants converted transatlantic trade routes into military supply lines, and they transformed fishing vessels into warships. Fishermen armed and manned the first American navy, served in the first coast guard units, and fought on privateers. These maritime activities helped secure American independence.


 Reviews:

"Christopher Magra demonstrates the significance of the Atlantic context during the era of the American Revolution. He examines the economic importance of New England’s Atlantic fishery and how the British government’s attempts to curb that enterprise led directly to American independence. Magra also reveals the signal contributions that Massachusetts fishermen and fish merchants made to the origins of the United States Navy. Thoroughly researched and clearly written, The Fisherman’s Cause will appeal to anyone interested in the Atlantic world and the American Revolution as well as students of economic, maritime, and naval history." -Carl E. Swanson, East Carolina University

"The Fisherman’s Cause is a welcome reminder that America is a sea-minded nation. Native Americans turned to the sea for sustenance along the shore and in nearby shallow waters. For European settlers the Atlantic was both a highway to the Old World and a moat protecting them from it. The Atlantic was also a vast green pasture to which they ventured harvesting fish. Measured in quintals and packed in barrels these enterprising yankees marketed 'sacred cod' around the Atlantic world. Dancing across the ocean fishermen, seamen, and merchants established a sophisticated network of trade that generated profits used to fuel the extraordinary growth of the colonial economy. When this prosperous world was threatened by the acts of a clumsy imperial administration these traders and fishermen defended their interests and fought for American independence. Magra’s story, well told and well documented, is essential reading if we are to understand the role of the sea in establishing the American republic." William M. Fowler, Northeastern University

"...a thoughtful work, and as rich in information as the dried, salted cod was in protein." -Marc Egnal, Journal of Economic History

"...a fine book that deserves a wide readership. It makes a significant contribution to the ever growing literature on the American Revolution and it does so from a refreshingly Atlantic perspective." -Keith Mercer, International Journal of Maritime History

"...Christopher Magra's deep scholarly treatment places the cod fisheries near the center of the American Revolution and the history of colonial America. For those seriously interested in maritime America during the Revolution or the history of American fisheries, this is a significant book." -John Odin Jensen, Sea History

"...clearly a groundbreaking and influential work..." -Kelly Chaves, The Northern Mariner

"Filling a significant gap in the study of the American Revolution's origins, Christopher P. Magra's book places the New England cod fishery in an Atlantic world context..." -Glenn M. Grasso, American Historical Review

"This is an impressive effort from a young scholar. I anticipate that Christopher Magra will continue to provide us with interesting and well-written books in the future." -David Surdam, EH.NET

"Magra consciously adopts an Atlantic perspective on both cod fishing and the Revolution....For those who wonder why commercial fishing rights were so central to the Anglo-American peace negotiations of 1782 and 1783, Magra provides a convincing answer. In this short but stimulating book, he connects all players in the industry and sketches the changes they wrought during the 150 years preceding independence.  More important, he provides clear evidence of the extent to which events on land and sea were linked; for this we are in his debt. Atlantic life influenced mainland life, and vice versa. Connections within the wider Atlantic community are central to understanding the North American world." -David Hancock, The New England Quarterly

"Magra makes important connections between the fishing industry and revolution..." - Cathy Matson, The Journal of American History

"Thorough and careful in his research, Magra makes a persuasive case for the importance of the fisheries to colonial New England’s economy and attitudes toward the Empire." -Alan Taylor, Journal of Interdisciplinary History

"This is an impressive effort from a young scholar. I anticipate that Christopher Magra will continue to provide us with interesting and well-written books in the future."
-David Surdam, University of Northern Iowa, (EH.net)

"This book provides the clearest and the most informed delineation available of the vital commerical role and scope of the cod fish and the New England fishery in the Atlantic economy." -Barry Levy, LABOR


 Prizes:

2010 Winslow House Book award
Álvaro Garrido, “Political Economy and International Trade: The Portuguese Market for Salt Cod and Its Institutions in the Interwar Period,” The International Journal of Maritime History., Vol. 17, No. 2 (December 2005), 61–85
“Adams' Minutes of the Trial,” Wroth and Zobel, eds., Legal Papers of John Adams, Vol. 2, 293–322
“American Military History: A Round Table,” Journal of American History, Vol. 93, No. 4 (March 2007), 1116–1162
“Brigadier General John Thomas to His Wife,” Roxbury, December 1, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 2, 1219.
“Description of Chatham, In The County of Barnstable, September, 1802,” in Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, First Series, Vol. 8 (New York: Johnson's Reprint Corporation, 1968), 153.
“Diary of Dr. Ezra Stiles,” Newport, May 4, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 279.
“Edward Green to Joshua Green,” Cambridge, December 3, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 2, 1247
“Essex County Loyalists,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 43 (Salem, MA: Essex Institute Press, 1907), 289–316
“Fish and Flour for Gold: Southern Europe and the Colonial American Balance of Payments,” Business History Review, Vol. 39 (1965), 171–183
“Gentlemen, the inhabitants of the town of Boston…” (Boston: Benjamin Edes and Sons, 1781)
“George Washington to Colonel Joseph Reed,” Camp at Cambridge, November 20, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 2, 1082.
“George Washington to John Hancock,” Cambridge, November 30, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 2, 1199
“George Washington's Instructions to Captain Nicholson Broughton,” September 2, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 1287.
“George Washington's Instructions to Captain Nicholson Broughton,” September 2, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 1288.
“John Adams to Elbridge Gerry, Marblehead,” Philadelphia, June 7, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 628–629
“Journal of Rev. Joshua Wingate Weeks, Loyalist Rector of St. Michael's Church, Marblehead, 1778–1779,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 52 (Salem, MA: Essex Institute Press, 1916), 1–16, 161–176, 197–208, 345–356
“Journal of the Massachusetts Council,” December 29, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 3, 291
“Journal of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts,” Watertown, June 20, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 724.
“Journal of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts,” Watertown, June 7, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 621–622.
“Massachusetts Act Authorizing Privateers and Creating Courts of Admiralty,” November 1, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 2, 834–839
“North Shore Trade in the Early Eighteenth Century,” American Neptune, Vol. 28 (1968), 261–274
“Report of the Committee for Fitting Out Massachusetts Armed Vessels,” January 11, 1776, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 3, 734.
“Robert Morris to the Commissioners at Paris, Philadelphia, December 21, 1776,” Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, Vol. 2 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1889), 237
“Roundtable Reviews of Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century with a Response by Peter E. Pope,” in The International Journal of Maritime History., Vol. 17, No. 1 (June 2005), 251–261
“Sketches of the signers of the Declaration of Independence by Benjamin Rush, c. 1800,” in Henry Steele Commager and Richard B. Morris, eds., The Spirit of Seventy-Six: The Story of the American Revolution As Told by Participants, 4th ed. (New York: Da Capo Press, 1995), 275
“The Domestic Economy,” in Jack P. Greene and J.R. Pole, eds., Colonial British America (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984), 43
“The present state of our navy,” (1776), Force, Peter. American Archives, Series 4–5, Vols. 1–9, Washington, D.C.: M. St. Clair Clarke and Peter Force, 1837–53., Series 5, Vol. 3, 1335–1336
“the subjects of France shall have the liberty of fishing and drying on a part of the coasts of the island of Newfoundland, such as is specified in the XIIIth Article of the Treaty of Utrecht [i.e. from Bonavista to Point Riche].” Clive Parry, ed., The Consolidated Treaty Series, Vol. 42 (New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1969), 325
“There is not any Salt used in curing Stock Fish.” Force, Peter. American Archives, Series 4–5, Vols. 1–9, Washington, D.C.: M. St. Clair Clarke and Peter Force, 1837–53., Series 4, Vol. 1, 1643
“Vice Admiral Samuel Graves to General Thomas Gage,” Boston, July 5, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 819–820.
“Vice Admiral Samuel Graves to General Thomas Gage,” Boston, June 30, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 785.
“Vice Admiral Samuel Graves to Philip Stevens, Preston, Boston, July 24, 1775,” Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 961–962
“Vice Admiral Samuel Graves to Philip Stevens,” Preston, Boston, January 8, 1775, Clark, William Bell, et al., eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 11 vols. to date. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–., Vol. 1, 59–60.
A. W. Coats, “Changing Attitudes to Labour in the Mid-Eighteenth Century,” Economic History Review, Vol. 11, No. 1 (April, 1958), 35–51.
Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Max Lerner, ed. (New York: The Modern Library, 1937; orig, pub. in 1776), 544
Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Max Lerner, ed. (New York: The Modern Library, 1937; orig, pub. in 1776), 544–545
Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations, Max Lerner, ed. (New York: The Modern Library, 1937; orig, pub. in 1776), 616–617
Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Max Lerner, ed. (New York: The Modern Library, 1937; orig., pub. in 1776), 544–545
Alain-Philippe Blérald Histoire économique de la Guadeloupe et de la Martinique du XVIIe siècle à nos jours (Paris: Karthala, 1986)
Alan Taylor, The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006)
Alfred F. Young, The Shoemaker and the Tea Party: Memory and the American Revolution (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999)
Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1987
Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1987; originally published by Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, 1890)
Alfred Young, Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah Sampson, Continental Soldier (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004)
Alice B. Keith, “Relaxations in the British Restrictions on the American Trade with the British West Indies, 1783–1802,” Journal of Modern History, Vol. 20, No. 1 (March 1948), 16
Alice Hanson Jones, Wealth of a Nation To Be: The American Colonies on the Eve of the Revolution (Columbia University Press, 1980)
Alice Hanson Jones, Wealth of a Nation To Be: The American Colonies on the Eve of the Revolution (Columbia University Press, 1980), 37
Alison Games, “Atlantic History: Definitions, Challenges, and Opportunities,” American Historical Review, Vol. 111, No. 3 (June 2006), 741–757
Alison Gilbert Olson, Making the Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690–1790 (Harvard University Press, 1992)
Alison Gilbert Olson, Making the Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690–1790 (Harvard University Press, 1992)
Alison Gilbert Olson, Making the Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690–1790 (Harvard University Press, 1992)
An act for the encouragement of the fisheries carried on from Great Britain… (London: Printed by Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1775).
An act for the encouragement of the fisheries carried on from Great Britain… (London: Printed by Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1775).
An act for the encouragement of the fisheries carried on from Great Britain… (London: Printed by Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1775).
An Act to amend and render more effectual the several laws now in force for encouraging the fisheries carried on at Newfoundland, and parts adjacent, from Great Britain… (London: Printed by C. Eyre and the executors of W. Strahan, 1786).
An Act to Encourage the Trade to Newfoundland (London: Printed by Charles Bill, 1699)
An Act to Encourage the Trade to Newfoundland (London: Printed by Charles Bill, 1699)
Andrew A. Rosenberg, W. Jeffrey Bolster, Karen E. Alexander, William B. Leavenworth, Andrew B. Cooper, and Matthew G. McKenzie, “The history of ocean resources: modeling cod biomass using historical records,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 3, No. 2 (2005), 85
Andrew Jackson O'Shaughnessy, An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000)
Andrew Jackson O'Shaughnessy, An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), 60–65
Andrew Jackson O'Shaughnessy, An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), 8, 27
Andrew Jackson O'Shaughnessy, An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), 92–100, 137–143
Andrew S. Walmsley, Thomas Hutchinson and the Origins of the American Revolution (New York University Press, 1999)
Anne Rowe Cunningham, ed., Letters and Diary of John Rowe: Boston Merchant, 1759–1762, 1764–1779 (Boston: W.B. Clarke Co., 1903), 330
Anne Rowe Cunningham, ed., Letters and diary of John Rowe: Boston merchant, 1759–1762, 1764–1779 (Boston: W.B. Clarke Co., 1903), 87
Anno regni Georgi III…(London, 1764)
Anonymous, A Short Answer to an Elaborate Pamphlet (London: 1731)
Anonymous, Considerations on the Trade to Newfoundland (London: 1745)
Bailyn, The Origins of American Politics, 2nd ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 1968), 92
Barbara W. Tuchman, The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988)
Barry Cunliffe, Facing the Ocean: The Atlantic and Its Peoples, 8000 BC–AD 1500 (Oxford University Press, 2001), 542.
Basil Greenhill, The Merchant Schooners, 2nd ed. (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1988)
Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1961), 72
Benjamin W. Labaree, William M. Fowler, Edward W. Sloan, John B. Hattendorf, Jeffrey J. Safford, and Andrew W. German, America and the Sea: A Maritime History (Mystic, CT: Mystic Seaport Museum Publications, 1998), 134–135
Benjamin W. Labaree, William M. Fowler, Edward W. Sloan, John B. Hattendorf, Jeffrey J. Safford, and Andrew W. German, America and the Sea: A Maritime History (Mystic, CT: Mystic Seaport Museum Publications, 1998), 23–28
Bernard Bailyn, Atlantic History: Concept and Contours (Harvard University Press, 2005)
Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century, 3rd ed. (Harvard University Press, 1982)
Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century, 3rd ed. (Harvard University Press, 1995), 128
Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century, 3rd ed. (Harvard University Press, 1995), 2–15
Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century, 3rd ed. (Harvard University Press, 1995), 78–82.
Bernard Bailyn, The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson (Harvard University Press, 1974)
Bernard Brodie, A Guide to Naval Strategy (Princeton University Press, 1944), 137.
Bernard Capp, Cromwell's Navy: The Fleet and the English Revolution, 1648–1660 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 4.
Bernhard Klein and Gesa Mackenthun, eds., Sea Changes: Historicizing the Ocean (New York: Routledge, 2003)
Beth Fowkes Tobin, “‘And there raise yams': Slaves’ Gardens in the Writings of West Indian Plantocrats,” Eighteenth-Century Life, Vol. 23, No. 2 (May 1999), 164–176
Bettye Hobbs Pruitt, ed., The Massachusetts Tax Valuation List of 1771 (Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1978), 98–107
Billy G. Smith, The “Lower Sort”: Philadelphia's Laboring People, 1750–1800 (Cornell University Press, 1990)
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006)
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 108–110
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 202–205
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 260–261
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 284
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 49
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 59–90.
Brian M. Fagan, The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300–1850 (New York: Basic Books, 2001)
Brooke Hunter, “Wheat, War, and the American Economy during the Age of Revolution,” The William & Mary Quarterly., Vol. 62, No. 3 (July 2005), 505–526
Bruce Mitchell, “Politics, Fish, and International Resource Management: The British-Icelandic Cod War,” Geographical Review, Vol. 66, No. 2 (April 1976), 127–138
By the Honorable Thomas Hutchinson… (Boston: Richard Draper, 1770)
C. Grant Head, Eighteenth Century Newfoundland (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1976), 100–132
C. Grant Head, Eighteenth Century Newfoundland (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1976), 218, 232
C. L. Cutting, Fish Saving: A History of Fish Processing from Ancient to Modern Times (New York: Philosophical Society, 1956), 141
C.L. Cutting, Fish Saving: A History of Fish Processing from Ancient to Modern Times (New York: Philosophical Society, 1956), 143
Carl Bridenbaugh, Cities in Revolt: Urban Life in America, 1743–1776 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1955), 5
Carl Bridenbaugh, ed., Gentleman's Progress, The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton, 1744 (University of North Carolina Press, 1948), 5
Carl E. Swanson, Predators and Prizes: American Privateering and Imperial Warfare, 1739–1748 (University of South Carolina Press, 1991)
Carl E. Swanson, Predators and Prizes: American Privateering and Imperial Warfare, 1739–1748 (University of South Carolina Press, 1991), 50–51
Carl Ubbelohde, The Vice-Admiralty Courts and the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1960)
Carl Ubbelohde, The Vice-Admiralty Courts and the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1960), 49–54, 101–103
Carlos G. Calkins, “The American Navy and the Opinions of One of its Founders, John Adams, 1735–1826,” United States Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 37 (1911), 453–483.
Cassandra Pybus, Epic Journeys of Freedom: Runaway Slaves of the American Revolution and Their Global Quest for Liberty (Boston: Beacon Press, 2006)
Cathy Matson, Merchants & Empire: Trading in Colonial New York (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998)
Cathy Matson, Merchants & Empire: Trading in Colonial New York (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998).
Charles E. Claghorn, Naval Officers of the American Revolution: A Concise Biographical Dictionary (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988)
Charles E. Claghorn, Naval Officers of the American Revolution: A Concise Biographical Dictionary (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1988)
Charles E. Clark, The Eastern Frontier: The Settlement of Northern New England, 1610–1763 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970), 24
Charles M. Andrews, “Anglo-French Commercial Rivalry, 1700–1750: The Western Phase, I,” American Historical Review, Vol. 20, No. 3 (April 1915), 550–551
Charles M. Andrews, “Anglo-French Commercial Rivalry, 1700–1750: The Western Phase, II,” American Historical Review, Vol. 20, No. 4 (July 1915), 763
Charles M. Andrews, The Colonial Background of the American Revolution (Yale University Press, 1931)
Charles Oscar Paullin, The Navy of the American Revolution: Its Administration, Its Policy, and Its Achievements (Chicago: The Burrows Brothers, Co., 1906)
Charles Oscar Paullin, The Navy of the American Revolution: Its Administration, Its Policy, and Its Achievements (Chicago: The Burrows Brothers, Co., 1906).
Charles R. Smith, Marines in the Revolution: A History of the Continental Marines in the American Revolution, 1775–1783 (Washington, DC: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1975), 12, 32–33, 80
Charles Royster, A Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character, 1775–1783 (University of North Carolina Press, 1979), 64–65
Charles Royster, A Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character, 1775–1783 (University of North Carolina Press, 1979), esp. 25–53
Chester G. Hearn, George Washington's Schooners (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995), 10
Christine Leigh Heyrman, Commerce and Culture: The Maritime Communities of Colonial Massachusetts, 1690–1750 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984), 207
Christine Leigh Heyrman, Commerce and Culture: The Maritime Communities of Colonial Massachusetts, 1690–1750 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984), 212–213
Christine Leigh Heyrman, Commerce and Culture: The Maritime Communities of Colonial Massachusetts, 1690–1750 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984), 214, 246
Christine Leigh Heyrman, Commerce and Culture: The Maritime Communities of Colonial Massachusetts, 1690–1750 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984), 415
Christopher Hill, “Pottage for Freeborn Englishmen: Attitudes to Wage-labour,” in Hill, Change and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century England (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1974), 219–238
Christopher Kingston, “Marine Insurance in Britain and America, 1720–1844: A Comparative Institutional Analysis,” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 67, No. 2 (May 2007): 379–409
Christopher Magra, “Faith At Sea: Exploring Maritime Religiosity in the Eighteenth Century,” The International Journal of Maritime History., Vol. 19, No. 1 (June 2007), 93
Christopher P. Magra, “‘Soldiers…Bred to the Sea’: Maritime Marblehead, Massachusetts and the Origins and Progress of the American Revolution,” New England Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 4 (December 2004), 554
Christopher P. Magra, “‘Soldiers…Bred to the Sea’: Maritime Marblehead, Massachusetts and the Origins and Progress of the American Revolution,” New England Quarterly, Vol. LXXVIII, No. 4 (December 2004), 531–562
Christopher P. Magra, “Beyond the Banks: The Integrated Wooden Working World of Eighteenth-Century Massachusetts' Cod Fisheries,” Northern Mariner/ Le Marin Du Nord, Vol. 17, No. 1 (January 2007; actual printing January 2008), 15
Clarence L. Ver Steeg, Robert Morris, Revolutionary Financier (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1954)
Clifford K. Shipton, Sibley's Harvard Graduates (Harvard University Press, 1970), 239–259
Clive Parry, ed., The Consolidated Treaty Series, Vol. 27 (New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1969), 477–501
Clive Parry, ed., The Consolidated Treaty Series, Vol. 42 (New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1969), 320–345
Clive Parry, ed., The Consolidated Treaty Series, Vol. 48 (New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1969), 492–493
Conrad Edick Wright and Katheryn P. Viens, eds., Entrepreneurs: The Boston Business Community, 1700–1850 (Northeastern University Press, 1997), 85
Daniel Baugh, British Naval Administration in the Age of Walpole (Princeton University Press, 1965)
Daniel Vickers, “‘A Knowen and Staple Commoditie’: Codfish Prices in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1640–1775,” Essex Institute, Historical Collections, Vol. 124 (Salem, MA: Newcomb and Gauss, 1988), 198–202
Daniel Vickers, “‘A Knowen and Staple Commoditie’: Codfish Prices in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1640–1775,” Essex Institute, Historical Collections, Vol. CXXIV (Salem, MA: Newcomb and Gauss, 1988), 198–202
Daniel Vickers, “‘A Knowen and Staple Commoditie’: Codfish Prices in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1640–1775,” Essex Institute, Historical Collections, Vol. CXXIV (Salem, MA: Newcomb and Gauss, 1988), 202
Daniel Vickers, “Young Men and the Sea: Yankee Seafarers in the Age of Sail: A Roundtable Response,” International Journal of Maritime History, Vol. 17, No. 2 (December 2005), 365
Daniel Vickers, “Beyond Jack Tar,” William & Mary Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 2 (April, 1993), 418–424
Daniel Vickers, “The Price of Fish: A Price Index for Cod, 1505–1892,” Acadiensis, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Spring 1996), 196.
Daniel Vickers, “Those Dammed Shad: Would the River Fisheries of New England Have Survived in the Absence of Industrialization?” The William & Mary Quarterly., Vol. 61, No. 4 (October 2004), 685–712
Daniel Vickers, “Work and Life on the Fishing Periphery of Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1675,” in David D. Hall and David Grayson Allen, eds., Seventeenth-Century New England (University of Virginia Press, 1984), 98.
Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1830 (University of North Carolina Press, 1994)
Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1830 (University of North Carolina Press, 1994)
Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1830 (University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 109
Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1830 (University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 178–180
Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1830 (University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 200–201, 265
Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1830 (University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 90
Daniel Vickers, Young Men and the Sea: Yankee Seafarers in the Age of Sail (Yale University Press, 2005), 34–35, 42–43
Daniel Vickers, Young Men and the Sea: Yankee Seafarers in the Age of Sail (Yale University Press, 2005), 75
David Armitage, “Three Concepts of Atlantic History,” in David Armitage and Michael Braddick, eds., The British Atlantic World, 1500–1800 (London: Palgrave, 2002), 11–27
David Armitage, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (Cambridge University Press, 2000)
David Eltis, “New Estimates of Exports from Barbados and Jamaica, 1665–1701,” The William & Mary Quarterly., Vol. 52, No. 4. (October 1995), 631–648
David Hackett Fischer, Washington's Crossing (Oxford University Press, 2004), 21–22
David Hancock, Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735–1785 (Cambridge University Press, 1995).
David J. Starkey, “The Newfoundland Trade,” in “The Distant-Water Fisheries of South West England in the Early Modern Period,” in Starkey, Reid, and Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries, 101–102
David Sacks, The Widening Gate: Bristol and the Atlantic Economy, 1450–1700 (University of California Press, 1991), 50, 101–103
David Syrett, “Defeat at Sea: The Impact of American Naval Operations upon the British, 1775–1778,” in Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution (Washington, DC: Naval History Division, Department of the Navy, 1977), 13–22
David Syrett, The Royal Navy in American Waters, 1775–1783 (Brookfield, VT: Gower, 1989)
Deborah C. Trefts, “Canadian and American Policy Making in Response to the First Multi-species Fisheries Crisis in the Greater Gulf of Maine Region,” in Stephen J. Hornsby and John G. Reid, eds., New England and the Maritime Provinces: Connections and Comparisons (McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005), 209
Denys Delâge, Bitter Feast: Amerindians and Europeans in Northeastern North America, 1600–64, translated by Jane Brierley (University of British Columbia Press, 1993), 51
Dirk Hoerder, Crowd Action in Revolutionary Massachusetts, 1765–1780 (New York: Academic Press, 1977)
Dirk Hoerder, Crowd Action in Revolutionary Massachusetts, 1765–1780 (New York: Academic Press, 1977), 185–190
Doctor Alexander Hamilton, Hamilton's Itinerarium; being a narrative of a journey from Annapolis, Maryland, through Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and New Hampshire, from May to September, 1744, edited by Albert Bushnell Hart (Saint Louis, MO: W. K. Bixby, 1907), 364
Don H. Kennedy, Ship Names: Origins and Usages During 45 Centuries (University of Virginia Press, 1974)
Don Higginbotham, The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789, 2nd ed. (Northeastern University Press, 1983)
Don Higginbotham, The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789, 2nd ed. (Northeastern University Press, 1983), 85, 98
Don Higginbotham, The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789, 2nd ed., (Northeastern University Press, 1983), 391
Don Higginbothom, “The Early American Way of War: Reconnaissance and Appraisal,” The William & Mary Quarterly., Vol. 44, No. 2 (April 1987), 230–273.
Dorothy Burne Goebel, “The ‘New England Trade’ and the French West Indies, 1763–1774: A Study in Trade Policies,” The William & Mary Quarterly., 3rd Series, Vol. 20, No. 3 (July 1963), 332, 335–336
Dudley W. Knox, The Naval Genius of George Washington (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1932), 8
E. Gordon Bowen-Hassell, Dennis M. Conrad, and Mark L. Hayes, Sea Raiders of the American Revolution: The Continental Navy in European Waters (Washington: Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 2003)
E. James Ferguson, The Power of the Purse: A History of American Public Finance, 1776–1790 (University of North Carolina Press, 1961)
E. James Ferguson, The Power of the Purse: A History of American Public Finance, 1776–1790 (University of North Carolina Press, 1961).
E. Wayne Carp, To Starve the Army at Pleasure: Continental Army Administration and American Political Culture, 1775–1783 (University of North Carolina Press, 1984)
E. Wayne Carp, To Starve the Army at Pleasure: Continental Army Administration and American Political Culture, 1775–1783 (University of North Carolina Press, 1984)
E.C. Mossner and Ian Simpson, eds., Correspondence of Adam Smith (Oxford University Press, 1977), 271
E.P. Thompson, Customs in Common: Studies in Traditional Popular Culture (New York: The New Press, 1992)
Earl J. Hamilton, “American Treasure and Andalusian Prices, 1503–1660: A Study in the Spanish Price Revolution,” Journal of Economic and Business History, I (1928), 1–35
Edmund Burke, “Speech on American Taxation,” April 19, 1774, in Edmund Burke on Government Politics and Society, B.W. Hill, ed. (London: Harvester Press, 1975), 125
Edmund Cody Burnett, The Continental Congress (New York: MacMillan Company, 1941)
Edmund Cody Burnett, The Continental Congress (New York: MacMillan Company, 1941), 431
Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution, 3rd ed. (University of North Carolina Press, 1995)
Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution, 3rd ed. (University of North Carolina Press, 1995)
Edward Countryman, A People in Revolution: The American Revolution and Political Society in New York, 1760–1790 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981), 331
Edwin J. Perkins, The Economy of Colonial America (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980)
Eliga H. Gould and Peter S. Onuf, eds., Empire and Nation: The American Revolution in the Atlantic World (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005)
Eric Foner, Tom Paine and Revolutionary America (Oxford University Press, 1976)
Eric Wertheimer, Underwriting: The Poetics of Insurance in America, 1722–1872 (Stanford University Press, 2006)
Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America (Harvard University Press, 2001), 57
Faith Harrington, “‘Wee Tooke Great Store of Cod-fish’: Fishing Ships and First Settlements on the Coast of New England, 1600–1630,” in Emerson W. Baker, et al., eds., American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture, and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega (University of Nebraska Press, 1994), 191–216
Faneuil Hall, December 11, 1781. Gentlemen, the inhabitants of the town of Boston… (Boston: Benjamin Edes and Sons, 1781)
Faneuil Hall, December 11, 1781. Gentlemen, the inhabitants of the town of Boston… (Boston: Benjamin Edes and Sons, 1781)
Fernand Braudel, The Structures of Everyday Life: Civilization & Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, Volume 1, translated by Siân Reynolds (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1979), 217
Fernand Braudel, The Structures of Everyday Life: Civilization & Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, Volume 1, translated by Siân Reynolds (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1979), 217–218
Fernand Braudel, The Structures of Everyday Life: Civilization & Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, Volume 1, translated by Siân Reynolds (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1979), 217–218
Francis D. Cogliano, American Maritime Prisoners in the Revolutionary War: The Captivity of William Russell (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2001)
Frank C. Mevers, “Naval Policy of the Continental Congress,” in Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution (Washington, DC: Naval History Division, Department of the Navy, 1977), 3
Frank C. Spooner, Risks at Sea: Amsterdam Insurance and Maritime Europe, 1766–1780 (Cambridge University Press, 1983)
Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Face of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Vintage Books, 2000), 562
Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Face of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Vintage Books, 2000), xx
Frederick H. Hayes, “John Adams and American Sea Power,” American Neptune, Vol. 25 (1965), 36
Frederick H. Hayes, “John Adams and American Sea Power,” American Neptune, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 1965), 35–45
Frederick Pease Harlow, Chanteying Aboard American Ships (Meriden, CT: Barre Publishing Company, Inc., 1962)
Gardiner, ed., Navies and the American Revolution, 1775–1783, 66
Gardner Weld Allen, A Naval History of the American Revolution, Vols. 1–2, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1913)
Gary B. Nash, The Urban Crucible: Social Change, Political Consciousness, and the Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1979)
Gary B. Nash, The Urban Crucible: Social Change, Political Consciousness, and the Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1979)
Gary B. Nash, The Urban Crucible: Social Change, Political Consciousness, and the Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1979), 54–55
Gentlemen, the inhabitants of the town of Boston…(Boston: Benjamin Edes and Sons, 1781)
Geoffrey Symcox, The Crisis of French Sea Power, 1688–1697: From the Guerre d'Escadre to the Guerre de Course (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974)
George Athan Billias, Elbridge Gerry: Founding Father and Republican Statesman (New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1976)
George Athan Billias, Elbridge Gerry: Founding Father and Republican Statesman (New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1976).
George Athan Billias, General John Glover and His Marblehead Mariners (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1960)
George Athan Billias, General John Glover and His Marblehead Mariners (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1960), 131
George Athan Billias, General John Glover and His Marblehead Mariners (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1960), 31
George Athan Billias, General John Glover and His Marblehead Mariners (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1960), 73
George Louis Beer, The Old Colonial System, 1660–1754 (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1912)
Gerard Malynes, Lex Mercatoria (London: 1622)
Gillian T. Cell, English Enterprise in Newfoundland, 1577–1660 (University of Toronto Press, 1969)
Great Britain, Statutes at Large from the Tenth Year of King William the Third to the End of the Reign of Queen Anne…Vol. 4 (London, 1769), 336
Hannes Jónsson, Friends in Conflict: The Anglo-Icelandic Cod Wars and the Law of the Sea (London: Hurst & Co., 1982)
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940)
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940), 1–6
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940), 12
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940), 166
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940), 174
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940), 175–176
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940), 80
Harold E. Selesky, War and Society in Colonial Connecticut (Yale University Press, 1990), 231
Hiroshi Kasahara, “International Fishery Disputes,” in Brian J. Rothschild, ed., World Fisheries Policy: Multidisciplinary Views (University of Washington Press, 1972), 17
Holly A. Mayer, Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution (University of South Carolina Press, 1996)
Howard I. Chapelle, The Search for Speed Under Sail, 1700–1855 (New York: Norton, 1967), 11
Ian K. Steele, The English Atlantic 1675–1740: An Exploration of Communication and Community (Oxford University Press, 1986), 57
Ian K. Steele, The English Atlantic 1675–1740: An Exploration of Communication and Community (Oxford University Press, 1986), 82
Ian K. Steele, The English Atlantic 1675–1740: An Exploration of Communication and Community (Oxford University Press, 1986), 84
Ian R. Christie and Benjamin W. Labaree, Empire or Independence, 1760–1776 (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1976)
Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press, 1974).
Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (Harvard University Press, 1998)
J. F. Jameson, “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution,” American Historical Review, Vol. 8, No. 4 (July 1903), 688
J. Franklin Jameson, “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution,” American Historical Review, Vol. 8, No. 4 (July 1903), 683–708
J. Franklin Jameson, “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution,” American Historical Review, Vol. 8, No. 4 (July 1903), 683–708
J.R. Ward, British West Indian Slavery, 1750–1834 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), 19–24
Jack M. Sosin, Agents and Merchants: British Colonial Policy and the Origins of the American Revolution, 1763–1775 (University of Nebraska Press, 1965)
Jack M. Sosin, Agents and Merchants: British Colonial Policy and the Origins of the American Revolution, 1763–1775 (University of Nebraska Press, 1965), 176–177
Jacob M. Price, “Who Cared about the Colonies? The Impact of the Thirteen Colonies on British Society and Politics, circa 1714–1775,” Bernard Bailyn and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Strangers within the Realm: Cultural Margins of the First British Empire (University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 423
Jacob M. Price, “Who Cared about the Colonies? The Impact of the Thirteen Colonies on British Society and Politics, circa 1714–1775,” in Bernard Bailyn and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Strangers within the Realm: Cultural Margins of the First British Empire (University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 399–400
Jacob M. Price, Tobacco in Atlantic Trade: The Chesapeake, London and Glasgow, 1675–1775 (Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1995)
James A. Henretta, “Families and Farms: Mentalité in Pre-industrial America,” The William & Mary Quarterly., Vol. 35, No. 1 (January 1978), 3–32
James A. Henretta, “Salutary Neglect”: Colonial Administration Under the Duke of Newcastle (Princeton University Press, 1972)
James G. Lydon, “Fish for Gold: The Massachusetts Fish Trade with Iberia, 1700–1773,” The New England Quarterly., Vol. 54, No. 4 (December 1981), 539
James G. Lydon, “Fish for Gold: The Massachusetts Fish Trade with Iberia, 1700–1773,” New England Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 4 (December 1981), 539–582
James Henretta, The Origins of American Capitalism: Collected Essays (Northeastern University Press, 1991).
James Kendall Hosmer, ed., Winthrop's Journal: “History of New England,” 1630–1649, Vol. 2 (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., reprint ed., 1959; orig. pub. 1908), 42
James L. Howard, Seth Harding, Mariner: A Naval Picture of the Revolution (Yale University Press, 1930)
James L. Howard, Seth Harding, Mariner: A Naval Picture of the Revolution (Yale University Press, 1930), 4–5
James T. Austin, The Life of Elbridge Gerry, With Contemporary Letters, To The Close of the American Revolution (Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1828)
James Wharton, The Bounty of the Chesapeake: Fishing in Colonial Virginia, 2nd ed. (University Press of Virginia, 1973), 3, 6–13, 27
Jan De Vries and Ad Van Der Woude, The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815 (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
Jan Glete, War and the State in Early Modern Europe: Spain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden As Fiscal-Military States, 1500–1660 (New York: Routledge, 2001)
Jared Sparks, ed., The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, Vol. 7 (Boston: Nathan Hale and Gray & Bowen, 1830), 277
Jerry Bannister, The Rule of the Admirals: Law, Custom, and Naval Government in Newfoundland, 1699–1832 (University of Toronto Press; for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History, 2003), 156–158
Jesse Lemisch, Jack Tar vs. John Bull: The Role of New York's Seamen in Precipitating the Revolution (New York: Garland Publishers, 1997)
John Barnard, “Autobiography of the Reverend John Barnard,” Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 3rd ser., Vol. 5 (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1836), 239–40
John Brewer, Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688–1788 (Harvard University Press, 1990).
John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington, 1745–1799, Vol. 4 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1934), 27
John Frederick Martin, Profits in the Wilderness: Entrepreneurship and the Founding of New England Towns in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 1991).
John G. Clark, “Marine Insurance in Eighteenth-Century La Rochelle,” French Historical Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Autumn 1978), 572–598.
John H. Elliott, Empire of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492–1830 (Yale University Press, 2006)
John H. Parry, “Plantation and Provision Ground: An Historical Sketch of the Introduction of Food Crops into Jamaica,” Revista de historia de America, Vol. 39 (1955), 1–20
John Harland, Seamanship in the Age of Sail: An Account of the Shiphandling of the Sailing Man-of-War, 1600–1860, Based On Contemporary Sources (Naval Institute Press, 1984), 145–154
John J. Babson, History of the Town of Gloucester, Cape Ann, Including the Town of Rockport (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith Publisher, Inc., 1972; orig. pub. 1860), 248–255
John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607–1789 (University of North Carolina Press, 1985)
John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607–1789 (University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 101, 106, 110.
John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607–1789 (University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 103
John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607–1789 (University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 157–159
John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607–1789 (University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 290–291
John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607–1789 (University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 99–101
John J. McCusker's remarks in “Roundtable Reviews of Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century with a Response by Peter E. Pope,” in International Journal of Maritime History, Vol. 17, No. 1 (June, 2005), 251–261
John J. McCusker, How Much Is That In Real Money? A Historical Commodity Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States, 2nd ed. (Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 2001), 35–36
John J. McCusker, How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Commodity Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States, 2nd ed. (Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 2001), 35–36
John J. McCusker, Rum and the American Revolution: The Rum Trade and the Balance of Payments of the Thirteen Continental Colonies, 2 Vols. (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1989)
John Resch and Walter Sargent, eds., War and Society in the American Revolution: Mobilization and Home Fronts (Northern Illinois University Press, 2007)
John Scribner Jenness, The Isle of Shoals: An Historical Sketch (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1884), 46–57
John Shy, Toward Lexington: The Role of the British Army in the Coming of the American Revolution (Princeton University Press, 1965)
John Shy, Toward Lexington: The Role of the British Army in the Coming of the American Revolution (Princeton University Press, 1965), 241
John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1800, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1998), 37.
John W. Tyler, Smugglers & Patriots: Boston Merchants and the Advent of the American Revolution (Northeastern University Press, 1986)
Jonathan I. Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806, 4th ed. (Oxford University Press, 1998), 715–717.
Jonathan I. Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477–1806, 4th ed. (Oxford University Press, 1998), 766–774
Jonathan R. Dull, A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (Yale University Press, 1985)
Jonathan Trumbull Jr., “Mr. Josiah Quincy is arrived from London, in a very low state of health, and not expected to live. The Restraining Act is come by the same ship.” Force, Peter. American Archives, Series 4–5, Vols. 1–9, Washington, D.C.: M. St. Clair Clarke and Peter Force, 1837–53., Series 4, Vol. 2, 424.
Joseph Plumb Martin, Private Yankee Doodle, ed. George E. Scheer (New York: Acorn Press, 1979), 192
Joshua M. Smith, Borderland Smuggling: Patriots, Loyalists, and Illicit Trade in the Northeast, 1783–1820 (University Press of Florida, 2006)
K. R. Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480–1630 (Cambridge University Press, 1984), 44–47
Kenneth J. Hagan, This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power (New York: Free Press, 1991), 1
Kenneth Morgan, Bristol & the Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 1993), 137.
L. H. Butterfield, ed., The Adams Papers: Diary & Autobiography of John Adams, Volume I, Diary 1755–1770 (New York: Atheneum, 1964), 154–157
L. Kinvin Wroth and Hiller B. Zobel, eds., Legal Papers of John Adams, Vol. 2 (Harvard University Press, 1965), 277, 313–320
L.F. Stock, ed., Proceedings and Debates of the British Parliament Respecting North America, Vol. 1 (Washington, 1924), 70
L.H. Butterfield, ed., The Adams Papers: Diary & Autobiography of John Adams, Volume III, Diary 1782–1804 and Autobiography through 1776 (New York: Atheneum, 1964), 74
L.H. Butterfield, ed., The Adams Papers: Diary & Autobiography of John Adams, Volume III, Diary 1782–1804, and Autobiography through 1776 (New York: Atheneum, 1964), 349.
Lawrence Henry Gibson, The British Empire Before the American Revolution, Vols. 1–15 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1939–1970)
Leonard Labaree, Royal Government in America: A Study of the British Colonial System Before 1783 (Yale University Press, 1930)
Leonard Woods Labaree, ed., Royal Instructions to British Governors, 1670–1776, 2 Vols. (New York: Octagon Books, Inc., 1967), Vol. 2, 766–767, 780
Leslie Choquette, “Center and Periphery in French North America,” in Christine Daniels and Michael V. Kennedy, eds., Negotiated Empires: Centers and Peripheries in the Americas, 1500–1820 (New York: Routledge, 2002), 195
Lewis Namier, England in the Age of the American Revolution (London: MacMillan and Co., Limited, 1930)
Lisa Norling, Captain Ahab Had a Wife: New England Women and the Whalefishery, 1720–1870 (University of North Carolina Press, 2000)
Lord Camden's Speech on the New-England Fishing Bill (Newport, RI: S. Southwick, 1775)
Lord Camden's Speech on the New-England Fishing Bill (Newport, RI: S. Southwick, 1775)
Louis F. Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During the American Revolution, 1775–1783, 2 vols. (Salem, MA: The Essex Institute, 1925)
Mahan, The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence (London: S. Low, Marston, 1913)
Manly. A favorite new song, in the American fleet. Most humbly addressed to all the jolly tars who are fighting for the rights and liberties of America. By a sailor. (Salem, MA: Printed and sold by E. Russell, upper end of Main-Street, 1776)
Marc Egnal and Joseph A. Ernst, “An Economic Interpretation of the American Revolution,” The William & Mary Quarterly., Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 1972), 21–23
Marc Egnal, A Mighty Empire: The Origins of the American Revolution (Cornell University Press, 1988)
Marcus Rediker, “Toward a People's History of the Sea,” in David Killingray, Margarette Lincoln, and Nigel Rigby, eds., Maritime Empires: British Imperial Maritime Trade in the Nineteenth Century (Rochester, NY: Boydell, in association with the National Maritime Museum, 2004), 195–206
Marcus Rediker, Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea (Cambridge University Press, 1987), 121–124
Marcus Rediker, Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea (Cambridge University Press, 1987), 121.
Margaret S. Creighton and Lisa Norling, eds., Iron Men, Wooden Women: Gender and Seafaring in the Atlantic World, 1700–1920 (The John Hopkins University Press, 1996), xi
Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution (Washington, D.C.: Naval History Division, Department of the Navy, 1977)
Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution (Washington, DC: Naval History Division, Department of the Navy, 1977)
Mark Kurlansky, Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997), 34
Mark Kurlansky, Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 1997), 17–29
Martin W. Lewis and Kären E. Wigen, The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography (University of California Press, 1997)
Mary Beth Norton, Founding Mothers & Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996)
Maryanne Kowaleski, “The Western Fisheries,” in “Fishing and Fisheries in the Middle Ages,” in David J. Starkey, Chris Reid, and Neil Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries: The Commercial Sea Fisheries of England and Wales Since 1300 (London: Chatham Publishing, 2000), 27
Maryanne Kowaleski, “The Western Fisheries,” in “Fishing and Fisheries in the Middle Ages,” in David J. Starkey, Chris Reid, and Neil Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries: The Commercial Sea Fisheries of England and Wales Since 1300 (London: Chatham Publishing, 2000), 28.
Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, Fourth Series, Vol. IV (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1858), 365
Massimo Livi-Bacci, Population and Nutrition: An Essay on European Demographic History, translated by Tania Croft-Murray and Carl Ipsen (Cambridge University Press, 1991), 30
Melville H. Watkins, “A Staple Theory of Economic Growth,” Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, Vol. 29, No. 2 (May 1963), 145
Merrill Jensen, The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution, 1763–1776 (Oxford University Press, 1968), 557–560
Michael Barkham, “Spanish Ships and Shipping,” in M.J. Rodríguez-Salgedo, ed., Armada, 1588–1988 (London: Penguin Books in association with the National Maritime Museum, 1988), 151–163.
Michael J. Crawford, ed., The Autobiography of a Yankee Mariner: Christopher Prince and the American Revolution (Washington, DC: Brassey's, Inc., 2002), 18
Michael Lee Lanning, Defenders of Liberty: African Americans in the Revolutionary War (New York: Citadel Press, 2000)
Michael P. Gerace, Military Power, Conflict and Trade (London: Frank Cass, 2004), 26–27
Morison, Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783–1860, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961), 137
N.A.M. Rodger, The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815 (New York: Norton, 2005)
N.A.M. Rodger, The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815 (New York: Norton, 2005)
Nancy F. Cott, The Bonds of Womanhood: “Woman's Sphere” in New England, 1780–1835 (Yale University Press, 1977)
Nancy F. Koehn, The Power of Commerce: Economy and Governance in the First British Empire (Cornell University Press, 1994), 5, 12
Naomi R. Lamoreaux, “Rethinking the Transition to Capitalism in the Early American Northeast,” Journal of American History, Vol. 90, No. 2 (September 2003): 437–461.
Nathan Miller, Sea of Glory: A Naval History of the American Revolution (Charleston, SC: The Nautical & Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1974), 22–38
Nathan Miller, Sea of Glory: A Naval History of the American Revolution (Charleston, SC: The Nautical & Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1974), 41.
Neil R. Stout, The Royal Navy in America, 1760–1775: A Study of Enforcement of British Colonial Policy in the Era of the American Revolution (Annapolis, MD: The United States Naval Institute, 1973), 25–38, 55, 56–90, 166
Neil R. Stout, The Royal Navy in America, 1760–1775: A Study of Enforcement of British Colonial Policy in the Era of the American Revolution (Annapolis, MD: The United States Naval Institute, 1973), 59.
Neil R. Stout, The Royal Navy in America, 1760–1775: A Study of Enforcement of British Colonial Policy in the Era of the American Revolution (The United States Naval Institute, 1973)
Nicholas Canny, “Writing Atlantic History; or, Reconfiguring the History of Colonial British America,” Journal of American History, Vol. 86, No. 3 (December 1999), 1093–1114
Nicholas Tracy, Navies, Deterrence, & American Independence: Britain and Seapower in the 1760s and 1770s (University of British Columbia Press, 1988)
Octavius Thorndike Howe, Beverly Privateers In The American Revolution (Cambridge, MA: John Wilson and Son, 1922)
Oliver M. Dickerson, The Navigation Acts and the American Revolution (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1954)
Oliver M. Dickerson, The Navigation Acts and the American Revolution (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1954), 83
Oliver Morton Dickerson, comp., Boston Under Military Rule, 1768–1769, As Revealed In A Journal of the Times (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971; orig. pub., 1936), 94–95, 104–105
Orlando Patterson, The Sociology of Slavery: An Analysis of the Origins, Development and Structure of Negro Slave Society in Jamaica (London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1967), 216–230
Paul Butel, Histoire des Antilles françaises: XVIIe-XXe siècles (Paris: Perrin, 2002)
Paul J. Lindholdt, ed., John Josselyn, Colonial Traveler: A Critical Edition of Two Voyages to New-England (University Press of New England, 1988), 27.
Pauline Maier, From Resistance to Revolution: Colonial radicals and the development of American opposition to Britain, 1765–1776 (New York: Vintage Books, 1972)
Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 2004)
Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 126.
Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 24
Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 363
Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 56–57
Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 2004), esp. 45–78
Peter Linebaugh and Marcus Rediker, The Many-Headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic (Boston: Beacon Press, 2000)
Peter Mathias, “Risk, Credit and Kinship In Early Modern Enterprise,” in John J. McCusker and Kenneth Morgan, eds., The Early Modern Atlantic Economy (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 15–35
Philip C. F. Smith and Russell W. Knight, “In Troubled Waters: The Elusive Schooner Hannah,” American Neptune, Vol. 30, No. 2 (April 1970), 27
Phyllis Whitman Hunter, Purchasing Identity in the Atlantic World: Massachusetts Merchants, 1670–1780 (Cornell University Press, 2001)
Phyllis Whitman Hunter, Purchasing Identity in the Atlantic World: Massachusetts Merchants, 1670–1780 (Cornell University Press, 2001), 33–70
Protest of the Lords… (New York: no publisher given, 1775)
R.C. Nash, “Irish Atlantic Trade in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,” The William & Mary Quarterly., 3rd Series, Vol. 42, No. 3 (July 1985), 334–336
R.C. Nash, “South Carolina and the Atlantic Economy in the Late Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,” in Susan Socolow, ed., The Atlantic Staple Trade, Vol. 2 (Aldershot, England: Variorum, 1996), 353–378.
R.W. Unger, “The Netherlands Herring Fishery in the late Middle Ages: The False Legend of Willem Beukels of Biervliet,” Viator, Vol. 9 (1978), 335–356
Ralph Davis, The Rise of the Atlantic Economies (Cornell University Press, 1973), 98–107
Ralph Davis, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (London: Macmillan & Company Limited, 1962).
Ralph Greenlee Lounsbury, The British Fishery at Newfoundland 1634–1763 (Yale University Press, 1934; reprinted New York: Archon, 1969), 191–192
Ralph Greenlee Lounsbury, The British Fishery at Newfoundland, 1634–1763 (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1969), 190–203
Ralph Greenlee Lounsbury, The British Fishery at Newfoundland, 1634–1763 (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1969), 90.
Raymond G. O'Connor, Origins of the American Navy: Sea Power in the Colonies and the New Nation (University Press of America, 1994), 14
Raymond G. O'Connor, Origins of the American Navy: Sea Power in the Colonies and the New Nation (University Press of America, 1994), 15
Raymond G. O'Connor, Origins of the American Navy: Sea Power in the Colonies and the New Nation (University Press of America, 1994), 15
Raymond McFarland, A History of the New England Fisheries (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1911)
Raymond McFarland, A History of the New England Fisheries (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1911), 38–56
Raymond McFarland, A History of the New England Fisheries (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1911), 82
Raymond McFarland, A History of the New England Fisheries (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1911), 96–97
Raymond McFarland, A History of the New England Fisheries (New York: D. Appleton & Company, publishers for University of Pennsylvania, 1911), 4
Reasons Against the Renewal of the Sugar Act (Boston, 1764)
Reuben Elmore Stivers, Privateers & Volunteers: The Men and Women of Our Reserve Naval Forces, 1766 to 1866 (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1975)
Reyes Calderón Cuadrado, Empresarios españoles en el proceso de independencia norteamericana: La casa Gardoqui e hijos de Bilbao (Madrid: Unión Editorial, 2004)
Richard B. Morris's introduction, The American Navies of the Revolutionary War (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1974), 17.
Richard B. Morris, Government and Labor in Early America (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1946), 276
Richard B. Sheridan, “The Crisis of Slave Subsistence in the British West Indies during and after the American Revolution,” The William & Mary Quarterly., 3rd Series, Vol. 33, No. 4 (October 1976), 615–641
Richard B. Sheridan, “The Crisis of Slave Subsistence in the British West Indies during and after the American Revolution,” The William & Mary Quarterly., 3rd Series, Vol. 33, No. 4 (October 1976), 620–621
Richard B. Sheridan, “The Molasses Act and the Market Strategy of the British Sugar Planters,” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1957), 62–83
Richard Buel Jr. In Irons: Britain's Naval Supremacy and the American Revolutionary Economy (Yale University Press, 1998)
Richard Buel Jr., In Irons: Britain's Naval Supremacy and the American Revolutionary Economy (Yale University Press, 1998)
Richard Buel, Jr., Dear Liberty: Connecticut's Mobilization for the Revolutionary War (Wesleyan University Press, 1980)
Richard Buel, Jr., In Irons: Britain's Naval Supremacy and the American Revolutionary Economy (Yale University Press, 1998)
Richard Buel, Jr., In Irons: Britain's Naval Supremacy and the American Revolutionary Economy (Yale University Press, 1998), 31–32
Richard L. Bushman, King and People in Provincial Massachusetts (North Carolina University Press, 1985)
Richard L. Bushman, King and People in Provincial Massachusetts (North Carolina University Press, 1985)
Richard N. Bean, “Food Imports into the British West Indies: 1680–1845,” in Vera Rubin and Arthur Tuden, eds., Comparative Perspectives on Slavery in New World Plantation Societies (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1977), 581–590
Richard Pares, War and Trade in the West Indies, 1739–1763 (Oxford University Press, 1936)
Richard Pares, Yankees and Creoles: The Trade between North American and the West Indies before the American Revolution (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1956), 31–33
Richard Price, “Caribbean Fishing and Fishermen: A Historical Sketch,” American Anthropologist, Vol. 68, No. 6 (December 1966), 1363–1383
Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624–1713, 2nd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1973), 205
Richard W. Van Alstyne, Empire and Independence: The International History of the American Revolution (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1965), 1
Robert A. Gross, The Minutemen and Their World (New York: Hill and Wang, 1976)
Robert A. Gross, The Minutemen and Their World (New York: Hill and Wang, 1976), 78–79, 86–89
Robert Desrochers, “Slave-For-Sale Advertisements and Slavery in Massachusetts, 1704–1781,” The William & Mary Quarterly., Vol. 59 (July 2002), 623–64
Robert G. Albion, William A. Baker, and Benjamin W. Labaree, New England and the Sea (Mystic, CT: Mystic Seaport Museum, Inc., 1972), 26
Robert G. Albion, William A. Baker, and Benjamin W. Labaree, New England and the Sea (Mystic, CT: Mystic Seaport Museum, Inc., 1972), 29–30
Robert Gardiner, ed., Navies and the American Revolution, 1775–1783 (London: Chatham Publishing, in association with the National Maritime Museum, 1996)
Robert Gardiner, ed., Navies and the American Revolution, 1775–1783 (London: Chatham Publishing, in association with the National Maritime Museum, 1996), 66–69
Robert Greenhalgh Albion and Jennie Barnes Pope, Sea Lanes in Wartime: The American Experience, 1775–1942 (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1942), 20
Robert Greenhalgh Albion and Jennie Barnes Pope, Sea Lanes in Wartime: The American Experience, 1775–1942 (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1942), 22.
Robert Greenhalgh Albion and Jennie Barnes Pope, Sea Lanes in Wartime: The American Experience, 1775–1942 (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1942), 35
Robert Greenhalgh Albion and Jennie Barnes Pope, Sea Lanes in Wartime: The American Experience, 1775–1942 (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1942), 39
Robert Greenhalgh Albion and Jennie Barnes Pope, Sea Lanes in Wartime: The American Experience, 1775–1942 (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1942), 51–52
Robert K. Fitts, Inventing New England's Slave Paradise: Master/Slave Relations in Eighteenth-Century Narragansett, Rhode Island (New York: Garland Pub., 1998)
Robert L. Scheina, “A Matter of Definition: A New Jersey Navy, 1777–1783,” American Neptune, Vol. 39 (July 1979), 209–218
Robert Middlekauff, The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789, rev. and expanded ed. (Oxford University Press, 2005).
Robert V. Wells, The Population of the British Colonies in America before 1776: A Survey of Census Data (Princeton University Press, 1975)
Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery (London: Verso Press, 1997), 432, 438
Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492–1800 (New York: Verso, 1997), 277–306, 431–456
Roger Morriss, “The Supply of Casks and Staves to the Royal Navy, 1770–1815,” The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 93, No. 1 (February 2007), 50
Ronald Hurst, The Golden Rock: An Episode of the American War of Independence, 1775–1783 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996)
Ronald N. Tagney, The World Turned Upside Down: Essex County During America's Turbulent Years, 1763–1790 (West Newbury, MA: Essex County History, 1989), 68–73
Samuel E. Morison, Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783–1860, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961), 137
Samuel E. Morison, The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages, A.D. 500–1600 (Oxford University Press, 1971)
Samuel E. Morrison, “Elbridge Gerry, Gentleman-Democrat,” The New England Quarterly., II (1929), 6–33
Samuel Eliot Morison, John Paul Jones, A Sailor's Biography (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1959), 35
Samuel Eliot Morison, John Paul Jones, A Sailor's Biography (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1959), 36
Samuel Eliot Morison, John Paul Jones, A Sailor's Biography (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1959), 36
Samuel Roads Jr., The History and Traditions of Marblehead, 3rd ed. (Marblehead, MA: N. Allen Lindsay; Co., 1897), 8
Samuel Roads, Jr., The History and Traditions of Marblehead, 3rd ed. (Marblehead, MA: N. Allen Lindsay & Co., 1897), 7
Selwyn H. H. Carrington, The British West Indies During the American Revolution (Providence, RI: Foris Publications, 1988), 111
Selwyn H.H. Carrington, The British West Indies During the American Revolution (Providence, RI: Foris Publications, 1988), 44
Sherry Johnson, “El Niño, Environmental Crisis, and the Emergence of Alternative Markets in the Hispanic Caribbean, 1760s70s,” The William & Mary Quarterly., 3rd Series, Vol. LXII, No. 3 (July 2005), 365–410
Sidney G. Morse, “State or Continental Privateers?” American Historical Review, Vol. 52, No. 1 (October 1946), 72.
Sidney G. Morse, “The Yankee Privateersman of 1776,” The New England Quarterly., Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1944), 71–86
Sidney W. Mintz, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History (New York: Viking Press, 1985), 18
Sir Roger L'Estrange, A discourse of the fishery briefly laying open, not only the advantages, and facility of the undertaking, but likewise the absolute necessity of it, in order to the well-being, both of king, and people… (London: 1674)
Stanley L. Engerman, “Economic growth of colonial North America,” in John J. McCusker and Kenneth Morgan, eds., The Early Modern Atlantic Economy (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 236
Stanley L. Engerman, “Economic Growth of Colonial North America,” in John J. McCusker and Kenneth Morgan, eds., The Early Modern Atlantic Economy (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 236
Stanly Godbold Jr. and Robert Woody, Christopher Gadsden and the American Revolution (University of Tennessee Press, 1983).
Stephen Foster, The Long Argument: English Puritanism and the Shaping of New England Culture, 1570–1700 (University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 28–29
Stephen Innes, Creating the Commonwealth: The Economic Culture of Puritan New England (New York: W.W. Norton, 1995)
Stephen J. Hornsby, British Atlantic, American Frontier: Spaces of Power in Early Modern British America (University Press of New England, 2005), 135–136
Stephen J. Hornsby, British Atlantic, American Frontier: Spaces of Power in Early Modern British America (University Press of New England, 2005), 26–28
Stephen J. Hornsby, British Atlantic, American Frontier: Spaces of Power in Early Modern British America (University Press of New England, 2005), 26–28
Stephen J. Hornsby, British Atlantic, American Frontier: Spaces of Power in Early Modern British America (University Press of New England, 2005), 46–47, 60
Stephen J. Hornsby, British Atlantic, American Frontier: Spaces of Power in Early Modern British America (University Press of New England, 2005), 86–87
Stuart B. Schwartz, Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society: Bahia, 1550–1835 (Cambridge University Press, 1985), 98–131
Sydney W. Mintz and Douglas Hall, “The Origins of the Jamaican Internal Marketing System,” in Hilary Beckles and Verene Sheperd, eds., Caribbean Slave Society and Economy (New York: New Press, 1991), 319–334
Sylvia R. Frey, Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age (Princeton University Press, 1991)
T. H. Breen, The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (Oxford University Press, 2004)
T. H. Breen, The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (Oxford University Press, 2004)
The British Merchant, 2nd ed. (London, 1743), II, 257
The Case of the British Northern Colonies (London: 1731)
The Case of the Provinces of the Massachusetts Bay…(London: 1731)
The Seas Magazine Opened (London: 1653)
The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III, 2 Vols. (London: MacMillan and Co., Limited, 1929)
Thomas Amory Lee, “The Lee Family of Marblehead,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. LII (1916), 331.
Thomas Amory Lee, “The Lee Family of Marblehead,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. LII–LIII, (Salem, MA: Newcomb and Gauss, 1916, 1917), 33–48, 145–160, 225–240, 329–344; 65–80, 153–168, 257–287
Thomas C. Barrow, Trade and Empire: The British Customs Service in Colonial America, 1660–1775 (Harvard University Press, 1967)
Thomas C. Barrow, Trade and Empire: The British Customs Service in Colonial America, 1660–1775 (Harvard University Press, 1967), 134–143
Thomas E. Chávez, Spain and the Independence of the United States: An Intrinsic Gift (University of New Mexico Press, 2002), 15, 61, 68, 85, 220
Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, “Report on the Privileges and Restrictions on the Commerce of the United States in Foreign Countries,” December 16, 1793, American State Papers: Foreign Relations, I: 300–301
Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, “Report on the State of the Cod Fisheries, 1791,” American State Papers: Commerce and Navigation, I:13
Thomas L. Purvis, Revolutionary America, 1763–1800 (New York: Facts on File, 1995), 234–240
Tim Flannery, ed., The Life and Adventures of John Nicol, Mariner (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997; orig. pub. 1821), 33
Tobias Gentleman, England's Way to Win Wealth, and to Employ Ships and Mariners (London, 1614)
Tobias Gentleman, England's way to win wealth, and to employ ships and mariners… (London: 1614)
Todd Gray and David J. Starkey, “The Distant-Water Fisheries of South West England in the Early Modern Period,” in David J. Starkey, Chris Reid, and Neil Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries: The Commercial Sea Fisheries of England and Wales Since 1300 (London: Chatham Publishing, 2000), 96–104
Todd Gray, “Fisheries to the East and West,” in “The Distant-Water Fisheries of South West England in the Early Modern Period,” in David J. Starkey, Chris Reid, and Neil Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries: The Commercial Sea Fisheries of England and Wales since 1300 (London: Chatham Publishing, 2000), 98–100
Vincent Dowdell, Jr., “The Birth of the American Navy,” United States Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 81 (November 1955), 1251–1257
Virginia Bever Platt, “Tar, Staves and New England Rum: The Trade of Aaron Lopez of Newport, Rhode Island, with Colonial North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 48 (January 1971), 1–22
W. Gordon Handcock, Soe longe as there comes noe women: Origins of English Settlement in Newfoundland (St. Johns, NL: Breakwater Books, 1989)
W. Gordon Handcock, Soe longe as there comes noe women: Origins of English Settlement in Newfoundland (St. Johns, NL: Breakwater Books, 1989), 145–216
W. Gordon Handcock, Soe longe as there comes noe women: Origins of English Settlement in Newfoundland (St. Johns, NL: Breakwater Books, 1989), 30–31, 133–134
W. Gordon Handcock, Soe longe as there comes noe women: Origins of English Settlement in Newfoundland (St. Johns, NL: Breakwater Books, 1989), 74–85
W. Jeffrey Bolster, “Putting the Ocean in Atlantic History: Maritime Communities and Marine Ecology in the Northwest Atlantic, 1500–1800,” The American Historical Review, Vol. 113, No. 1 (February 2008), 19–47
W.J. Eccles, The French in North America, 1500–1783, revised edition, (Michigan State University Press, 1998)
Wallace Notestein, Frances Helen Relf, and Hartley Simpson, eds., Commons Debates, 1621, Vol. 4 (Yale University Press, 1935), 367
Wendy R. Childs and Maryanne Kowalski, “Fishing and Fisheries in the Middle Ages,” in Starkey, Reid, and Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries, 19–28
William Avery Baker, “Vessel Types of Colonial Massachusetts,” in Seafaring in Colonial Massachusetts: A Conference Held by the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, November 21 and 22, 1975 (Boston: The Society; distributed by University Press of Virginia, 1980), 19
William B. Weeden, Economic and Social History of New England, 1620–1789, Reprint ed., Vol. 2 (New York: Hillary House Publishers, Ltd., 1963), 750
William B. Weeden, Economic and Social History of New England, 1620–1789, reprint ed., Vol. 2 (New York: Hillary House Publishers, Ltd., 1963), 751
William B. Weeden, Economic and Social History of New England, 1620–1789, Vol. 2 (New York: Hillary House Publishers, Ltd., 1963), 751
William Bell Clark, Ben Franklin's Privateers (Louisiana State University Press, 1956)
William Bell Clark, George Washington's Navy: Being An Account of his Excellency's Fleet in New England (Louisiana State University Press, 1960)
William Bell Clark, George Washington's Navy: Being an Account of His Excellency's Fleet in New England (Louisiana State University Press, 1960), 221
William Bell Clark, George Washington's Navy: Being An Account of his Excellency's Fleet in New England (Louisiana State University Press, 1960), 3
William Bell Clark, Lambert Wickes, Sea Raider and Diplomat: The Story of a Naval Captain of the American Revolution (Yale University Press, 1932)
William Bollan, The importance and advantage of Cape Breton: truly stated and impartially considered (London: Originally printed for J. and P. Knapton, 1746; New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1966), 90
William de Britaine, The Dutch Usurpation (London: 1672)
William Falconer, A New Universal Dictionary of the Marine (London, 1769), 353
William I. Davisson, “Essex County Wealth Trends: Wealth and Economic Growth in 17th Century Massachusetts,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 103 (Salem, MA: Newcomb & Gauss, Co., 1967), 341
William M. Fowler Jr., Rebels Under Sail: The American Navy During the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976)
William M. Fowler, Jr., Rebels Under Sail: The American Navy During the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976)
William M. Fowler, Jr., Rebels Under Sail: The American Navy during the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976), 190–223
William Pencak, War, Politics, & Revolution in Provincial Massachusetts (Northeastern University Press, 1981)
William Petyt, Britannia Languens (London: 1680)
William T. Baxter, The House of Hancock: Business in Boston, 1724–1775 (Harvard University Press, 1945).
William Wood, A Survey of Trade (London: 1722)
Winifred Barr Rothenberg, From Market Places to a Market Economy: The Transformation of Rural Massachusetts, 1750–1850 (University of Chicago Press, 1992)
Winifred Barr Rothenberg, From Market Places to a Market Economy: The Transformation of Rural Massachusetts, 1750–1850 (University of Chicago Press, 1992)
Winthrop Papers, Vol. 2 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1929), 145–146
Woodrow Borah, et al. eds., Urbanization in the Americas (Ottawa: History Division, National Museum of Man, 1980), 15–24
Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (University of North Carolina Press, 1999)