The Fisherman's Cause

Atlantic Commerce and Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution

In the first book-length examination of the connections between the commercial fishing industry in colonial America and the American Revolution, Christopher Magra places the origins and progress of this formative event in a wider Atlantic context. The Fisherman’s Cause utilizes extensive research from archives in the United States, Canada, and the U.K. in order to take this Atlantic approach. Dried, salted cod represented the most lucrative export in New England. The fishing industry connected colonial producers to transatlantic markets in the Iberian Peninsula and the West Indies. Parliament’s coercive regulation of this branch of colonial maritime commerce contributed to colonists’ willingness to engage in a variety of revolutionary activities. Colonists then used the sea to forcibly resist British authority. Fish merchants converted transatlantic trade routes into military supply lines, and they transformed fishing vessels into warships. Fishermen armed and manned the first American navy, served in the first coast guard units, and fought on privateers. These maritime activities helped secure American independence.


 Reviews:

"Christopher Magra demonstrates the significance of the Atlantic context during the era of the American Revolution. He examines the economic importance of New England’s Atlantic fishery and how the British government’s attempts to curb that enterprise led directly to American independence. Magra also reveals the signal contributions that Massachusetts fishermen and fish merchants made to the origins of the United States Navy. Thoroughly researched and clearly written, The Fisherman’s Cause will appeal to anyone interested in the Atlantic world and the American Revolution as well as students of economic, maritime, and naval history." -Carl E. Swanson, East Carolina University

"The Fisherman’s Cause is a welcome reminder that America is a sea-minded nation. Native Americans turned to the sea for sustenance along the shore and in nearby shallow waters. For European settlers the Atlantic was both a highway to the Old World and a moat protecting them from it. The Atlantic was also a vast green pasture to which they ventured harvesting fish. Measured in quintals and packed in barrels these enterprising yankees marketed 'sacred cod' around the Atlantic world. Dancing across the ocean fishermen, seamen, and merchants established a sophisticated network of trade that generated profits used to fuel the extraordinary growth of the colonial economy. When this prosperous world was threatened by the acts of a clumsy imperial administration these traders and fishermen defended their interests and fought for American independence. Magra’s story, well told and well documented, is essential reading if we are to understand the role of the sea in establishing the American republic." William M. Fowler, Northeastern University

"...a thoughtful work, and as rich in information as the dried, salted cod was in protein." -Marc Egnal, Journal of Economic History

"...a fine book that deserves a wide readership. It makes a significant contribution to the ever growing literature on the American Revolution and it does so from a refreshingly Atlantic perspective." -Keith Mercer, International Journal of Maritime History

"...Christopher Magra's deep scholarly treatment places the cod fisheries near the center of the American Revolution and the history of colonial America. For those seriously interested in maritime America during the Revolution or the history of American fisheries, this is a significant book." -John Odin Jensen, Sea History

"...clearly a groundbreaking and influential work..." -Kelly Chaves, The Northern Mariner

"Filling a significant gap in the study of the American Revolution's origins, Christopher P. Magra's book places the New England cod fishery in an Atlantic world context..." -Glenn M. Grasso, American Historical Review

"This is an impressive effort from a young scholar. I anticipate that Christopher Magra will continue to provide us with interesting and well-written books in the future." -David Surdam, EH.NET

"Magra consciously adopts an Atlantic perspective on both cod fishing and the Revolution....For those who wonder why commercial fishing rights were so central to the Anglo-American peace negotiations of 1782 and 1783, Magra provides a convincing answer. In this short but stimulating book, he connects all players in the industry and sketches the changes they wrought during the 150 years preceding independence.  More important, he provides clear evidence of the extent to which events on land and sea were linked; for this we are in his debt. Atlantic life influenced mainland life, and vice versa. Connections within the wider Atlantic community are central to understanding the North American world." -David Hancock, The New England Quarterly

"Magra makes important connections between the fishing industry and revolution..." - Cathy Matson, The Journal of American History

"Thorough and careful in his research, Magra makes a persuasive case for the importance of the fisheries to colonial New England’s economy and attitudes toward the Empire." -Alan Taylor, Journal of Interdisciplinary History

"This is an impressive effort from a young scholar. I anticipate that Christopher Magra will continue to provide us with interesting and well-written books in the future."
-David Surdam, University of Northern Iowa, (EH.net)

"This book provides the clearest and the most informed delineation available of the vital commerical role and scope of the cod fish and the New England fishery in the Atlantic economy." -Barry Levy, LABOR


 Prizes:

2010 Winslow House Book award

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Maryanne Kowaleski, “The Western Fisheries,” in “Fishing and Fisheries in the Middle Ages,” in David J. Starkey, Chris Reid, and Neil Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries: The Commercial Sea Fisheries of England and Wales Since 1300 (London: Chatham Publishing, 2000), 27
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Deborah C. Trefts, “Canadian and American Policy Making in Response to the First Multi-species Fisheries Crisis in the Greater Gulf of Maine Region,” in Stephen J. Hornsby and John G. Reid, eds., New England and the Maritime Provinces: Connections and Comparisons (McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005), 209
L.H. Butterfield, ed., The Adams Papers: Diary & Autobiography of John Adams, Volume III, Diary 1782–1804 and Autobiography through 1776 (New York: Atheneum, 1964), 74
Ian K. Steele, The English Atlantic 1675–1740: An Exploration of Communication and Community (Oxford University Press, 1986), 82
William B. Weeden, Economic and Social History of New England, 1620–1789, reprint ed., Vol. 2 (New York: Hillary House Publishers, Ltd., 1963), 751
By the Honorable Thomas Hutchinson… (Boston: Richard Draper, 1770)
Andrew A. Rosenberg, W. Jeffrey Bolster, Karen E. Alexander, William B. Leavenworth, Andrew B. Cooper, and Matthew G. McKenzie, “The history of ocean resources: modeling cod biomass using historical records,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 3, No. 2 (2005), 85
Fernand Braudel, The Structures of Everyday Life: Civilization & Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, Volume 1, translated by Siân Reynolds (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1979), 217
E.P. Thompson, Customs in Common: Studies in Traditional Popular Culture (New York: The New Press, 1992)

Reference Type: notes

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Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1830 (University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 90
Todd Gray, “Fisheries to the East and West,” in “The Distant-Water Fisheries of South West England in the Early Modern Period,” in David J. Starkey, Chris Reid, and Neil Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries: The Commercial Sea Fisheries of England and Wales since 1300 (London: Chatham Publishing, 2000), 98–100
Faith Harrington, “‘Wee Tooke Great Store of Cod-fish’: Fishing Ships and First Settlements on the Coast of New England, 1600–1630,” in Emerson W. Baker, et al., eds., American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture, and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega (University of Nebraska Press, 1994), 191–216
Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century, 3rd ed. (Harvard University Press, 1995), 2–15
Raymond McFarland, A History of the New England Fisheries (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1911), 38–56
John Scribner Jenness, The Isle of Shoals: An Historical Sketch (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1884), 46–57
Leslie Choquette, “Center and Periphery in French North America,” in Christine Daniels and Michael V. Kennedy, eds., Negotiated Empires: Centers and Peripheries in the Americas, 1500–1820 (New York: Routledge, 2002), 195
Christine Leigh Heyrman, Commerce and Culture: The Maritime Communities of Colonial Massachusetts, 1690–1750 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984), 207
Samuel Roads Jr., The History and Traditions of Marblehead, 3rd ed. (Marblehead, MA: N. Allen Lindsay; Co., 1897), 8
Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 2004), esp. 45–78
W. Gordon Handcock, Soe longe as there comes noe women: Origins of English Settlement in Newfoundland (St. Johns, NL: Breakwater Books, 1989), 74–85
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 260–261
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940), 80
James Wharton, The Bounty of the Chesapeake: Fishing in Colonial Virginia, 2nd ed. (University Press of Virginia, 1973), 3, 6–13, 27
Winthrop Papers, Vol. 2 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1929), 145–146
James Kendall Hosmer, ed., Winthrop's Journal: “History of New England,” 1630–1649, Vol. 2 (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., reprint ed., 1959; orig. pub. 1908), 42
William I. Davisson, “Essex County Wealth Trends: Wealth and Economic Growth in 17th Century Massachusetts,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 103 (Salem, MA: Newcomb & Gauss, Co., 1967), 341
David J. Starkey, “The Newfoundland Trade,” in “The Distant-Water Fisheries of South West England in the Early Modern Period,” in Starkey, Reid, and Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries, 101–102
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Clive Parry, ed., The Consolidated Treaty Series, Vol. 27 (New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1969), 477–501
John Barnard, “Autobiography of the Reverend John Barnard,” Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 3rd ser., Vol. 5 (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1836), 239–40
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Fernand Braudel, The Structures of Everyday Life: Civilization & Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, Volume 1, translated by Siân Reynolds (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1979), 217–218
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Richard N. Bean, “Food Imports into the British West Indies: 1680–1845,” in Vera Rubin and Arthur Tuden, eds., Comparative Perspectives on Slavery in New World Plantation Societies (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1977), 581–590
Richard B. Sheridan, “The Crisis of Slave Subsistence in the British West Indies during and after the American Revolution,” The William & Mary Quarterly., 3rd Series, Vol. 33, No. 4 (October 1976), 620–621
Richard Price, “Caribbean Fishing and Fishermen: A Historical Sketch,” American Anthropologist, Vol. 68, No. 6 (December 1966), 1363–1383
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James L. Howard, Seth Harding, Mariner: A Naval Picture of the Revolution (Yale University Press, 1930), 4–5

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Alain-Philippe Blérald Histoire économique de la Guadeloupe et de la Martinique du XVIIe siècle à nos jours (Paris: Karthala, 1986)
Benjamin W. Labaree, William M. Fowler, Edward W. Sloan, John B. Hattendorf, Jeffrey J. Safford, and Andrew W. German, America and the Sea: A Maritime History (Mystic, CT: Mystic Seaport Museum Publications, 1998), 134–135
Ronald Hurst, The Golden Rock: An Episode of the American War of Independence, 1775–1783 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996)
Barbara W. Tuchman, The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988)
J. Franklin Jameson, “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution,” American Historical Review, Vol. 8, No. 4 (July 1903), 683–708
Roger Morriss, “The Supply of Casks and Staves to the Royal Navy, 1770–1815,” The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 93, No. 1 (February 2007), 50
Andrew Jackson O'Shaughnessy, An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), 60–65
Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624–1713, 2nd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1973), 205
Charles M. Andrews, “Anglo-French Commercial Rivalry, 1700–1750: The Western Phase, II,” American Historical Review, Vol. 20, No. 4 (July 1915), 763
Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery (London: Verso Press, 1997), 432, 438
Charles M. Andrews, “Anglo-French Commercial Rivalry, 1700–1750: The Western Phase, I,” American Historical Review, Vol. 20, No. 3 (April 1915), 550–551
Stuart B. Schwartz, Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society: Bahia, 1550–1835 (Cambridge University Press, 1985), 98–131
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940), 175–176
Daniel Vickers, “‘A Knowen and Staple Commoditie’: Codfish Prices in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1640–1775,” Essex Institute, Historical Collections, Vol. CXXIV (Salem, MA: Newcomb and Gauss, 1988), 198–202
“Roundtable Reviews of Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century with a Response by Peter E. Pope,” in The International Journal of Maritime History., Vol. 17, No. 1 (June 2005), 251–261
John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607–1789 (University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 157–159
Stanley L. Engerman, “Economic Growth of Colonial North America,” in John J. McCusker and Kenneth Morgan, eds., The Early Modern Atlantic Economy (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 236
Oliver M. Dickerson, The Navigation Acts and the American Revolution (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1954), 83
Stephen J. Hornsby, British Atlantic, American Frontier: Spaces of Power in Early Modern British America (University Press of New England, 2005), 46–47, 60
Jacob M. Price, “Who Cared about the Colonies? The Impact of the Thirteen Colonies on British Society and Politics, circa 1714–1775,” in Bernard Bailyn and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Strangers within the Realm: Cultural Margins of the First British Empire (University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 399–400
Alison Gilbert Olson, Making the Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690–1790 (Harvard University Press, 1992)
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Cathy Matson, Merchants & Empire: Trading in Colonial New York (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998)
Jack M. Sosin, Agents and Merchants: British Colonial Policy and the Origins of the American Revolution, 1763–1775 (University of Nebraska Press, 1965), 176–177
Bailyn, The Origins of American Politics, 2nd ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 1968), 92
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 284
Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century, 3rd ed. (Harvard University Press, 1995), 128
Richard B. Morris, Government and Labor in Early America (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1946), 276
Great Britain, Statutes at Large from the Tenth Year of King William the Third to the End of the Reign of Queen Anne…Vol. 4 (London, 1769), 336
The Case of the Provinces of the Massachusetts Bay…(London: 1731)
The Case of the British Northern Colonies (London: 1731)
Richard B. Sheridan, “The Molasses Act and the Market Strategy of the British Sugar Planters,” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1957), 62–83
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Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Face of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Vintage Books, 2000), 562
Nancy F. Koehn, The Power of Commerce: Economy and Governance in the First British Empire (Cornell University Press, 1994), 5, 12
John Shy, Toward Lexington: The Role of the British Army in the Coming of the American Revolution (Princeton University Press, 1965), 241
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Anno regni Georgi III…(London, 1764)
Clive Parry, ed., The Consolidated Treaty Series, Vol. 42 (New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1969), 320–345
Neil R. Stout, The Royal Navy in America, 1760–1775: A Study of Enforcement of British Colonial Policy in the Era of the American Revolution (Annapolis, MD: The United States Naval Institute, 1973), 25–38, 55, 56–90, 166
Leonard Woods Labaree, ed., Royal Instructions to British Governors, 1670–1776, 2 Vols. (New York: Octagon Books, Inc., 1967), Vol. 2, 766–767, 780
Carl Ubbelohde, The Vice-Admiralty Courts and the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1960), 49–54, 101–103
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Edmund Burke, “Speech on American Taxation,” April 19, 1774, in Edmund Burke on Government Politics and Society, B.W. Hill, ed. (London: Harvester Press, 1975), 125
Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations, Max Lerner, ed. (New York: The Modern Library, 1937; orig, pub. in 1776), 616–617
Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution, 3rd ed. (University of North Carolina Press, 1995)
Marc Egnal and Joseph A. Ernst, “An Economic Interpretation of the American Revolution,” The William & Mary Quarterly., Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 1972), 21–23
Dirk Hoerder, Crowd Action in Revolutionary Massachusetts, 1765–1780 (New York: Academic Press, 1977), 185–190

Reference Type: notes

“the subjects of France shall have the liberty of fishing and drying on a part of the coasts of the island of Newfoundland, such as is specified in the XIIIth Article of the Treaty of Utrecht [i.e. from Bonavista to Point Riche].” Clive Parry, ed., The Consolidated Treaty Series, Vol. 42 (New York: Oceana Publications, Inc., 1969), 325
Joshua M. Smith, Borderland Smuggling: Patriots, Loyalists, and Illicit Trade in the Northeast, 1783–1820 (University Press of Florida, 2006)
Stephen J. Hornsby, British Atlantic, American Frontier: Spaces of Power in Early Modern British America (University Press of New England, 2005), 26–28
Todd Gray and David J. Starkey, “The Distant-Water Fisheries of South West England in the Early Modern Period,” in David J. Starkey, Chris Reid, and Neil Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries: The Commercial Sea Fisheries of England and Wales Since 1300 (London: Chatham Publishing, 2000), 96–104
Peter E. Pope, Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (University of North Carolina Press, 2004)
W. Gordon Handcock, Soe longe as there comes noe women: Origins of English Settlement in Newfoundland (St. Johns, NL: Breakwater Books, 1989)
Phyllis Whitman Hunter, Purchasing Identity in the Atlantic World: Massachusetts Merchants, 1670–1780 (Cornell University Press, 2001), 33–70
David Sacks, The Widening Gate: Bristol and the Atlantic Economy, 1450–1700 (University of California Press, 1991), 50, 101–103
Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century, 3rd ed. (Harvard University Press, 1982)
Brian Fagan, Fish on Friday: Feasting, Fasting and the Discovery of the New World (New York: Basic Books, 2006), 202–205
K. R. Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480–1630 (Cambridge University Press, 1984), 44–47
Mark Kurlansky, Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 1997), 17–29
Harold Adams Innis, The Codfisheries: The History of an International Economy (Yale University Press, 1940), 12
Wendy R. Childs and Maryanne Kowalski, “Fishing and Fisheries in the Middle Ages,” in Starkey, Reid, and Ashcroft, eds., England's Sea Fisheries, 19–28
An Act to Encourage the Trade to Newfoundland (London: Printed by Charles Bill, 1699)
Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, “Report on the State of the Cod Fisheries, 1791,” American State Papers: Commerce and Navigation, I:13
Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, “Report on the Privileges and Restrictions on the Commerce of the United States in Foreign Countries,” December 16, 1793, American State Papers: Foreign Relations, I: 300–301
Ian K. Steele, The English Atlantic 1675–1740: An Exploration of Communication and Community (Oxford University Press, 1986), 84
Álvaro Garrido, “Political Economy and International Trade: The Portuguese Market for Salt Cod and Its Institutions in the Interwar Period,” The International Journal of Maritime History., Vol. 17, No. 2 (December 2005), 61–85
C. L. Cutting, Fish Saving: A History of Fish Processing from Ancient to Modern Times (New York: Philosophical Society, 1956), 141
C. Grant Head, Eighteenth Century Newfoundland (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1976), 100–132
Ralph Greenlee Lounsbury, The British Fishery at Newfoundland, 1634–1763 (Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1969), 190–203
Gillian T. Cell, English Enterprise in Newfoundland, 1577–1660 (University of Toronto Press, 1969)
Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1830 (University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 109
Jerry Bannister, The Rule of the Admirals: Law, Custom, and Naval Government in Newfoundland, 1699–1832 (University of Toronto Press; for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History, 2003), 156–158
An Act to Encourage the Trade to Newfoundland (London: Printed by Charles Bill, 1699)
Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Max Lerner, ed. (New York: The Modern Library, 1937; orig, pub. in 1776), 544
Tobias Gentleman, England's Way to Win Wealth, and to Employ Ships and Mariners (London, 1614)
The Seas Magazine Opened (London: 1653)
N.A.M. Rodger, The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815 (New York: Norton, 2005)
Daniel Baugh, British Naval Administration in the Age of Walpole (Princeton University Press, 1965)

Reference Type: notes

Lord Camden's Speech on the New-England Fishing Bill (Newport, RI: S. Southwick, 1775)
Robert Middlekauff, The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789, rev. and expanded ed. (Oxford University Press, 2005).
Cathy Matson, Merchants & Empire: Trading in Colonial New York (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998).
John W. Tyler, Smugglers & Patriots: Boston Merchants and the Advent of the American Revolution (Northeastern University Press, 1986)
William T. Baxter, The House of Hancock: Business in Boston, 1724–1775 (Harvard University Press, 1945).
Jonathan Trumbull Jr., “Mr. Josiah Quincy is arrived from London, in a very low state of health, and not expected to live. The Restraining Act is come by the same ship.” Force, Peter. American Archives, Series 4–5, Vols. 1–9, Washington, D.C.: M. St. Clair Clarke and Peter Force, 1837–53., Series 4, Vol. 2, 424.
An act for the encouragement of the fisheries carried on from Great Britain… (London: Printed by Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1775).
An Act to amend and render more effectual the several laws now in force for encouraging the fisheries carried on at Newfoundland, and parts adjacent, from Great Britain… (London: Printed by C. Eyre and the executors of W. Strahan, 1786).
An act for the encouragement of the fisheries carried on from Great Britain… (London: Printed by Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1775).
An act for the encouragement of the fisheries carried on from Great Britain… (London: Printed by Charles Eyre and William Strahan, 1775).
Protest of the Lords… (New York: no publisher given, 1775)
Lord Camden's Speech on the New-England Fishing Bill (Newport, RI: S. Southwick, 1775)
John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607–1789 (University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 101, 106, 110.
Winifred Barr Rothenberg, From Market Places to a Market Economy: The Transformation of Rural Massachusetts, 1750–1850 (University of Chicago Press, 1992)

Reference Type: notes

Edmund Cody Burnett, The Continental Congress (New York: MacMillan Company, 1941)
Don Higginbotham, The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789, 2nd ed. (Northeastern University Press, 1983), 85, 98
Merrill Jensen, The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution, 1763–1776 (Oxford University Press, 1968), 557–560
Thomas Amory Lee, “The Lee Family of Marblehead,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. LII–LIII, (Salem, MA: Newcomb and Gauss, 1916, 1917), 33–48, 145–160, 225–240, 329–344; 65–80, 153–168, 257–287
“Sketches of the signers of the Declaration of Independence by Benjamin Rush, c. 1800,” in Henry Steele Commager and Richard B. Morris, eds., The Spirit of Seventy-Six: The Story of the American Revolution As Told by Participants, 4th ed. (New York: Da Capo Press, 1995), 275
George Athan Billias, Elbridge Gerry: Founding Father and Republican Statesman (New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1976)
Samuel E. Morrison, “Elbridge Gerry, Gentleman-Democrat,” The New England Quarterly., II (1929), 6–33
James T. Austin, The Life of Elbridge Gerry, With Contemporary Letters, To The Close of the American Revolution (Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1828)
Clifford K. Shipton, Sibley's Harvard Graduates (Harvard University Press, 1970), 239–259
Richard Buel, Jr., In Irons: Britain's Naval Supremacy and the American Revolutionary Economy (Yale University Press, 1998), 31–32
John H. Elliott, Empire of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492–1830 (Yale University Press, 2006)
Jonathan R. Dull, A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (Yale University Press, 1985)
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Thomas E. Chávez, Spain and the Independence of the United States: An Intrinsic Gift (University of New Mexico Press, 2002), 15, 61, 68, 85, 220
Don H. Kennedy, Ship Names: Origins and Usages During 45 Centuries (University of Virginia Press, 1974)
Jared Sparks, ed., The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, Vol. 7 (Boston: Nathan Hale and Gray & Bowen, 1830), 277
Richard Pares, War and Trade in the West Indies, 1739–1763 (Oxford University Press, 1936)
E. Wayne Carp, To Starve the Army at Pleasure: Continental Army Administration and American Political Culture, 1775–1783 (University of North Carolina Press, 1984)
J. F. Jameson, “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution,” American Historical Review, Vol. 8, No. 4 (July 1903), 688
Robert Greenhalgh Albion and Jennie Barnes Pope, Sea Lanes in Wartime: The American Experience, 1775–1942 (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1942), 51–52
“Robert Morris to the Commissioners at Paris, Philadelphia, December 21, 1776,” Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, Vol. 2 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1889), 237
Clarence L. Ver Steeg, Robert Morris, Revolutionary Financier (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1954)
David Syrett, “Defeat at Sea: The Impact of American Naval Operations upon the British, 1775–1778,” in Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution (Washington, DC: Naval History Division, Department of the Navy, 1977), 13–22
Nathan Miller, Sea of Glory: A Naval History of the American Revolution (Charleston, SC: The Nautical & Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1974), 22–38

Reference Type: notes

Faneuil Hall, December 11, 1781. Gentlemen, the inhabitants of the town of Boston… (Boston: Benjamin Edes and Sons, 1781)
“Description of Chatham, In The County of Barnstable, September, 1802,” in Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, First Series, Vol. 8 (New York: Johnson's Reprint Corporation, 1968), 153.
Faneuil Hall, December 11, 1781. Gentlemen, the inhabitants of the town of Boston… (Boston: Benjamin Edes and Sons, 1781)
Brooke Hunter, “Wheat, War, and the American Economy during the Age of Revolution,” The William & Mary Quarterly., Vol. 62, No. 3 (July 2005), 505–526
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Reference Type: notes

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