Human Evolution and Christian Ethics


Can the origins of morality be explained entirely in evolutionary terms? If so, what are the implications for Christian moral theology and ethics? Is the latter redundant, as socio-biologists often assert? Stephen Pope argues that theologians need to engage with evolutionary theory rather than ignoring it. He shows that our growing knowledge of human evolution is compatible with Christian faith and morality, provided that the former is not interpreted reductionistically and the latter is not understood in fundamentalist ways. Christian ethics ought to incorporate evolutionary approaches to human nature to the extent that they provide helpful knowledge of the conditions of human flourishing, both collective and individual. From this perspective, a strong affirmation of human dignity and appreciation for the theological virtues of faith, hope and charity is consistent with a revised account of natural law and the cardinal virtues.


 Reviews:

"Public conflicts between science and religion tend to pit evolutionary biology against creationist critics, especially where the origins of human life are concerned. Stephen Pope focuses on these issues in Human Evolution and Christian Ethics. Pope argues that evolutionary theory makes important positive contributions to our understanding of human flourishing and the role of faith in the development of human life."
-Christian Century

Stephen Pope's Human Evolution and Christian Ethics is a remarkable achievement in the field of science and religion. ... Pope makes an important contribution to the scholarly literature on Christian faith and its engagement with evolution." --Anglican Theological Review

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Alexander, Richard D., Darwinism and Human Affairs, Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1979.
Alexander, Richard D., The Biology of Moral Systems, New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1987.
Andolsen, Barbara Hilkert, “Agape in Feminist Ethics,” in Lois K. Daly, ed., Feminist Theological Ethics, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1994, pp. 146–159.
Aquinas, Thomas, Summa Theologiae, 3 vols., trans. English Dominican Province, New York: Benziger Brothers, 1946; Rome: Marietti, 1948.
Aquinas, Thomas, Summa contra Gentiles, On the Truth of the Catholic Faith: Summa contra Gentiles, Book One, trans. Anton C. Pegis., New York: Image, 1955.
Aquinas, Thomas, Summa contra Gentiles, On the Truth of the Catholic Faith: Summa contra Gentiles, Book Two, trans. James F. Anderson, New York: Image, 1955.
Aquinas, Thomas, Summa contra Gentiles, On the Truth of the Catholic Faith: Summa contra Gentiles, Book Three, trans. Vernon J. Bourke, New York: Image, 1955.
Aquinas, Thomas, De Veritate, Disputed Questions on the Virtues, trans. E. M. Atkins, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Aristotle, “The Rhetoric,” in Richard McKeon, ed., trans. ed. W. Rhys Roberts, The Basic Works of Aristotle, New York: Random House, 1941.
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1962.
Arnhart, Larry, Darwinian Natural Right: The Biological Ethics of Human Nature, Albany, NY: SUNY, 1998.
Arnhart, Larry,“Thomistic Natural Law as Darwinian Natural Right,” Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (winter 2001), 1–33.
Arnhart, Larry,“The Darwinian Moral Sense and Biblical Religion,” in Philip Clayton and Jeffrey Schloss, eds., Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004, pp. 205–220.
Artigas, Mariono, Galileo in Rome: The Rise and Fall of a Troublesome Genius, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, trans. D. W. Robertson, Jr., Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958.
Augustine, Concerning the City of God against the Pagans, trans. Henry Bettenson, New York: Penguin, 1984.
Augustine, Confessions, trans. Henry Chadwick, New York: Penguin, 1992.
Axelrod, David, The Evolution of Cooperation, New York: Basic Books, 1984.
Ayala, Francisco J., “The Autonomy of Biology as a Natural Science,” in A. D. Breck and W. Youngrau, eds., Biology, History, and Natural Philosophy, New York: Plenum Press, 1972, pp. 1–16.
Ayala, Francisco J.,“Introduction,” in Francisco J. Ayala and Theodosius Dobzhansky, eds., Studies in the Philosophy of Biology: Reduction and Related Problems, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
Ayala, Francisco J.,“Reduction in Biology: A Recent Challenge,” in David Depew and Bruce Weber, eds., Evolution at the Crossroads, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985, pp. 67–78.
Ayala, Francisco J.,“Biological Reductionism: The Problems and Some Answers,” in F. E. Yates, ed., Self-Organizing Systems: The Emergence of Order, New York: Plenum Press, 1987, pp. 315–324.
Ayala, Francisco J.,“The Biological Roots of Morality,” in Paul Thompson, ed., Issues in Evolutionary Ethics, Albany: State University of New York, 1995, pp. 293–316.
Ayala, Francisco J.,“The Difference of Being Human,” in Holmes Rolston III, ed., Biology, Ethics, and the Origins of Life, Boston and London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1995, pp. 117–135.
Ayala, Francisco J.,“Biological Evolution: An Introduction,” in James B. Miller, ed., An Evolving Dialogue: Scientific, Historical, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives on Evolution, Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1998, pp. 9–54.
Ayala, Francisco J.,“Darwin's Devolution: Design without a Designer,” in Robert John Russell, William R. Stoeger, SJ, and Francisco J. Ayala, eds., Evolutionary and Molecular Biology: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action, Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, and Berkeley, CA: Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, 1998, pp. 101–116.
Bacon, Francis, The Advancement of Learning, Book I, ed. Hugh G. Dick, New York: Random House, 1955.
Barash, David, The Whisperings Within: Evolution and the Origin of Human Nature, New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
Barbour, Ian, Religion in an Age of Science, San Francisco: Harper, 1990.
Barbour, Ian, Religion and Science: Historical and Contemporary Issues, San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1998.
Barbour, Ian,“Neuroscience, Artificial Intelligence, Human Nature,” in Robert John Russell, Nancey Murphy, Theo C. Meyering, and Michael A. Arbib, eds., Neuroscience and the Person: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action, Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, and Berkeley, CA: Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, 2002, pp. 249–280.
Barker, Eileen, “Apes and Angels: Reductionism, Selection, and Emergence in the Study of Man,” Inquiry 19 (1976), 367–399.
Barkow, Jerome H., Cosmides, Leda, and Tooby, John, The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Baron-Cohen, Simon, “The Evolution of a Theory of Mind,” in Michael C. Corballis and Stephen E. G. Lea, eds., The Descent of Mind: Psychological Perspectives on Hominid Evolution, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 261–277.
Barr, James, Biblical Faith and Natural Theology, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
Barth, Karl, Church Dogmatics iii/4, trans. A. T. Mackay et al., Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1961.
Batson, C. Daniel, The Altruism Question: Toward a Social Psychological Answer, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991.
Beckstrom, E. G., Darwinism Applied: Evolutionary Paths to Social Goals, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993.
Behe, Michael, Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Beilby, James, ed., Naturalism Defeated? Essays on Plantinga's Evolutionary Argument against Naturalism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.
Bellah, Robert, Sullivan, William M., Tipton, Steven M., Madsen, Richard, and Swidler, Ann, eds., Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life, San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1985.
Berlin, Isaiah, Four Essays on Liberty, London and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Berra, Tim M., Evolution and the Myth of Creationism: A Basic Guide to the Facts in the Evolution Debate, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990.
Blackburn, Simon, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Blanshard, Brand, “The Case for Determinism,” in Sidney Hook, ed., Determinism and Freedom in the Age of Modern Science, New York: Collier Books, 1958, pp. 3–15.
Bleier, Ruth, ed., Feminist Approaches to Science, New York and London: Teachers College Press, 1986.
Boehm, Christopher, Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Bohm, David, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, Boston: Routledge, 1980.
Bourke, Vernon, Will in Western Thought: An Historico-Critical Survey, New York: Sheed and Ward, 1964.
Bowler, Peter J., Evolution: The History of an Idea, revised edn., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
Boyd, Craig A., “Was Thomas Aquinas a Sociobiologist? Thomistic Natural Law, Rational Goods, and Sociobiology,” Zygon 39.3 (September 2004), 659–680.
Boyd, Craig A.,“Thomistic Natural Law and the Limits of Evolutionary Psychology,” in Philip Clayton and Jeffrey Schloss, eds., Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004, pp. 221–237.
Boyd, Craig A.,“Participation Metaphysics in Aquinas's Theory of the Natural Law,” American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 79.3 (2005), 169–185.
Boyd, Robert and Richerson, Peter J., Culture and the Evolutionary Process, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
Boyer, Pascal, Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought, New York: Basic Books, 2001.
Bradie, Michael, “The Moral Status of Animals in Eighteenth Century British Philosophy,” in Jane Maienschein and Michael Ruse, eds., Biology and the Foundations of Ethics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 32–51.
Brooke, John H., “The Relations between Darwin's Science and His Religion,” in John Durant, ed., Darwinism and Divinity, New York and Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985, pp. 40–75.
Brooke, John H., Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Brooke, John H., Lindberg, David C., and Numbers, Ronald L., eds., God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter between Christianity and Science, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M., “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay,” Nature 425 (September 2003), 297–299.
Brosnan, Sarah F., Schiff, Hillary C., and de Waal, Frans B. M., “Tolerance for Social Inequity may Increase with Social Closeness in Chimpanzees,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272, no. 1560 (February 2005), 253–258.
Brown, Raymond E., The Community of the Beloved Disciple, Ramsey, NY: Paulist Press, 1979.
Brown, Warren, Murphy, Nancey, and Maloney, H. Newton, eds., Whatever Happened to the Soul?, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998.
Browne, E. Janet, Charles Darwin: Voyaging, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Browne, E. Janet, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place, New York: Knopf, 2002.
Browning, Don, “Science and Religion on the Nature of Love,” in Stephen G. Post, Lynn G. Underwood, Jeffrey P. Schloss, and William B. Hurlbut, eds., Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 335–345.
Browning, Don, Christian Ethics and the Moral Psychologies, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2007.
Browning, Don, Miller-McLemore, Bonnie J., Coture, Pamela D., Lyon, K. Brinolf, and Franklin, Robert, eds., From Culture Wars to Common Ground: Religion and the American Family Debate, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1997.
Bube, Richard H., “The Failure of the God-of-the-Gaps,” in James E. Huchingson, ed., Religion and the Natural Sciences: The Range of Engagement, Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 1993, pp. 131–140.
Burnaby, John, Amor Dei, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1938.
Burrell, David B., CSC, Freedom and Creation in Three Traditions, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993.
Burrell, David B., CSC, and Malits, Elena, CSC, Original Peace: Restoring God's Creation, Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press, 1997.
Buss, David M., The Evolution of Desire, New York: Basic Books, 1994.
Buss, David M., The Dangerous Passion: Why Jealousy Is as Necessary as Love and Sex, New York: Free Press, 2000.
Buss, David M., Haselton, M. G., Shackelford, T. K., Bleske, A. L., and Wakefield, J. C., “Adaptations, Exaptations, and Spandrels,” American Psychologist 53 (1998), 533–548.
Byrne, Richard W. and Whiten, Andrew, eds., Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.
Cahill, Lisa S., “Women, Marriage, Parenthood: What Are Their ‘Natures’?” Logos: Philosophical Issues in Christian Perspective 9 (1988), 11–35.
Cahill, Lisa S., Sex, Gender, and Christian Ethics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Cahill, Lisa S.,“Toward Global Ethics,”Theological Studies 63.2 (June 2002), 324–344.
Calvin, John, Institutes of the Christian Religion, 2 vols., trans. Lewis Ford Battles, Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960.
Campbell, Donald T., “Downward Causation in Hierarchically Organized Biological Systems,” in Francisco J. Ayala and Theodosius Dobzhansky, eds., Studies in the Philosophy of Biology: Reduction and Related Problems, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974, pp. 179–186.
Campbell, Donald T.,“On the Conflict between Biological and Social Evolution and the Concept of Original Sin,” Zygon 10 (1975), 234–249.
Campbell, Donald T.,“On the Conflicts between Biological and Social Evolution and between Psychology and Moral Tradition,” American Psychologist 30 (December 1975), 1103–1126.
Carnegie, Andrew, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, Lebanon, NH: Northeastern University Press, 1986.
Carroll, Robert L., Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Catechism of the Catholic Church, second edn., Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Ligouri Publications, 2000.
Cates, Diana Fritz, “The Virtue of Temperance,” in Stephen J. Pope, ed., The Ethics of Aquinas, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2002, pp. 321–339.
Cates, Diana Fritz,“The Religious Dimension of Ordinary Human Emotions: Working with Gustafson and Nussbaum,” Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 25.1 (2005), 35–53.
Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L. and Feldman, Marcus W., Cultural Transmission and Evolution, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981.
Clark, Stephen R. L., The Political Animal: Biology, Ethics and Politics, London and New York: Routledge, 1999.
Clark, Stephen R. L., Biology and Christian Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Clark, William R. and Grunstein, Michael, Are We Hardwired? The Role of Genes in Human Behavior, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Clayton, Philip, “Neuroscience, the Person, and God: An Emergentist Account,” in Robert John Russell, Nancey Murphy, Theo C. Meyering, and Michael A. Arbib, eds., Neuroscience and the Person: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action, Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, and Berkeley, CA: Center for Theology and Natural Sciences, 2002, pp. 181–214.
Clayton, Philip,“Biology and Purpose,” in Philip Clayton and Jeffrey Schloss, eds., Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004, pp. 332–333.
Clifford, Richard J., “The Hebrew Scriptures and the Theology of Creation,” Theological Studies 46 (1985), 507–523.
Clifford, Richard J.,“Creation in the Hebrew Bible,” in Robert J. Russell, William R. Stoeger, SJ, and George V. Coyne, SJ, eds., Physics, Philosophy, and Theology: A Common Quest for Understanding, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, and Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, 1988, pp. 160–164.
Cole, R. David,“Genetic Predestination?,”Dialog 33:1 (winter 1994), 17–22.
Conn, Walter, The Desiring Self, New York: Paulist Press, 1998.
Conors, Russell B., Jr. and McCormick, Patrick T., Character, Choices, and Community: Three Faces of Christian Ethics, Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press, 1998.
Conway Morris, Simon, The Crucible of Creation: The Burgess Shale and the Rise of Animals, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Conway Morris, Simon, Life's Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Crick, Francis C. H., Of Molecules and Man, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966.
Crippen, T. and Machalak, R., “The Evolutionary Foundations of Religious Life,” International Review of Sociology 3 (1989), 61–84.
Cronin, Helena, The Ant and the Peacock, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Crowe, Frederick E., SJ, “Complacency and Concern in the Thought of St. Thomas,” Theological Studies 20 (1959), 1–39, 198–230, 343–395.
Crowley, Paul G., SJ, Unwanted Wisdom: Suffering, the Cross, and Hope, New York and London: Continuum, 2005.
Curran, Charles E., Catholic Higher Education, Theology, and Academic Freedom, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990.
Curran, Charles E.,“Natural Law in Moral Theology,” in Charles E. Curran and Richard McCormick, SJ, eds., Readings in Moral Theology No. 7: Natural Law and Theology, Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press, 1991, pp. 247–295.
Curtiss, Susan, Genie: A Psycholinguistic Study of a Modern-Day “Wild Child,” New York: Academic Press, 1977.
Daly, Martin and Wilson, Margo, Sex, Evolution, and Behavior, North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press, 1978.
Daly, Martin and Wilson, Margo, Homicide, New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1988.
Damasio, Antonio, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, New York: Avon Books, 1994.
Damasio, Antonio, The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness, New York: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1999.
Damasio, Antonio,“A Note on the Neurobiology of Emotions,” in Stephen G. Post, Lynn G. Underwood, Jeffrey P. Schloss, and William B. Hurlbut, eds., Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 264–271.
D'Arcy, Martin C., The Mind and Heart of Love, Lion and Unicorn: A Study in Eros and Agape, Cleveland: World, 1964.
Dartmouth Medical School, the YMCA of the USA, and the Institute for American Values, Hardwired to Connect: The New Scientific Case for Authoritative Communities, New York: Institute for American Values, 2003.
Darwin, Charles, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, ed. Nora Barlow, London: Collins, 1958.
Darwin, Charles,Autobiography, in Charles Darwin and Thomas Henry Huxley: Autobiographies, ed. Gavin de Beer, London: Oxford University Press, 1974.
Darwin, Charles,Darwin: A Norton Critical Edition, second edn., ed. Philip Appleman, New York: W. W. Norton, 1979.
Darwin, CharlesThe Origin of Species, New York: Penguin, 1986.
Dawkins, Richard, The Selfish Gene, New York: Oxford, 1976.
Dawkins, Richard, The Extended Phenotype, New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Dawkins, Richard, The Blind Watchmaker, New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1986.
Dawkins, Richard,“Viruses of the Mind,” in B. Dahlbom, ed., Dennett and His Critics, New York: Blackwell, 1993, pp. 13–27.
Dawkins, Richard, River out of Eden, New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
Dawkins, Richard,“A Reply to Poole,” Science and Christian Belief 7.1 (April 1995), 45–50.
Dawkins, Richard, The God Delusion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006.
Dawkins, Richard and Krebs, J. R., “Arms Races within and between Species,” Proceedings of the Royal Society, series B, 205 (1979), 489–511.
Dembski, William, ed., Mere Creation: Science, Faith, and Intelligent Design, Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998.
Dennett, Daniel, Consciousness Explained, Boston: Back Bay Books, 1992.
Dennett, Daniel, Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
Descartes, René, Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, trans. Donald A. Cress, third edn., Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Co., 1993.
Desmond, Adrian and Moore, James, Darwin, New York: Penguin, 1992.
Desmond, Adrian and Moore, James, Darwin: The Life of a Tormented Evolutionist, New York: W. W. Norton, 1994.
De Waal, Frans B. M., Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals, Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1996.
De Waal, Frans B. M., Tree of Origin: What Primate Behavior Can Tell Us about Human Social Evolution, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
Dewan, Lawrence, OP, “Jean Porter on Natural Law,” The Thomist 66.2 (April 2002), 275–309.
Dewey, John, The Impact of Darwin on Philosophy: And Other Essays in Contemporary Thought, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1965 [1910].
Diamond, Jared, The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal, New York: HarperCollins, 1992.
Diamond, Jared, Why Is Sex Fun? The Evolution of Human Sexuality, New York: Basic Books, 1997.
Dobzhansky, Theodosius, “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution,” The American Biology Teacher 35 (March 1973), 125–129.
Dodds, Michael J., The Unchanging God of Love: A Study of the Teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas on Divine Immutability in View of Certain Contemporary Criticisms of this Doctrine, Fribourg, Switzerland: Editions Universitaires, 1986.
Dodds, Michael J.,“Thomas Aquinas, Human Suffering, and the Unchanging God of Love,” Theological Studies 52 (1991), 330–344.
Dorey, Emma, Dove, Alan, Fox, Jeff, Hodgson, John, and Niiler, Eric, “GMO Roundup,” Nature Biotechnology 18 (January 2000), 7.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor, The Brothers Karamazov, trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, New York: Vintage, 1990.
Drummond, Henry, The Ascent of Man, New York: James Pott and Company, 1894.
Duffy, Stephen, “Our Hearts of Darkness: Original Sin Revisited,” Theological Studies 49 (1988), 597–622.
Dupré, John, Darwin's Legacy: What Evolution Means Today, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Eagley, A. H., “The Science and Politics of Comparing Men and Women,” American Psychologist 50 (1995), 145–158.
Eagley, A. H., Ashmore, R. D., Makhijani, M. G., and Longo, I. C., “What Is Beautiful Is Good, But …: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype,” Psychological Bulletin 110 (1991), 109–128.
Edelman, Gerald M., Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind, New York: Penguin Press, 1992.
Edwards, Jonathan, Charity and Its Fruits, London: Banner of Truth Press, 1978.
Edwards, Paul, ed., Encyclopedia of Philosophy, New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc., and London: The Free Press, 1967.
Ehrlich, Paul, Human Natures: Genes, Cultures, and the Human Prospect, New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
Elders, Leo, The Philosophy of Nature of St. Thomas Aquinas: Nature, the Universe and Man, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1997.
Ellis, George F. R., Before the Beginning: Cosmology Explained, London and New York: Boyars/Bowerdean, 1993.
Ellis, George F. R.,“The Thinking Underlying the New ‘Scientific’ World-Views,” in Robert John Russell, William R. Stoeger, SJ, and Francisco J. Ayala, eds., Evolutionary and Molecular Biology: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action, Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, and Berkeley, CA: Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, 1998, pp. 251–280.
Engelhardt, H. Tristram, The Foundations of Ethics, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Farrer, Austin, A Science of God?, London: Geoffrey Bles, 1966.
Farrer, AustinFaith and Speculation, New York: New York University Press, 1967.
Fein, Helen, Imperial Crime and Punishment: The Massacre at Jallianwalla Bagh and British Judgment, 1919–1920, Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1977.
Finnis, John, Natural Law and Natural Rights, New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Finnis, John,“Is Natural Law Theory Compatible with Limited Government?” in Robert P. George, ed., Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 1–26.
Finnis, John, Aquinas: Moral, Political, and Legal Theory, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Fitzmyer, Joseph A., SJ, “The Letter to the Romans,” in Raymond E. Brown, SS, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ, and Roland A. Murphy, OCarm., eds., The Jerome Biblical Commentary, 2 vols., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968, pp. 830–868.
Flanagan, Owen, The Science of the Mind, second edn., London and Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.
Flanagan, Owen, Varieties of Moral Personality, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Flanagan, Owen, Self Expressions: Mind, Morals, and the Meaning of Life, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Flannery, Austin, OP, ed., Vatican Council II, in rev. trans., Northport, NY and Dublin: Costello Publishing Company, 1996.
Flannery, Austin,“Dei Verbum: Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation,” Vatican Council II, in rev. trans., Northport, NY and Dublin: Costello Publishing Company, 1996, pp. 97–115.
Flannery, Austin,“Gaudium et spes: Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World,” Vatican Council II, in rev. trans., Northport, NY and Dublin: Costello Publishing Company, 1996, pp. 163–282.
Frank, Robert H., Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions, London and New York: W. W. Norton, 1988.
Frank, Robert H., Golivich, Thomas, and Regan, Dennis T., “Does Studying Economics Inhibit Cooperation?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 7.2 (1993), 168–170.
Frankfurt, Harry, “Freedom of the Will and the Concept of the Person,” Journal of Philosophy 68 (January 1971), 5–20.
Fuchs, Josef, SJ, Personal Responsibility and Christian Morality, trans. William Cleves et al., Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, and Dublin: Gill and MacMillan, 1983.
Fuentes, Augustin, “Revisiting Conflict Resolution: Is There a Role for Emphasizing Negotiation and Cooperation instead of Conflict and Reconciliation?,” in Robert W. Sussman and Audrey R. Chapman, eds., The Origins and Nature of Sociality, Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 2004, pp. 215–234.
Gadamer, Hans Georg, Truth and Method, trans. J. Weinsheimer and D. Marshall, second rev. edn., New York: Continuum, 1989; originally published 1972.
Gallagher, David, “The Will,” in Stephen J. Pope, ed., The Ethics of Aquinas, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2002, pp. 69–89.
Gallup, G., Anderson, J., and Shillito, D., “The Mirror Test,” in M. Berkoff, C. Allen, and G. Burghardt, eds., The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002, pp. 325–333.
George, Robert P., and Bradley, Gerald V., “Marriage and the Liberal Imagination,” Georgetown Law Journal 84 (1995), 301–320.
Ghiseln, Michael, The Economy of Nature and the Evolution of Sex, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
Giberson, Karl W. and Yerxa, Donald, Species of Origins: America's Search for a Creation Story, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.
Gilkey, Langdon, Creationism on Trial, San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1985.
Gilkey, Langdon, Nature, Reality, and the Sacred, Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Press, 1993.
Gillespie, Neil, Charles Darwin and the Problem of Creation, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
Gilson, Etienne, History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages, New York: Random House, 1955.
Gilson, Etienne, The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, New York: Random House, 1956.
Gilson, Etienne,“The Corporeal World and the Efficacy of Secondary Causes,” in Owen Thomas, ed., God's Activity in the World: The Contemporary Problem, Chicago: Scholars Press, 1983, pp. 213–230.
Gingerich, Owen, “Truth in Science: Proof, Persuasion, and the Galileo Affair,” Perspectives in Science and Christian Faith 55.2 (June 2003), 80–87.
Goldberg, Steven, Seduced by Science, New York: New York University Press, 1999.
Goodall, Jane, In the Shadow of Man, New York: Random House, 1974.
Gould, Stephen Jay, Ever since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History, New York: W. W. Norton, 1977.
Gould, Stephen Jay,“Biological Potential vs. Biological Determinism,” in Arthur L. Caplan, ed., The Sociobiology Debate, New York: Harper and Row, 1978, pp. 343–351; originally printed in Natural History Magazine, May 1976.
Gould, Stephen Jay, The Mismeasure of Man, New York: W. W. Norton, 1981.
Gould, Stephen Jay, Hens’ Teeth and Horses’ Toes: Reflections in Natural History, New York: Norton, 1983.
Gould, Stephen Jay, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History, New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1989.
Gould, Stephen Jay,“Tires to Sandals,” Natural History 98 (April 1989), 8–15.
Gould, Stephen Jay,“Exaptation: A Crucial Tool for Evolutionary Psychology,” Journal of Social Issues 47 (1991), 43–65.
Gould, Stephen Jay, Eight Little Piggies, New York: Penguin, 1993.
Gould, Stephen Jay, Flamingo's Smile: Reflections in Natural History, New York: Norton, 1997.
Gould, Stephen Jay, Life's Grandeur: The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York: Random House, 1997.
Gould, Stephen Jay,“On Embryos and Ancestors,” Natural History (July/August 1998), 20–22, 58–65.
Gould, Stephen Jay, Rock of Ages: Science and Religion and the Fullness of Life, New York: Ballantine, 1999.
Gould, Stephen Jay and Eldredge, Niles, “Punctuated Equilibria: The Tempo and Mode of Evolution Reconsidered,” Paleobiology 3 (1977), 115–151.
Gould, Stephen Jay and Lewontin, S., “The Spandrels of San Marcos and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme,” Proceedings of the Royal Society, series B, 205 (1979), 581–598.
Gowaty, Patricia, “Evolutionary Biology and Feminism,” Human Nature 3 (1992), 217–249.
Gowaty, Patricia, ed., Feminism and Evolutionary Biology, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1997.
Gregerson, Niels, Drees, Williem B., and Gorman, Ulf, eds., The Human Person in Science and Theology, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 2000.
Grisez, Germaine, “The First Principle of Practical Reason: A Commentary on Summa Theologica Ia IIae, q.94 a. 2,” Natural Law Forum 10 (1965), 162–201.
Gula, Richard M., SS, Reason Informed by Faith: Foundations of Catholic Morality, Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press, 1989.
Gustafson, James M., Christian Ethics and the Community, New York: Pilgrim Press, 1971; second edn. 1979.
Gustafson, James M., Theology and Christian Ethics, Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1974.
Gustafson, James M., Protestant and Roman Catholic Ethics: Prospects for Rapprochement, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.
Gustafson, James M.,“Sociobiology: A Secular Theology,” The Hastings Center Report 9.1 (February 1979), 44–45.
Gustafson, James M., Ethics from a Theocentric Perspective, 2 vols., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981; second edn., 1983.
Gustafson, James M.,“The Sectarian Temptation: Reflections on Theology, the Church, and the University,” Proceedings of the Catholic Theological Society of America 40 (1985), 83–94.
Gustafson, James M., Varieties of Moral Discourse: Prophetic, Narrative, Ethical, and Policy, Grand Rapids, MI: Calvin College and Seminary, 1988.
Gustafson, James M., A Sense of the Divine: The Natural Environment from a Theocentric Perspective, Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1994.
Gustafson, James M., Intersections: Science, Theology, and Ethics, Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press, 1996.
Gustafson, James M., An Examined Faith: The Grace of Self-Doubt, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2004.
Gutierrez, Gustavo, A Theology of Liberation, trans. Sister Caidad Inda and John Eagleson, revised edn., Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 1988.
Hall, Pamela M., Narrative and the Natural Law: An Interpretation of Thomistic Ethics, Notre Dame, IN and London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.
Hallie, Philip, Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed, New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
Hamilton, W. D., “The Genetic Evolution of Social Behavior,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1–2 (1964), 1–52.
Hamilton, W. D.,“Innate Social Aptitudes of Man: An Approach from Evolution Genetics,” in Robin Fox, ed., Biosocial Anthropology, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975, pp. 133–135.
Hare, John, “Is There an Evolutionary Foundation for Human Morality?,” in Philip Clayton and Jeffrey Schloss, eds., Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004, pp. 187–203.
Harrington, Daniel J., SJ, The Church according to the New Testament, Franklin, WI and Chicago: Sheed and Ward, 2001.
Harrington, Daniel J., SJ, and Keenan, James F., SJ, Jesus and Virtue Ethics: Building Bridges between New Testament Studies and Moral Theology, Lanham: Sheed and Ward, 2002.
Hauerwas, Stanley, A Community of Character: Toward a Constructive Christian Social Ethic, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981.
Hauerwas, Stanley, Against the Nations, Minneapolis: Winston Press, 1985.
Hauerwas, Stanley,“Why the Truth Demands Truthfulness,” in Stanley Hauerwas and L. Gregory Jones, eds., trans. ed. David Smith, Why Narrative? Readings in Narrative Theology, Eugene: Wipe Stick Publications, 1997, pp. 303–310.
Hauerwas, Stanley and Burrell, David, “From System to Story: An Alternative Pattern for Rationality in Ethics,” in Stanley Hauerwas and L. Gregory Jones, eds., trans. ed. David Smith, Why Narrative? Readings in Narrative Theology, Eugene: Wipe Stick Publications, 1997, pp. 158–190.
Haught, John, Science and Religion: From Conflict to Conversation, Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press, 1995.
Hausfater, Glenn and Hrdy, Sarah B., eds., Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives, New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1984.
Hawkes, Nigel, “Science into Religion Won't Go – Or Will It? Rock of the Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life,” The Tablet, March 3, 2001, pp. 309–10.
Hawking, Stephen, A Brief History of Time, New York: Bantam Books, 1988.
Hefner, Philip, The Human Factor: Evolution, Culture, and Religion, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.
Hefner, Philip,“The Evolution of the Created Co-Creator,” in James B. Miller, ed., An Evolving Dialogue: Scientific, Historical, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives on Evolution, Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1998, pp. 403–420.
Hefner, Philip,“Imago Dei: The Possibility and Necessity of the Human Person,” in Niels Gregerson, Williem B. Drees, and Ulf Gorman, eds., The Human Person in Science and Theology, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 2000, pp. 73–94.
Hefner, Philip, Technology and Human Becoming, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.
Hittinger, Russell, A Critique of the New Natural Law Theory, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989.
Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan, New York: Collier, 1962.
Hobbes, Thomas,Leviathan: Or the Matter, Forms and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil, ed. Michael Oakeshott, New York: Collier, 1977.
Hoffmann, Bruce, Inside Terrorism, New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
Hollenbach, David, SJ, Claims in Conflict: Renewing and Retrieving the Human Rights Tradition, New York: Paulist Press, 1979.
Hollenbach, David, SJ,The Common Good and Christian Ethics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Hollenbach, David, SJ,The Global Face of Public Faith: Politics, Human Rights, and Christian Ethics, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.
The Holy Bible, New Revised Standard Version, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Horgan, John, “The New Social Darwinists,” Scientific American 273 (October 1995), 174–182.
Howard, David, Conquistador in Chains: Cabeza de Vaca and the Indians of the Americas, Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama, 1997.
Hrdy, Sarah, The Woman that Never Evolved, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.
Hrdy, Sarah,“Introduction: Female Reproductive Strategies,” in M. Small, ed., Female Primates: Studies by Women Primatologists, New York: Alan Liss, 1984, pp. 13–16.
Hrdy, Sarah,“Raising Darwin's Consciousness: Female Sexuality and the Prehominid Origins of Patriarchy,” Human Nature 8 (1997), 1–49.
Hütter, Reinhard and Dieter, Theodor, eds., Ecumenical Ventures in Ethics: Protestants Engage Pope John Paul's Moral Encyclicals, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998.
Huxley, Aldous, The Olive Tree, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1937.
Huxley, Thomas H., Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays, New York: D. Appleton, 1894; reprinted in Issues in Evolutionary Ethics, ed. Paul Thompson, Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1995, pp. 111–150.
Irenaeus, “Irenaeus against Heresies,” in Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds., The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, and Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1989, pp. 309–567.
Irons, William, “How Did Morality Evolve?,” Zygon 26 (March 1991), 49–89.
Jaki, Stanley, The Road of Science and the Ways to God, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.
Janssens, Louis, “Norms and Priorities in a Love Ethics,” Louvain Studies 6 (1977), 207–238.
Janssens, Louis,“Artificial Insemination: Ethical Considerations,” Louvain Studies 5 (1980), 3–29.
Janssens, Louis,“Ontic Good and Evil – Premoral Values and Disvalues,” Louvain Studies 12 (1987), 62–82.
John Paul II, Familiaris consortio: Apostolic Exhortation on the Family, (November 22, 1981), United States Catholic Conference, Washington, D.C., 1982.
John Paul II,“Mulieris dignitatem: ‘On the Dignity and Vocation of Woman,’” Origins 18/17 (October 6, 1988), 261–83.
John Paul II,“Letter to the Rev. George V. Coyne, S. J.,” Origins 18 (November 17, 1988), 375–378.
John Paul II, Centesimus Annus: On the Hundredth Anniversary of Rerum Novarum, Washington, DC: United States Catholic Conference, 1991.
John Paul II,“Lessons of the Galileo Case: Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, October 31, 1992,” Origins 22 (1992), 371–373.
John Paul II, The Splendor of Truth: Veritatis Splendor, Washington, DC: United States Catholic Conference, 1993.
John Paul II,“Evangelium Vitae,” The Gospel of Life: On the Value and Inviolability of Human Life, Washington, DC: United States Catholic Conference, 1995.
John Paul II,“Address to the United Nations General Assembly,” Origins 25 (October 19, 1995), 270.
John Paul II,“Message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on Evolution,” Origins 26.2 (November 14, 1996), 349–352.
John Paul II, Fides et Ratio: On the Relationship between Faith and Reason, Boston: Daughters of St. Paul, 1998.
John Paul II,“God Made Man the Steward of Creation,” Papal Audience January 24, 2001, L'Osservatore Romano (January 2001), 11.
John Paul II,“Communion and Stewardship: Human Persons Created in the Image of God,” Origins 34.15 (September 23, 2004), 233–248.
Johnson, Elizabeth, CSJ, “Does God Play Dice? Divine Providence and Chance,” Theological Studies 56 (1996), 3–18; republished in James B. Miller, ed., An Evolving Dialogue: Scientific, Historical, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives on Evolution, Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1998, pp. 355–373.
Johnson, Phillip E., Darwin on Trial, second edn., Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press [1991] 1993.
Jonas, Hans, The Imperative of Responsibility: In Search of an Ethics for the Technological Age, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
Kaufman, Stuart, At Home in the Universe, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Kayzer, William, A Glorious Accident: Understanding Our Place in the Cosmic Puzzle, New York: Freeman and Co., 1999.
Keenan, James F., SJ, “The Virtue of Prudence (IIa IIae, qq. 47–56),” in Stephen J. Pope, ed., The Ethics of Aquinas, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2002, pp. 259–271.
Keenan, James F., Moral Wisdom: Lessons and Texts from the Catholic Tradition, New York: Sheed and Ward, 2003.
Keenan, James F., The Works of Mercy: The Heart of Catholicism, Lanham: Sheed and Ward, 2005.
Kierkegaard, Søren, Works of Love, San Francisco: Harper, 1962.
King, Martin Luther, Jr., Strength to Love, Cleveland: Collins World, 1963.
Kirkpatrick, Lee A., Attachment, Evolution and the Psychology of Religion, New York: Guilford Press, 2004.
Kitcher, Philip, Abusing Science: The Case against Creationism, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982.
Kitcher, Philip, Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature, Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press, 1985.
Kitcher, Philip“Darwin's Achievements,” in N. Rescher, ed., Reason and Rationality in Natural Science, New York: University Press of America, 1985, pp. 127–189.
Koltermann, Rainer, “Evolution, Creation, and Church Documents,” Theology Digest 48.2 (2001), 124–132.
Kopelman, P. G., “Obesity as a Medical Problem,” Nature 404 (2000), 635–643.
Kopfensteiner, Thomas R., “The Metaphorical Structure of Normativity,” Theological Studies 58 (1997), 331–346.
Kramer, Peter D., Listening to Prozac, New York: Penguin, 1997.
Kuhn, Thomas S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.
Larson, Edward J., Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate over Science and Religion, San Francisco: Basic Books, 1997.
Lash, Nicholas, The Beginning and the End of “Religion,” New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Lash, Nicholas“Ideology, Metaphor, and Analogy,” in Stanley Hauerwas and L. Gregory Jones, eds., trans. ed. David Smith, Why Narrative? Readings in Narrative Theology, Eugene: Wipe Stick Publications, 1997, pp. 113–157.
Lauritzen, Paul, “Emotion and Religious Ethics,” Journal of Religious Ethics 16.2 (fall 1988), 307–324.
Lennox, James, “Aristotle on the Biological Roots of the Virtues: The Natural History of Natural Virtues,” in Jane Maienschein and Michael Ruse, eds., Biology and the Foundations of Ethics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 10–31.
Lewis, C. S., The Abolition of Man, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1974 [1944].
Lewis, C. S., The Four Loves, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960.
Lewontin, Richard C., “Billions and Billions of Demons,” New York Review of Books 44.1 (January 9, 1997), 28–32.
Lewontin, Richard C., Rose, Steven, and Kamin, Leon J., eds., Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology, and Human Nature, New York: Pantheon, 1984.
Lindbeck, George, The Nature of Doctrine: Religion and Theology in a Postliberal Age, Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1984.
Lorenz, Konrad, On Aggression, trans. Marjorie Kerr Wilson, New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1966.
Lottin, Odon, Le droit naturel chez Saint Thomas d'Aquin et ses prédécesseurs, second edn., Bruges: Beyaert, 1931.
Lottin, Odon, Etudes de morale histoire et doctrine, Belgium: Gembloux, 1961.
Lowe, E. J., “Ontology,” in Ted Honderich, ed., The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 634.
Lukes, Steven, Emile Durkheim, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985.
Lumsden, Charles J. and Wilson, Edward O., Genes, Mind, and Culture, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.
Lumsden, Charles J. and Wilson, Edward O., Promethean Fire, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.
MacIntyre, Alasdair, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, second edn., Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1984 [1980].
MacIntyre, Alasdair, Whose Justice? Which Rationality?, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.
MacIntyre, Alasdair, Dependent Rational Animals: Why Human Beings Need the Virtues, Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court Press, 1999.
Maurer, Armand, “Darwin, Thomists, and Secondary Causality,” The Review of Metaphysics 57 (March 2004), 491–514.
Mayr, Ernst, The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Mayr, Ernst, Towards a New Philosophy of Biology, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Mayr, Ernst, One Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Modern Evolutionary Thought, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Mayr, Ernst, What Evolution Is, New York: Basic Books, 2001.
McCabe, Herbert, God Matters, London: Cassell Publishers Limited, 1987.
McCabe, Herbert,The Good Life: Ethics and the Pursuit of Happiness, ed. Brian Davies, OP, London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005.
McCormick, Patrick, Sin as Addiction, Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press, 1989.
McCormick, Richard, SJ, The Critical Calling: Reflections on Moral Dilemmas since Vatican II, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1989.
McGill, Arthur, Suffering: A Test of Theological Method, Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1982.
McMullin, Ernan, “Values in Science,” in Peter D. Asquith and Thomas Nikles, eds., PSA 1982: Proceedings of the 1982 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, vol. ii, East Lansing, MI: Philosophy of Science Association, 1982, pp. 1–25.
McMullin, Ernan,“Evolution and Special Creation,” Zygon 28.1 (September 1993), 299–335.
McMullin, Ernan,“Evolutionary Contingency and Cosmic Purpose,” in Michael Himes and Stephen J. Pope, eds., Finding God in All Things: Essays in Honor of Michael J. Buckley, S. J., New York: Crossroad, 1996, pp. 140–161.
Metz, Johann Baptist, Faith in History and Society, trans. David Smith, New York: Crossroad, 1980.
Metz, Johann Baptist,“A Short Apology of Narrative,” in Stanley Hauerwas and L. Gregory Jones, eds., trans. ed. David Smith, Why Narrative? Readings in Narrative Theology, Eugene: Wipe Stick Publications, 1997, pp. 251–62.
Midgley, Mary, Beast and Man: The Roots of Human Nature, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1978.
Midgley, Mary, Wickedness: A Philosophical Essay, London and New York: ARK, 1984.
Midgley, Mary, Evolution as a Religion: Strange Hopes and Stranger Fears, London and New York: Methuen, 1985.
Midgley, Mary, The Ethical Primate: Humans, Freedom and Morality, London and New York: Routledge, 1994.
Midgley, Mary, Science as Salvation: A Modern Myth and Its Meaning, Florence, KY: Routledge, 1994.
Midgley, Mary,“Consciousness, Fatalism and Science,” in Niels Gregerson, Williem B. Drees, and Ulf Gorman, eds., The Human Person in Science and Theology, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 2000, pp. 21–40.
Miller, Kenneth, Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search for Common Ground between God and Evolution, New York: Cliff Street Books/HarperCollins, 1999.
Mivart, St. George, On the Genesis of Species, second edn., London: Macmillan, 1871.
Monod, Jacques, Chance and Necessity, trans. Austryn Wainhouse, New York: Vintage, 1972.
Montagu, Ashley, Science and Creationism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Moore, James R., The Post-Darwinian Controversies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Moore, James R.,“Herbert Spencer's Henchmen: The Evolution of Protestant Liberals in Late Nineteenth-Century America,” in John Durant, ed., Darwinism and Divinity: Essays on Evolution and Religious Belief, New York and Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985, pp. 76–100.
Murphy, Jeffrie, Evolution, Morality, and the Meaning of Life, Totowa: Roman and Littlefield, 1982.
Nash, James A., Loving Nature: Ecological Integrity and Christian Responsibility, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1991.
National Academy of Science, Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.
Neuhaus, Richard John, “A Continuing Survey of Religion and Public Life,” First Things 69 (1997), 56–70.
Nichols, Terence L., The Sacred Cosmos: Christian Faith and the Challenge of Naturalism, Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos, 2003.
Niditch, Susan, War in the Hebrew Bible: A Study in the Ethics of Violence, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Niebuhr, H. Richard, The Responsible Self, San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1963.
Niebuhr, Reinhold, An Interpretation of Christian Ethics, New York: Crossroad, 1935; second edn. 1979.
Niebuhr, Reinhold, Beyond Tragedy: Essays on the Christian Interpretation of History, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937.
Niebuhr, Reinhold, The Nature and Destiny of Man: A Christian Interpretation, 2 vols., New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1941.
Noonan, John T., Jr., The Lustre of Our Country: The American Experience of Religious Freedom, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
Numbers, Ronald R., The Creationists: The Evolution of Scientific Creationism, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Nussbaum, Martha, The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.
O'Hear, Anthony, Beyond Evolution: Human Nature and the Limits of Evolutionary Explanation, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
Outka, Gene, Agape: An Ethical Analysis, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972.
Outka, Gene,“Universal Love and Impartiality,” in Edmund N. Santurri and William Werpehowski, eds., The Love Commandments: Christian Ethics and Moral Philosophy, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1992, pp. 1–103.
Pannenberg, Wolfhart, “Human Life: Creation versus Evolution?,” in Ted Peters, ed., Science and Theology: The New Consonance, Cambridge, MA: Westview, 1998, pp. 137–148.
Paul VI, Humanae Vitae: On the Regulation of Birth (July 25, 1968), in The Gospel of Peace and Justice: Catholic Social Teaching since Pope John, Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1975, pp. 427–444.
Peacocke, Arthur R., Creation and the World of Science, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.
Peacocke, Arthur R., God and the New Biology, London: Dent, 1986.
Peacocke, Arthur R., Theology for a Scientific Age: Being and Becoming – Natural, Divine and Human, London: SCM Press, 1993.
Peacocke, Arthur R.,“A Map of Scientific Knowledge: Genetics, Evolution, and Theology,” in Ted Peters, ed., Science and Theology: The New Consonance, Cambridge, MA: Westview, 1998, pp. 189–210.
Penizias, Arno, “The Elegant Universe,” in Mark W. Richardson and Gordy Slack, eds., Faith in Science: Scientists Search for Truth, London: Routledge, 2001, pp. 18–34.
Penrose, Roger, The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Penrose, Roger, Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness, New York: Oxford, reprint, 1996.
Percy, Walker, Lost in the Cosmos: The Last Self-Help Book, New York: Macmillan, 2000.
Peters, Ted, Playing God?: Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom, New York and London: Routledge, 1997.
Peters, Ted, ed., Science and Theology: The New Consonance, Cambridge, MA: Westview, 1998.
Peterson, Gregory, “Falling Up: Evolution and Original Sin,” in Philip Clayton and Jeffrey Schloss, eds., Evolution and Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspective, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004, pp. 273–286.
Phipps, William E., Darwin's Religious Odyssey, Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 2002.
Pinckaers, Servais, La vie selon l'Esprit: essai de théologie spirituelle selon saint Paul et saint Thomas d'Aquin, Luxembourg: Editions Saint Paul, 1966.
Pinckaers, Servais, The Sources of Christian Ethics, Washington, DC: Catholic University of America, 1995.
Pinker, Steven, How the Mind Works, New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1997.
Placher, William, Unapologetic Theology: A Christian Voice in a Pluralistic Conversation, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1989.
Placher, William, Narratives of a Vulnerable God: Christ, Theology, and Scripture, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1994.
Placher, William,“Being Postliberal: A Response to James Gustafson,” Christian Century (April 7, 1999), 390–392.
Plantinga, Alvin, Warrant and Proper Function, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Plantinga, Alvin,“When Faith and Reason Clash: Evolution and the Bible,” in David Hull and Michael Ruse, eds., The Philosophy of Biology, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 674–697. Reprinted from Christian Scholars’ Review 21 (1991), 8–32.
Plato, “Lysis,” in C. D. C. Reed, ed., Plato on Love: Symposium, Phaedrus, Alcibiades, Lysis, with Selections from Republic and Laws, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Co., 2006, pp. 1–25.
Polkinghorne, John, Science and Providence, London: SPCK, 1989.
Polkinghorne, John, Science and Christian Belief, London: SPCK, 1994.
Polkinghorne, John,“The Metaphysics of Divine Action,” in Robert Russell, Nancey Murphy, and Arthur R. Peacocke, eds., Chaos and Complexity: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action, vol. ii., Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, 1996, pp. 147–156.
Poole, Michael, “A Critique of Aspects of the Philosophy and Theology of Richard Dawkins,” Science and Christian Belief 6.1 (April 1994), 41–59.
Poole, Michael“A Reply to Dawkins,” Science and Christian Belief 7.1 (April 1995), 51–58.
Pope, Stephen J., “Expressive Individualism and True Self-Love: A Thomistic Perspective,” The Journal of Religion 71 (1991), 384–398.
Pope, Stephen J., The Evolution of Altruism and the Ordering of Love, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1994.
Pope, Stephen J.,“ ‘Equal Regard’ versus ‘Special Relations’? Reaffirming the Inclusiveness of Agape,” Journal of Religion 25.1 (1997), 353–379.
Pope, Stephen J.,“Neither Enemy Nor Friend: Nature as Creation in the Theology of Saint Thomas Aquinas,” Zygon 32 (1997), 219–230.
Pope, Stephen J.,“Natural Law and Christian Ethics,” in Robin Gill, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Christian Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 77–95.
Pope, Stephen J.,“Relating Self, Others, and Sacrifice in the Ordering of Love,” in Stephen G. Post, Lynn G. Underwood, Jeffrey P. Schloss, and William B. Hurlbut, eds., Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 168–181.
Porter, Jean, Natural and Divine Law: Reclaiming the Tradition for Christian Ethics, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, and Cambridge: Novalis, 1999.
Porter, Jean, Nature as Reason: A Thomistic Theory of the Natural Law, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005.
Post, Stephen G., The Theory of Agape: On the Meaning of Christian Love, Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1990.
Post, Stephen G., The Moral Challenge of Alzheimer's Disease: Ethical Issues from Diagnosis to Dying, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
Post, Stephen G., Underwood, Lynn G., Schloss, Jeffrey P., and Hurlbut, William B., eds., Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Potts, Malcom and Scott, Roger, Ever since Eve: The Evolution of Human Sexuality, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Premack, David, and Woodruff, Guy, “Does the Chimpanzee Have a Theory of Mind?” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (1978), 515–526.
Provine, William, “Evolution and the Foundation of Ethics,” Marine Biological Laboratory Science 3 (1988), 27–28.
Rachels, James, Created from Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Rahner, Karl, SJ, On the Theology of Death, New York: Herder and Herder, 1961.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,Hominization: The Evolutionary Origin of Man as a Theological Problem, New York: Herder and Herder, 1965.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,“Christology within an Evolutionary View of the World,” trans. Karl H. Kruger, in Theological Investigations, vol. v: Later Writings, New York: Crossroad, 1966, pp. 157–192.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,“The Secret of Life,” trans. Karl H. Kruger and Boniface Kruger, in Theological Investigations, vol. vi: Concerning Vatican Council II, New York: Seabury Press, and London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1974, pp. 141–152.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,“The Theology of Freedom,” trans. Karl H. Kruger and Boniface Kruger, in Theological Investigations, vol. vi: Concerning Vatican Council II, New York: Seabury Press, and London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1974, pp. 178–196.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,“The Unity of Spirit and Matter in the Christian Understanding of Faith,” trans. Karl H. Kruger and Boniface Kruger, in Theological Investigations, vol. vi: Concerning Vatican Council II, New York: Seabury Press, and London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1974, pp. 153–177.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,“The Sin of Adam,” trans. David Bourke, in Theological Investigations, vol. xi: Confrontations One, London: Darton, Longman and Todd, and New York: Crossroad, 1982, pp. 247–262.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,“Why Does God Allow Us to Suffer?,” trans. Edward Quinn, in Theological Investigations, vol. xix: Faith and Ministry, New York: Crossroad, 1983, pp. 194–208.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,Foundations of the Christian Faith: An Introduction to the Idea of Christianity, trans. William V. Dych, New York: Crossroad, 1985.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,“Natural Science and Reasonable Faith,” trans. Hugh M. Riley, in Theological Investigations, vol. xxi: Science and Christian Faith, New York: Crossroad, 1988, pp. 16–55.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,“Nature as Creation,” in Karl Lehmann and Albert Raffelt, eds., trans. ed. Harvey D. Egan, SJ, The Content of Faith, New York: Crossroad, 1999, pp. 82–88.
Rahner, Karl, SJ,“The Mystery of the Human Person,” in Karl Lehmann and Albert Raffelt, eds., trans. ed. Harvey D. Egan, SJ, The Content of Faith, New York: Crossroad, 1999, pp. 73–81.
Reiss, D. and Marino, L., “Mirror Self-Recognition in Bottlenose Dolphin: A Case of Cognitive Convergence,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98.10 (May 2, 2001), 5937–5942.
Richards, Robert J., Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Richerson, Peter J. and Boyd, Robert, “Complex Societies: The Evolutionary Origins of a Crude Superorganism,” Human Nature 10 (1999), 253–290.
Richerson, Peter J. and Boyd, Robert,“Darwinian Evolutionary Ethics: between Patriotism and Sympathy,” in Philip Clayton and Jeffrey Schloss, eds., Evolutionary Ethics: Human Morality in Biological and Religious Perspectives, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004, pp. 50–77.
Ridley, Mark and Dawkins, Richard, “The Natural Selection of Altruism,” in J. Philippe Rushton and Richard M. Sorrentino, eds., Altruism and Helping Behavior: Social, Personality, and Developmental Perspectives, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1981, pp. 19–39.
Ridley, Matt, The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature, New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
Rolston, Holmes, III, Genes, Genesis, and God: Values and Their Origins in Natural and Human History, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Romero, Oscar, Voice of the Voiceless: The Four Pastoral Letters and Other Statements, trans. Michael J. Walsh, Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 1999.
Rose, Steven, Lifelines: Biology beyond Determinism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, Emile or On Education, trans. Alan Bloom, New York: Basic Books, 1979 [1762].
Rudwick, Martin J. S., The Meaning of Fossils, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
Rue, Loyal, By the Grace of Guile: The Role of Deception in Natural History and Human Affairs, New York: Oxford University, 1994.
Ruse, Michael, Darwinism Defended: A Guide to the Evolution Controversies, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1982.
Ruse, Michael, Taking Darwin Seriously: A Naturalistic Approach to Philosophy, New York: Basil Blackwell, 1986.
Ruse, Michael,“Evolutionary Ethics: Healthy Prospect or Last Infirmity?,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 14 (1988), 27–73.
Ruse, Michael,“Evolutionary Ethics and the Search for Predecessors: Kant, Hume, and All the Way Back to Aristotle?,” Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (1990), 59–85.
Ruse, Michael,“Evolutionary Theory and Christian Ethics,” Zygon 29 (1994), 5–24.
Ruse, Michael, Can a Darwinian Be a Christian?, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Ruse, Michael, ed., But Is It Science?, Amhurst, NY: Prometheus Press, 1996.
Ruse, Michael and Wilson, Edward O., “The Evolution of Ethics,” New Scientist 108 (October 17, 1985), 50–52.
Ruse, Michael and Wilson, Edward O.,“The Evolution of Morals,” in Michael Ruse, ed., The Philosophy of Biology, New York: Macmillan, 1989, pp. 313–317.
Russel, P. R., “Darwinism Examined,” Advent Review and Sabbath Herald 47 (1876), 153.
Russell, Sharman Apt, Hunger: An Unnatural History, New York: Basic Books, 2005.
Schloss, Jeffrey P., “Emerging Accounts of Altruism: ‘Love Creation's Final Law?’ ” in Stephen G. Post, Lynn G. Underwood, Jeffrey P. Schloss, and William B. Hurlbut, eds., Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 212–242.
Schneewind, Jerome B., The Invention of Autonomy: A History of Modern Moral Philosophy, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Schultz, Janice, “Is–Ought: Prescribing and a Present Controversy,” The Thomist 49 (January, 1985), 1–23.
Seabright, Paul, “The Evolution of Fairness Norms,” Politics, Philosophy & Economics 5.1 (2006), 33–50.
Shea, William R. and Artigas, Mariono, Galileo in Rome: The Rise and Fall of a Troublesome Genius, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Shklar, Judith N., The Faces of Injustice, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1990.
Simon, Yves, Freedom of Choice, ed. Peter Wolff, New York: Fordham University Press, 1969.
Simpson, George G., This View of Life: The World of an Evolutionist, New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963.
Singer, Peter, Practical Ethics, second edn., New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Singer, Peter, A Darwinian Left: Politics, Evolution, and Cooperation, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.
Singer, Peter, Animal Liberation, San Francisco: Harper, 2001.
Smith, David L., Why We Lie: The Evolutionary Roots of Deception and the Unconscious Mind, New York: St. Martin's Press, 2003.
Sober, Elliott, “When Natural Selection and Culture Conflict,” in Holmes Rolston III, ed., Biology, Ethics and the Origins of Life, Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 1995, pp. 137–161.
Sober, Elliot and Wilson, David Sloan, Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Sobrino, Jon, Witnesses to the Kingdom: The Martyrs of El Salvador and the Crucified Peoples, Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 2003.
Solomon, Robert, The Passions: Emotions and the Meaning of Life, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1976; second edn. 1993.
Spencer, Herbert, The Data of Ethics, New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1895.
Sperry, Roger, “The New Mentalist Paradigm and Ultimate Concern [part I],” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29.3 (spring 1986), 413–422.
Spohn, William C., Go and Do Likewise: Jesus and Ethics, New York: Continuum, 1999.
Stanford, Craig, Significant Others: The Ape–Human Continuum and the Quest for Human Nature, New York: Basic Books, 2001.
Stark, Rodney, The Rise of Christianity: A Sociologist Reconsiders History, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Steiner, Henry J. and Alston, Philip, International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals, second edn., New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Stocker, Michael, Valuing Emotions, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Stoeger, William R., SJ, “Contemporary Cosmology and Its Implications for the Science–Religion Dialogue,” in Robert John Russell, William R. Stoeger, SJ, and George V. Coyne, SJ, eds., Physics, Philosophy, and Theology: A Common Quest for Understanding, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press and Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, 1988, pp. 219–247.
Stoeger, William R., SJ,“Contemporary Physics and the Ontological Status of the Laws of Nature,” in Robert John Russell, William R. Stoeger, SJ, and George V. Coyne, SJ, eds., Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature – Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action, Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, and Berkeley, CA: Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, 1993, pp. 209–234.
Stoeger, William R., SJ,“Faith Reflects on the Evolving Universe,” in Michael Himes and Stephen J. Pope, eds., Finding God in All Things: Essays in Honor of Michael J. Buckley, S. J., New York: Crossroad, 1996, pp. 162–182.
Stoeger, William R., SJ,“The Immanent Directionality of the Evolutionary Process, and Its Relationship to Teleology,” in Robert John Russell, William R. Stoeger, SJ, and Francisco J. Ayala, eds., Evolutionary and Molecular Biology: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action, Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory Publications, and Berkeley, CA: Center for Theology and Natural Sciences, 1998, pp. 163–190.
Strawson, Peter F., Skepticism and Naturalism: Some Varieties, New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.
Sullivan, Andrew, Virtually Normal, New York: Vintage, 1996.
Sussman, Robert W. and Chapman, Audrey R., eds., The Origins and Nature of Sociality, Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 2004.
Sussman, Robert W. and Garber, Paul A., “Rethinking Sociality: Cooperation and Aggression among Primates,” in Robert W. Sussman and Audrey R. Chapman, eds., The Origins and Nature of Sociality, Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 2004, pp. 161–190.
Tannehill, Robert C., Luke, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996.
Tattersall, Ian, The Fossil Trail, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Tattersall, Ian,“Human Evolution,” in James B. Miller, ed., An Evolving Dialogue: Scientific, Historical, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives on Evolution, Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1998, pp. 99–210.
Tattersall, Ian, Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness, San Diego, New York, and London: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1998.
Tattersall, Ian, The Monkey in the Mirror: Essays on the Science of What Makes Us Human, Orlando, FL: Harvest Books, 2002.
Taylor, Charles, Human Agency and Language: Philosophical Papers, vol. i, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Taylor, Charles,“Atomism,” Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers, vol. ii, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 187–210.
Tertullian, De Carne Christi, Treatise on the Incarnation, trans. Ernest Evans, London: SPCK, 1956.
Theissen, Gerd, Biblical Faith: An Evolutionary Approach, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985.
Thornhill, Randy and Palmer, Craig, The Natural History of Rape: The Biological Basis of Sexual Coercion, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.
Toner, Jules, The Experience of Love, Washington and Cleveland: Corpus Books, 1968.
Toner, Jules, Love and Friendship, Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2003.
Tooby, J. and Cosmides, L., “The Psychological Foundations of Culture,” in J. Barkow, J. Tooby, and L. Cosmides, eds., The Adapted Mind, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 19–136.
Torrance, Thomas, Space, Time, and Resurrection, Edinburgh: Handsel, 1976.
Torrance, Thomas, Reality and Scientific Theology, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1985.
Torrance, Thomas, Theological Science, New York: Oxford, 1969; reissued by T. & T. Clark, 1996.
Toulmin, Stephen, Cosmopolis: The Hidden Agenda of Modernity, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
Travis, Cheryl Brown, ed., Changing Evolutionary Theories of Sex Differences and Rape: An Interdisciplinary Response to Thornhill and Palmer, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.
Trivers, Robert, “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism,” Quarterly Review of Biology 46 (1971), 35–57.
Trivers, Robert, Social Evolution, Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1985.
Trivers, Robert,“Parent–Offspring Conflict,” American Zoologist 14 (1994), 249–264.
Vacek, Edward Collins, Love Human and Divine: The Heart of Christian Ethics, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1998.
Vanier, Jean, Becoming Human, Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press, 1998.
Vann, Gerald, OP, The Pain of Christ and the Sorrow of God, Oxford: Blackfriars, 1947.
Van Till, Howard J., “The Character of Contemporary Natural Science,” in Howard J. Van Till, Robert E. Snow, John H. Steck, and Davis A. Young, Portraits of Creation: Biblical and Scientific Perspectives on the World's Creation, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990, pp. 141–145.
Van Till, Howard J.,“God and Evolution: An Exchange,” First Things (June/July 1993), pp. 32–41.
Van Till, Howard J., Snow, Robert E., Steck, John H., and Young, Davis A., Portraits of Creation: Biblical and Scientific Perspectives on the World's Formation, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990.
Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Donum Vitae: The Gift of Life, Vatican Instruction of Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and the Dignity of Procreation, February 22, 1987.
Vine, Ian, “Inclusive Fitness and the Self-System: The Roles of Human Nature and Sociocultural Processes in Intergroup Discrimination,” in V. Reynolds, V. Falger, and I. Vine, eds., The Sociobiology of Ethnocentrism, Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1987, pp. 60–80.
Vogel, Gretchen, “The Evolution of the Golden Rule,” Science 303 (February 2004), 1128–1131.
Ward, Keith, God, Chance, and Necessity, Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 1996.
Watts, Fraser, “Are We Really Nothing More than Neurons?” Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (1994), 275–279.
Westermann, Claus, Genesis 1–11: A Commentary, trans. John J. Scullion, second edn., Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1984.
Whitehead, Alfred, Process and Reality, New York: The Free Press edn., 1969.
Wiener, Philip P., Evolution and the Founders of Pragmatism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1949.
Wilberforce, Samuel, “On the Origin of Species,” Quarterly Review (1860), 225–264.
Wilkinson, Gerald S., “Reciprocal Food Sharing in the Vampire Bat,” Nature 308 (1984), 181–184.
Wilkinson, Gerald S.,“Food Sharing in Vampire Bats,” Scientific American (February 1990), 76–82.
William, Daniel Day, The Spirit and the Forms of Love, New York: Harper and Row, 1968.
Williams, Bernard, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.
Williams, George C., “Huxley's Evolution and Ethics in Sociobiological Perspective,” Zygon 23 (1988), 383–438.
Williams, George C., The Pony Fish's Glow, New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
Williams, Patricia A., Doing Without Adam and Eve: Sociobiology and Original Sin, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2001.
Williams, Rowan, Lost Icons: Reflections on Cultural Bereavement, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 2000.
Williams, Rowan, On Christian Theology, Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000.
Wilson, David Sloan, Darwin's Cathedral, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Wilson, David Sloan,“Evolution, Morality, and Human Potential,” in Steven Scher and Frederick Rauscher, eds., Evolutionary Psychology: Alternative Approaches, Boston: Kluwer, 2003.
Wilson, Edward O., Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
Wilson, Edward O., Biophilia: The Human Bond with Other Species, Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1984.
Wilson, Edward O., The Diversity of Life, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.
Wilson, Edward O., Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.
Wilson, Edward O., On Human Nature, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Wrangham, Richard and Peterson, Dale, Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence, Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1996.
Wright, John H., SJ, “The Eternal Plan of Divine Providence,” Theological Studies 27 (1966), 27–57.
Wright, John H., SJ,“Divine Knowledge and Human Freedom: The God Who Dialogues,” Theological Studies 38 (1977), 450–77.
Wright, Robert, The Moral Animal, New York: Vintage, 1995.
Wright, Robert,“God,” in Joseph A. Komonchak et al., eds., The New Dictionary of Theology, Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, Inc., 1987, pp. 423–436.
Yoder, John Howard, The Politics of Jesus, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1972.
Xenophon, Memorabilia, trans. Amy L. Bonnette, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1994.
Zirkle, Conway, “Species before Darwin,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 103.5 (October 15, 1959), 636–644.

Reference Title: ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

Reference Type: bibliography

NOVA, “Secret of the Wild Child” (March 4, 1997). Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2112gchild.html (accessed August 19, 2005).
The United Nations Children's Fund, “State of the World's Children 2005.” Available at http://www.unicef.org/media/media_10958.html (accessed December 20, 2004).
The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Gen. Conf. Res. 29 C/ Res. 16, “Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights” (1997, 1999). Available at www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/Udhrhg.htm (accessed August 24, 2005).
World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, “Malaria Is Alive, Well & Killing more than 3000 Children a Day in Africa” (April 25, 2003). Available at http://www.unicef.org/media/media_7701.html (accessed December 20, 2004).