Private Power and Global Authority

Transnational Merchant Law in the Global Political Economy

Private Power and Global Authority

Claire Cutler's critical analysis of the role that international economic law plays in the creation and maintenance of global power relations examines the historical and contemporary evolution of merchant law. She concludes that private interests have governed global economic relations through practices that are little understood. Interdisciplinary in scope, this study draws upon international relations and law, international political economy and political and legal theories. It will be an important first step toward developing a critical understanding of the political foundations of transnational merchant law.


 Reviews:

'… a very valuable step towards embracing a more comprehensive view of the complexity of developments in national, international and transnational law … Private Power and Global Authority deserves to be highlighted in many respects … a much needed study in internal relations. It is, in fact, more precisely a crucial report on international affairs.' EJIL

'… constitutes a very valuable step towards embracing a more comprehensive view of the complexity of developments in national, international and transnational law … a worthy attempt to visit and revisit the traditional approaches with which we have all been trained and professionalized … Private Power and Global Authority deserves to be highlighted in many respects … a much-needed study … a crucial report on internal affairs …'. European Journal of International Law

'What is interesting, and of high academic importance, is the way in which the author transcends the mere description of the transnational merchant law and places it into its true historical perspective.' Uniform Law Review


 Prizes:

2005 Weller Prize by the British Columbia Political Studies Association for the Best Book by a B.C. Political Scientist in 2003 - 2004
“Unification of the Law of International Trade: Note by the Secretariat,” Official Records of the General Assembly, Twentieth Session, Annexes, agenda item 92, UN Doc. A/C. 6/L.572, reprinted in United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Yearbook 1968–73, vol. I, p. 17.
“Working Methods of the Commission: Note by the Secretariat,” UN Doc. A/Conf. 9/299, reprinted in United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Yearbook 1988, vol. XIX, pp. 165–69.
Development of Guidelines on the Role and Social Responsibilities of the Private Sector, Report of the Secretary General of the United Nations 24 February, A/AC. 253/21, February 24, 2000.
Report of the Secretary-General on the Progressive Development of the Law of International Trade, UN Doc. A/6396, reprinted in United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Yearbook 1968–70, vol I, pp. 18–45.
Report of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law on the Work of its Ninth Session, UN Doc. A/Conf. 31/17, reprinted in United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Yearbook 1978, vol. IX, pp. 3–9.
Report of the United Nations on the Progressive Development of the Law of International Trade, UN Doc. A/6396, reprinted in United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Yearbook 1968–70, vol. I, pp. 58–65.
Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, 3 vols., 1907–1909, Boston: Little, Brown and Co.
Abbot, Kenneth and Duncan Snidal 2000, “Hard and Soft Law in International Governance,” International Organization 54 (3): 421–56
Abbot, Kenneth, Robert Keohane, Andrew Moravcsik, Anne-Marie Slaughter, and Duncan Snidal 2000, “The Concept of Legalization,” International Organization 54 (3): 401–20
Abbott, Alden F. 1976, “Latin America and International Arbitration Conventions: The Quandary of Non-ratification,” Harvard International Law Journal 17 (1): 131–40
Abbott, Frederick M. 2000, “North American Free Trade Agreement and the Legalization of World Politics: A Case Study,” International Organization 54 (3): 519–47
Abbott, Kenneth 1992, “International Law and International Relations Theory: Building Bridges – Elements of a Joint Discipline,” Proceedings of the American Society of International Law 86: 167–72
Agnew, John 1994, “The Territorial Trap: The Geographical Assumptions of International Relations Theory,” Review of International Political Economy 1 (1): 53–80
Agnew, John and Stuart Corbridge 1995, Mastering Space: Hegemony, Territory and the International Political Economy, London: Routledge
Ago, Roberto 1957, “Positive Law and International Law,” American Journal of International Law 51 (4): 691–733
Akehurst, Michael 1987, A Modern Introduction to International Law, 6th edn, London and New York: Routledge
Aksen, Gerald 1984, “The Need to Utilize International Arbitration,” Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 17 (1): 11–17
Aksen, Gerald 1990, “Arbitration and Other Means of Dispute Settlement,” in David Goldsweig and Roger Cummings (eds.), International Joint Ventures: A Practical Approach to Working with Foreign Investors in the U.S. and Abroad, Chicago: American Bar Association, pp. 203–10
Alter, Karen J. 2000, “The European Union's Legal System and Domestic Policy: Spillover or Backlash?” International Organization 54 (3): 489–518
Althusser, Louis 1971, “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,” in Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, New York: Monthly Review Press, pp. 127–86
Althusser, Louis and Étienne Balibar 1970, Reading Capital, London: New Left Books
Amin, Ash and Ronen Palan 1996, “Editorial: The Need to Historicize IPE,” Review of International Political Economy 3 (2): 209–15
Amin, Samir 1974, Accumulation on a World Scale: A Critique of the Theory of Underdevelopment, vols. I and II, London: Monthly Review Press
Amin, Samir 1990, Maldevelopment: Anatomy of a Global Failure, London: Zed Books
Amoore, Louise, Richard Dodgson, Barry K. Gills, Paul Langley, Don Marshall, and Iain Watson 1997, “Overturning ‘Globalisation’: Resisting the Teleological, Reclaiming the ‘Political’,” New Political Economy 2 (1): 179–95
Amoore, Louise, Richard Dodgson, Randal D. Germain, Barry K. Gills, Paul Langley, and Iain Watson 2000, “Paths to a Historicized International Political Economy,” Review of International Political Economy 7 (1): 53–71
Anderson, Perry (1976–7) “The Antinomies of Antonio Gramsci,“ New Left Review 100: 5–94
Anderson, Perry 1974 a, Lineages of the Absolutist State, London: Verso Editions
Anderson, Perry 1974 b, Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism, London: Verso Editions
Anderson, Perry 1994, “Comment: Power, Politics and the Enlightenment,” in David Miliband (ed.), Reinventing the Left, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 39–44
Arend, Anthony 1998, “Do Legal Rules Matter? International Law and International Politics,” Virginia Journal of International Law 38 (2): 107–54
Arrighi, Giovanni 1993, “The Three Hegemonies of Historical Capitalism,” in Gill, 1993 a, pp. 148–85
Arzt, Donna E. and Igor I. Lukashuk 1998, “Participants in International Legal Relations,” in Charlotte Ku and Paul F. Diehl (eds.), International Law: Classic and Contemporary Readings, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 155–76
Ashley, Richard 1983, “Three Modes of Economism,” International Studies Quarterly 27 (4): 463–96
Ashley, Richard 1988, “Untying the Sovereign State: A Double Reading of the Anarchy Problematique,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 17 (2): 227–62
Ashley, Richard and R. B. J. Walker 1990, “Speaking the Language of Exile,” International Studies Quarterly 34 (3): 259–68
Asser Institute 1988, “List of Arbitral Institutions,” Yearbook of Commercial Arbitration 13: 713–37
Atiyah, Patrick 1979, The Rise and Fall of Freedom of Contract, Oxford: Clarendon Press
Augelli, Enrico and Craig Murphy 1988, America's Quest for Supremacy and the Third World: A Gramscian Analysis, London: Pinter Publishers
Augelli, Enrico and Craig Murphy 1993, “Gramsci and International Relations: A General Perspective with Examples from Recent US Policy Toward the Third World,” Gill, 1993 a, pp. 127–47
Austin, John (1832) 1954, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined, and the Uses of the Study of Jurisprudence, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
Azzi, John 1994, “Historical Development of Australia's International Taxation Rules,” Melbourne University Law Review 19 (4): 793–813
Baer, Marvin, Joost Bloom, Elizabeth Edinger, Nicholas Rafferty, Geneviève Saumier, and Catherine Walsh 1997, Private International Law in Common Law Canada: Cases, Texts, and Materials, Toronto: Emond Montgomery Publications Ltd.
Bagner, Hans 1982, “Enforcement of International Commercial Contracts by Arbitration: Recent Developments,” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 14 (3): 573–89
Bainbridge, Stephen 1984, “Trade Usages in International Sales of Goods: An Analysis of the 1964 and 1980 Sales Conventions,” Virginia Journal of International Law 24 (3): 619–65
Baker, J. H. 1990, An Introduction to English Legal History, 3rd edn, London: Butterworths
Balbus, Isaac 1977, “Commodity Form and Legal Form: An Essay on the ‘Relative Autonomy’ of the Law,” Law and Society 11 (3): 571–88
Baldwin, David A. (ed.) 1993, Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press
Bannicke, Leonard B. 1985, “International Chamber of Commerce Court of Arbitration,” Alberta Law Review 23 (1): 51–61
Barker, J. Craig 2000, International Law and International Relations, London and New York: Continuum
Bartelson, Jens 1995, A Genealogy of Sovereignty, Cambridge University Press
Batt, Francis R. (ed.) 1947, Chalmers' Digest of the Law of Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes, Cheques and Negotiable Instruments, 11th edn, London: Stevens & Sons
Bauman, Zygmunt 2000, Liquid Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press
Beck, Robert J., Anthony C. Arend, and Robert Vander Lugt (eds.) 1996, International Rules: Approaches from International Law and International Relations, New York: Oxford University Press
Bedjaoui, Mohammed 1979, Towards a New International Economic Order, Paris: UNESCO
Beirne, Piers 1982, “Ideology and Rationality in Max Weber's Sociology of Law,” in Beirne and Quinney (eds.), 1982, pp. 44–62
Beirne, Piers and Richard Quinney (eds.) 1982, Marxism and Law, New York: John Wiley & Sons
Bellamy, Richard 1990, “Gramsci, Croce and the Italian Political Tradition,” History of Political Thought 11 (2): 313–37
Benedict, Robert D. 1909, “The Historical Position of the Rhodian Law,” Yale Law Journal 18 (4): 223–42
Benney, Mark 1983, “Gramsci on Law, Morality, and Power,” International Journal of Sociology of Law 11(2): 191–208
Benson, Bruce 1988–89, “The Spontaneous Evolution of Commercial Law,” Southern Economic Journal 55 (3): 644–61
Benson, Bruce 1999, “To Arbitrate or to Litigate: That Is the Question,” European Journal of Law and Economics 8 (2): 91–151
Berger, Klaus P. 1997, “The Lex Mercatoria Doctrine and the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law Principles of International Commercial Contracts,” Law and Policy in International Business 28 (4): 943–90
Berman, Harold 1977, “The Origins of Western Legal Science,” Harvard Law Review 90 (5): 894–943
Berman, Harold 1983, Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Berman, Harold and Colin Kaufman 1978, “The Law of International Commercial Transactions (Lex Mercatoria)”, Harvard International Law Journal 19 (1): 221–78
Bewes, Wyndham 1923, The Romance of the Law Merchant, London: Sweet & Maxwell
Blackburn, Terence 1994, “The Unification of Corporate Laws: The United States, the European Community and the Race to Laxity,” George Mason Independent Law Review 3 (1): 1–95
Boka, E. 1964, “The Sources of the Law of International Trade in the Developing Countries of Africa,” in Schmitthoff, 1964 b, pp. 227–54
Bonell, Michael J. 1978, “The International Institute for the Unification of Private Law Initiative for the Progressive Codification of International Trade Law,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 27: 413–41
Bonell, Michael J. 1995, “The International Institute for the Unification of Private Law Principles of International Commercial Contracts and CISG – Alternatives or Complementary Instruments?” in Ziegel (ed.), 1995, pp. 62–77
Booth, Ken and Steve Smith (eds.) 1995, International Relations Theory Today, University Park: Pennsylvania University Press
Bourdieu, Pierre 1987, “The Force of Law: Toward a Sociology of the Juridical Field,” The Hastings Law Journal 38 (5): 805–53
Bowett, Derek W. 1986, “Claims Between States and Private Entities: The Twilight Zone of International Law,” Catholic University Law Review 35 (4): 929–60
Boyle, James 1985, “Ideas and Things; International Legal Scholarship and the Prison-House of Language,” Harvard International Law Journal 26 (2): 327–59
Boyle, James 1996, Shamans, Software, and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Braithwaite, John and Peter Drahos 2000, Global Business Regulation, Cambridge University Press
Bratton, William, Joseph McCahery, Sol Picciotto, and Colin Scott (eds.) 1996, International Regulatory Competition and Coordination: Perspectives on Economic Regulation in Europe and the United States, Oxford: Clarendon Press
Brewer, Anthony 1990, Marxist Theories of Imperialism: A Critical Survey, 2nd edn, London: Routledge
Broches, Aaron 1987, “The 1985 United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration: An Exercise in International Legislation,” Netherlands Yearbook of International Law 18: 3–69
Brodhurst, Bernard E. S. 1909, “The Merchants of the Staple,” in Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, vol. III, 16–33
Brown, Chris 1992, International Relations Theory: New Normative Approaches, Harlow: Prentice Hall
Brown, Chris 1995, “International Theory and International Society: The Viability of the Middle Way?” Review of International Studies 21 (2): 183–96
Brownlie, Ian 1990, Principles of Public International Law, 4th edn, Oxford: Clarendon Press
Brownlie, Ian 1998, Principles of Public International Law, 5th edn, Oxford: Clarendon Press
Buchanan, Mark 1988, “Public Policy and International Commercial Arbitration,” American Business Law Journal 26 (3): 511–33
Bull, Hedley 1966, “The Grotian Conception of International Society,” in Butterfield and Wight (eds.), 1966, pp. 51–73
Bull, Hedley 1977, The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics, New York: Columbia University Press
Bull, Hedley and Adam Watson (eds.) 1985, The Expansion of International Society: A Comparative Analysis, New York: Oxford University Press
Bull, Hedley, Benedict Kingsbury, and Adam Roberts (eds.) 1990, Hugo Grotius and International Relations, Oxford University Press
Burch, Kurt 1998, Property and the Making of the International System, Boulder, CO, and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers
Burdick, Francis M. 1909, “Contributions of the Law Merchant to the Common Law,” in Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, vol. III, pp. 34–50
Butterfield, Herbert and Martin Wight (eds.) 1966, Diplomatic Investigations, London: Allen & Unwin
Buzan, Barry 1993, “From International System to International Society: Structural Realism and Regime Theory Meet the English School,” International Organization 47 (3): 327–52
Buzan, Barry, Charles Jones, and Richard Little 1993, The Logic of Anarchy: Neorealism to Structural Realism: New Directions in World Politics, New York: Columbia University Press
Byers, Michael 2000, The Role of International Law in International Politics: Essays in International Relations and International Law, New York: Oxford University Press
Byrnes, Andrew 1992, “Women, Feminism and International Human Rights Law – Methodological Myopia, Fundamental Flaws or Meaningful Marginalisation? Some Current Issues,” Australian Yearbook of International Law 12: 205–41
Cafruny, Alan 1987, Ruling the Waves: The Political Economy of International Shipping, Berkeley: University of California Press
Cain, Maureen and Alan Hunt 1979, Marx and Engels on Law, London and New York: Academic Press
Campbell, C. M. and Paul Wiles 1980, Marx and Engels on Law and Laws, Oxford: Martin Robertson
Campbell, David 1998, Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity, rev. edn, Manchester University Press
Carbonneau, Thomas E. (ed.) 1990, Lex Mercatoria and Arbitration: A Discussion of the New Law Merchant, Dobbs Ferry, New York: Transnational Juris Publications
Carbonneau, Thomas E. 1984, “Arbitral Adjudication: A Comparative Assessment of Its Remedial and Substantive Status in Transnational Commerce,” Texas International Law Journal 19 (1): 33–114
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique and Enzo Faletto 1979, Dependency and Development in Latin America, trans. Marjory Mattingly Urquidi, Berkeley: University of California Press
Carr, E. H. 1939, The Twenty Years' Crisis: 1919–1939, London: Macmillan
Carty, Anthony 1986, The Decay of International Law? A Reappraisal of the Limits of the Legal Imagination in International Affairs, Manchester University Press
Carty, Anthony 1991 a, “‘Liberalism's Dangerous Supplements’: Medieval Ghosts of International Law,” Michigan Journal of International Law 13 (1): 161–71
Carty, Anthony 1991 b, “Critical International Law: Recent Trends in the Theory of International Law,” European Journal of International Law 2 (1): 66–96
Castel, J.-G. 1967, “Canada and the Hague Conference on Private International Law: 1893–1967,” Canadian Bar Review 45 (1): 1–34
Castel, J.-G. 1989, “The Settlement of Disputes Under the 1988 Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement,” American Journal of International Law 83 (1): 118–28
Cerny, Philip 1990, The Changing Architecture of Politics: Structure, Agency and the Future of the State, London: Sage Publications
Cerny, Philip 1995, “Globalization and the Changing Logic of Collective Action,” International Organization 49 (4): 595–625
Cerny, Philip 1997, “Paradoxes of the Competition State: The Dynamics of Political Globalization,” Government and Opposition 32 (2): 251–74
Cerny, Philip 2000, “Embedding Global Financial Markets: Securitization and the Emerging Web of Governance,” in Karsten Ronit and Volker Schneider (eds.), Private Organizations in Global Politics, London: Routledge, pp. 59–82
Cerny, Phillip (ed.) 1993, Finance and World Politics: Markets, Regimes and States in the Post-hegemonic Era, Cheltenham, and Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar
Charlesworth, Hilary 1992 a, “The Public/Private Distinction and the Right to Development in International Law,” Australian Yearbook of International Law 12: 190–204
Charlesworth, Hilary 1992 b, “Subversive Trends in the Jurisprudence of International Law,” Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the American Society of International Law 86, pp. 125–30
Charlesworth, Hilary and Christine Chinkin 1993, “The Gender of Jus Cogens,” Human Rights Quarterly 15 (1): 63–76
Charlesworth, Hilary, Christine Chinkin, and Shelley Wright 1991, “Feminist Approaches to International Law,” American Journal of International Law 85 (4): 613–45
Charney, Jonathan 1983, “Transnational Corporations and the Developing Public International Law,” Duke Law Journal 4: 748–88
Charny, David 1991, “Competition Among Jurisdictions in Formulating Corporate Law Rules: An American Perspective on the ‘Race to the Bottom’ in the European Communities,” Harvard International Law Journal 32 (2): 423–56
Charter of the United Nations, June 26, 1945, Canada Treaty Series, 1945, No. 7, International Legislation IX, No. 327.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher 1989, Global Formation: Structures of the World Economy, Oxford: Blackwell
Chaudhuri, K. N. 1991, “Reflections on the Organizing Principle of Premodern Trade,” in Tracy (ed.), 1991, pp. 421–42
Chayes, Abram and Antonia Chayes 1995, The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Chen, Lung-Chu 1989, An Introduction to Contemporary International Law: A Policy-Oriented Perspective, New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press
Chimni, B. S. 1993, International Law and World Order: A Critique of Contemporary Approaches, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications
Chin, Christine B. N. and James H. Mittelman 1997, “Conceptualising Resistance to Globalisation,” New Political Economy 2 (1): 25–37
Chinkin, Christine 1991, “A Gendered Perspective to the International Use of Force,” Australian Yearbook of International Law 12: 279–93
Chinkin, Christine 2000, “Human Rights and the Politics of Representation: Is There a Role for International Law?” in Byers, 2000, pp. 131–48
Clough, Shepard B. 1959, The Economic Development of Western Civilization, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.
Clough, Shepard B. and Charles W. Cole 1946, Economic History of Europe, rev. edn, Boston, MA: D. C. Heath & Co.
Cohen, Benjamin 1998, The Geography of Money, Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press
Cohen, Morris 1927–8, “Property and Sovereignty,” The Cornell Law Quarterly 13 (1): 8–30
Cohen, Morris 1950, Reason and Law, New York: Collier Books
Cohn, Theodore H. 2000, Global Political Economy: Theory and Practice, New York: Longman
Connolly, William 1993, Political Theory and Modernity, 2nd edn, Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Convention on the Execution of Foreign Arbitral Awards, September 26, 1927, League of Nations Treaty Series 92: 301.
Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods (New York, 1974), UN Doc. A/Conf. 63/15, reprinted in International Legal Materials 13 (1974): 952–61.
Coulson, Robert 1982, “A New Look at International Commercial Arbitration,” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 14 (2): 359–71
Cox, Robert 1987, Production, Power, and World Order: Social Forces in the Making of History, New York: Columbia University Press
Cox, Robert 1989, “Production, the State, and Change in World Order,” in Ernst-Otto Czempiel and James N. Rosenau (eds.) 1989, Global Changes and Theoretical Challenges, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D. C. Heath and Co., pp. 37–50
Cox, Robert 1993 a, “Structural Issues of Global Governance: Implications for Europe,” in Gill, 1993a, pp. 259–89
Cox, Robert 1993 b, “Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations: An Essay in Method,” in Gill, 1993a, pp. 49–66
Cox, Robert 1995, “Critical Political Economy,” in Hettne (ed.), 1995, pp. 31–45
Cox, Robert 1996 a, “Social Forces, States, and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory,” in Cox with Sinclair, 1996, pp. 85–123
Cox, Robert 1996 b “The Global Political Economy and Social Choice,” in Cox with Sinclair 1996, pp. 191–208
Cox, Robert 1996 c, “Realism, Positivism and Historicism,” in Cox with Sinclair, 1996, pp. 49–59
Cox, Robert 1996 d, “A Perspective on Globalization,” in Mittelman (ed.), 1996, pp. 21–30
Cox, Robert 1999, “Civil Society at the Turn of the Millennium: Prospects for Alternative World Order,” Review of International Studies 25 (1): 3–28
Cox, Robert W. with Timothy J. Sinclair 1996, Approaches to World Order, Cambridge University Press
Craig, W. Laurence 1995, “Some Trends and Developments in the Laws and Practice of International Commercial Arbitration,” Texas International Law Journal 30 (1): 1–58
Crawford, James 1993, “Democracy and International Law,” British Yearbook of International Law 64: 113–33
Cremades, Bernado M. and Steven L. Plehn 1984, “The New Lex Mercatoria and the Harmonization of the Laws of International Commercial Transactions,” Boston University International Law Journal 2 (3): 317–48
Crouch, Colin 1986, “Sharing Public Spaces: States and Organized Interests in Western Europe,” in John A. Hall (ed.), States in History, Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, pp. 177–210
Cutler, A. Claire 1991, “The ‘Grotian’ Tradition in International Relations,” Review of International Studies 17(1): 41–65
Cutler, A. Claire 1992, “Canada and the Private International Trade Law Regime,” in A. Claire Cutler and Mark W. Zacher (eds.) 1997, Canadian Foreign Policy and International Economic Regimes, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, pp. 89–112
Cutler, A. Claire 1995, “Global Capitalism and Liberal Myths: Dispute Settlement in Private International Trade Relations,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 24 (3): 377–97
Cutler, A. Claire 1997, “Artifice, Ideology and Paradox: The Public/Private Distinction in International Law,” Review of International Political Economy 4 (2): 261–85
Cutler, A. Claire 1999 a, “Locating ‘Authority’ in the Global Political Economy,” International Studies Quarterly 43 (1): 59–81
Cutler, A. Claire 1999 b, “Public Meets Private: The International Unification and Harmonisation of Private International Trade Law,” Global Society 13 (1): 25–48
Cutler, A. Claire 1999 c, “Private Authority in International Trade Relations: The Case of Maritime Transport,” in Cutler, Haufler, and Porter, 1999 a, pp. 283–329
Cutler, A. Claire 2000 a, “Globalization, Law and Transnational Corporations: A Deepening of Market Discipline,” in Theodore H. Cohn, Stephen McBride, and John Wiseman (eds.), Power in the Global Era: Grounding Globalization, Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press and New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 53–66
Cutler, A. Claire 2000 b, “Theorizing the ‘No-Man's Land’ Between Politics and Economics,” in Thomas C. Lawton, James N. Rosenau, and Amy C. Verdun (eds.), Strange Power: Shaping the Parameters of International Relations and International Political Economy, Aldershot and Burlington, USA: Ashgate, pp. 159–74
Cutler, A. Claire 2001 a, “Critical Reflections on the Westphalian Assumptions of International Law and Organization: A Crisis of Legitimacy,” Review of International Studies 27 (2): 133–50
Cutler, A. Claire 2001 b, “Globalization, the Rule of Law and the Modern Law Merchant: Medieval or Late Capitalist Associations?” in the Special Issue on Law in the Global Polity, Constellations: An International Journal of Critical and Democratic Theory 8 (4): 480–502
Cutler, A. Claire 2002 a, “Critical Historical Materialism and International Law: Imagining International Law as Praxis,” in Hobden and Hobson (eds.), 2002, pp. 181–99
Cutler, A. Claire 2002 b, “The Privatization of Global Governance and the New Law Merchant,” in Adrienne Héritier (ed.), Common Goods: Reinventing European and International Governance, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 127–57
Cutler, A. Claire 2002 c, “Law in the Global Polity,” in Richard Higgott and Morten Ougaard (eds.), Towards a Global Polity, London: Routledge, pp. 58–77
Cutler, A. Claire 2002 d, “Historical Materialism, Globalization, and Law: Competing Conceptions of Property,” in Rupert and Smith (eds.), 2002: 230–56
Cutler, A. Claire forthcoming, “Global Governance and the Modern Lex Mercatoria” in Claire Turenne-Sjolander and Jean-François Thibault (eds.), Of Global Governance: Culture, Economics and Politics, University of Ottawa Press
Cutler, A. Claire, Virginia Haufler, and Tony Porter (eds.) 1999a, Private Authority and International Affairs, Albany, NY: SUNY Press
Cutler, A. Claire, Virginia Haufler, and Tony Porter 1999 b, “Private Authority and International Affairs,” in Cutler, Haufler, and Porter, 1999 a, pp. 3–30
Cutler, A. Claire, Virginia Haufler, and Tony Porter 1999 c, “The Contours and Significance of Private Authority in International Affairs,” in Cutler, Haufler, and Porter, 1999 a, pp. 333–76
D'Amato, Anthony 1985, “The Moral Dilemma of Positivism,” Valparaiso University Law Review 20 (1): 43–54
D'Amato, Anthony 1989, “Is International Law Part of Natural Law?” Vera Lex 9 (1): 8–25
Date-Bah, S. K. 1981, “The Convention on the International Sale of Goods from the Perspective of the Developing Countries,” in A. Guiffré (ed.), La Vendita Internationale, Milan: A. Guiffré, pp. 25–38
David, René 1972 a, “The International Unification of Private Law,” in International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law: The Legal Systems of the World, Their Comparison and Unification, vol. II, ch. 5, Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck); The Hague, Boston, and London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 3–218
David, René 1972 b “Different Conceptions of Law,” in International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law: The Legal Systems of the World, Their Comparison and Unification, vol. I, ch. 2, pp. 1–25
David, René 1972 c, “The Movement in Favour of the Unification of Private Law,” in International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, vol. II, ch. 5, pp. 123–208
David, René 1972 d, “Sources of Law,” in International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, vol. II, ch. 3, pp. 3–404
David, René, and J. E. C. Brierley 1978, Major Legal Systems in the World Today: An Introduction to the Comparative Study of Law, 2nd edn, London: Stevens & Sons
De Enterría, Javier García 1990, “The Role of Public Policy in International Commercial Arbitration,” Law and Policy in International Business 21 (3): 389–440
De Roover, Florence 1945, “Early Examples of Marine Insurance,” Journal of Economic History 5 (2): 172–200
Delaume, Georges R. 1989, “Comparative Analysis as a Basis of the Law in State Contracts: The Myth of the Lex Mercatoria,” Tulane Law Review 63: 575–611
Der Derian, James and Michael Shapiro (eds.) 1989, International/Intertextual Relations: Postmodern Readings of World Politics, MA: Lexington Books
Derains, Yves 1981, “New Trends in the Practical Application of the International Chamber of Commerce Rules of Arbitration,” Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business 3 (1): 35–55
Devlin, Viscount Kilmuir 1961, “The Future of the Commercial Court,” Journal of Business Law (1961): 8–11
Dezalay, Yves 1995, “Introduction: Professional Competition and the Social Construction of Transnational Markets,” in Dezalay and Sugarman (eds.), 1995, pp. 1–21
Dezalay, Yves and Bryant G. Garth 1996, Dealing in Virtue: International Commercial Arbitration and the Construction of a Transnational Legal Order, University of Chicago Press
Dezalay, Yves and David Sugarman (eds.) 1995, Professional Competition and Professional Power: Lawyers, Accountants and the Social Construction of Markets, London and New York: Routledge
Dicey, A. V. 1967, Introduction to the Study of the Constitution, London: Macmillan; first published 1885
Dolzer, Rudolf 1982, “International Agencies for the Formulation of Transnational Economic Law,” in Horn and Schmitthoff (eds.), 1982, pp. 61–80
Donovan, Donald Francis 1995, “International Commercial Arbitration and Public Policy,” New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 27 (3): 645–57
Dore, Isaac 1983, “Peaceful Settlement of International Trade Disputes: Analysis of the Scope of Application of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Conciliation Rules,” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 21: 339–53
Doucas, Margaret 1995, “Intellectual Property Law – Indigenous Peoples' Concerns,” Canadian Intellectual Property Review 12 (1): 1–5
Droz, Georges A. L. and A. Dyer 1981, “The Hague Conference and the Main Issues of Private International Law for the Eighties,” Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business 3 (1): 155–211
Eörsi, Gyula 1977, “Contracts of Adhesion and the Protection of the Weaker Party in International Trade Relations,” in International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, New Directions in International Trade Law, vol. I, New York: Oceana Publications, pp. 155–76
Eden, Lorraine 1996, “The Emerging North American Investment Regime,” Transnational Corporations 5 (3): 61–98
Ellinger, E. P. 1970, Documentary Letters of Credit: A Comparative Study, University of Singapore Press
Enein, M. I. M. Aboul 1986, “Arbitration under the Auspices of the Cairo Regional Centre for Commercial Arbitration,” International Tax and Business Lawyer 4: 256–65
Engering, Frans 1996, “The Multilateral Investment Agreement,” Transnational Corporations 5 (3): 147–61
Enloe, Cynthia 1989, Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, London: Pandora
Enloe, Cynthia 1993, The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War, Berkeley: University of California Press
Evans, Peter 1979, Dependent Development: The Alliance of Multinational State, and Local Capital in Brazil, Princeton University Press
Falk, Richard 1970, The Status of Law in International Society, Princeton University Press
Falk, Richard 1985, “The Interplay of Westphalia and Charter Conceptions of International Legal Order,” in Richard Falk, Friedrich Kratochwil, and Saul Mendolvitz (eds.), International Law: A Contemporary Perspective, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 116–42
Falk, Richard 1992, Explorations at the Edge of Time: The Prospects for World Order, Philadelphia: Temple University Press
Falk, Richard and Samuel Kim (eds.) 1982, Toward a Just World Order, Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Farnsworth, E. Allan 1969, “The Past of Promise: An Historical Introduction to Contract,” Columbia Law Review 69 (3): 576–607
Farnsworth, E. Allan 1979, “Developing International Trade Law,” California Western International Law Journal 9: 461–71
Farnsworth, E. Allan 1984, “Unification of Sales Law: Usage and Course of Dealing,” in Aubrey Diamond (ed.), Unification and Comparative Law in Theory and Practice, Deventer: Kluwer, pp. 81–9
Farnsworth, E. Allan 1995, “Unification and Harmonization of Private Law,” in Ziegel (ed.), 1995, pp. 78–101
Feeley, Malcolm 1976, “The Concept of Laws in Social Science: A Critique and Notes on an Expanded View,” Law and Society Review 10 (4): 497–524
Finnis, J. M. 1990, “Authority,” in Raz (ed.), 1990 a, pp. 174–202
Fisher, William III, Morton J. Horwitz, and Thomas A. Reed (eds.) 1993, American Legal Realism, Oxford University Press
Foucault, Michel 1979 a, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan, New York: Vintage Books
Foucault, Michel 1979 b, “Governmentality,” Ideology and Consciousness, Governing the Present 6: 5–21
Foucault, Michel 1980, The History of Sexuality, Volume I: An Introduction, trans. Robert Hurley, NY: Vintage Books
Fox, James 1992, Dictionary of International and Comparative Law, Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications
Franck, Thomas 1990, The Power of Legitimacy Among Nations, New York: Oxford University Press
Frank, André Gunder 1966, “The Development of Underdevelopment,” Monthly Review 18 (4): 17–31
Frank, André Gunder 1979, Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment, New York: Monthly Review Press
Fraser, Andrew 1976, “Legal Theory and Legal Practice,” Arena 44–5: 123–56
Fraser, Andrew 1978, “The Legal Theory We Need Now,” Socialist Review 8(4–5): 147–87
Free Trade Agreement (Can—US), January 2, 1988, Canada Treaty Series, 1989, 3.
Freedberg, J. A. 1995, “The Role of the International Council for Commercial Arbitration in Providing Source Material in International Commercial Arbitration,” International Journal of Legal Information 23 (3): 272–83
Fried, Jonathan 1997, “Globalization and International Law – Some Thoughts for States and Citizens,” Queen's Law Journal 23 (1): 259–76
Friedman, R. B. 1990, “On the Concept of Authority in Political Philosophy,” in Raz (ed.), 1990 a, pp. 56–91
Friedrich Kratochwil, and Saul Mendolvitz (eds.) 1985, International Law: A Contemporary Perspective, Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Gabel, Peter 1977, “Intentions and Structure in Contractual Conditions: Outline of a Method for Critical Legal Theory,” Minnesota Law Review 61: 601–43
Gabor, Francis A. 1986, “Emerging Unification of Conflict of Laws Rules Applicable to the International Sale of Goods: United Nations Commission on International Trade Law and the New Hague Conference on Private International Law,” Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business 7(4): 538–70
Galtung, Johan 1971, “A Structural Theory of Imperialism,” Journal of Peace Research 8 (2): 81–117
Gardam, Judith 1991, “A Feminist Analysis of Certain Aspects of International Humanitarian Law,” Australian Yearbook of International Law 12: 265–78
Garro, Alejandro M. 1989, “Reconciliation of Legal Traditions in the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods,” The International Lawyer 23 (2): 443–83
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, October 30, 1947, 61 Stat. A-11, 55 United Nations Treaty Series: 194.
General Assembly Resolution 2205 (21) December 17, 1966 Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-first Session, Annexes, agenda item 88, UN Doc. A/6396 and Add. 1 and 2, reprinted in United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Yearbook, vol. I, 65–6.
Germain, Randall and Michael Kenny 1998, “Engaging Gramsci: International Relations Theory and the New Gramscians,” Review of International Political Economy 24 (3): 3–21
Giannuzzi, Karen B. 1997, “The Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods: Temporarily Out of ‘Service’?” Law and Policy in International Business 28 (4): 991–1035
Giddens, Anthony 1971, Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber, Cambridge University Press
Giddens, Anthony 1981, A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism, vol. I: Power, Property and the State, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press
Giddens, Anthony 1987, The Nation-State and Violence, vol. II, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press
Giddens, Anthony 1990 a, The Consequences of Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press
Giddens, Anthony 1990 b, New Rules of Sociological Method: A Positive Critique of Interpretive Sociology, Oxford: Polity Press
Giddens, Anthony 1994 a, Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics, Stanford University Press
Giddens, Anthony 1994 b, “Brave New World: The New Context of Politics,” in David Miliband (ed.), Reinventing the Left, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 21–38
Gilchrist, J. 1969, The Church and Economic Activity in the Middle Ages, London: Macmillan
Gill, Stephen 1990, American Hegemony and the Trilateral Commission, Cambridge University Press
Gill, Stephen 1993 a, Gramsci, Historical Materialism and International Relations, Cambridge University Press
Gill, Stephen 1993 b, “Gramsci and Global Politics: Towards a Post-hegemonic Research Agenda,” in Gill, 1993 a, pp. 1–18
Gill, Stephen 1995 a, “Globalisation, Market Civilisation, and Disciplinary Neoliberalism,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 24 (3): 399–423
Gill, Stephen 1995 b, “Theorizing the Interregnum: The Double Movement and Global Politics in the 1990 s,” in Hettne (ed.), 1995, pp. 65–99
Gill, Stephen 1997, “Globalisation, Democratization and the Politics of Indifference,” in Mittelman (ed.), 1996, pp. 205–28
Gill, Stephen 1998, “New Constitutionalism, Democratisation and the Global Political Economy,” Pacifica Review 10 (1): 23–38
Gill, Stephen and David Law 1988, The Global Political Economy: Perspectives, Problems and Policy, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Gill, Stephen and David Law 1993, “Global Hegemony and the Structural Power of Capital,” in Gill, 1993 a, pp. 93–126
Gill, Stephen and James Mittelman (eds.) 1997, Innovation and Transformation in International Studies, Cambridge University Press
Gold, Edgar 1981, Maritime Transport: The Evolution of International Marine Policy and Shipping Law, Lexington Books and Toronto: D. C. Heath and Company
Goldman, Berthold 1983, “Lex Mercatoria,” Forum Internationale 3: 3–24
Goldman, Berthold 1986, “The Applicable Law: General Principles of Law – The Lex Mercatoria,” in J. Lew (ed.), Contemporary Problems in International Arbitration, London: School of International Arbitration, Centre for Commercial Studies, pp. 113–25
Goldstajn, A. 1981 “The New Law Merchant,” Journal of Business Law: 17–42
Goldstein, Judith, and Robert Keohane (eds.) 1993, Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions and Political Change, Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Goldstein, Judith, and Robert Keohane 1986, “Usages of Trade and Other Autonomous Rules of International Trade According to the U. N. (1980) Sales Convention,” in Petar Sarcevic and Paul Volken (eds.), Dubrovnik Lectures, New York: Oceana Publications, pp. 55–110
Gottlieb, Gidon 1968, “The Conceptual World of the Yale School of International Law,” World Politics 21 (1): 120–9
Gramsci, Antonio 1971, Selections from Prison Notebooks, ed. and trans. Quentin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith, London: Lawrence and Wishart
Gramsci, Antonio 2000, “Philosophy, Common Sense, Language and Folklore,” from Prison Writings 1929–1935 in David Forgacs (ed.), The Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings 1916–1935, New York University Press, pp. 323–62
Graving, Richard J. 1989, “The International Commercial Arbitration Institutions: How Good a Job Are They Doing?” American University Journal of International Law and Policy 4 (2): 319–76
Green, L. 1990, “Commitment and Community,” in Raz (ed.), 1990 a, pp. 240–67
Greenwalt, K. 1990, “Promissory Obligation: The Theme of Social Contract,” in Raz (ed.), 1990 a, pp. 268–99
Greif, Avner 1993, “Contract Enforceabliity and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders' Coalition,” The American Economic Review 83 (3): 525–48
Greif, Avner, Paul Milgrom, and Barry Weingast 1994, “Coordination, Commitment, and Enforcement: The Case of the Merchant Guild,” Journal of Political Economy 102 (4): 745–76
Grieco, Joseph 1988, “Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation: A Realist Critique of the Newest Liberal Institutionalism,” International Organization 42 (3): 485–507
Gross, Leo 1948, “The Peace of Westphalia, 1648–1948,” American Journal of International Law 42 (1): 20–41
Guidelines for Procurement under World Bank Loans and International Development Association Credits, Washington, DC: World Bank, 1992.
Habermas, Jürgen 1994, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, trans. T. Burger, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Habermas, Jürgen 1998, Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy, trans. William Rehg, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Haggard, Stephan and Beth Simmons 1987, “Theories of International Regimes,” International Organization 41 (3): 491–517
Hall, Rodney and Thomas Biersteker (eds.) 2002, The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance, Cambridge University Press
Halliday, Fred 1994, Rethinking International Relations, London: Macmillan
Hamilton, Walton H. 1931, “The Ancient Maxim Caveat Emptor,” Yale Law Journal 40 (8): 1,133–87
Hanson, Donald 1970, From Kingdom to Commonwealth: The Development of Civic Consciousness in English Political Thought, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Hart, H. L. A. 1958, “Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals,” Harvard Law Review 71 (4): 593–629
Hart, H. L. A. 1961, The Concept of Law, Oxford: Clarendon Press
Hart, H. L. A. 1962, Law, Liberty, and Morality, Stanford University Press
Harvey, David 1990, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, Cambridge, MA, and Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Heckscher, Eli 1955, Mercantilism, New York: Macmillan
Heilbroner, Robert and William Milberg 1995, The Crisis of Vision in Modern Economic Thought, Cambridge University Press
Held, David 1995, Democracy and the Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance, Stanford University Press
Henkin, Louis 1968, How Nations Behave: Law and Foreign Policy, New York: Praeger
Herrmann, Gerold 1982, “The Contribution of United Nations Commission on International Trade Law to the Development of International Trade Law,” in Horn and Schmitthoff (eds.), 1982, pp. 35–50
Hettne, Björn (ed.) 1995, International Political Economy: Understanding Global Disorder, Halifax: Fernwood Publishing
Higgins, Rosalyn 1963, The Development of International Law Through the Political Organs of the United Nations, London: Oxford University Press
Higgins, Rosalyn 1968, “Policy Considerations and the International Judicial Process,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 17: 58–84
Higgins, Rosalyn 1985, “Conceptual Thinking About the Individual in International Law,” in Falk, Kratochwil, and Mendolvitz, 1985, pp. 476–93
Higgins, Rosalyn 1994, Problems and Process: International Law and How We Use It, Oxford: Clarendon Press
Higgott, Richard, Geoffrey Underhill, and Andreas Bieler (eds.) 2000, Non-State Actors and Authority in the Global System, London: Routledge
Highet, Keith 1989, “The Enigma of the Lex Mercatoria,” Tulane Law Review 63 (3): 613–28
Hirsch, Joachim 1995, “Nation-State, International Regulation and the Question of Democracy,” Review of International Political Economy 2 (2): 267–84
Hirst, Paul 1979, On Law and Ideology, London and Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press
Hirst, Paul 1997, “The Global Economy – Myths and Realities,” International Affairs 73 (3): 409–25
Hirst, Paul and Grahame Thompson 1996, Globalization in Question: The International Economy and the Possibilities of Governance, Cambridge: Polity Press
Hobden, Stephen and John Hobson (eds.) 2002, Historical Sociology of International Relations, Cambridge University Press
Hobson, J. A. 1965, Imperialism: A Study, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Hobson, John 2002, “What's At Stake in ‘Bringing Historical Sociology Back into International Relations: Beyond ‘Chronofetishism’ and ‘Tempocentrism’ in International Relations,” in Hobden and Hobson (eds.), 2002, pp. 3–41
Hoellering, Michael F. 1986, “The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration,” The International Lawyer 20 (1): 327–41
Holdsworth, William S. 1907 “The Development of the Law Merchant and Its Courts,” in Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, vol. I, pp. 289–331
Hollingsworth, J. Rogers and R. Boyer (eds.) 1997, Contemporary Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions, Cambridge University Press
Holloway, John and Sol Picciotto 1978, “Introduction: Towards a Materialist Theory of the State,” in Holloway and Picciotto (eds.), State and Capital: A Marxist Debate, London: Edward Arnold, pp. 1–31
Holton, R. J. 1985, The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism, New York: St. Martin's Press
Holzgrefe, J. L. 1989, “The Origins of Modern International Relations Theory,” Review of International Studies 15 (1): 11–26
Honnold, John 1964, “The Influence of the Law of International Trade on the Development and Character of English and American Commercial Law,” in Schmitthoff, 1964 b, pp. 70–87
Honnold, John 1982, “Uniform Law and Uniform Trade Terms – Two Approaches to Common Goals,” in Horn and Schmitthoff (eds.), 1982, pp. 161–74
Honnold, John 1984, “The New Uniform Law for International Sales and the Uniform Commercial Code (USA): A Comparison,” The International Lawyer 18 (1): 21–8
Honnold, John 1991, Uniform Law on International Sales Under the 1980 United Nations Convention, Deventer: Kluwer, 1991
Honnold, John 1995, “International Unification of Private Law,” in Oscar Schachter and Christopher C. Joyner (eds.), United Nations Legal Order, vol. II, Cambridge: Grotius Publications, pp. 1025–56
Horn Norbert and Clive Schmitthoff (eds.) 1982, The Transnational Law of International Commercial Transactions, Deventer: Kluwer
Horn Norbert, 1982, “Uniformity and Diversity in the Law of International Commercial Transactions,” in Horn and Schmitthoff (eds.), 1982, pp. 3–18
Horwitz, Morton 1974, “The Historical Foundations of Modern Contract Law,” Harvard Law Review 87 (5): 917–56
Horwitz, Morton 1975, “The Rise of Legal Formalism,” American Journal of Legal History 19: 251–64
Horwitz, Morton 1979–80, “Law and Economics: Science or Politics?” Hofstra Law Review 8 (4): 905–12
Horwitz, Morton 1982, “The History of the Public/Private Distinction,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 130 (6): 1423–8
Hunt, Alan 1982 a, “Emile Durkheim: Towards a Sociology of Law,” in Beirne and Quinney (eds.), 1982, pp. 27–43
Hunt, Alan 1982 b, “Dichotomy and Contradiction in the Sociology of Law,” in Beirne and Quinney (eds.), 1982, pp. 74–97
Hunt, Alan 1993, Explorations in Law and Society: Toward a Constitutive Theory of Law, New York and London: Routledge
Hunt, Alan and Gary Wickham, 1994, Foucault and Law: Towards a Sociology of Law as Governance, London and Boulder, CO: Pluto Press
Hurrell, Andrew 1993, “International Society and the Study of International Regimes: A Reflective Approach,” in Volker Rittberger (ed.), Regime Theory and International Relations, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 49–72
Incoterms 1980, Paris: International Chamber of Commerce Series, SARL, 1980.
Incoterms 2000, Paris: International Chamber of Commerce, 2000, Pub. No. 620.
International Chamber of Commerce Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, April 29, 1994, UN Doc. A/CN.9/395.
International Chamber of Commerce Uniform Rules for a Combined Transport Document, October 1975, Paris: International Chamber of Commerce, Pub. No. 298.
International Institute for the Unification of Private Law 1994, Principles of International Commercial Contracts, Paris: International Institute for the Unification of Private Law.
Ismail, Hilmy 1991, “Forum Non Conveniens: United States Multinational Corporations, and Personal Injuries in the Third World: Your Place or Mine?” Boston College Third World Law Journal 11(2): 249–76
Jackson, Robert H., 2000, The Global Covenant: Human Conduct in a World of States, Oxford University Press
James, Alan 1978, “International Society,” British Journal of International Studies 4 (2): 91–106
Jameson, Fredric 1991, Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, Durham, NC: Duke University Press
Janis, M. W. 1983, “The Ambiguity of Equity in International Law,” Brooklyn Journal of International Law 9 (1): 7–34
Janis, M. W. 1984 a, “Individuals as Subjects of International Law,” Cornell International Law Journal 17 (1): 61–78
Janis, M. W. 1984 b, “Jeremy Bentham and the Fashioning of ‘International Law’,” American Journal of International Law 78 (2): 405–18
Jenks, Edward 1909, “The Early History of Negotiable Instruments,” in Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, vol. III, pp. 50–71
Jessop, Bob 1980, “On Recent Marxist Theories of Law, the State, and Juridico-Political Ideology,” International Journal of the Sociology of Law 8 (4): 339–68
Johns, Fleur 1994, “The Invisibility of the Transnational Corporation: An Analysis of International Law and Legal Theory,” Melbourne University Law Review 19 (4): 893–923
Jones, Glower W. 1989, “Warranties in International Sales: UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods Compared to the US Uniform Commercial Code on Sales,” International Business Lawyer 17 (11): 497–500
Jones, William C. 1958, “An Inquiry into the History of the Adjudication of Mercantile Disputes in Great Britain and the United States,” University of Chicago Law Review 25 (3): 445–64
Kahler, Miles 1997, “Inventing International Relations: International Relations Theory After 1945,” in M. W. Doyle and G. J. Ikenberry (eds.), New Thinking in International Relations Theory, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 20–53
Kearney, Neil 1999, “Corporate Codes of Conduct: The Privatized Application of Labour Standards,” in Picciotto and Mayne (eds.), 1999, pp. 205–220
Keller, William and Louis W. Pauly 1997, “Globalization at Bay,” Current History 96 (613): 370–6
Kelsen, Hans 1952, Principles of International Law, New York: Rinehart
Kelsen, Hans 1961, General Theory of Law and the State, New York: Russell & Russell
Kelsen, Hans 1967, Pure Theory of Law, Berkeley: University of California Press
Kennedy, David 1980, “Theses About International Law Discourse,” German Yearbook of International Law 23: 353–91
Kennedy, David 1985–86, “Critical Theory, Structuralism and Contemporary Legal Scholarship,” New England Law Review 21 (2): 209–89
Kennedy, David 1985, “International Legal Education,” Harvard International Law Journal 26 (2): 361–84
Kennedy, David 1987 a, International Legal Structures, Baden-Baden: Nomos
Kennedy, David 1987 b, “The Move to Institutions,” Cardozo Law Review 8 (5): 841–988
Kennedy, David 1987 c, “The Sources of International Law,” American University Journal of International Law and Policy 2 (1): 1–96
Kennedy, David 1988, “A New Stream of International Law Scholarship,” Wisconsin International Law Journal 7 (1): 1–49
Kennedy, David 1991, “Turning to Market Democracy: A Tale of Two Architectures,” Harvard International Law Journal 32 (2): 373–96
Kennedy, Duncan 1982, “The Stages of the Decline of the Public/Private Distinction,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 130 (6): 1,349–57
Kennedy, Duncan 1985, “The Role of Law in Economic Thought: Essays on the Fetishism of Commodities,” The American University Law Review 34 (4): 939–1001
Keohane, Robert O. 1984, After Hegemony, Princeton University Press
Keohane, Robert O. 1989, International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International Relations Theory, Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Keohane, Robert O. and Lisa Martin 1995, “The Promise of Institutionalist Theory,” International Security 20 (1): 39–51
Keohane, Robert O., Andrew Moravcsik, and Anne-Marie Slaughter 2000, “Legalized Dispute Resolution: Interstate and Transnational,” International Organization 54 (3): 457–88
Kim, Nancy 1993, “Toward a Feminist Theory of Human Rights: Straddling the Fence Between Western Imperialism and Uncritical Absolutism,” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 25 (1): 49–105
Kindred, Hugh M., J.-G. Castel, W. Graham, A. De Mestral, L. Reif, I. Vlasic, and S. Williams 1993, International Law: Chiefly as Interpreted and Applied in Canada, 5th edn, Toronto: Emond Montgomery Publishers Ltd.
Klare, Karl 1979, “Law-Making as Praxis,” Telos 40: 123–35
Klare, Karl 1982, “The Public/Private Distinction in Labor Law,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 130: (6): 1,358–422
Kopelmanas, Lazare 1964, “International Conventions and Standard Contracts as Means of Escaping from the Application of Municipal Law – II,” in Schmitthoff, 1964 b, pp. 118–26
Koskenniemi, Martti 1989, From Apology to Utopia: The Structure of International Legal Argument, Helsinki: Finnish Lawyers' Publishing CO.
Koskenniemi, Martti 1991, “The Future of Statehood,” Harvard International Law Journal 32 (2): 397–410
Krasner, Stephen (ed.) 1983 a, International Regimes, Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Krasner, Stephen 1983 b, “Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables,” in Krasner (ed.), International Regimes, pp. 1–21
Krasner, Stephen 1993, “Westphalia and All That,” in Goldstein and Keohane, 1993, pp. 235–64
Krasner, Stephen 1995, “Power Politics, Institutions, and Transnational Relations,” in Risse-Kappen, 1995 b, pp. 257–79
Krasner, Stephen 1997, “Pervasive Not Perverse: Semi-Sovereigns as the Global Norm,” Cornell International Law Journal 30 (3): 651–80
Kratochwil, Friedrich 1989, Rules, Norms, and Decisions: On the Conditions of Practical and Legal Reasoning in International Relations and Domestic Affairs, Cambridge University Press
Kratochwil, Friedrich 2000, “How Do Norms Matter?” in Byers, 2000, pp. 35–68
Kratochwil, Friedrich and John Ruggie 1986, “A State of the Art on the Art of the State,” International Organization 40 (4): 753–76
Kronstein, Heinrich 1963, “Arbitration is Power,” New York University Law Review 38 (June): 661–700
Kymlicka, Will 1992, “Liberal Individualism and Liberal Neutrality,” in James Sterba (ed.), Justice: Alternative Political Perspectives, 2nd edn, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company., pp. 252–72
Lando, Ole 1985, “The Lex Mercatoria in International Commercial Arbitration,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 34 (October): 747–68
Langen, Eugen 1973, Transnational Commercial Law, Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff
Lansing, Paul 1980, “The Change in American Attitude to the International Unification of Sales Law Movement and United Nations Commission on International Trade Law,” American Business Law Journal 18 (4): 269–81
Lasswell, Harold and Michael Reisman 1968, “Theories About International Law: Prologue to a Configurative Jurisprudence,” Virginia Journal of International Law 8 (2): 188–299
Lasswell, Harold and Myres McDougal 1943, “Legal Education and Public Policy: Professional Training in the Public Interest,” Yale Law Journal 52 (2): 203–95
Lauterpacht, Sir Hirsch 1946, “The Grotian Tradition in International Law,” British Yearbook of International Law 23: 1–53
Lecuyer-Thieffry, Christine and Patrick Thieffry 1990, “Negotiating Settlement of Disputes Provisions in International Business Contracts: Recent Developments in Arbitration and Other Processes,” The Business Lawyer 45 (February): 577–623
Leebron, David W. 1995, “Lying Down with Procrustes: An Analysis of Harmonization Claims,” in Ziegel (ed.), 1995, pp. 1–61
Lenin, V. I. 1939, Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism, New York: International Publishers
Lincoln, Bruce 1991, Authority: Construction and Corrosion, University of Chicago Press
Linklater, Andrew 1982, Men and Citizens in the Theory of International Relations, London: The Macmillan Press
Linklater, Andrew 1990, Beyond Realism and Marxism: Critical Theory and International Relations, London: Macmillan
Liu, Ge and Alexander Lourie 1995, “International Commercial Arbitration in China: History, New Developments, and Current Practice,” The John Marshall Law Review 28 (3): 539–66
Lopez, R. 1971, The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950–1350, Cambridge University Press
Lorenzen, Ernest G. 1919, “Causa and Consideration in the Law of Contracts,” Yale Law Journal 28 (7): 621–46
Loucaides, L. G. 1990, “Personality and Privacy Under the European Convention on Human Rights,” The British Yearbook of International Law 61: 175–97
Lukes, Stephen 1990, “Perspectives on Authority,” in Raz (ed.), 1990 a, pp. 203–17
Mabey, Nick 1999, “Defending the Legacy of Rio: The Civil Society Campaign against the Multilateral Agreement on Investment,” in Picciotto and Mayne (eds.), 1999, pp. 60–81
Macpherson, Crawford Brough 1962, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism, New York: Oxford University Press
Maine, Sir Henry Sumner 1885, Ancient Law: Its Connection with the Early History of Society and Its Relations to Modern Ideas, London: John Murray
Malanczuk, Peter (ed.) 1997, Akehurst's Modern Introduction to International Law, 7th rev. edn, London and New York: Routledge
Malynes, Gerard de 1981, Consuetudo, vel Lex Mercatoria: or, Ancient Law Merchant (1686), vol. I, reprinted, Abingdon: Professional Books
Mann, Michael 1986, The Sources of Social Power, vol I, New York: Cambridge University Press
Marchand, M and A. Runyan (eds.) 1999, Gender and Global Restructuring, London: Routledge
Marcuse, Herbert 1972 a, “The Foundation of Historical Materialism,” in Herbert Marcuse, Studies in Critical Philosophy (1932), trans. Joris de Bres, London: New Left Books, pp. 1–48
Marcuse, Herbert 1972 b, “Industrialization and Capitalism in the Work of Max Weber,” in Herbert Marcuse, Negations: Essays in Critical Theory, London: Penguin University Books, pp. 201–26
Marx, Karl 1976, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, vol. I, trans. Ben Fowkes, London: Penguin Books
Marx, Karl and F. Engels 1965, The Communist Manifesto, New York: Washington Square Press
Matteucci, Mario 1960, “The Unification of Commercial Law,” Journal of Business Law 137–43
Matteucci, Mario 1977, “International Institute for the Unification of Private Law: The First Fifty Years,” in International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, New Directions in International Trade Law, New York: Oceana Publications, pp. ⅹⅶ–ⅹⅹⅴ
Mayer, Carl J. 1990, “Personalizing the Impersonal: Corporations and the Bill of Rights,” The Hastings Law Journal 41 (3): 577–667
Mayne, Ruth 1999, “Regulating Transnational Corporations: The Role of Voluntary and Governmental Approaches,” in Picciotto and Mayne (eds.), 1999, pp. 235–54
McCahery, Joseph and Sol Picciotto 1995, “Creative Lawyering and the Dynamics of Business Regulation,” in Dezalay and Sugarman (eds.), 1995, pp. 238–74
McClendon, J. Stewart (ed.) 1993, Survey of International Arbitration Sites, New York: American Arbitration Association
McConnaughay, Philip 1999, “The Risks and Virtues of Lawlessness: A ‘Second Look’ at International Commercial Arbitration,” Northwestern University Law Review 93 (2): 453–523
McDougal, Myres 1953, “International Law, Power, and Policy: A Contemporary Conception,” Recueil des Cours 82: 137–258
McDougal, Myres and Harold Lasswell 1959, “The Identification and Appraisal of Diverse Systems of Public Order,” American Journal of International Law 53 (1): 1–29
McNair, Lord 1970, “A Note on the History of the Commercial Court,” Law Quarterly Review 86 (343): 313–17
Mears, Thomas L. 1908, “The History of the Admiralty Jurisdiction,” in Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, vol. II, pp. 312–64
Mearsheimer, John 1994–95, “The False Promise of International Institutions,” International Security 19 (3): 5–49
Mendolvitz, Saul 1975, On the Creation of a Just World Order: Preferred Worlds for the 1990 s, New York: The Free Press
Michalet, C. A. 1991, “Strategic Partnerships and the Changing Internationalization Process” in Lynn Mytelka (ed.), Strategic Partnerships: States, Firms and International Competition, London: Pinter, pp. 35–50
Michalet, C. A. 1994, “Transnational Corporations and the Changing International Economic System,” Transnational Corporations 3 (1): 9–21
Milgrom, Paul R., Douglass C. North, and Barry R. Weingast 1990, “The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade: The Law Merchant, Private Judges, and the Champagne Fairs,” Economics and Politics 2 (1): 1–23
Mitchell, William 1904, An Essay on the Early History of the Law Merchant, Cambridge University Press
Mitchell, William 1909, “Early Forms of Partnerships,” in Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, vol. III, pp. 183–94
Mittelman, James H. (ed.) 1996, Globalization: Critical Reflections, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press
Monaco, Riccardo 1977, “The Scientific Activity of International Institute for the Unification of Private Law,” in International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, New Directions in International Trade Law, New York: Oceana Publications, pp. ⅹⅶ–ⅹⅹⅹⅸ
Morgenthau, Hans 1948, Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, New York: Knopf
Muchlinski, Peter T. 1995, Multinational Enterprises and the Law, Oxford: Blackwell
Muchlinski, Peter T. 1997, “‘Global Bukowina’ Examined: Viewing the Multinational Enterprise as a Transnational Law-Making Community,” in Teubner (ed.), 1997 a, pp. 79–108
Multilaterally Agreed Equitable Principles and Rules for the Control of Restrictive Business Practices, UN Doc. A/Conf.2/35/6.
Murphy, Cornelius F. 1961–2, “Medieval Theory and Products Liability,” Boston College Industrial and Commercial Law Review 3 (1): 29–37
Murphy, Craig 1994, International Organization and Industrial Change: Global Governance Since 1850, New York: Oxford University Press
Murphy, Kent 1981, “The Traditional View of Public Policy and Ordre Public in Private International Law,” Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 11 (3): 591–615
Naón, Horacio A. Grigera 1982, “The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods,” in Horn and Schmitthoff (eds.), 1982, pp. 89–124
Naón, Horacio A. Grigera 1993, “International Chamber of Commerce Arbitration and Developing Countries,” International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes Review – Foreign Investment Law Journal 8: 116–22
Nardin, Terry 1983, Law, Morality, and the Relations of States, Princeton University Press
Neufeld, Mark 1995, The Restructuring of International Relations Theory, Cambridge University Press
North American Free Trade Agreement, December 17, 1992, US—Can—Mex; repr. 1993 International Legal Materials 32: 296.
North, Douglass C. 1981, Structure and Change in Economic History, New York: Norton
North, Douglass C. 1990, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge University Press
North, Douglass C. 1991, “Institutions, Transaction Costs, and the Rise of Merchant Empires,” in Tracy (ed.), 1991, pp. 22–40
North, Douglass C., and Robert P. Thomas 1973, The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History, Cambridge University Press
Notes 1986, “Liability of Parent Corporations for Hazardous Waste Cleanup and Damages,” Harvard Law Review 99 (5): 986–1,003
Notes of Cases 1984, “The Multinational and the Antiquities of Company Law,” The Modern Law Review 47(1): 87–92
O'Neill, John 1986, “The Disciplinary Society: From Weber to Foucault,” British Journal of Sociology 37 (1): 42–60
Owen, Roger and Bob Sutcliffe (eds.) 1972, Studies in the Theory of Imperialism, London: Longman
Panitch, Leo 1996, “Rethinking the Role of the State,” in Mittelman (ed.), 1996, pp. 83–113
Pashukanis, Evgenii 1978, Law and Marxism: A General Theory, trans. Barbara Einhorn, ed. Chris Arthur, London: Pluto Press
Patchel, Kathleen 1993, “Interest Group Politics, Federalism, and the Uniform Laws Process: Some Lessons from the Uniform Commercial Code,” Minnesota Law Review 78 (1): 83–164
Patterson, Elizabeth 1986, “United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods: Unification and the Tension Between Compromise and Domination,” Stanford Journal of International Law 22 (2): 263–303
Paul, Joel 1988, “The Isolation of Private International Law,” Wisconsin International Law Journal 7 (1): 149–78
Paul, Joel 1991, “Comity in International Law,“ Harvard International Law Journal 32 (1): 1–79
Paulsson, Jan 1981, “Arbitration Unbound: Award Detached from the Law of Its Country of Origin,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 30 (2): 358–87
Pauly, Louis W. and Simon Reich 1997, “National Structures and Multinational Corporate Behavior: Enduring Differences in the Age of Globalization,” International Organization 51 (1): 1–30
Pearson, M. N. 1991, “Merchants and States,” in Tracy (ed.), 1991, pp. 41–116
Perillo, Joseph 1994, “International Institute for the Unification of Private Law Principles of International Commercial Contracts: The Black-Letter Test and a Review,” Fordham Law Review 63 (2): 281–344
Perraton, Jonathan, David Goldblatt, David Held, and Anthony McGrew 1997, “The Globalisation of Economic Activity,” New Political Economy 2 (2): 257–77
Peterson, V. S. and A. Runyan 1993, Global Gender Issues, Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Pettman, J. 1996, Worlding Women: A Feminist International Politics, London: Routledge
Pfund, Peter and G. Taft 1986, “Congress' Role in the International Unification of Private Law,” Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 16 Supp: 671–86
Picciotto, Sol 1979, “The Theory of the State, Class Struggle and the Rule of Law,” in Bob Fine, Richard Kinsey, John Lea, Sol Picciotto, and Jock Young (eds.), Capitalism and the Rule of Law: From Deviancy Theory to Marxism, London: Hutchinson & Co, pp. 164–77
Picciotto, Sol 1988, “The Control of Transnational Capital and the Democratisation of the International State, ” Journal of Law and Society 15 (1): 58–76
Picciotto, Sol 1996, “The Regulatory Criss-Cross: Interaction between Jurisdictions and the Construction of Global Regulatory Networks,” in Bratton, McCahery, Picciotto, and Scott (eds.), 1996, pp. 89–123
Picciotto, Sol 1999 a, “Introduction: What Rules for the World Economy?” in Picciotto and Mayne (eds.), 1999, pp. 1–26
Picciotto, Sol 1999 b, “A Critical Assessment of the Multilateral Agreement on Investment,” in Picciotto and Mayne (eds.), 1999, pp. 82–105
Picciotto, Sol 2001, “Democratizing Globalism,” in Daniel Drache (ed.), The Market or the Public Domain: Global Governance and the Asymmetry of Power, London: Routledge, pp. 335–59
Picciotto, Sol and Ruth Mayne (eds.) 1999, Regulating International Business: Beyond Liberalization, Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press; and New York: St. Martin's Press
Pirenne, Henri 1937, Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe, London: Kegan Paul
Polanyi, Karl 1944, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time, Boston, MA: Beacon Press
Pollock, Frederick 1901, “The Early History of the Law Merchant in England,” The Law Quarterly Review 67 (3): 232–51
Pollock, Frederick and Frederic W. Maitland 1898, History of English Law, vol. I, Cambridge University Press
Posner, R. A. 1980 a, “The Ethical and Political Basis of the Efficiency Norm in Common Law Adjudication,” Hofstra Law Review 8 (3): 487–507
Posner, R. A. 1980 b, “A Theory of Primitive Society, with Special Reference to Law,” Journal of Law and Economics 23 (1): 1–54
Posner, R. A. 1986, Economic Analysis of Law, Toronto: Little Brown
Potter, Patrick J. 1989, “Note, International Commercial Arbitration in the United States: Considering Whether to Adopt United Nations Commission on International Trade Law's Model Law,” Michigan Journal of International Law 10 (3): 912–34
Poulantzas, Nicos 1973, Political Power and Social Classes, London: New Left Books and Sheed and Ward
Powell, Robert 1994, “Anarchy in International Relations Theory: The Neorealist–Neoliberal Debate,” International Organization 48 (2): 313–44
Price, Jacob M. 1991, “Transaction Costs: A Note on Merchant Credit and the Organization of Private Trade,” in Tracy (ed.), 1991, pp. 276–97
Protocol on Arbitration Clauses, 24 September 1923, League of Nations Treaty Series 27: 158.
Purvis, Nigel 1991, “Critical Legal Studies in Public International Law,” Harvard International Law Journal 32 (1): 81–127
Ramberg, Jan 1982, “Incoterms 1980,” in Horn and Schmitthoff (eds.), 1982, pp. 137– 52
Ramberg, Jan 2000, International Chamber of Commerce Guide to Incoterms 2000, Paris: International Chamber of Commerce, Pub. No. 620
Raz, Joseph (ed.) 1990 a, Authority, Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Raz, Joseph (ed.) 1990 b, “Introduction,” Raz (ed.), 1990 a, pp. 1–19
Reese, Willis L. M. 1985, “The Hague Conference on Private International Law: Some Observations,” International Lawyer 19 (3): 881–6
Risse-Kappen Thomas 1995 b, “Structures of Governance and Transnational Relations: What Have We Learned?” in Risse-Kappen, 1995 a, pp. 280–313
Risse-Kappen, Thomas (ed.) 1995 a, Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures and International Institutions, Cambridge University Press
Robé, Jean-Phillipe 1997, “Multinational Enterprises: The Constitution of a Pluralist Legal Order,” in Teubner (ed.), 1997 a, pp. 45–78
Roberts, Adam and Benedict Kingsbury (eds.) 1993, United Nations, Divided World: The UN's Roles in International Relations, Oxford: Clarendon Press
Robertson, Roland 1992, Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture, London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Robinson, William 1996, “Globalisation: Nine Theses On Our Epoch,” Race and Class 38 (2): 13–31
Robinson, William 1998, “Beyond the Nation-State Paradigms: Globalization, Sociology, and the Challenge of Transnational Studies,” Sociological Forum 13 (4): 561–94
Rochester, J. Martin 1986, “The Rise and Fall of International Organization as a Field of Study,” International Organization 40 (4): 777–813
Rochester, J. Martin 1995, “The United Nations in a New World Order: Reviving the Theory and Practice of International Organization,” in Charles W. Kegley (ed.), Controversies in International Relations Theory: Realism and the Neoliberal Challenge, New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 199–221
Romany, Celina 1993, “Women as Aliens: A Feminist Critique of the Public/Private Distinction in International Human Rights Law,” Harvard Human Rights Journal 6: 87–125
Ronit, Karsten and Volker Schneider (eds.) 2000, Private Organizations in Global Politics, London: Routledge
Rose, Nikolas 1977, “Fetishism and Ideology: A Review of Theoretical Problems,” Ideology and Consciousness 2 (Autumn): 27–54
Rosenberg, Justin 1994, The Empire of Civil Society: A Critique of the Realist Theory of International Relations, London: Verso
Rosett, A. 1984, “Critical Reflections on the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods,” Ohio State Law Journal 45 (2): 265–305
Rowe, Michael C. 1982, “The Contribution of the International Chamber of Commerce to the Development of International Trade Law,” in Horn and Schmitthoff (eds.), 1982, pp. 51–60
Ruggie, John G. (ed.) 1993 b, Multilateralism Matters: The Theory and Praxis of an Institutional Form, New York: Columbia University Press
Ruggie, John G. 1982, “International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Post-war Order,” International Organization 36 (4): 379–415
Ruggie, John G. 1993 a, “Territoriality and Beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations,” International Organization 47 (1): 139–74
Ruggie, John G. 1994, “Trade, Protectionism and the Future of Welfare Capitalism,” Journal of International Affairs 48 (1): 1–11
Ruggie, John G. 1995 a, “At Home Abroad, Abroad at Home: International Liberalisation and Domestic Stability in the New World Economy,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 24 (3): 507–26
Ruggie, John G. 1995 b, “The False Premise of Realism,” International Security 20 (1): 62–70
Rupert, Mark 1993, “Alienation, Capitalism and the Inter-state System: Toward a Marxian/Gramscian Critique,” in Gill, 1993 a, pp. 67–92
Rupert, Mark 1995, Producing Hegemony: The Politics of Mass Production and American Global Power, Cambridge University Press
Rupert, Mark 1997 a, “Globalisation and American Common Sense: Struggling to Make Sense of a Post-hegemonic World,” New Political Economy 2 (1): 105–16
Rupert, Mark 1997 b, “Globalization and Contested Common Sense in the United States,” in Gill and Mittelman (eds.), 1997, pp. 138–52
Rupert, Mark 2000, Ideologies of Globalization: Contending Visions of World Order, London and New York: Routledge
Rupert, Mark and Hazel Smith (eds.) 2002, Historical Materialism and Globalization, New York and London: Routledge
Sanborn, Frederic R. 1930, Origins of the Early English Maritime and Commercial Law, London: Century Co.
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa 1982 a, “Law and Community: The Changing Nature of State Power in Late Capitalism,” in Richard L. Abel (ed.), The Politics of Informal Justice, Vol. I: The American Experience, New York: Academic Press, pp. 249–66
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa 1982 b, “Popular Justice, Dual Power, and Socialist Strategy,” in Beirne and Quinney (eds.), 1982, pp. 364–75
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa 1985, “On Modes of Production of Law and Social Power,” International Journal of Sociology of Law 13: 295–336
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa 1987, “Law: A Map of Misreading: Toward a Postmodern Conception of Law,” Journal of Law and Society 14 (3): 279–302
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa 1993, “The Postmodern Transition: Law and Politics,” in Austin Sarat and Thomas R. Kearns, The Fate of Law, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 79–118
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa 1995, Toward a New Common Sense: Law, Science, and Politics in the Paradigmatic Transition, London and New York: Routledge
Sassoon, David M. 1975, British Shipping Laws: C.I.F. and F.O.B. Contracts, London: Stevens & Sons
Sauders, Pieter 1979, “Procedures and Practices Under the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Rules,” American Journal of Comparative Law 27: 453–68
Schachter, Oscar 1977, “The Twilight Existence of Nonbinding International Agreements”, The American Journal of International Law 71 (2): 296–304
Schachter, Oscar 1985, “Sharing the World's Resources,” in Falk, Kratochwil, and Mendolvitz (eds.), 1985, pp. 525–46
Schall, James 1991–2, “Natural Law and the Law of Nations: Some Theoretical Considerations,” Fordham International Law Journal 15 (4): 997–1030
Scheuerman, William (ed.) 1996, The Rule of Law Under Siege: Selected Essays of Franz L. Neumann and Otto Kirchheimer, Berkeley: University of California Press
Scheuerman, William 1999, “Economic Globalization and the Rule of Law,” Constellations: An International Journal of Critical and Democratic Theory 6 (1): 3–25
Scheuerman, William 2000, “Global Law in Our High Speed Economy,” in Volkmar Gessner (ed.), Rules and Networks: The Legal Culture of Global Business Transactions, Oxford: Hart Publishing
Scheuerman, William 2001, “Reflexive Law and the Challenge of Globalization,” The Journal of Political Philosophy 9 (1): 81–102
Schlag, Pierre 1991, “The Problem of the Subject,” Texas Law Review 69 (7): 1,627–1,744
Schmitthoff, Clive M. (ed.) 1964 b, The Sources of the Law of International Trade, New York: Praeger
Schmitthoff, Clive M. 1961, “International Business Law: A New Law Merchant,” Current Law and Social Problems 2: 129–53
Schmitthoff, Clive M. 1964 a, “The Law of International Trade, Its Growth, Formulation, and Operation,” in Schmitthoff (ed.), 1964 b, pp. 3–38
Schmitthoff, Clive M. 1968, “The Unification or Harmonization of Law by Means of Standard Contracts and General Conditions,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 17 (July): 551–70
Schmitthoff, Clive M. 1981, Commercial Law in a Changing Economic Climate, London: Sweet & Maxwell
Schmitthoff, Clive M. 1982, “Nature and Evolution of the Transnational Law of International Commercial Transactions,” in Horn and Schmitthoff (eds.), 1982, pp. 19–31
Scholte, Jan 1997, “Global Capitalism and the State,” International Affairs 73 (3): 427–52
Schwartz, Alan and Robert Scott 1995, “The Political Economy of Private Legislatures,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 143 (3): 595–654
Scrutton, Thomas E. 1907, “Roman Law Influence in Chancery, Church Courts, Admiralty, and the Law Merchant,” in Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, vol. I, pp. 209–47
Scrutton, Thomas, E. 1909, “General Survey of the History of the Law Merchant,” in Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History (1909), vol. III, pp. 7–15
Seidl-Hohenveldern, I. 1979, “International Economic ‘Soft Law’,” in Recueil Des Cours II, Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law 163: 165–246
Selden Society 1892, Leet Jurisdiction in Norwich, ed. William Hudson, London: Bernard Quaritch
Selden Society 1908, Select Cases Concerning the Law Merchant, ed. C. Gross, vol. I, London: Bernard Quaritch
Sempasa, Samson 1992, “Obstacles to International Commercial Arbitration in African Countries,” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 41 (April): 387–413
Seward, Allin C. 1987, “After Bhopal: Implications for Parent Company Liability,” The International Lawyer 21 (3): 695–707
Shaw, M. N. 1991, International Law, 3rd edn, Cambridge University Press
Shaw, M. N. 1997, International Law, 4th edn, Cambridge University Press
Shaw, Martin 1994, Global Society and International Relations: Sociological Concepts and Political Perspectives, Cambridge: Polity Press
Shklar, Judith 1964, Legalism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Silbey, Susan 1997, “Let Them Eat Cake: Globalization, Postmodern Colonialism, and the Possibilities of Justice,” Law and Society Review 31 (2): 207–35
Simpson, A. W. B. 1975, A History of the Common Law of Contract, Oxford: Clarendon Press
Sklair, Leslie 2001, The Transnational Capitalist Class, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
Slaughter, Anne-Marie 1994, “The Liberal Agenda for Peace: International Relations Theory and the Future of the United Nations,” Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 4 (2): 377–419
Slaughter, Anne-Marie, Andrew S. Tulumello, and Stepan Wood 1998, “International Law and International Relations Theory: A New Generation of Interdisciplinary Scholarship,” American Journal of International Law 92 (3): 367–97
Slaughter-Burley, Anne-Marie 1993, “International Law and International Relations: A Dual Agenda,” American Journal of International Law 87 (2): 205–39
Smit, Hans 1986, “The Future of International Commercial Arbitration: A Single Transnational Institution?” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 25 (1): 9–34
Smith, Hazel 1996, “The Silence of the Academics: International Social Theory, Historical Materialism and Political Values,” Review of International Studies 22: 191–212
Smith, Steve 1995, “The Self-images of a Discipline: A Genealogy of International Relations Theory” in Booth and Smith (eds.), 1995, pp. 1–37
Sono, Kazuaki 1988, “Restoration of the Rule of Reason in Contract Formation: Has There Been a Civil and Common Law Disparity?” Cornell International Law Journal 21(3): 477–86
Special Issue on the Legalization of World Politics 2000, International Organization 54 (3)
Spitzer, Steven 1983, “Marxist Perspectives in the Sociology of Laws,” Annual Review of Sociology 9: 103–24
Spruyt, Hendrick 1994, “Institutional Selection in International Relations: State Anarchy as Order,” International Organization 48 (4): 527–57
Staker, Christopher 1990, “Diplomatic Protection of Private Business Companies: Determining Corporate Personality for International Law Purposes,” The British Yearbook of International Law 61: 155–74
Starke, J. G. 1936, “The Relation Between Private and Public International Law,” The Law Quarterly Review 207: 395–401
Statute of the International Court of Justice, signed 1945; reproduced in Hugh Kindred, Jean-Gabriel Castel, Donald Fleming, William Graham, Armand de Mestral, Linda Reif, Ivan Vlasic, and Sharon Williams 1993, International Law: Chiefly as Interpreted and Applied in Canada, Documentary Supplement, Toronto: Emond Montgomery Publications Ltd, pp. 33–44.
Steans, J. 1998, Gender and International Relations, Oxford: Polity Press
Stevenson, J. 1952, “The Relationship of Private International to Public International Law,” Columbia Law Review 52 (5): 561–88
Stoecker, Christoph 1990, “The Lex Mercatoria: To What Extent Does It Exist?” Journal of International Arbitration 7 (1): 101–25
Story, Joseph 1834, Commentaries on the Conflict of Laws, Foreign and Domestic in Regard to Contracts, Rights and Remedies, Especially in Regard to Marriages, Divorces, Wills, Successions and Judgments, Boston: Hill and Gray and Co.
Strange, Susan 1983, “Cave! Hic dragones: A Critique of Regimes Analysis,” in Krasner, 1983 a, pp. 337–54
Strange, Susan 1994, “Global Government and Global Opposition,” in Politics in an Interdependent World: Essays Presented to Ghita Ionescu, Aldershot: Edward Elgar, pp. 20–33
Strange, Susan 1995 a, “The Defective State,” Daedalus 124 (2): 55–74
Strange, Susan 1995 b, “Political Economy and International Relations,” in Booth and Smith (eds.), 1995, pp. 154–74
Strange, Susan 1996, The Retreat of the State: The Diffusion of Power in the World Economy, Cambridge University Press
Sturley, M. F. 1987, “International Uniform Laws in National Courts: The Influence of Domestic Law in Conflicts of Interpretation,” Virginia Journal of International Law 27 (4): 729–803
Suganami, Hidemi 1989, The Domestic Analogy and World Order Proposals, Cambridge University Press
Sylvester, Christine 1994, Feminist Theory and International Relations in a Postmodern Era, Cambridge University Press
Tallon, Denis 1983, “Civil Law and Commercial Law,” in International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law: Specific Contracts, vol, III, ch. 2, Tübingen: Mohr; The Hague, Boston, and London: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 103–14
Tawney, R. H. 1962, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism: A Historical Study, Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith
Tesón, Fernando 1990, “International Obligation and the Theory of Hypothetical Consent,” Yale Journal of International Law 15 (1): 84–120
Tetley, William 1978, Marine Cargo Claims, 2nd edn, Toronto: Butterworths
Teubner, Gunther (ed.) 1997 a, Global Law Without a State, Aldershot, England and Brookfield, USA: Dartmouth Publishing Company Ltd.
Teubner, Gunther (ed.) 1997 b, “‘Global Bukowina:’ Legal Pluralism in the World Society,” in Teubner (ed.), 1997 a, pp. 3–30
Thayer, Philp W. 1936, “Comparative Law and the Law Merchant,” Brooklyn Law Review 6 (2): 139–54
Thompson, E. P. 1971, “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,” Past and Present 50 (February): 76–136
Thompson, E. P. 1975, Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act, London: Penguin Books
Tickner, Ann 1992, Gender in International Relations, New York: Columbia University Press
Tollefson, Chris 1993, “Corporate Constitutional Rights and the Supreme Court of Canada,” Queens Law Journal 19 (1): 309–49
Tollefson, Chris 2002, “Games Without Frontiers: Investor Claims and Citizen Submissions Under the North American Free Trade Agreement Regime,” The Yale Journal of International Law 27 (1): 141–91
Tracy, James D. (ed.) 1991, The Political Economy of Merchant Empires, Cambridge University Press
Trakman, Leon E. 1983, The Law Merchant: The Evolution of Commercial Law, Littleton, CO: Fred B. Rothman and Co.
Trimble, Phillip 1985, “International Trade and the ‘Rule of Law’,” Michigan Law Review 83 (February): 1,016–32
Trimble, Phillip 1990, “International Law, World Order and Critical Legal Studies,” Stanford Law Review 42 (February): 811–45
Twining, William 1996, “Globalization and Legal Theory: Some Local Implications,” Current Legal Problems 49 (2): 1–42
Udovitch, Abraham 1962, “At the Origins of the Western Commenda: Islam, Israel, Byzantium?” Speculum 37 (2): 198–207
Unger, Roberto 1976, Law in Modern Society: Toward a Criticism of Social Theory, New York: Free Press
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Arbitration Rules, UN Doc. A/31/17.
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Conciliation Rules, UN Doc. A/Conf. 35/17, reprinted in International Legal Materials 20 (1) (1981): 300–6.
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on Electronic Commerce, November 11, 1996, UN Doc./A/C.6/51/L8.
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, UN Doc. A/Conf. A/40/17, reprinted in United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Yearbook 1986, 16: 393.
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on Procurement of Goods, Construction and Services, December 9, 1993, UN Doc. A/RES/48/33.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Convention on a Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences, November 30, 1984, UN Doc. TD/B/C.4/Dec/50/Ⅺ.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development International Code on the Transfer of Technology, June 3, 1970, UN Doc. TD/DEC/113 (6).
United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Vienna Sales Convention), UN Doc. A/Conf. 97/19, 178–90, Annex I, reprinted in International Legal Materials 19 (1980): 668–99.
United Nations Convention on International Bills of Exchange and International Promissory Notes, December 9, 1988, UN Doc. A/RES/43/165; repr. International Legal Materials 28 (1989): 170.
United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea, 1978 (Hamburg Rules),UN Doc. A/Conf.89/13, Annex 1, reprinted in International Legal Materials 17 (1978): 603–31.
United Nations Convention on the Liability of Operators of Transport Terminals in International Trade, April 19, 1991, UN Doc. A/Conf. 152/13; repr. International Legal Materials 30 (1991): 1503.
United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention), June 10, 1958, UN Doc. A/Conf.9/22, reprinted in International Legal Materials (1968): 1,042–62.
Vagts, Detlev F. 1970, “The Multinational Enterprise: A New Challenge for Transnational Law,” Harvard Law Review 83 (4): 739–92
Van der Pijl, Kees 1998, Transnational Classes and International Relations, London and New York: Routledge
Vance, William R. 1909, “Early History of Insurance Law,” in Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, vol. III, pp. 98–116
Verdross, Alfred and Heribert F. Koeck 1983, “Natural Law: The Tradition of Universal Reason and Authority,” in Ronald St. J. Macdonald and Douglas M. Johnston (eds), The Structure and Process of International Law: Essays in Legal Philosophy, Doctrine and Theory, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 17–50
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969, 155 United Nations Treaty Series: 331.
Vincent, Andrew 1993, “Marx and Law,” Journal of Law and Society 20 (4): 371–97
Viner, Jacob 1978, Religious Thought and Economic Society, Durham, NC: Duke University Press
Von Caemmerer, Ernst 1964, “The Influence of the Law of International Trade on the Development and Character of Commercial Law in the Civil Law Countries,” in Schmitthoff, 1964 b, pp. 88–100
Von Glahn, Gerhard 1996, Law Among Nations: An Introduction to Public International Law, 7th edn, Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon
Walker, R. B. J. 1987, One World, Many Worlds: Struggles for a Just World Peace, London: Zed Books
Walker, R. B. J. 1993, Inside/Outside: International Relations as Political Theory, Cambridge University Press
Wallerstein, Immanuel 1974, 1980, 1989, The Modern World-System, vols. I–III, San Diego, CA: Academy Press
Waltz, Kenneth 1979, Theory of International Politics, Reading, MA: Addison Wesley
Walzer, Michael 1984, “Liberalism and the Art of Separation,” Political Theory 12 (3): 315–30
Waring, Marilyn 1991, “Gender and International Law: Women and the Right to Development,” Australian Yearbook of International Law 12: 177–89
Watson, Adam 1992, The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Analysis, New York: Routledge
Weber, Cynthia 1995, Simulating Sovereignty: Intervention, the State and Symbolic Exchange, Cambridge University Press
Weber, Max 1966, Law and Economy in Society, ed. Max Rheinstein, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Weber, Max 1978 a, Economy and Society, vols. I and II, ed. Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich, Berkeley: University of California Press
Weber, Max 1978 b, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, London: Allen and Unwin
Weiss, Andrew Glenn 1986, “The Status of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration Vis-à-Vis the International Chamber of Commerce, LCIA, and United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Arbitration Rules: Conflict or Complement?” Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce 13 (2): 367–90
Wendt, Alexander 1992, “Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics,” International Organization 46 (2): 391–425
Wendt, Alexander 1994, “Collective Identity Formation and the International State,” American Political Science Review 88 (2): 384–96
Wendt, Alexander 1995, “Constructing International Politics,” International Security 20 (1): 71–81
Whitworth, Sandra 1994, Feminism and International Relations: Towards a Political Economy of Gender in Interstate and Non-governmental Institutions, London: Macmillan
Wiener, Jarrod 1999, Globalisation and Harmonisation of Laws, New York: Pinter
Wight, Martin 1966, “Why is There No International Theory?” in Butterfield and Wight (eds.), 1966, pp. 17–34
Winship, Peter 1988, “Private International Law and the UN Sales Convention,” Cornell International Law Journal 21 (3): 487–534
Wolff, R. P. 1990, “The Conflict Between Authority and Autonomy,” in Raz (ed.), 1990 a, pp. 20–31
Wood, Ellen Meiksins 1995, Democracy Against Capitalism: Renewing Historical Materialism, Cambridge University Press
Wright, Shelly 1991, “Economic Rights and Social Justice: A Feminist Analysis of Some International Human Rights Conventions,” Australian Yearbook of International Law 12: 242–64
Yakovlev, Andrei 1996, “International Commercial Arbitration Proceedings and Russian Courts,” Journal of International Arbitration 13 (1): 37–63
Yasuaki, Onuma (ed.) 1993, Normative Approaches to War: Peace, War, Justice in Hugo Grotius, Oxford University Press
York-Antwerp Rules in the General Average 1994, available online: http://www.usaveragadjusters.org/Yorkantwerp.htm
Young, Gary 1979, “Marx on Bourgeois Law,” Research in Law and Sociology 2: 133–67
Young, Oran 1979, Compliance and Public Authority: A Theory with International Implications, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Zacher, Mark W. with Brent Sutton 1996, Governing Global Networks: International Regimes for Transportation and Communications, Cambridge University Press
Zalewski, Marysia and J. Parpart 1998, The “Man Question” in International Relations, Oxford: Westview Press
Ziegel, Jacob (ed.) 1995, Twenty-fifth Annual Workshop on Commercial and Consumer Law “Harmonization and Change” Workshop Papers and Other Materials, Toronto: S. N.