Biomedicine and the Human Condition

Challenges, Risks, and Rewards

Biomedicine and the Human Condition

How to avoid disease, how to breed successfully, and how to live to a reasonable age are questions that have perplexed humankind throughout history. This book explores our progress in understanding these challenges, and the risks and rewards of devising solutions. A broad range of topics are covered, including reproduction, the development of human progeny from conception to adulthood, staying healthy, ageing, cancer, infection and the burden of our genetic legacy.


 Reviews:

"Sargent's tale is rooted in science, but he sees the big picture as well. The story is epic but the language is a marvel of clarity. Knowledge empowers, and if this book were on prescription, it might improve the national health." Tim Radford, The Guardian

"Sargent has done a valuable service to those general readers--and not a few doctors--who wish to learn about the directions of current medical research. While 'biomedicine' may be only part of the story of disease and the human condition, those who want to know what the medical world is up to have got to start somewhere; Sargent's tip of the iceberg is a better place than most." The Lancet, Daivd Weatherall

"The journey is fascinating and written with a general audience in mind." New Scientist

"Biomedicine and the Human Condition is written in a compelling and lucid style that renders it accessible to the layperson, but it should become a valuable work of reference for many who are engaged professionally in medicine." Biochemist, Stephen Pollock

"Michael G. Sargent has written a terrific book for the lay reader who wants to discover how biomedicine has confronted the human challenges of maintaining good health."
Abstract

'Michael Sargent has done a great service by demonstrating that the rudiments of the essential scientific knowledge can be conveyed in a manner that is both informative and compelling. … his book conveys a humanitarian wisdom that can be placed in the scales to counterbalance the weight of dogmatic convictions. Biomedicine and the Human Condition is written in a compelling and lucid style that renders it accessible to the layperson, but it should also become a valuable work of reference for many who are engaged professionally in medicine. … It can be recommended to all preclinical medical students as a vade mecum and to busy clinicians as an up to the minute survey.' Stephen Pollock, Queen Mary College, University of London

'This is an interesting book for medics, bioscience students and historians of science and medicine at a reasonable price.' Biologist

'… very approachable … full of interesting facts and figures. … The breadth of this text is its strongest asset, and overall it is a worthwhile addition to any biomedical bookshelf.' Journal of Biological Education

'Michael Sargent offers an extremely thorough account of the scientific background to improvements in healthcare that followed achievements in clinical research and drug discovery in the 20th century. … [He] offers food for thought about the evolution of medical research and practice.' The Times Higher Education Supplement

Abelson, P. (1968) The advancement of the nation's health. Science 158, 51
Agres, T. (2003) Licenses worth a billion. The Scientist 17, 55
Alberts, B., et al., (2002) The molecular biology of the cell. Garland
Alcor Life Extension Foundation. (2000). www.alcor.org
Aldous, P. (2001) Can they rebuild this? Nature 410, 622–5
Alper, J. (2003) Biotech thinking comes to academic medical centres. Science 299, 1303–5
Ames, B. N. (1979) Identifying environmental chemicals causing mutations and cancer. Science 204, 587–93
Ames, B. N. (1999) Cancer prevention and diet: Help from single nucleotide polymorphisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 12216–8
Ames, B., Magaw, R., and Gold, L. (1987) Ranking possible carcinogenic hazards. Science 236, 271–280
Anderson, W. F. (1992) Human gene therapy. Science 256, 808–13
Appleyard, B. (1999) Brave new worlds. HarperCollins
Artandi, S. E., and DePinho, R. A. (2000) A critical role for telomeres in suppressing and facilitating carcinogenesis. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 10, 39–46
Austoker, J. (1988) A history of the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 1902–1986. Oxford University Press
Avery, M. E. (2000) Surfactant deficiency in hyaline membrane disease: The story of discovery. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 161, 1074–5
Baker, J. P. (2000) Immunization and the American way: Four childhood vaccines. Am. J. Public Health. 90, 199–207
Balter, M. (2000) Emerging diseases: On the trail of Ebola and Marburg viruses. Science 290, 923–5
Bang, H. O., and Dyerberg, J. (1981) Personal reflections on the incidence of ischaemic heart disease in Oslo during the Second World War. Acta. Med. Scand. 210, 245–8
Barinaga, M. (2000) Asilomar revisited: Lessons for today? Science 287, 1584–5
Barinaga, M. (2000) Fetal neuron grafts pave the way for stem cell therapies. Science 287, 1421–2
Barinaga, M. (2002) Cells exchanged during pregnancy live on. Science 296, 2169–72
Barker, D. (1998) Mothers, babies and health in later life. Churchill Livingston
Bartek, J., and Lukas, J. (2003) Damage alert. Nature 421, 486–7
Baxby, D. (1996) Two hundred years of vaccination. Curr. Biol. 6, 769–72
Beckman, K. B., and Ames, B. N. (1998) The free radical theory of aging matures. Physiol. Rev. 78, 547–81
Behague, D. P., Victora, C. G., and Barros, F. C. (2002) Consumer demand for caesarean sections in Brazil. BMJ 324, 942–5
Behr, M. A. (2001) Comparative genomics of BCG vaccines. Tuberculosis (Edinb.) 81, 165–8
Berche, P. (2001) The threat of smallpox and bioterrorism. Trends Microbiol. 9, 15–18
Biever, C. (2003) Bring me sunshine. The New Scientist 179, 30–1
Binswanger, H. (2003) HIV/AIDS treatment for millions. Science 292, 221
Black, I. (2002) EU replaces cash denied to UN family planning by US. The Guardian, London, July 24
Blacklock, C. J., et al. (2001) Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin: Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin. J. Clin. Pathol. 54, 553–5
Blume, S., and Geesink, I. (2000) A brief history of polio vaccines. Science 288, 1593–4
Bodenheimer, T. (2000) Uneasy alliance – clinical investigators and the pharmaceutical industry. N. Engl. J. Med. 342, 1539–44
Bogin, B. (1999) Patterns of human growth. Cambridge University Press
Boyd-Orr, J. (1936) Food, health and income. Macmillan
Brady, S. T. (1993) Motor neurons and neurofilaments in sickness and in health. Cell 73, 1–3
Brash, D. (1996) Cellular proofreading. Nature Medicine 2, 525–6
Brent, L., and Owen, R. (1996) A history of transplantation immunology. Academic Press
Brosens, J., and Parker, M. (2003) Oestrogen receptor hikacked. Nature 423, 487–8
Brown, J. B. (1986) Gonadotrophins. In Infertility: Male and Female, ed. V. Insier and B. Lunenfield. Churchill Livingston, pp. 000–000
Brundtland, G. H., Liestol, K., and Walloe, L. (1980) Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years. Ann. Hum. Biol. 7, 307–22
Brunk, U. T., and Terman, A. (2002) The mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging: Accumulation of damaged mitochondria as a result of imperfect autophagocytosis. Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 1996–2002
Buhler, L., et al. (2001) Transplantation of islets of Langerhans: New developments. Swiss Med. Wkly. 131, 671–80
Butterworth, C. E., Jr., and Bendich, A. (1996) Folic acid and the prevention of birth defects. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 16, 73–97
Campisi, J. (2000) Cancer, aging and cellular senescence. In Vivo 14, 183–8
Cao, A., and Rosatelli, M. C. (1993) Screening and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies. Baillieres Clin. Haematol. 6, 263–86
Caplan, A. (2004) Is biomedical research too dangerous to pursue? Science 303, 1142
Carswell, E. A., et al. (1975) An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 3666–70
Carter, R., and Mendis, K. N. (2002) Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15, 564–94
Caton, D. (1996) Who said childbirth is natural? The medical mission of Grantly Dick Read. Anaesthesiology 84, 955–64
Chakravarti, A., and Chakraborty, R. (1978) Elevated frequency of Tay-Sachs disease among Ashkenazic Jews unlikely by genetic drift alone. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 30, 256–61
Chan, A. C. (1998) Vitamin E and atherosclerosis. J. Nutr. 128, 1593–6
Chandra, R. K. (1991) Interactions between early nutrition and the immune system. Ciba. Found. Symp. 156, 77–89
Charatan, F. (2001) US spending on prescription drugs rose by 19% in 2000. BMJ 322, 1198
Check, E. (2002) Poliovirus advance sparks fears of data curbs. Nature 418, 265
Chiurel, M. (2000) Whatever happened to leptin. Nature 404, 538–40
Christie, B. (2000) Premature babies have high death and disability rate. BMJ 321, 467
CIA (2002) World Fact Book. www.cia.gov
Clarke, T. (2003) Drug companies snub antibiotics as pipeline threatens to run dry. Nature 425, 225
Coale, A. J. (1974) The history of the human population. Sci. Am. 231, 41
Cohen, F. E. and Kelly, J. W. (2003) Therapeutic approaches to protein misfolding diseases. Nature 426, 405–9
Cohen, J. (1996) Doctor James Young Simpson, Rabbi Abraham de Sola and Genesis Chapter 3, Verse 16. Obstetrics and Gynaecology 88, 895
Cohen, J. (2003) Companies, donor's pledge to close gap in AIDS treatment. Science 289, 368
Cohen, M., Lee, K. K., Wilson, K. L., and Gruenbaum, Y. (2001) Transcriptional repression, apoptosis, human disease and the functional evolution of the nuclear lamina. Trends Biochem. Sci. 26, 41–7
Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D., and Myers, J. (1997) Our stolen future. Abacus
Cole, T. J. (2000) Secular trends in growth. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59, 317–24
Collinge, J. (1999) Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Lancet 354, 317–23
Connor, W. E. (2000) Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 171S–5S
Corner, G. (1964) A history of the Rockefeller Institute. Rockefeller University Press
Cosby, A. (1989) America's forgotten pandemic. Cambridge University Press
Coussens, L. M., and Werb, Z. (2002) Inflammation and cancer. Nature 420, 860–7
Crick, F. (1993) Looking backwards: A birthday card for the double helix. Gene 135, 15–18
Crisostomo, M. I., et al. (2001) The evolution of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: Similarity of genetic backgrounds in historically early methicillin-susceptible and – resistant isolates and contemporary epidemic clones. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 9865–70
Cristofalo, V. J., et al. (1998) Relationship between donor age and the replicative lifespan of human cells in culture: A reevaluation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 10614–9
Crockin, S. (2001) Adam Nash: Legally speaking, a happy ending or slippery slope? Reprod. Biomed. Online 2, 6–7
Crow, J. F. (1997) The high spontaneous mutation rate: Is it a health risk? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8380–6
Crow, J. F. (2000) The origins, patterns and implications of human spontaneous mutation. Nat. Rev. Genet. 1, 40–7
Culliton, B. (1972) Cancer virus theories: Focus of research debate. Science 177, 44–7
Cuthbertson, W. (2000) Evolution of infant nutrition. Brit. J. Nut. 81, 359–371
Cyranoski, D., and Abbott, A. (2003) Virus detectives seek source of SARS in China's wild animals. Nature 423, 467
Dalton, R., and Schiermeier, Q. (1999) Genentech pays $200m over growth hormone ‘theft’. Nature 402, 335
Daniel, T. M. (2000) The origins and precolonial epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Americas: Can we figure them out? Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 4, 395–400
Davey, B., Halliday, T., and Hirst, M. (2001) Human biology and health: An evolutionary approach. Open University
DeFrancesco, L. (2001) First sepsis drug nears market. Nature 7, 516–17
Defrancesco, L. (2002) US in grip of West Nile Virus. Nature Medicine 8, 1051
deGrey, A., et al. (2003) Antiageing technology and pseudoscience. Science 296, 5568–9
Deininger, P. L., and Batzer, M. A. (1999) Alu repeats and human disease. Mol. Genet. Metab. 67, 183–93
Diamond, J. (1998) Guns, Germs, and Steel. Vintage
Diamond, J. (2003) The double puzzle of diabetes. Nature 423, 599–602
Dirks, A. and Leeuwenburgh, C. (2002) Apoptosis in skeletal muscle with aging. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 282, R519–27
Djerassi, C. (1962) The Pill, pygmy chimps, and Degas' horse. Basic Books
Doll, R. (1992) Sir Austin Bradford Hill and the progress of medical science. BMJ 305, 1521
Doll, R., and Armstrong, B. (1980) Cancer. In Western Diseases, Their Emergence and Prevention, ed. H. Trowell and D. Burkitt. Harvard University Press, pp. 93–112
Drancourt, M., and Raoult, D. (2002) Molecular insights into the history of plague. Microbes Infect. 4, 105–9
Dyer, C. (1999) English teenager given heart transplant against her will. BMJ 319, 209
Dyer, C. (2000) Appeal court bars sterilisation of woman with learning disabilities. The Guardian, May 19
Dyer, O. (2001) University accused of violating academic freedom to safeguard funding from drug companies. BMJ 323, 591
Dynes, M. (2003) Heart transplant secret of the hospital gardiner. The Times (London), April 26
Dynes, M. (2003) Miracle birth of the elusive baby found growing on mother's liver. The Times, May 24
Eaton, S. B., and Konner, M. (1985) Palaeolithic nutrition: A consideration of its nature and current implications. N. Engl. J. Med. 312, 283–9
Editorial. (1965) Does the United States have a science policy? Nature 217, 225–31
Editorial. (1968) Ethics and abortion. BMJ 2, 3
Editorial. (1985) Powell bites dust: The British government needs to think hard about surrogacy. Nature 314, 568
Editorial. (1994) China's misconception of eugenics. Nature 367, 3
Editorial. (2003) How a statin might destroy a drug company. The Lancet 361, 793
Edwards, R., and Steptoe, P. (1980) A matter of life. Hutchinson
Edwards, R., and Steptoe, P. (1983) Current status of in-vitro fertilisation and implantation of human embryos. The Lancet 2, 1265–9
Eisen, J. A. (2001) Gastrogenomics. Nature 409, 463, 465–6
Ekstein, J., and Katzenstein, H. (2001) The Dor Yeshorim story: Community-based carrier screening for Tay-Sachs disease. Adv. Genet. 44, 297–310
Eldadah, Z. A., et al. (2001) Familial tetralogy of fallot caused by mutation in the jagged gene. Hum. Mol. Genet. 10, 163–9
Eriksson, J., et al. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: Longitudinal study. BMJ 318, 427–31
Evans, W. E., and Relling, M. V. (1999) Pharmacogenomics: Translating functional genomics into rational therapeutics. Science 286, 487–91
Ezzell, C. (2001) Magic bullets fly again. Sci. Am. 285, 34–41
Fabbro, D., et al. (2002) Protein kinases as targets for anticancer agents: From inhibitors to useful drugs. Pharmacol. Ther. 93, 79–98
Fadeel, B., Orrenius, S., and Zhivotovsky, B. (1999) Apoptosis in human disease: A new skin for the old ceremony? Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 266, 699–717
Fahey, J. W., Zhang, Y., and Talalay, P. (1997) Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 10367–72
Faragher, R. G., and Kipling, D. (1998) How might replicative senescence contribute to human ageing? Bioessays 20, 985–91
Ferber, D. (2001) Gene therapy: Safer and virus-free? Science 294, 1638–42
Ferber, D. (2002) Livestock feed ban preserves drug's power. Science 295, 27–8
Ferber, D. (2002) Public health: Creeping consensus on SV40 and polio vaccine. Science 298, 725–7
Ferber, D. (2002) Virology: Monkey virus link to cancer grows stronger. Science 296, 1012–15
Ferber, D. (2003) WHO advises kicking the livestock antibiotic habit. Science 301, 1027
Ferri, K. F., and Kroemer, G. (2001) Mitochondria – the suicide organelles. Bioessays 23, 111–15
Field, T. (1988) Stimulation of preterm infants. Pediatr. Rev. 10, 149–53
Finch, C. E., and Tanzi, R. E. (1997) Genetics of aging. Science 278, 407–11
Finkel, T., and Holbrook, N. J. (2000) Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 408, 239–47
Fisher, D. (1978) The Rockefeller Foundation and the development of scientific medicine in Great Britain. Minerva 16, 20–41
Fleisher, T. A., Straus, S. E., and Bleesing, J. J. (2001) A genetic disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis involving the fas pathway: The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep. 1, 534–40
Floud, R., Wachter, K., and Gregory, A. (1990) Height, health and history. Cambridge University Press
Forsyth, J., et al. (2003) Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infant formula and blood pressure in later childhood: Follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 326, 958–62
Fosdick, R. (1952) The history of the Rockefeller Foundation. Harper
Friedberg, E. C. (2001) How nucleotide excision repair protects against cancer. Nature Rev. Cancer 1, 22–33
Fuchs, E. (1997) Of mice and men: Genetic disorders of the cytoskeleton (Keith R. Porter Lecture, 1996). Mol. Biol. Cell 8, 189–203
Garofano, A., Czernichow, P., and Breant, B. (1997) In utero undernutrition impairs rat beta-cell development. Diabetologia 40, 1231–4
Gee, D., and M. Greenberg. (2002) Asbestos: From ‘magic’ to malevolent mineral. In The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Century: Late Lessons from Early Warnings, ed. Poul Harremoës et al. European Environment Agency, pp. 49–63
Gemmell, N. J., and Sin, F. Y. (2002) Mitochondrial mutations may drive Y chromosome evolution. Bioessays 24, 275–9
Ghani, A. C., Ferguson, N. M., Donnelly, C. A., and Anderson, R. M. (2003) Factors determining the pattern of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) epidemic in the UK. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 270, 689–98
Gibbons, A. (1993) The risks of inbreeding. Science 259, 1252
Gluckman, E., et al. (1989) Hematopoietic reconstitution in a patient with Fanconi's anemia by means of umbilical-cord blood from an HLA-identical sibling. N. Engl. J. Med. 321, 1174–8
Gluckman, P. D. (2001) Editorial: Nutrition, glucocorticoids, birth size, and adult disease. Endocrinology 142, 1689–91
Goeddel, D. V., and Levinson, A. D. (2000) Robert A. Swanson (1947–99). Nature 403, 264
Goldbach-Mansky, R., and Lipsky, P. E. (2003) New concepts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rev. Med. 54, 197–216
Goldman, M. (1996) Cancer risk of low-level exposure. Science 271, 1821–2
Good, R. (1971) Immunodeficiency in developmental perspective. The Harvey Lectures, series 67, 1–107
Good, R. A., Gatti, R. A., Hong, R., and Meuwissen, H. J. (1969) Graft treatment of immunological deficiency. Lancet 1, 1162
Gosden, R. (1999) Designer babies. Phoenix
Gottlieb, S. (2002) Congress criticises drugs industry for misleading advertising. BMJ 325, 1379
Greaves, M. (2002) Childhood leukaemia. BMJ 324, 283–7
Green, H. (1991) Cultured cells for the treatment of disease. Sci. Am. 265, 96–102
Griffin, D. K. (1996) The incidence, origin, and etiology of aneuploidy. Int. Rev. Cytol. 167, 263–96
Griffioen, A. W., and Molema, G. (2000) Angiogenesis: Potentials for pharmacologic intervention in the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic inflammation. Pharmacol. Rev. 52, 237–68
Griffith, J. S. (1967) Self-replication and scrapie. Nature 215, 1043–4
Griffith, L. G., and Naughton, G. (2002) Tissue engineering – current challenges and expanding opportunities. Science 295, 1009–14
Groisman, E. A., and Ochman, H. (1997) How Salmonella became a pathogen. Trends Microbiol. 5, 343–9
Gubler, D. J., (2004) Cities spawn epidemic dengue viruses. Nature, Medicine 10, 129–30
Gutterman, J. (1994) Cytokine therapeutics: Lessons from interferon alpha. Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. 91, 1198–1205
Hack, M., and Merkatz, I. R. (1995) Preterm delivery and low birth weight – a dire legacy. N. Engl. J. Med. 333, 1772–4
Hall, S. (2003) In vivo vitalis? Compounds activate life-extending genes. Science 301, 1165
Hall, S., (1988) Invisible frontiers. Atlantic
Halleyday, S. (1999) The great stink of London: Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the cleansing of the Victorian metropolis. Sutton Publishing
Halsey, A. (1972) Trends in British society since 1900. Macmillan
Hamilton, M. L., et al. (2001) Does oxidative damage to DNA increase with age? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 10469–74
Hanahan, D., and Weinberg, R. A. (2000) The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100, 57–70
Handyside, A. H., Kontogianni, E. H., Hardy, K., and Winston, R. M. (1990) Pregnancies from biopsied human preimplantation embryos sexed by Y-specific DNA amplification. Nature 344, 768–70
Hardy, A. (2001) Health and medicine in Britain since 1860. Palgrave
Hare, R. (1970) The birth of penicillin. Allen and Unwin
Harman, D. (1956) Aging: A theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J. Gerontol. 1956 11, 298–300
Harpending, H., and Rogers, A. (2000) Genetic perspectives on human origins and differentiation. Ann. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 1, 361–85
Harris, J. (1992) Clones, genes, and immortality
Harris, R. (2002) Human babies in germ-line juggernaut. Current Biology 11, R539–40
Haseltine, W. A. (2001) Beyond chicken soup. Sci. Am. 285, 56–63
Haviland, W. (2000) Human evolution and prehistory. Harcourt
Hayflick, L. (1994) How and why we age. Ballantine Books
Hayflick, L. (2000) The future of ageing. Nature 408, 267–9
Hayflick, L. (2002) DNA replication and traintracks. Science 296, 1611–12
Healy, D. (2003) The creation of psychopharmacology. Harvard University Press
Henderson, D. A. (1999) The looming threat of bioterrorism. Science 283, 1279–82
Henry, D., and Lexchin, J. (2002) The pharmaceutical industry as a medicines provider. The Lancet 16, 1590–5
Herskind, A. M., et al. (1996) The heritability of human longevity: A population-based study of 2872 Danish twin pairs born 1870–1900. Hum. Genet. 97, 319–23
Hess, J., and Schmidt, P. (1984) The first blood banker: Oswald Hope Robertson. Transfusion 24, 404–7
Hetts, S. W. (1998) To die or not to die: An overview of apoptosis and its role in disease. JAMA 279, 300–7
Heyer, B. S., MacAuley, A., Behrendtsen, O., and Werb, Z. (2000) Hypersensitivity to DNA damage leads to increased apoptosis during early mouse development. Genes Dev. 14, 2072–84
Hillis, D. (2000) Origins of HIV. Science 288, 1757–8
Ho, P. C. (2000) Emergency contraception: Methods and efficacy. Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 12, 175–9
Hogenauer, C., et al. (2000) Active intestinal chloride secretion in human carriers of cystic fibrosis mutations: An evaluation of the hypothesis that heterozygotes have subnormal active intestinal chloride secretion. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67, 1422–7
Holliday, R. (1995) Understanding ageing. Cambridge University Press
Hooper, E., (2000) The river: A journey back to the source of HIV and AIDS. Penguin
Hsin, H., and Kenyon, C. (1999) Signals from the reproductive system regulate the lifespan of C. elegans. Nature 399, 362–6
Hughes, V. M., and Datta, N. (1983) Conjugative plasmids in bacteria of the ‘pre-antibiotic’ era. Nature 302, 725–6
Hunt, P. A., et al. (2003) Bisphenol exposure causes meiotic aneuploidy in the female mouse. Curr. Biol. 13, 546–53
Iachine, I. A., et al. (1998) How heritable is individual susceptibility to death? The results of an analysis of survival data on Danish, Swedish and Finnish twins. Twin Res. 1, 196–205
Ibarreta, D. and Swan, S. (2002) The DES story: Long term consequences of prenatal exposure. In The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Century: Late Lessons from Early Warnings, ed. Poul Harremoës et al. European Environment Agency, pp. 90–9
Inoue, N., Takeuchi, M., Ohashi, H., and Suzuki, T. (1995) The production of recombinant human erythropoietin. Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. 1, 297–313
International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. (2001) Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409, 860–921
Iversen, L. (2001) Drugs: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press
Jacobson, M. D., Weil, M., and Raff, M. C. (1997) Programmed cell death in animal development. Cell 88, 347–54
Janeway, C. A., Jr. (2001) How the immune system works to protect the host from infection: A personal view. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 7461–8
Janeway, C., Travers, P., Walport, M., and Shlomchik, M. (2001) Immunobiology. Garland Publishing
Johnson, F. B., Marciniak, R. A., and Guarente, L. (1998) Telomeres, the nucleolus and aging. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 10, 332–8
Judson, T. (1979) The eighth day of creation. Jonathan Cape
Kaback, M. M. (2001) Screening and prevention in Tay-Sachs disease: Origins, update, and impact. Adv. Genet. 44, 253–65
Kaiser, J. (2000) Endocrine disrupters: Panel cautiously confirms low-dose effects. Science 290, 695–7
Karaolis, D. K., Lan, R., Kaper, J. B., and Reeves, P. R. (2001) Comparison of Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity islands in sixth and seventh pandemic strains. Infect. Immun. 69, 1947–52
Karlberg, J., and Luo, Z. C. (2000) Foetal size to final height. Acta Paediatr. 89, 632–6
Kassem, M., et al. (1997) Demonstration of cellular aging and senescence in serially passaged long-term cultures of human trabecular osteoblasts. Osteoporosis Int. 7, 514–24
Kayo, T., Allison, D. B., Weindruch, R., and Prolla, T. A. (2001) Influences of aging and caloric restriction on the transcriptional profile of skeletal muscle from rhesus monkeys. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 5093–8
Keller, J., Gee, J., and Ding, Q. (2002) The proteasome in brain ageing. Ageing Res. Rev. 1, 279–93
Keynes, R. (2002) Annie's Box. Fourth Estate
Kilbourne, E. D. (1997) In pursuit of influenza: Fort Monmouth to Valhalla (and back). Bioessays 19, 641–50
Kirkwood, T. The time of our lives. Weidenfeld and Nicholson
Kirkwood, T. B., and Austad, S. N. (2000) Why do we age? Nature 408, 233–8
Kmietowicz, Z. (2001) Tobacco company claims that smokers help the economy. BMJ 323, 126
Kogevinas, M. (2001) Human health effects of dioxins: Cancer, reproductive and endocrine system effects. Hum. Reprod. Update 7, 331–9
Kolata, G. (1978) In vitro fertilization: Is it safe and repeatable? Science 201, 698
Kornberg, A. (1987) The NIH did it! Science 278, 1863
Kornberg, A. (1995) The golden helix: Inside biotech ventures. University Science Books
Krammer, P. H. (2000) CD95's deadly mission in the immune system. Nature 407, 789–95
Kumar, S. (2003) Ratio of girls to boys in India continues to decline. BMJ 327, 1007
Kuper, A. (2003) Incest, cousin marriage, and the origin of the human sciences in the nineteenth century. Past and Present Society 174, 155–83
Kwong, W. Y., et al. (2000) Maternal undernutrition during the preimplantation period of rat development causes blastocyst abnormalities and programming of postnatal hypertension. Development 127, 4195–202
Laffan, M., and Tuddenham, E. (1998) Science, medicine, and the future: Assessing thrombotic risk. BMJ 317, 520–3
Lahteenmaki, R., and Fletcher, L. (2002) Public biotechnology 2001 – the numbers. Nat. Biotechnol. 20, 551–5
Lamartiniere, C. A. (2000) Protection against breast cancer with genistein: A component of soy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 1705S–7S; discussion 1708S–9S
Lamberts, S. W., van den Beld, A. W., and van der Lely, A. J. (1997) The endocrinology of aging. Science 278, 419–24
Lane, M. A., Ingram, D. K., Ball, S. S., and Roth, G. S. (1997) Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate: A biomarker of primate aging slowed by calorie restriction. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82, 2093–6
Langer, W. (1974) Infanticide: A historical survey. Hist. Child. Q. (Winter), 353–66
Laron, Z. (2002) Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on ageing and longevity. Novartis Found. Symp. 242, 125–37; discussion 137–42
Larson, J. E., and Cohen, J. C. (2000) Cystic fibrosis revisited. Mol. Genet. Metab. 71, 470–7
Le Fanu, J. (1999) The rise and fall of modern medicine. Little, Brown
Leaf, C. (2004) Why we're losing the war on cancer and how to win. Fortune, March 22, 42–9
Levi-Montalcini, R. (1987) The nerve growth factor 35 years later. Science 237, 1154–62
Levine, A. (1997) p53 the cellular gatekeeper for growth and division. Cell 88, 323–31
Levy, N. (2002) Deafness, culture and choice. J. Med. Ethics 28, 284–5
Levy, S. B. (1998) The challenge of antibiotic resistance. Sci. Am. 278, 46–53
Lewin, B. (1970) Second golden age of molecular biology. Nature 227, 1009–13
Li, R. H., and Wozney, J. M. (2001) Delivering on the promise of bone morphogenetic proteins. Trends Biotechnol. 19, 255–65
Li, X., et al. (2001) Frequency of recent retrotransposition events in the human factor IX gene. Hum. Mutat. 17, 511–19
Li, Y., Field, P., and Raisman, G. (1997) Repair of adult rat corticospinal tract by transplants of olfactory ensheathing cells. Science 277, 2000–2
Libby, P. (2002) Atherosclerosis: The new view. Sci. Am. 286, 46–55
Lichtenstein, P., et al. (2000) Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer – analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. N. Engl. J. Med. 343, 78–85
Lindahl, A., Brittberg, M., and Peterson, L. (2003) Cartilage repair with chondrocytes: Clinical and cellular aspects. Novartis Found. Symp. 249, 175–86
Lindee, M. (2003) Watson's world. Science 300, 432–4
Liu, Y., Albertsson-Wikland, K., and Karlberg, J. (2000) Long-term consequences of early linear growth retardation (stunting) in Swedish children. Pediatr. Res. 47, 475–80
Lock, S. (1983) “O that I were young again”: Yeats and the Steinach operation. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.) 287, 1964–8
Look, A. (1997) Oncogenic transcription factors in the human acute leukaemias. Science 278, 1059–64
Lord, J. M., et al. (2001) Neutrophil ageing and immunesenescence. Mech. Ageing Dev. 122, 1521–35
Loudon, I. (1987) Puerperal fever, the streptococcus, and the sulphonamides, 1911–1945. BMJ 295, 485–490
Loudon, I. (1992) The transformation of maternal mortality. BMJ 305, 1557
Lu, Y., et al. (2001) Recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor secreted from tissue-engineered bioartificial muscles promotes localized angiogenesis. Circulation 104, 594–9
Lumbers, E. R., Yu, Z. Y., and Gibson, K. J. (2001) The selfish brain and the Barker hypothesis. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 28, 942–7
Lumelsky, N., et al. (2001) Differentiation of embryonic stem cells to insulin-secreting structures similar to pancreatic islets. Science 292, 1389–94
Mackay, I. R. (2000) Tolerance and autoimmunity. BMJ 321, 93–6
Madsen, K. M., et al. (2002) A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 1477–82
Maeder, T. (2003) The orphan drug backlash. Sci. Am. 288, 70–7
Manouvrier-Hanu, S., Holder-Espinasse, M., and Lyonnet, S. (1999) Genetics of limb anomalies in humans. TIGS 15, 409–17
Marchington, D. R., et al. (1998) Evidence from human oocytes for a genetic bottleneck in an mtDNA disease. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 63, 769–75
Marshall, E. (2000) The business of stem cells. Science 287, 1419–21
Martin, G. M., and Oshima, J. (2000) Lessons from human progeroid syndromes. Nature 408, 263–6
Martinez, F. D., and Holt, P. G. (1999) Role of microbial burden in aetiology of allergy and asthma. Lancet 354 (suppl. 2). SII12–15
Marx, J. (2002) Unravelling the cause of diabetes. Science 296, 686–9
Marx, J. (2003) Mutant stem cells may seed cancer. Science 301, 1308–10
Marx, P., Alcabes, P., and Drucker, E. (2001) Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic HIV in Africa. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 356, 911–20
Masutomi, K., et al. (2003) Telomerase maintains telomere structure in normal human cells. Cell 114, 241–53
Mattson, M. P. (2001) Lose weight STAT: CNTF tops leptin. TINS 24, 313–14
May, R. (1978) Human reproduction reconsidered. Nature 272, 491–5
Mayes, T. (2003) Ailing tycoon buys Pakistan girl's kidney. The Sunday Times (London), March 23
McCarty, M. (1985) The transforming principle. Norton
McClaren, A. (1978) Birth control in nineteenth century England. Croom Helm
McCormick, J. K., Yarwood, J. M., and Schlievert, P. M. (2001) Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: An update. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 55, 77–104
McKenzie, D., et al. (2002) Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations: A causal role in sarcopenia. Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 2010–15
McKeown, T. (1988) The origins of human disease. Basil Blackwell
McLaren, A. (1998) Correspondence. Nature 392, 645
McNeil, P., Miyake, K., and Vogel, S. (2003) The endomembrane requirement for cell surface repair. PNAS 100, 4592–7
McNeill, W. (1976) Plagues and peoples. Basil Blackwell
Mead, S., Stumpf, M., and Whitfield, J. (2003) Balancing selection at the prion protein gene consistent with prehistoric kurulike epidemics. Science 300, 640–3
Medawar, P. B. (1963) The MRC fifty years ago and now. Nature 200, 1039–43
Meldrum, M. (1998) “A calculated risk”: The Salk polio vaccine field trials of 1954. BMJ 317, 1233–6
Melov, S., et al. (1999) Mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in ageing human brain and in situ PCR of mtDNA. Neurology. Ageing 20, 565–71
Melov, S., et al. (2000) Extension of life-span with superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics. Science 289, 1567–9
Melton, L. (2000) Womb wars. Sci. Am. 283, 24, 26
Mepham, T. B. (1993) “Humanizing” milk: The formulation of artificial feeds for infants (1850–1910). Med. Hist. 37, 225–49
Meselson, M., et al. (1994) The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. Science 266, 1202–8
Miles, A. (1966) The Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine 1891–1966. Nature 212, 559
Modell, B., and Darr, A. (2002) Genetic counselling and customary consanguineous marriage. Nature, Genetics 3, 225–9
Moellering, R. C., Jr. (1999) A novel antimicrobial agent joins the battle against resistant bacteria. Ann. Intern. Med. 130, 155–7
Monod, J. (1972) Chance and Necessity. Collins
Moore, S. E., et al. (1997) Season of birth predicts mortality in rural Gambia. Nature 388, 434
Mossialos, E., and Dixon, A. (2001) Genetic testing and insurance: Opportunities and challenges for society. Trends Mol. Med. 7, 323–4
Mufson, S. (2001) Chinese doctor tells of organ removals after executions. Washington Post, June 27, p. A1
Nathanson, N., and Fine, P. (2002) Virology: Poliomyelitis eradication–a dangerous endgame. Science 296, 269–70
Neiburger, E. J. (2000) Dentistry in ancient Mesopotamia. J. Mass. Dent. Soc. 49, 16–19
Nekrutenko, A., and Li, W. H. (2001) Transposable elements are found in a large number of human protein-coding genes. Trends Genet. 17, 619–21
Nicklas, R. B. (1997) How cells get the right chromosomes. Science 275, 632–7
Niederkorn, J. Y. (1999) The immune privilege of corneal allografts. Transplantation 67, 1503–8
Nielsen, T. (1997) Human germline therapy. McGill Journal of Medicine 3, 126–132
Nilsson, L. (1990) A child is born. Dell
Nordstrom, D. K. (2002) Public health. Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water. Science 296, 2143–5
Norimura, T., et al. (1996) p53-dependent apoptosis suppresses radiation-induced teratogenesis. Nat. Med. 2, 577–80
Oberpenning, F., Meng, J., Yoo, J. J., and Atala, A. (1999) De novo reconstitution of a functional mammalian urinary bladder by tissue engineering. Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 149–55
Obituary. (2000) Rene Favaloro. The Times (London), July 31
Obituary. (2002) Dr. Alice Stewart. New York Times
Obituary. (2003) Louis Lasagna. BMJ 327, 565
Ohshima, H., and Bartsch, H. (1994) Chronic infections and inflammatory processes as cancer risk factors: Possible role of nitric oxide in carcinogenesis. Mutat. Res. 305, 253–64
Olby, R. (2003) Quiet debut of the double helix. Nature 421, 402–5
Osmond, C., and Barker, D. J. (2000) Fetal, infant, and childhood growth are predictors of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension in adult men and women. Environ. Health. Perspect. 108 (suppl. 3) 545–53
Packard, R. M., and Gadehla, P. (1997) A land filled with mosquitoes: Fred L. Soper, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil. Med. Anthropol. 17, 215–38
Paintin, D. (1985) Legal abortion in England and Wales. CIBA Foundation Symposium 115, 4–20
Papadopoulos, G. K., Wijmenga, C., and Koning, F. (2001) Interplay between genetics and the environment in the development of celiac disease: Perspectives for a healthy life. J. Clin. Invest. 108, 1261–6
Parkman, R. (1986) The application of bone marrow transplantation to the treatment of genetic diseases. Science 232, 1373–8
Parliament. (1999) House of Commons research paper 99/111. House of Commons
Peltonen, L., and McKusick, V. A. (2001) Genomics and medicine: Dissecting human disease in the postgenomic era. Science 291, 1224–9
Perls, T. T. (1995) The oldest old. Sci. Am. 272, 70–5
Perut, M. F. (1999) Will medicine outgrow support? Nature 399, 299
Petit-Zeman, S. (2001) Regenerative medicine. Nature Biotechnology 19, 201–6
Peto, J. (2001) Cancer epidemiology in the last century and the next decade. Nature 411, 390–5
Peto, R., et al. (1992) Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: Indirect estimation from national vital statistics. Lancet 339, 1268–78
Pfeffer, L., et al. (1998) Biological properties of recombinant alpha-interferons: 40th anniversary of the discovery of interferons. Cancer Res. 58, 2489–99
Pfeffer, N. (1993) The stork and the syringe: A political history of reproductive medicine. Polity Press
Pierce, D. A., et al. (1996) Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950–1990. Radiat. Res. 146, 1–27
Pilcher, H. (2003) The ups and downs of Lithium. Nature 425, 118–120
Platt, J. L. (2000) Xenotransplantation: New risks, new gains. Nature 407, 27, 29–30
Plunkett, M. J., and Ellman, J. A. (1997) Combinatorial chemistry and new drugs. Sci. Am. 276, 68–73
Ponamarev, M. V., et al. (2002) Active site mutation in DNA polymerase gamma associated with progressive external ophthalmoplegia causes error-prone DNA synthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 15225–8
Porcu, E., et al. (2000) Clinical experience and applications of oocyte cryopreservation. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 169, 33–7
Porter, D. (1999) Health, civilisation and the state. Routledge
Porter, R. (1997) The greatest benefit to mankind. Oxford University Press
Powell, K. (2003) Seeds of doubt. Nature 422, 656–8
Prentice, A. (2003) Intrauterine factors, adiposity and hyperinsulinaemia. BMJ 327, 880–1
Pruisner, S., Montaingner, L., and Gallo, R. (2002) Discovering the cause of AIDS. Science 298, 1726–31
Prusiner, S. B. (1998) Prions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13363–83
Pupo, G. M., Lan, R., and Reeves, P. R. (2000) Multiple independent origins of Shigella clones of Escherichia coli and convergent evolution of many of their characteristics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 10567–72
Qumsiyeh, M. B., Kim, K. R., Ahmed, M. N., and Bradford, W. (2000) Cytogenetics and mechanisms of spontaneous abortions: Increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in chromosomally abnormal villi. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 88, 230–5
Raff, M. C. (1992) Social controls on cell survival and cell death. Nature 356, 397–400
Rajakumar, K. (2000) Pellagra in the United States: A historical perspective. South. Med. J. 93, 272–7
Reid, S. D., et al. (2000) Parallel evolution of virulence in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nature 406, 64–7
Rennie, J. (1996) Perinatal management of the lower margin of viability. Arch. Dis. Child 74, F214–F218
Rettig, R. (1977) Cancer crusade. Princeton University Press
Richman, D. D. (2001) HIV chemotherapy. Nature 410, 995–1001
Ridley, M. (1999) Genome: The autobiography of a species in 23 chapters. Fourth Estate
Ridley, M. (2003) Nature via nurture. Fourth Estate
Rifkin, J., (1998) The biotech century. Victor Gollanz
Riley, J. (2001) Rising life expectancy: a global history. Cambridge University Press
Robertson, S. E., et al. (1996) Yellow fever: A decade of re-emergence. JAMA 276, 1157–62
Rodan, G. M., TJ. (2000) Therapeutic approaches to bone diseases. Science 289, 1508
Rosenberg, D., and Bloom, H. (1990) The Story of J. Faber and Faber
Rosenberg, K. R., and Trevathan, W. R. (2001) The evolution of human birth. Sci. Am. 285, 72–7
Rosner, F. (1969) Hemophilia in the Talmud and rabbinic writings. Ann. Intern. Med. 70, 833–7
Roth, E. F., Raventos-Suarez, C., Rinaldi, A., and Nagel, R. L. (1983) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency inhibits in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 298–9
Rudman, D., et al. (1990) Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N. Engl. J. Med. 323, 1–6
Safer, D. J. (2000) Are stimulants overprescribed for youths with ADHD? Ann. Clin. Psychiatry 12, 55–62
Schanberg, S. M., and Field, T. M. (1987) Sensory deprivation stress and supplemental stimulation in the rat pup and preterm human neonate. Child Dev. 58, 1431–47
Schwarcz, J. (2001) The genie in the bottle. Freeman
Scotto, J., and Bailar, J. (1969) Rigoni-Stern and medical statistics: A nineteenth-century approach to cancer research. J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 24, 65–75
Shakespeare, T. (2003) How perfect do we want our babies to be?, The Sunday Times (London), November 23
Shaw, G. B. (1911) Preface to The Doctors Dilemma. Penguin
Shay, J. W., and Wright, W. E. (2001) Ageing and cancer: The telomere and telomerase connection. Novartis Found. Symp. 235, 116–25; discussion 125–9, 146–9
Short, R. (1984) Breast feeding. Sci. Am. 250, 23
Short, R. V. (1976) The evolution of human reproduction. Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 195, 3
Shortridge, K. F. (1999) The 1918 ‘Spanish’ flu: Pearls from swine? Nat. Med. 5, 384–5
Silver, L. (1998) Remaking Eden: Cloning, genetic engineering and the future of humankind? Phoenix
Smit, A. F. (1999) Interspersed repeats and other mementoes of transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 9, 657–63
Smith, E. (1988) The retreat of tuberculosis, 1850–1950. Croom Helm
Smith, F. B. (1979) The peoples health 1830–1910. Holmes and Meier
Sneador, W. (1985) Drug discovery: The evolution of modern medicines. Wiley
Spielman, A., and D'Antonio, M. (2001) Mosquito: The story of mans deadliest foe. Faber and Faber
Starr, D. (1999) Blood. Warner
Stehelin, D., Varmus, H. E., Bishop, J. M., and Vogt, P. K. (1976) DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA. Nature 260, 170–3
Stein, Z., Susser, M., Saenger, G., and Marolla, F. (1975) Famine and human development: The Dutch hunger winter of 1944–1945. Oxford University Press
Steinberg, F. M., and Raso, J. (1998) Biotech pharmaceuticals and biotherapy: An overview. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 1, 48–59
Stephens, C. and Murray, W. (2001) Pathogen evolution: How good bacteria go bad, Curr Biol 11, R53–6
Stephens, T., and Brynner, R. (2001) Dark remedy: The impact of thalidomide and its revival as a vital medicine. Perseus
Stevens, D. L., et al. (1996) Group A streptococcal bacteremia: The role of tumor necrosis factor in shock and organ failure. J. Infect. Dis. 173, 619–26
Stevenson, J. (1984) British society 1914–45. Penguin
Stewart, R. J., Sheppard, H., Preece, R., and Waterlow, J. C. (1980) The effect of rehabilitation at different stages of development of rats marginally malnourished for ten to twelve generations. Br. J. Nutr. 43, 403–12
Stock, G., and Campbell, J., (2000) Engineering the human germline: An exploration of the science and ethics of altering the genes we pass to our children. Oxford University Press
Strauss, S. (2000) www:nccam.nih.gov/ne/testimony/houseoflords.html
Strickland, S. (1971) Integration of medical research and health policies. Science 173, 1093
Stromberg, B., et al. (2002) Neurological sequelae in children born after in-vitro fertilisation: A population-based study. Lancet 359, 461–5
Sun, M. (1985) Gene-spliced hormone for growth approved. Science 230, 523
Suter, M., et al. (2000) Age-related macular degeneration: The lipofusion component N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine detaches proapoptotic proteins from mitochondria and induces apoptosis in mammalian retinal pigment epithelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39625–30
Symer, D. (2002) Human L1 retrotransposition is associated with genetic instability in vivo. Cell 110, 327–8
Tanner, J. (1989) Foetus into man: Physical growth from conception to maturity. Castlemead
Taubenberger, J. K., Reid, A. H., and Fanning, T. G. (2000) The 1918 influenza virus: A killer comes into view. Virology 274, 241–5
Taubes, G. (2001) Nutrition: The soft science of dietary fat. Science 291, 2536–45
Teitelbaum, S. L., and Ross, F. P. (2003) Genetic regulation of osteoclast development and function. Nat. Rev. Genet. 4, 638–49
Tesarik, J., and Mendoza, C. (1999) In vitro fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Bioessays 21, 791–801
Thomson, J. (1998) Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science 282, 1145–7
Tin, W., Wariyar, U., and Hey, E. (1997) Changing prognosis for babies of less than 28 weeks' gestation in the north of England between 1983 and 1994. BMJ 314, 107–11
Todd, J. A. (2001) Human genetics: Tackling common disease. Nature 411, 537, 539
Tomalin, C. (2002) Samuel Pepys: The unequalled self. Penguin Viking
Tomes, N. (1998) The gospel of germs: Men, women, and the microbe in American life. Harvard University Press
Trounson, A. L. J., Wood, C., Webb, J., and Wood, J. (1981) Pregnancies in humans by fertilization in vitro and embryo transfer in the controlled ovulatory cycle. Science 212, 681–2
Trowell, H., and Burkitt, D. (1981) Western diseases, their emergence and prevention. Harvard University Press
Tuchman, B. (1962) The proud tower. MacMillan
Tuljapurkar, S., Li, N., and Boe, C. (2000) A universal pattern of mortality decline in the G7 countries. Nature 405, 789–92
Tulp, M., and Bohlin, L. (2002) Functional versus chemical diversity: Is biodiversity important for drug discovery? Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 23, 225–31
Uauy, R., and Hoffman, D. (2003) Essential fat requirements of preterm infants., Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 245–50
Uckan, D., et al. (1997) Trophoblasts express Fas ligand: A proposed mechanism for immune privilege in placenta and maternal invasion. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 3, 655–62
Ullman, A. (2000) The development of Mifepristone: A pharmaceutical drama in three acts. Am. Med. Women's Ass. 55 (suppl.) 117–120
Vajo, Z., Fawcett, J., and Duckworth, W. C. (2001) Recombinant DNA technology in the treatment of diabetes: Insulin analogs. Endocr. Rev. 22, 706–17
van der Meulen, J., et al. (1999) Fetal programming associated with the Dutch famine 1944–5. In Fetal Programming: Influences on Development and Disease in Later Life, ed. P. O'Brien, T. Wheeler, and D. J. P. Barker. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, pp. 45–56
Vane, J. (1994) Towards a better aspirin. Nature 367, 215–16
Vitek, C. R., and Wharton, M. (1998) Diphtheria in the former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a pandemic disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4, 539–50
von Zglinicki, T. (2001) Telomeres and replicative senescence: Is it only length that counts? Cancer Lett. 168, 111–16
Wallace, D. C. (1997) Mitochondrial DNA in ageing and disease. Sci. Am. 277, 40–7
Wallace, D. C. (1999) Mitochondrial diseases in man and mouse. Science 283, 1482–8
Wardell, D. (1980) Margaret Sanger: Birth control's successful revolutionary. Am. J. Public Health 70, 736–42
Weatherall, D. (1991) The new genetics and clinical practice. Oxford University Press
Webster, R. (2001) A molecular whodunit. Science 293, 1773–5
Weinberg, R. (1997) Racing to the start of the road: The search for the origin of cancer. Bantam
Weiner, D. B., and Kennedy, R. C. (1999) Genetic vaccines. Sci. Am. 281, 50–7
Weisburger, E. K. (1989) Current carcinogen perspectives: De minimis, Delaney and decisions. Sci. Total Environ. 86, 5–13
Weiss, R. A. (2001) Animal origins of human infectious disease (Leeuwenhoek Lecture 2001). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 356, 957–77
Weiss, R. A. (2001) Polio vaccines exonerated. Nature 410, 1035–6
Weller, I. V., and Williams, I. G. (2001) ABC of AIDS: Antiretroviral drugs. BMJ 322, 1410–12
Wickelgren, I. (2004) Resetting pregnancy's clock. Science 304, 666–8
Williams, D., and Baum, C. (2003) Medicine: Gene therapy – new challenges ahead. Science 302, 400–1
Wilmoth, J. R., Deegan, L. J., Lundstrom, H., and Horiuchi, S. (2000) Increase of maximum life-span in Sweden, 1861–1999. Science 289, 2366–8
Wilmut, I., et al. (1997) Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385, 810–13
Winchester, B., Vellodi, A., and Young, E. (2000) The molecular basis of lysosomal storage diseases and their treatment. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 28, 150–4
Wolf, C., Smith, G., and Smith, R. L. (2000) Science, medicine, and the future: Pharmacogenetics. BMJ 320, 987
Wolpert, L. (1991) The triumph of the embryo. Oxford University Press
Wong, J. M., and Collins, K. (2003) Telomere maintenance and disease. Lancet 362, 983–8
Yaffe, M. (1999) The machinery of mitochondrial inheritance and behaviour. Science 283, 1493–7
Yazdanbakhsh, M., Kremsner, P. G., and van Ree, R. (2002) Allergy, parasites, and the hygiene hypothesis. Science 296, 490–4
Ye, X. et al. (2000) Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science 287, 303–5
Yen, S. S. (2001) Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and longevity: New clues for an old friend. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 8167–9
Youngson, A. J. (1979) The scientific revolution in Victorian medicine. Holmes and Meier
Yu, N., et al. (2002) Disputed maternity leading to identification of tetragametic chimerism N. Engl. J. Med. 346, 1545–52
Zajtchuk, R. (1997) Textbook of military medicine: Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare. http://www.vnh.org/MedAspChemBioWar/ chapters
Zasloff, M. (2002) Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms. Nature 415, 389–95
Ziomek, C., (1998) Commercialisation of proteins produced in the mammary gland. Theriogeniology 49, 139
Zobeley, E., et al. (1999) Infectivity of scrapie prions bound to a stainless steel surface. Mol. Med. 5, 240–3