A Clinician's Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry


Providing a comprehensive overview of the main disorders encountered by child and adolescent psychiatrists in clinical practice, this authoritative clinical handbook ranges from eating, sleep and affective disorders to substance abuse, gender identity and sexual abuse. The approach is evidence-based and emphasis is on good clinical practice and quality control of patient care. In contrast to other books in the field, the authors' intention is not to cover exhaustively all the relevant science, but rather to present in condensed form any research findings that are significant for clinical practice.


 Reviews:

"The text - which in no way deems itself a revolutionary call to arms, alerting fellow psychiatrists to the inherent problems with the current psychopharmacological database in the treatment of childhood psychopathology - provides a rich example of the clear differences in evidence-based treatments available in the area of pediatric psychopathology."
Jonathan Weinand, Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books

Review of the hardback: '… [I] have enjoyed this book. It is clear that the ethos of the authors is multidisciplinary and inclusive of parents, carers, schools and social care in the management of children and adolescents with disorders … I felt I could translate what the author was describing into my daily clinical experience … The tables and diagrams are ideal for the busy clinician, they are clear and informative … I think this speaks for the utility of the book, as it is intended to be a synthesis, a 'desk book' for clinicians, and I think it succeeds very well indeed. For this reason I strongly recommend it.' Psychological Medicine

Review of the hardback: 'I was delighted to review the book. It is an easy to read, comprehensive and enjoyable resource which will be well received by those concerned with the mental health of children and their families.' Quarterly Journal of Mental Health


 Prizes:

BMA Medical Book Awards 2007 - Highly commended

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

F. M. C. Besag, Childhood epilepsy in relation to mental handicap and behavioural disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 43 (2002), 103–31.
S. Davies, I. Heyman & R. Goodman, A population survey of mental health problems in children with epilepsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 45 (2003), 292–5.
C. Gillberg, Clinical Child Neuropyschiatry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
R. Goodman, Brain disorder. In M. Rutter & E. Taylor, eds. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry – Modern Approaches. 4th edn. (Oxford: Blackwell 2002).
E. Guthrie, J. Mast, P. Richards, M. McQuaid & S. Pavlakis, Traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 8 (1999), 807–26.
J. A. Middleton, Practitioner review: psychological sequelae of head injury in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 42 (2001), 165–80.
P. Satz, K. Zaucha, C. McCleary, R. Light, R. Asarnow & D. Barker, Mild head injury in children and adolescents: a review of studies (1970–1995). Psychological Bulletin 122 (1997), 107–31.
J. Siffert, M. Greenleaf, R. Mannis & J. Allen, Paediatric brain tumours. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 8 (1999), 879–903.
H.-C. Steinhausen & C. Rauss-Mason, Epilepsy and anticonvulsive drugs. In M. Rutter & P. Casaer, eds.: Biological Risk Factors for Psychosocial Disorders. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1991).
E. Thiele, J. Gonzales-Heydrick & J. J. Riviello, Epilepsy in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 8 (1999), 671–94.

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S. A. Brown, E. J. D'Amico, D. M. McCarthy & S. F. Tapert, Four-year outcomes from adolescent alcohol and drug treatment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 62 (2001), 381–8.
O. G. Bukstein & R. E. Tarter, Substance use disorders in children and adolescents. In E. Coffey, ed., Textbook of Pediatric Neuropsychiatry (New York: American Psychiatric Press, 1998).
O. G. Bukstein & J. Kithas, Adolescent substance use disorders. In Rosenberg, D., Davanzo, P. A. & Gershon, S., eds. Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology (Marcel-Dekker, 2002).
Y. Hser, C. E. Grella, R. L. Hubbard et al., An evaluation of drug treatments for adolescents in 4 US cities. Archives of General Psychiatry 58 (2001), 689–95.
C. S. Martin & K. C. Winters, Diagnosis and assessment of alcohol use disorders among adolescents. Alcohol Health and Research World 22 (1998), 95–105.
P. M. Monti, S. M. Colby & T. A. O'Leary, Adolescents, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through Brief Interventions (New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press, 2001).
R. E. Tarter, Evaluation and treatment of adolescent substance abuse: a decision tree method. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 6 (1990), 1–46.
E. F. Wagner & H. B. Waldron, Innovations in adolescent substance abuse interventions (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Pergamon/Elsevier Science Inc., 2001).
H. B. Waldron, Adolescent substance abuse and family therapy outcome: a review of randomized trials. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz, Advances in Clinical Child Psychology (New York: Plenum, 1997) vol. 19, pp. 199–234.
R. J. Williams & S. Y. Chang, A comprehensive and comparative review of adolescent substance abuse treatment outcome. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 7 (2000), 38–166.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(7) (2001), Suppl. 4S–23S. Standards and evidence base for current good practice in the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia.
C. Barrowclough & N. Tarrier, Families of schizophrenic patients: cognitive behavioural intervention. In A practical guide to family intervention strategies. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes, 1997).
A. F. Clark & S. W. Lewis, Practitioner review: treatment of schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39 (1998), 1071–81. Practical overview of current treatment issues for young people with schizophrenia, albeit becoming dated in respect of advice regarding use of atypical antipsychotics.
J. Geddes, N. Freemantle, P. Harrison & P. Bebbington, Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: systematic overview and meta-regression analysis. British Medical Journal, 321 (2000), 1371–6. Systematic review casting doubts upon the evidence base for use of atypical antipsychotics as first-line drugs – the paper generated much subsequent correspondence expressing views for and against their use.
C. Hollis, Adolescent schizophrenia. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 6 (2000), 83–92. Contains outcome data on follow-up study of adolescents with schizophrenia admitted to Maudsley Hospital.
P. D. McGorry & H. J. Jackson, The Recognition and Management of Early Psychosis: A Preventive Approach (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999). Comprehensive discussion of issues and practice in first onset psychosis and early intervention services.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence, Technology Appraisal No. 43: Guidance on the use of newer (atypical) antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia (London: NICE, 2002). UK-based guidance derived from a systematic review of clinical and cost effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in treatment of schizophrenia.
S. Pilling, P. Bebbington, E. Kuipers et al., Psychological treatments in schizophrenia: 1. Meta-analysis of family intervention and cognitive behaviour therapy. Psychological Medicine, 32 (2002), 763–82. Concludes that both family interventions and CBT have proven efficacy and should be routinely offered as part of treatment programme.
S. Pilling, P. Bebbington, E. Kuipers et al., Psychological treatments in schizophrenia: 2. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of social skills training and cognitive remediation. Psychological Medicine, 32 (2002), 783–91. Concludes that neither social skills training nor cognitive remediation have yet been shown as effective for routine clinical practice.
H. Remschmidt, Schizophrenia in Children and Adolescents (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Comprehensive overview of all aspects of schizophrenia in children and adolescents.
D. Taylor, H. McConnell, D. McConnell & R. Kerwin, The Maudsley 2001 Prescribing Guidelines (London: Martin Dunitz, 2001). Regularly updated guidelines with useful algorithms. Specific section on psychosis but not to treatment of children and adolescents.
T. Wykes, N. Tarrier & S. Lewis, Outcomes and Innovation in the Psychological Treatment of Schizophrenia (Chichester: Wiley, 1998). Overview of range of psychological interventions appropriate to treatment of schizophrenia in adults.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36 (1997), 138–57.
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(10 Suppl.) (1998), 63S–83S.
G. Clarke, P. Lewinsohn & H. Hops, Leaders Manual for Adolescent Groups. Adolescent Coping with Depression Course. (Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing Company, 1990) (see also: www.kpchr.org/acwd/).
R. C. Harrington, J. Whittaker & P. Shoebridge, Psychological treatment of depression in children and adolescents: a review of treatment research. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173 (1998), 291–8.
R. Harrington, Affective disorders. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches. Fourth Edition, ed. M. Rutter & E. Taylor. (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 2002), pp. 463–85.
C. W. Hughes, G. J. Emslie, M. L. Crimson et al. & The Texas Consensus Conference Panel on Medication Treatment of Childhood Major Depressive Disorder. The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project: report of the Texas Consensus Conference Panel on Medication Treatment of Childhood Major Depressive Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38 (1999), 1442–54.
A. James & Javaloyes, Practitioner review: the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42 (2001), 439–49.
N. D. Ryan, V. S. Bhatara & J. M. Perel, Mood stabilizers in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38 (1999), 529–36.

Reference Title: Assessment measures

Reference Type: bibliography

J. C. Ablow, J. R. Measelle, H. C. Kraemer et al., The MacArthur three city outcome study: evaluating multi-informant measures of young children's symptomatology, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38 (1999), 1580–90.
A. Angold, M. Prendergast, A. Cox, M. Rutter & R. Harrington, The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Psychological Medicine, 25 (1995), 739–53 (website: devepi.mc.duke.edu/).
A. Angold, E. J. Costello, S. C. Messer, A. Pickles, F. Winder & D. Silver, The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5 (1995), 237–49. (Mood and Feelings Questionnaire: available from J. Duncan, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3454, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (website: devepi.mc.duke.edu/).
M. Kovacs, Rating scales to assess depression in school aged children. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 46 (1981), 305–15. (Children's Depression Inventory: available from A. D. D. WareHouse, Email sales@addwarehouse.com).
E. O. Poznanski, L. N. Freman & H. B. Mokros, Children's depression rating scale-revised. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21 (1985), 979–89 (website: www.psychtest.com).
J. Puig-Antich & W. Chambers, The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for school-aged children. (New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1978), unpublished interview schedule (1996 version available from the Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh website: www.wpic.pitt.edu/ksads).
D. Shaffer, P. Fisher, C. Lucas, M. Dulcan & M. Schwab-Stone, NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39 (2000), 28–38 (website: www.c-disc.com/).

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Practice parameters for the assessment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36 (1997), 69–84.
G. A. Bernstein, C. M. Borchardt & A. R. Perwein, Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 35 (1996), 1110–19.
B. Birmaher, D. A. Axelson, K. Monk et al., Fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42 (2003), 415–23.
D. L. Chambless & T. H. Ollendick, Empirically supported psychological interventions: controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology 52 (2001), 685–716.
A. E. Grills & T. H. Ollendick, Multiple informant agreement and the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule of Parents and Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42 (2003), 30–40.
N. J. King, B. J. Tonge, D. Heyne et al., Cognitive–behavioral treatment of school refusing children: a controlled evaluation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37 (1998), 395–403.
C. G. Last, C. Hansen & N. Franco, Anxious children in adulthood: a prospective study of adjustment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 36 (1997), 645–52.
S. G. Mattis & T. H. Ollendick, Panic Disorder and Anxiety in Adolescence. (Oxford: British Psychological Society, 2002).
P. Muris, H. Merckelbach, T. H. Ollendick, N. J. King & N. Bogie, Three traditional and three new childhood anxiety questionnaires: their reliability and validity in a normal adolescent sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy 40 (2002), 753–72.
T. H. Ollendick & J. A. Cerny, Clinical Behavior Therapy with Children. (New York: Plenum Press, 1981).
T. H. Ollendick & D. R. Hirshfeld-Becker, The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry 51 (2002), 44–58.
T. H. Ollendick & J. S. March (eds.), Phobic and Anxiety Disorders: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
T. H. Ollendick, A. E. Grills & N. J. King, Applying developmental theory to the assessment and treatment of childhood disorders: Does it make a difference? Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 8 (2001), 304–15.
T. H. Ollendick, N. J. King & P. Muris, Fears and phobias in children: phenomenology, epidemiology, and aetiology. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 7 (2002), 98–106.
P. M. J. Prins & T. H. Ollendick, Cognitive change and enhanced coping: missing mediational links in cognitive behavior therapy with anxiety-disordered children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 6 (2003), 87–105.
M. A. Rynn, A. L. Siqueland & K. Rickels, Placebo-controlled trial of sertraline in the treatment of children with GAD. American Journal of Psychiatry 158 (2001), 2008–14.
RUPP Anxiety Study Group. Fluovoxamine for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001), 1279–85.
L. D. Seligman & T. H. Ollendick, Anxiety disorders. In H. C. Steinhauser & F. Verhulst (eds.), Risks and Outcomes in Developmental Psychopathology. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 103–20.
L. D. Seligman & T. H. Ollendick, Co-morbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: an integrative review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 1 (1998), 125–44.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

J. Alderman, R. Wolkow, M. Chung & H. F. Johnston, Sertraline treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and efficacy. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37 (1998), 386–94.
L. Barr, W. K. Goodman, L. H. Price, C. J. McDougle & D. S. Charney, The serotonin hypothesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Implications of pharmacologic challenge studies. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 53 (1992), 17–28.
E. H. Cook, K. D. Wagner, J. S. March et al., Long-term sertraline treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40 (10) (2001), 1175–81.
E. J. Berg, J. L. Rapoport & M. Flament, The Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25 (1986), 84–91.
J. Cooper, The Leyton Obsessional Inventory. Psychological Medicine, 1 (1970), 48–64.
J. DeVeaugh-Geiss, G. Moroz, J. Biederman et al., Clomipramine hydrochloride in childhood and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder – a multicenter trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31 (1992), 45–9.
M. Flament, A. Whitaker, J. L. Rapoport et al., Obsessive compulsive disorder in adolescence: an epidemiological study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27 (6) (1988), 764–71.
H. L. Leonard, S. E. Swedo, M. Lenane et al., A two to seven year follow-up study of 54 obsessive compulsive children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50 (1993), 429–39.
J. S. March, J. Biederman, R. Wolkow et al., Sertraline in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280 (20) (1998), 1752–6.
J. S. March & H. L. Leonard Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35 (1996), 1265–73.
J. S. March & K. Mulle, OCD in Children and Adolescents. A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Manual. (The Guilford Press, New York: The Guilford Press, 1998).
J. S. March, K. Mulle & B. Herbel, Behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial of a new protocol-driven treatment package. Journal of the American Medical Association, 33 (3) (1994), 333–41.
J. L. Rapoport, The Boy Who Couldn't Stop Washing. (New York: Penguin Books, 1991).
M. Riddle, J. Claghorn, G. Gaffney et al., A controlled trial of fluvoxamine for obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 32 (3) (1996), 399.
M. A. Riddle, M. Scahill, R. A. King et al., Double-blind, crossover trial of fluoxetine and placebo in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31 (1992), 1062–9.
M. A. Riddle, E. A. Reeve, J. A. Yaryura-Tobias et al., Fluvoxamine for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40 (2) (2001), 222–9.
G. Skoog & I. Skoog, A 40-year follow-up of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56 (1999), 121–7.
P. H. Thomsen, Children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. A 6–22 year follow-up study. Clinical descriptions of the course and continuity of obsessive compulsive symptomatology. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3 (1994), 82–96.
P. H. Thomsen, From thoughts to obsessions – children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. (London: Jessica Kingsley Publications, 1998).
P. Thomsen & J. Leckman, Obsessive-compulsive disorder and the Anxiety Spectrum in Children. CNS Spectrums, 5 (6, suppl. 4, 2000), 18–23.
P. H. Thomsen & H. U. Mikkelsen, The addition of buspirone to SSRI in the treatment of adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder. A study of six cases. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 8 (1998), 143–8.
P. H. Thomsen, C. Ebbesen & C. Persson, Long-term experience with citalopram in the treatment of adolescent OCD, Journal of the American Academy of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry, 40 (8) (2001), 895–902.

Reference Title: General, critical overview

Reference Type: bibliography

P. Hill, Adjustment disorders. Chap 31 in Rutter, M. & Taylor, E. (eds.), Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 4th edn. (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2002).

Reference Title: Epidemiology

Reference Type: bibliography

F. Almqvist, K. Puura, K. Kumpulainen et al., Psychiatric disorders in 8–9 year-old children based on a diagnostic interview with the parents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 8 (1999) suppl. 4, 17–28.
A. Angold, E. J. Costello, E. M. Z. Farmer, B. J. Burns & A. Erkanli, Impaired but undiagnosed. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38 (1999), 129–37.

Reference Title: Impact of life events

Reference Type: bibliography

S. Sandberg & M. Rutter, The role of acute life stresses. Chap 17 in Rutter, M. & Taylor, E. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 4th edn. (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2002).

Reference Title: Coping

Reference Type: bibliography

E. Frydenberg, Adolescent Coping: Theoretical and Research Perspectives. (London: Routledge, 1997).
I. Seiffge-Kranke, Stress, Coping and Relationships in Adolescence. (Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995).

Reference Title: Valuable empirical studies

Reference Type: bibliography

M. Kovacs, C. Gatsonis, M. Pollock & P. L. Parrone, A controlled prospective study of DSM-III adjustment disorder in childhood: short-term prognosis and long-term predictive validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51 (1994), 535–41.
M. Kovacs, V. Ho & M. H. Pollock, Criterion and predictive validity of the diagnosis of adjustment disorder: a prospective study of youths with new-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152 (1995), 523–8.

Reference Title: Children's Global Assessment Scale

Reference Type: bibliography

D. Shaffer, M. S. Gould, J. Brasic, et al., A Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) Archives of General Psychiatry, 40 (1983), 1228–31.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 10 Suppl. (1998).
A. Dyregrov, Grief in Children: A Handbook for Adults. (London: Jessica Kingsley, 1991).
K. E. Fletcher, Childhood posttraumatic stress disorder. In E. J. Mash & R. Barkley (eds). Child Psychopathology. (New York: Guilford Press, 1996)
S. Joeseph, R. Williams & W. Yule, Understanding Post-traumatic Stress: A Psychological Perspective on PTSD and Treatment. (Chichester: Wiley, 1997)
S. Perrin, P. Smith & W. Yule, Practitioner review: the assessment and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescent. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41 (3) (2000), 277–89.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): the management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care (2005). National Institute of Clinical Excellence www.nice.org.uk.
R. S. Pynoos & S. Eth, Witness to violence: the child interview. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25 (1986), 306–19.
K. Salmon & R. A. Bryant, Posttraumatic stress disorder in children: the influence of developmental factors. Clinical Psychology Review, 22 (2002), 163–88.
M. S. Scheeringa, C. D. Peebles, C. A. Cook & C. H. Zeanah, Towards establishing procedural, criterion, and discriminative validity for PTSD in early childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40 (1) (2001), 52–60.
O. Udwin, S. Boyle, W. Yule, D. Bolton & D. O'Ryan, Risk factors for long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: predictors of post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41 (8) (2001), 969–79.
W. Yule, D. Bolton, O. Udwin, S. Boyle, D. O'Ryan & J. Nurrish, The long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: 1: The incidence and course of PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41 (4) (2000), 503–11.

Reference Title: General reading

Reference Type: bibliography

J. V. Campo & S. L. Fritz, Somatization in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33 (1994), 1223–35.
J. V. Campo & G. A. Fritz, A management model for paediatric somatization. Psychosomatics, 42 (1994), 46–76.
D. M. Eminson, Somatising in children and adolescents. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7 (2001), 267–74, 388–98.
M. E. Garralda A selective review of child psychiatric syndromes with somatic presentation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161 (1992), 759–73.
M. E. Garralda, Somatization in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37 (1996), 13–33.
M. E. Garralda & L. A. Rangel, Annotation: chronic fatigue syndrome in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43 (2002), 169–76.
S. Taylor & M. E. Garralda, The management of somatoform disorders in childhood. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 16 (2003), 227–31.

Reference Title: Individual studies

Reference Type: bibliography

J. Apley, The Child with Abdominal Pains, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1975).
J. V. Campo, L. Jansen-McWilliams, D. M. Comer & K. Kelleher, Somatization in paediatric primary care: association with psychopathology, functional impairment and use of services. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38 (1999), 1093–101.
H. L. Egger, E. J. Costello, A. Erkanli & A. Angold, Somatic complaints and psychopathology in children and adolescents: stomach aches, musculoskeletal pains, and headaches. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38 (1999), 852–60.
R. Lieb, H. Pfister, M. Mastaler & H. U. Wittchen, Somatoform syndromes and disorders in a representative population sample of adolescents and young adults: prevalence, comorbidy and impairments. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 101 (2000), 194–208.
M. R. Sanders, R. W. Shepherd, G. Cleghorn & H. Woodford, Treatment of recurrent abdominal pain in children: a controlled comparison of cognitive behavioural family intervention and standard paediatric care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62 (1994), 306–14.

Reference Title: Specific assessment instruments

Reference Type: bibliography

T. Chalder, G. Berelowitz, T. Pawlikowska et al., Development of a fatigue scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 37 (1993), 147–53.
J. Garber, L. S. Walker & J. Zeman, Somatization symptoms in a community sample of children and adolescents: further validation of the children's somatization inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 4 (1991), 588–95.
L. S. Walker & J. W. Greene, The functional disability inventory: measuring a neglected dimension of child health status. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, 1 (1991), 39–58.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

P. J. V. Beumont, C. C. Beumont, S. W. Touyz & H. Williams, Nutritional counseling and supervised exercise. In Garner, D. M. & Garfinkel, P. E. (ed.) Handbook of Treatment for Eating Disorders, 2nd edn. (New York: Guilford Press, 1997), pp. 178–87.
P. J. V. Beumont, K. Lowinger & J. Russell, Medical assessment and the initial interview in the management of young patients with anorexia nervosa. In Steinhausen, H.-C. (ed.) Eating Disorders in Adolescence (Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1995), pp. 221–46.
C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (ed.) Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook, 2nd edn. (New York: Guilford Press, 2002).
D. M. Garner & P. E. Garfinkel, Handbook of Treatment for Eating Disorders. 2nd edn (New York: Guilford Press, 1997).
D. M. Heebink & K. A. Halmi, Psychopharmacology in adolescents with eating disorders. In Steinhausen, H.-C. (ed.) Eating Disorders in Adolescence (Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1995), pp. 271–86.
B. Lask & R. Bryant-Waugh, Childhood Onset Anorexia and Related Eating Disorders (Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993).
D. E. Pawluck & K. M. Gorey, Secular trends in the incidence of anorexia nervosa: integrative review of population-based studies. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 23 (1998), 347–52.
G. F. M. Russell, Anorexia nervosa of early onset and its impact on puberty. In Cooper, P. J. & Stein, A. (ed.) Feeding Problems and Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Chur [Switzerland]; Philadelphia: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1992), pp. 85–112.
U. H. Schmidt & J. L. Treasure, Getting Better Bit(e) by Bit(e). (London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993).
H.-C. Steinhausen (ed.), Eating Disorders in Adolescence (Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1995).
H.-C. Steinhausen, Anorexia and bulimia nervosa. In Rutter, M. & Taylor, E. (eds.) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry – Modern Approaches. 4th edn. (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2002).
H.-C. Steinhausen (ed.), Eating disorders. In Steinhausen, H.-C. & Verhulst, F. (ed.) Risks and Outcomes in Developmental Psychopathology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 210–30.
S. W. Touyz, D. M. Garner & P. J. V. Beumont, The inpatient management of adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa. In Steinhausen, H.-C. (ed.) Eating Disorders in Adolescence (Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1995), pp. 247–70.
W. Vandereycken, The place of family therapy in the treatment of eating disorders. In Steinhausen, H.-C. (ed.) Eating Disorders in Adolescence (Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1995), pp. 287–97.

Reference Title: Books

Reference Type: bibliography

G. Stores (2001). A Clinical Guide to Sleep Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
G. Stores & L. Wiggs (2001). Sleep Disturbance in Children and Adolescents with Disorders of Development: its Significance and Management. London: Mac Keith Press.

Reference Title: Articles

Reference Type: bibliography

American Sleep Disorders Association (1997). ICSD – International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised: Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Rochester, MN: American Sleep Disorders Association.
G. Fallone, J. A. Owens & J. Deane (2002). Sleepiness in children and adolescents: clinical implications. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 6, 287–306.
J. Garcia, G. Rosen & M. Mahowald (2001). Circadian rhythms and circadian rhythm disorders in children and adolescents. Seminars in Paediatric Neurology, 8, 229–40.
T. F. Hoban & R. D. Chervin (2001). Assessment of sleepiness in children. Seminars in Paediatric Neurology, 8, 216–28.
N. King, T. H. Ollendick & B. J. Tongue (1997). Children's nighttime fears. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 431–43.
J. A. Owens, A. Spirito & M. McGuinn (2000). The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ): psychometric properties of a survey instrument for school-aged children. Sleep, 23, 1043–51.
J. L. Owens, K. G. France & L. Wiggs (1999). Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural interventions for sleep disorders in infants and children: a review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 3, 281–302.
G. Stores (2003). Misdiagnosis of sleep disorders as primary psychiatric conditions. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 9, 69–77.
G. Stores, Medication for sleep–wake disorders. Archives of Disease in Childhood. (In press).
A. R. Wolfson & M. A. Carskadon (1998). Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 69, 875–87.

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Reference Type: reference-list

A. W. Bateman & P. Fonagy, Effectiveness of psychotherapeutic treatment of personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177 (2000), 138–43.
D. F. Becker, C. M. Grilo, W. S. Edell & T. H. McGlashan, Diagnostic efficiency of borderline personality disorder criteria in hospitalized adolescents: comparison with hospitalized adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159 (12) (2002), 2042–7.
S. Bezirganian, P. Cohen & J. S. Brook, The impact of mother-child interaction on the development of Borderline Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150 (12) (1993), 1836–42.
M. J. Block, D. Westen, P. Ludolph, J. Wixom & A. Jackson, Distinguishing female borderline adolescents from normal and other disturbed female adolescents. Psychiatry, 54 (1) (1991), 89–103.
J. Hill, Disorders of Personality. In M. Rutter and E. Taylor (eds.), Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 4th edn. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).
A. James, M. Berelowitz & M. Vereker, Borderline personality disorder: study in adolescence. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5 (1) (1996), 11–17.
L. Y. Katz, B. J. Cox, S. Gunasekara & A. L. Miller, Feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescent inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43 (3) (2004), 276–82.
A. L. Miller, J. Glinski, K. A. Woodberry, A. G. Mitchell & J. Indik, Family therapy and dialectical behavior therapy with adolescents. Part I: Proposing a clinical synthesis. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 56 (4) (2002), 568–84.

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J. A. Burack, R. M. Hodapp & E. Zigler (eds.), Handbook of Mental Retardation and Development. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
C. Gillberg, Clinical Child Neuropsychiatry. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
J. C. Harris, Developmental Neuropsychiatry. Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment of Developmental Disorders. (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).
J. W. Jacobson & J. A. Mulick (eds.), Handboook of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. (London: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2003).
G. O'Brien & W. Yule (eds.), Behavioural Phenotypes. (London: MacKeith Press, 1995).
G. O'Brien, Measuring behaviour in developmental disability: a review of existing schedules. In Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. (London: MacKeith Press, 2001).
G. O'Brien ed., Behavioural Phenotypes in Clinical Practice. (London: MacKeith Press, 2002).
K. Slaggert, E. Arthur & J. Jongsma (eds.), The Mental Retardation and Developmental Disability Treatment Planner. (Chichester: Wiley, 2000).

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Einfeld, S. L. & Tonge, B. T. (In press). Manual for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (2nd edn) – Primary Carer Version (DBC-P) and Teacher Version (DBC-T). University of New South Wales: Melbourne and Sydney: Monash University Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and Psychology and School of Psychiatry.
Griffiths, R. (1970). The Abilities of Young Children. A Study in Mental Measurement. London: University of London Press.
Maes, B., Fryns, J. P., Ghesquiere, P. & Broghgraef, M. (2000). Phenotypic checklist to screen for fragile X syndrome in people with mental retardation. Mental Retardation, 38, 207–15.
O'Brien, G. (1992). Behavioural phenotypes and their measurement. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 34: 365–7.
O'Brien, G. (ed.) (2002). Behavioural Phenotypes in Clinical Practice. London: MacKeith Press.
O'Brien, G. & Yule, W. (eds.) (1995). Behavioural Phenotypes. London: MacKeith Press.
Raven, J. C., Court, J. H. & Raven, J. (1986). Coloured Progressive Matrices.
Roid, G. H. & Miller, L. J. (1997). Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised. Wood Dale, IL: Stoeling Co.
Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A. & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

J. Bauman-Waengler, Articulatory and Phonological Impairments: A Clinical Focus, 2nd edn. (Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 2004).
J. Beitchman, D. Cantwell, S. Forness, K. Kavale & J. Kauffman, Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with language and learning disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37 (10 Suppl.) (1998), 46S.
J. H. Beitchman, B. Wilson, C. J. Johnson et al., Fourteen-year follow-up of speech/language-impaired and control children: psychiatric outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 40 (2001), 75.
N. J. Cohen, M. Davine, N. Horodezky, L. Lipsett & L. Isaacson, Unsuspected language impairment in psychiatrically disturbed children: Prevalence and language and behavioral characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32 (1993), 595.
H. Kolski & H. Otsubo, The Landau–Kleffner Syndrome. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 497 (2002), 195–208.
J. Law, J. Boyle, F. Harris, A. Harkness & C. Nye, Prevalence and natural history of primary speech and language delay: findings from a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 35 (2000), 165.
L. B. Leonard, Children with Specific Language Impairment. (Cambridge, MA: Bradford, 1998).
J. H. Menkes & H. B. Sarnat (eds.) Child Neurology, 6th edn. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000).
L. Olswang, B. Rodriguez & G. Timler, Recommending intervention for toddlers with specific language impairment: we may not have all the answers, but we know a lot. American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 7 (1998), 23.
R. Paul, Language Disorders from Infancy through Adolescence: Assessment and Intervention. 2nd edn. (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2001).
R. O. Robinson, G. Baird, G. Robinson & E. Simonoff, Landau–Kleffner syndrome: course and correlates with outcome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 43 (2001), 243.
L. Shriberg & J. Kwiatkowski, Developmental phonological disorders. I: A clinical profile. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 37 (1994), 1100.
L. Shriberg, D. Austin, B. Lewis, J. McSweeny & D. Wilson, The speech disorders classification system (SDCS): extensions and lifespan reference data. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 40 (1997), 723.
C. Toppelberg & T. Shapiro, Language disorders: a 10-year research update review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39 (2000), 143.
D. Weindrich, Ch. Jennen-Steinmetz, M. Laucht, G. Esser & M. H. Schmidt, Epidemiology and prognosis of specific disorders of language and scholastic skills. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9 (2000), 186.

Reference Title: Review articles and books

Reference Type: bibliography

B. Butterworth, The Mathematical Brain. (London: Macmillan, 1999).
S. E. Fisher & J. C. DeFries, Developmental dyslexia: genetic dissection of a complex trait. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 3 (2002), 767–80.
E. L. Grigorenko, Developmental dyslexia: an update on genes, brains and environments. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42 (2001), 91–126.
F. Ramus, S. Rosen, S. C. Dakin, et al. Theories of developmental dyslexia: insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126 (2003), 841–65.
R. S. Shalev & V. Gross-Tur, Developmental dyscalculia. Pediatric Neurology, 24 (2001), 337–42.
M. J. Snowling, Dyslexia. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000).
F. R. Vellutino, J. M. Fletcher, M. J. Snowling & D. M. Scanlon. Specific reading disability (dyslexia): what have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45 (2004), 2–40.

Reference Title: Books with practical advice

Reference Type: bibliography

D. Bartlett & S. Moody, Dyslexia in the Workplace. (London: Whurr, 2000).
N. Goulandris, Dyslexia in Different Languages: Cross-linguistic Comparisons. (London: Whurr, 2003).
E. Grauberg, Elementary Mathematics and Language Difficulties. (London: Whurr, 1997).
V. Muter, Early Reading Development and Dyslexia. (London: Whurr, 2003).
M. J. Snowling & J. Stackhouse, Dyslexia, Speech and Language: A Practitioner's Handbook. (London: Wiley, 2005).

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

T. Attwood, Asperger's Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Professionals. (London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1998).
S. Baron-Cohen & P. Bolton (eds.), Autism: The Facts. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
D. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar, Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. (New York: Chichester, Wiley, 1997).
U. Frith, Autism. Explaining the Enigma. 2nd Edn. (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003).
C. Gillberg, A Guide to Asperger Syndrome. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
C. Gillberg & M. Coleman, The Biology of the Autistic Syndromes. 3rd edn. (London: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
P. Howlin, Prognosis in autism: do specialist treatments affect long-term outcome? European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 6 (1997), 55–72.
L. Wing, Autistic spectrum disorders. British Medical Journal, 312 (1996), 327–8.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Berument, S. K., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Pickles, A. & Bailey, A. (1999). Autism screening questionnaire: diagnostic validity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 444–51.
DiLavore, P. C., Lord, C. & Rutter, M. (1995). The pre-linguistic autism diagnostic observation schedule. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 25, 355–79.
Ehlers, S. & Gillberg, C. (1993). The epidemiology of Asperger syndrome. A total population study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1327–50.
Ehlers, S., Gillberg, C. & Wing, L. (1999). A screening questionnaire for Asperger syndrome and other high-functioning autism spectrum disorders in school age children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 129–41.
Gillberg, C., Rastam, M. & Wentz, E. (2001). The Asperger Syndrome (and high-functioning autism) Diagnostic Interview (ASDI): a preliminary study of a new structured clinical interview. Autism, 5, 57–66.
Griffiths, R. (1970). The Abilities of Young Children. A Study in Mental Measurement. London: University of London Press.
Krug, D. A., Arick, J. & Almond, P. (1980). Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 221–9.
Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S. et al. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: a standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 19, 185–212.
Lord, C., Rutter, M. & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–85.
Nordin, V. & Gillberg, C. (1996). Autism spectrum disorders in children with physical or mental disability or both. Part II: Screening aspects. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 314–24.
Posserud, M. B., Steijnen, M., Verhoeven, S., Lundervold, A., Stormark, K. M. & Gillberg, C. (2005). Factor analysis of the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire.
Raven, J. C., Court, J. H. & Raven, J. (1986). Coloured Progressive Matrices.
Roid, G. H. & Miller, L. J. (1997). Leiter International Performance Scale – Revised. Wood Dale, IL: Stoeling Co.
Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J. & Renner, B. R. (1988). The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Revised edn. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services, Inc.
Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A. & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Wing, L., Leekam, S. R., Libby, S. J., Gould, J. & Larcombe, M. (2002). The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders: background, inter-rater reliability and clinical use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 307–25.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: bibliography

P. Hill & E. Taylor, An auditable protocol for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 84 (2001), 404–9.
MTA, A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The MTA Cooperative Group. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56 (1999), 1073–86.
R. Schachar & R. Tannock, Syndromes of hyperactivity and attention deficit. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches, 4th edn (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002), pp. 399–418.
J. M. Swanson, J. A. Sergeant, E. Taylor, E. J. S. Sonuga-Barke, P. J. Jensen & D. P. Cantwell, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. The Lancet, 351 (9100) (1998), 429–33.
E. Taylor, Developmental neuropsychopatology of attention deficit and impulsiveness. Development and Psychopathology, 11 (1999), 607–28.
E. Taylor, J. Sergeant, M. Doepfner et al., Clinical guidelines for hyperkinetic disorder. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7 (1998), 184–200.

Reference Title: Appendix

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: Some useful treatment manuals

Reference Type: bibliography

R. A. Barkley, Defiant Children. A Clinician's Manual for Parent Training. (New York: Guilford, 1987).
M. A. Bash & B. W. Camp, Think Aloud. Classroom Program Grades 3–4. (Champaign, Ill.: Research Press, 1985).
L. Braswell & M. L. Bloomquist, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with ADHD Children. (New York: Guilford, 1991).
M. Dopfner, S. Schurmann & J. Frolich, Das Therapieprogramm fur Kinder mit hyperkinetischem und oppositionellem Problemverhalten (THOP). (Weinheim: Psychologie-Verlags-Union, 1996).
G. J. DuPaul & G. Stoner, ADHD in the Schools. Assessment and Intervention Strategies. (New York: Guilford, 1994).
P. C. Kendall & L. Braswell, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Impulsive Children. (New York: Guilford, 1985).
G. W. Lauth & P. F. Schlottke, Training mit aufmerksamkeitsgestorten Kindern. (Weinheim: Psychologie Verlagsunion, 1993).
A. L. Robin & S. L. Foster, Negotiating Parent–Adolescent Conflict. (New York: Guilford, 1989).
J. Swanson, School-based Assessments and Interventions for ADD Students. (Irvine: K.C. Publishing, 1992).

Reference Title: Questionnaires

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: Clinical Checklist for Hyperkinetic Disorders/ADHD (CCHD)

Reference Type: bibliography

M. Doepfner, S. Schuermann & J. Froelich, Therapieprogramm für Kinder mit hyperkinetischen Störungen (THOP). (Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union (German version), 1997).

Reference Title: Conners' rating scales

Reference Type: bibliography

C. K. Conners, Conners' Rating Scales: Revised Technical Manual. (New York: Multi-Health Systems, 1997).

Reference Title: Home situations questionnaire

Reference Type: bibliography

R. A. Barkley, Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. A Clinical Workbook. (New York: Guilford Press, 1991).

Reference Title: Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity checklist for adolescents (IHI/A-Checklist)

Reference Type: bibliography

M. Doepfner, S. Schuermann & J. Froelich, Therapieprogramm für Kinder mit hyperkinetischen Störungen (THOP). (Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union (German version), 1997).

Reference Title: Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity checklist for parents and teachers (IHI/PT-Checklist):

Reference Type: bibliography

M. Doepfner, S. Schuermann & J. Froelich, Therapieprogramm für Kinder mit hyperkinetischen Störungen (THOP). (Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union (German version), 1997).

Reference Title: Interviews

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: Clinical interview for attention deficit and disruptive behaviour disorders (CIAD)

Reference Type: bibliography

M. Doepfner, S. Schuermann & J. Froelich, Therapieprogramm für Kinder mit hyperkinetischen Störungen (THOP). (Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union (German version), 1997).

Reference Title: Diagnostic interview schedule for children–parent interview (DISC-P)

Reference Type: bibliography

D. Shaffer, P. Fisher & M. K. Dulcan, The NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3): description, acceptability, prevalence rates, and performance in the MECA Study. Methods for the epidemiology of child and adolescent mental disorders study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35 (1996), 865–77.

Reference Title: Parental account of children's symptoms (PACS)

Reference Type: bibliography

E. A. Taylor, R. Schachar, G. Thorley & M. Wieselberg, Conduct disorder and hyperactivity: I. Seperation of hyperactivity and antisocial conduct in British child psychiatric patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149 (1986), 760–7.

Reference Title: Observations

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: Observation in the clinic

Reference Type: bibliography

S.-L. Luk, G. Thorley & E. Taylor, Gross overactivity: a study by direct observation. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 9 (1987), 173–82.

Reference Title: Groeningen behaviour observation scale

Reference Type: bibliography

A. F. Kalverboer (ed.), Developmental Biopsychology. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990).

Reference Title: Neuropsychological assessment

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Title: Continuous performance tests (CPT)

Reference Type: bibliography

C. K. Conners, Conners Continuous Performance Test II. (Hurstpierpoint, UK: International Psychology Services, 2000).

Reference Title: Matching familiar figures test (MFFT)

Reference Type: bibliography

E. Cairns & T. Cammock, Development of a more reliable version of the matching familiar figures test. Developmental Psychology, 11 (1978), 244–8.

Reference Title: Stroop

Reference Type: bibliography

J. D. Cohen & D. Servan-Schreiber, Psychological Review, 99 (1992), 45–77.

Reference Title: TEACH (Test of everyday attention for children)

Reference Type: bibliography

T. Manly, V. Anderson, I. Nimmo-Smith, A. Turner, P. Watson & I. H. Robertson, The differential assessment of children's attention: the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), normative sample and ADHD performance. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42 (2001), 1065–81.

Reference Title: Tower of Hanoi

Reference Type: bibliography

M. C. Welsh, S. Pennington, Ozonoff, B. Rouse & E. R. B. McCabe (1990), Child Development, 61 (1990), 1697–713.

Reference Title: Tower of London

Reference Type: bibliography

T. Shallice, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Biology, 298, 199–209.

Reference Title: Wisconsin Card Sort Test

Reference Type: bibliography

D. Grant & E. Berg, The Wisconsin Card Sort Test: Directions for Administration and Scoring. (Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1948).

Reference Title: Helpful books

Reference Type: bibliography

M. B. Bloomquist & S. V. Schnell, Helping Children with Aggression and Conduct Problems. (New York: Guilford Press, 2002).
J. Durlak, School-based Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents. (Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 1995).
J. Hill & B. Maughan, Conduct Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
G. R. Patterson & M. S. Forgatch, Parents and Adolescents Living Together. (Eugene, OR: Castalia, 1987).
M. Rutter, H. Giller, & A. Hagell, Antisocial Behavior by Young People. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Reference Title: Seminal articles

Reference Type: bibliography

M. T. Greenberg, C. A. Kusche, E. T. Cooke, & J. P. Quamma, Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: the effects of the PATHS curriculum. Developmental Psychopathology, 7 (1995), 117–36.
S. W. Henggeler, Multisystemic therapy: an overview of clinical procedures, outcomes and policy implications. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 4 (1999), 2–10.
A. Kazdin, Psychosocial treatments for conduct disorder in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38 (1997), 161–78.
P. C. Kendall & L. Braswell, Cognitive-behavioral Therapy for Impulsive Children, 2nd edn. (New York: Guilford Press, 1993).
J. E. Lochman & L. A. Lenhart, Anger coping intervention for aggressive children: conceptual models and outcome effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 13 (1993), 785–805.
T. Moffitt, A. Caspi, N. Dickson, P. Silva, & W. Stanton, Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: natural history from ages 3 to 18 years. Development and Psychopathology, 8 (1996), 399–424.
D. Olds & H. Kitzman, Review of research on home visitation for pregnant women and parents of young children. Future of Children, 3 (1999), 53–92.
R. Sampson, S. Raudenbush, & F. Earls, Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277 (1997), 918–24.
L. J. Schweinhart, H. V. Barnes, & D. P. Weikart, The HighScope/Perry Preschool Study through age 27. (Ypsilanti, MI: HighScope Educational Foundation, 1993).
S. Scott, Q. Spender, M. Doolan, B. Jacobs, & H. Aspland, Multicentre controlled trail of parenting groups for child antisocial behaviour in clinical practice. British Medical Journal, 323 (2001), 194–7.
C. Webster-Stratton, T. Hollinsworth, & M. Kolpacoff, The long-term effectiveness and clinical significance of three cost-effective training programs for families with conduct problem children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57 (1989), 550–3.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

S. P. Dow, B. C. Sonies, D. Scheib, S. E. Moss & H. L. Leonhard, Practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of selective mutism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34 (1995), 836–46.
E. S. Dummitt, R. G. Klein, N. K. Tranger, B. Asche, J. Martin & J. A. Fairbanks, Systematic assessment of 50 children with selective mutism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36 (1997), 653–60.
N. H. Hadley, Elective Mutism: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors and Health Care Professionals. (Dordrecht–Boston–London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994).
M. Johnson & A. Wintgens, The Selective Mutism Resource Manual. (Bicester, Oxon UK: Speechmark Publishing Ltd, 2001).
H. Kristensen, Selective mutism and comorbidity with developmental disorder/delay, anxiety disorder, and elimination disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39 (2000), 249–56.
H.-C. Steinhausen & R. Adamek, The family history of children with elective mutism: a research report. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 6 (1997), 107–11.
H.-C. Steinhausen & C. Juzi, Elective mutism: an analysis of 100 cases. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35 (1996), 606–14.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

N. W. Boris & C. H. Zeanah, Clinical disturbances of attachment in infancy and early childhood. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 10 (4) (1998), 365–8.
R. F. Hanson & E. G. Spratt, Reactive attachment disorder: what we know about the disorder and implications for treatment, Child Maltreatment, 5 (2) (2000), 137–45.
D. A. Hughes, Adopting children with attachment problems. Child Welfare, 78 (5) (1999), 541–60.
J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (eds.), Handbook of Attachment. (New York: Guilford Press, 1999).
A. F. Lieberman & C. H. Zeanah, Disorders of attachment in infancy. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 3 (3) (1995), 571–87.
T. G. O'Connor, M. Rutter & the English and Romanian Adoptees Study team. Attachment disorder behaviour following early severe deprivation: extension and longitudinal follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39 (6) (2000), 703–12.
J. Robertson & J. Robertson, Young Children in Brief Separations. (Film series). (London: Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, 1967–72).
M. Rutter & L. A. Sroufe, Developmental psychopathology: concepts and challenges. Development and Psychopathology, 12 (3) (2000), 265–96.
R. A. Thompson, Early attachment and later development. In Handbook of Attachment, ed. J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (New York: Guilford Press, 1999), pp. 287–318.
B. Tizard, Adoption: A Second Chance. (London: Open Books, 1977).
M. H. Van IJzendoorn, C. Schuengel & M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Disorganized attachment in early childhood: meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants and sequelae. Development and Psychopathology, 11 (1999), 225–49.
S. L. Wilson, Attachment disorders: review and current status. Journal of Psychology, 135 (1) (2001), 37–51.
C. Zeanah, O. K. Mammen & A. F. Lieberman, Disorders of attachment. In Handbook of Infant Mental Health, ed. C. Zeanah (New York: Guilford Press, 1993), pp. 332–49.
C. H. Zeanah, Disturbances of attachment in young children adopted from institutions. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 21 (3) (2000), 230–6.

Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

T. Banaschewski, W. Woerner & A. Rothenberger (in press), Premonitory sensory phenomena and suppressibility of tics in Tourette Syndrome – developmental aspects in children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 45, 700–3.
D. J. Cohen, J. Jankovic & C. G. Goetz, Tourette Syndrome. In Advances in Neurology. Vol. 85. (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 2001).
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Reference Title: Enuresis

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Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

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A. Bentovim, Trauma Organised Systems, Physical and Sexual Abuse in Families. (London: Karnac, 1995). (Also translated into German, Spanish and Czech).
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A. Bentovim, Working with abusing families. In The Child Protection Handbook. 2nd edn, ed. K. Wilson & A. Jones. (Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall, 2001).
A. Bentovim, Preventing sexually abused people from becoming abusers, and treating the victimisation experiences of young people who offend sexually. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26 (2002), 661–78.
A. Bentovim, A. Elton, J. Hildebrand, M. Tranter & E. Vizard, Child Sexual Abuse within the Family, Assessment and Treatment. (Bristol: John Wright, 1988).
A. Bentovim & L. Bingley Miller, The Family Assessment of Family Competence. (Brighton: Pavilion Press, 2001).
T. Brugha, P. Bebington, C. Tennant & J. Hurry, The list of threatening experiences: a subset of 12 life event categories with considerable long-term contextual threat. Psychological Medicine, 15 (1985), 189–94.
A. Cox & S. Walker, The Home Inventory. (Brighton: Pavilion Press, 2002).
S. Creighton, Recognising changes in incidence and prevalence. In Early Prediction and Prevention of Child Abuse, A Handbook, ed. K. Browne, H. Hanks, P. T. Stratton & C. Hamilton. (Chichester: John Wiley, 2002).
K. A. Crinic & M. T. Greenberg, Minor parenting stresses with young children. Child Development, 61 (1990), 1628–37.
D. Glaser, Emotional abuse and neglect (psychological maltreatment): the conceptual framework. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26 (2002), 715–30.
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D. Jones, Communicating with Vulnerable Children. A Guide for Practitioners. (London: Gaskell, The Royal College of Psychiatrists and the Department of Health, 2003).
D. Jones & P. Ramchandani, Child Sexual Abuse – Informing Practice From Research. (Oxford: Radcliffe Medical Press, 1999).
V. Sinason (ed). Attachment, Trauma and Multiplicity. Working with Dissociative Identity Disorder. (Sussex and New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2002).
M. A. Smith, The effects of low levels of lead on urban children: the relevance of social factors. (Ph.D. Psychology, University of London, 1985).
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Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Bentovim, A. & Bingley Miller, L. (2001). The Family Assessment of Family Competence. Brighton: Pavilion Press.
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Cox, A. & Bentovim, A. (2000). The Family Pack of Questionnaires and Scales. Department of Health.
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Reference Title: SUGGESTED READING

Reference Type: reference-list

P. T. Cohen-Kettenis & F. Pfafflin, Making Choices. Transgenderism and intersexuality in childhood and adolescence. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2003).
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S. Golombok & R. Fivush, Gender Development. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
R. Green, The ‘Sissy Boy Syndrome’ and the Development of Homosexuality. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987).
G. Herdt, Third Sex, Third Gender. Beyond the Dimorphism in Culture and History. (New York: Zone Books, 1994).
W. Meyer (Chairperson), W. O. Bockting, P. T. Cohen-Kettenis et al., Standards of Care for Gender Identity Disorders of The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (HBIGDA), Sixth Version. International Journal of Transgenderism, 5 (2001), http://www.symposion.com/ijt/soc_2001/index/htm.
M. Rottnek (ed.), Sissies and Tomboys. Gender Noncomformity and Homosexual Childhood. (New York: New York University Press, 1999).
B. Wren, Early physical intervention for young people with atypical gender identity development. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5 (2000), 220–31.
K. J. Zucker & S. J. Bradley, Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents. (New York, London: Guilford Press, 1995).