Psychiatric Intensive Care


Psychiatric Intensive Care

Significantly expanded and updated from the first edition, this edition of Psychiatric Intensive Care is essential reading for all healthcare professionals and managers involved in the care of the mentally ill patient, particularly in the intensive care environment. It provides practical and evidence-based advice on the management of disturbed and severely ill psychiatric patients in secure hospital settings. New chapters were added covering multidisciplinary team working, and emphasising the interface of psychiatric intensive care with other mental health specialities; specifically, Interface with General Psychiatry, Interface with Learning Difficulties, Interface with the Child and Adolescent, Interface with Substance Misuse, Interface with Social Work, User and Carer Issues, Legal Issues and National Standards and Good Practice in Psychiatric Intensive Care. This book should be read by all mental health team members working with disturbed psychiatric patients on an inpatient basis, as well as by management staff responsible for establishing and running these services.


 Reviews:

"easy to read...useful to any member of an inpatient team."
--Doody's Review Service

"There is much to be praised and little not to like here....the text is well-edited, comprehensive, and succinct."
--Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

'The book is packed full of extremely sensible advice on how to manage difficult clinical problems in the most challenging of patients. It has something for everyone - trainees, consultants, nurses, managers and those professions allied to medicine.' Hospital Doctor

'It is comprehensive and multi-disciplinary. It is clinically oriented and most chapters will be of interest to clinical staff working on intensive care units.' British Journal of Psychiatry

'The concise chapters make this book easy to read and the various topics are useful to any member of an impatient team. This second edition covers areas that were not captured in the first edition.' Alyson Myers, MD, Rush University Medical Centre

'I'd suggest reading this volume many times, as I did, since so much is covered so well in only 350 pages. My compliments to the authors and editors!' Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

Östman M, Hansson L. 2004 Appraisal of caregiving, burden and psychological distress in relatives of psychiatric inpatients. Eur Psychiatry 19 (7): 402–407
Östman M, Kjellin L. 2002 Stigma by association: psychological factors in relatives of people with mental illness. Br J Psychiatry 181: 149–498
Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority. 1986 AC 112
HL v. UK, European Court of Human Rights, C [2004] J 4269
Abrams R. 1992 Electroconvulsive Therapy. New York: Oxford University Press
Action for Advocacy. 2002 The Advocacy Charter. Retrieved 19.06.06 from: http://www.actionforadvocacy.org.uk (accessed 4 August 2007)
Action for Advocacy. 2004 Advocacy Models. Retrieved 19.06.06 from: http://www.actionforadvocacy.org.uk (accessed 4 August 2007)
Ahmed Z, Fraser W, Kerr MP et al. 2000 Reducing antipsychotic medication in people with a learning disability. Br J Psychiatry 176: 42–46
Aiken GJM. 1984 Assaults on staff in a locked ward: predictions and consequences. Med Sci Law 24: 199–207
Ainsworth M, Blehar RM, Waters E et al. 1978 Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale N.J.: Lawrence, Erlbaum Associates
Ainsworth M. 1969 Object relations and dependency and attachment: theoretical review of mother infant relationship. Child Dev 40: 969–1025
Aitchison JK, Meehan K, Murray RM. 1999 First Episode Psychosis. London: Martin Dunitz, pp. 16–27
Alexander J, Tharyan P, Adams C, John T, Mol C, Philip J. 2004 Rapid tranquillisation of violent or agitated patients in a psychiatric emergency setting. Pragmatic randomised trial of intramuscular lorazepam v. haloperidol plus promethazine. Br J Psychiatry 185: 63–69
Allan ER, Brown RC, Laury G. 1998 Planning a psychiatric intensive care unit. Hosp Community Psychiatry 39(1): 81–83
Allebeck P. 1989 Schizophrenia: a life-shortening disease. Schizophr Bull 15: 81–89
Allison DB, Mentore JH, Heo M et al. 1999 Antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a comprehensive research synthesis. Am J Psychiatry 156(11): 1686–1696
Allison DB, Mentore JL, Heo M et al. 1999 Antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a comprehensive research synthesis. Am J Psychiatry 156: 1686–1696
Aman MG, De Smedt G, Derivan A et al. 2002 Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone for the treatment of disruptive behaviours in children with subaverage intelligence. Am J Psychiatry 159: 1337–1346
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1998 Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. J Am Aca Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37 [Suppl. 10]: 63S–83S
American Diabetes Association. American Psychiatric Association. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. North American Association for the Study of Obesity. 2004 Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. J Clin Psychiatry 65:267–272
American Psychiatric Association Task Force on ECT. 1990 The Practice of ECT: Recommendations for Treatment, Training, and Privileging. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press
American Psychiatric Association. 1994 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association
American Psychiatric Association. 1994 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association
Ames D, Camm J, Cook P et al. 2002 Cardiac Safety in Schizophrenia Group. Minimizing the risks associated with significant QTc prolongation in people with schizophrenia: a consensus statement by the Cardiac Safety in Schizophrenia Group. Aust Psychiatry 10:115–124
Anath J. 1984 Physical illness and psychiatric disorders. Compr Psychiatry 25: 586–593
Andoh B. 1995 Jurisprudential aspects of the ‘right’ to retake absconders from mental hospitals in England and Wales. J Sci Med Law 35(3): 255–230
Andreasson S, Allebeck P, Engstrom A, Rydberg U. 1987 Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Lancet 26: 2 (8574): 1483–1486
Angold A. 1989 Seclusion. Br J Psychiatry 154: 437–444
Angold A. 1989 Seclusion. Br J Psychiatry 154: 437–444
Anonymous. 1976 Gold award. A program for the prevention of and management of disturbed behaviour. Hosp Community Psychiatry 27: 724–727
Anthony P, Crawford P. 2000 Service user involvement in care planning mental health nurse's perspective. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 7: 425–434
Antonacci DJ, de Groot CM. 2000 Clozapine treatment in a population of adults with mental retardation. J Clin Psychiatry 61: 22–25
Appelbaum KL, Appelbaum PS. 1991 A model hospital policy on prosecuting patients for presumptively criminal acts. Hosp Community Psychiatry 42: 1233–1237
Appelbaum P. 1999 Seclusion and restraint: congress reacts to reports of abuse. Psychiatr Serv 50(7): 881–885
Appelbaum P. 1999 Seclusion and restraint: congress reacts to reports of abuse. Psychiatr Serv 50(7): 881–885
Appelby L. 2000. Safer services: conclusions from the report of the National Confidential Inquiry. Adv Psychiatr Treat 6: 5–15
Appleby L, Dyson V, Altman E, McGovern MP, Luchins DJ. 1996 Utility of the chemical use, abuse and dependence scale in screening patients with severe mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 47(6): 647–649
Appleby L, Shaw J, Amos J et al. 1999 Safer Services: Report of the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness. London: Stationery Office
Appleby L, Shaw J, Sherratt J et al. 2001 Safety First: Report of the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness. London: Stationery Office
Arana GW, Ornsteen ML, Kanter FF, Friedman HL, Greenblatt DJ, Shader SI. 1986 The use of benzodiazepines for psychiatric disorders: a literature review and preliminary clinical findings. Psychopharmacol Bull 22(1): 77–87
Arseneault L, Cannon M, Murray R, Poulton R, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. 2002 Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study. Br Med J 325: 1212–1213
Ashaye O, Ikkos G, Rigby E. 1997 Study of the effects of constant observation of psychiatric in-patients. Psychiatr Bull 21: 145–147
Ashmore R, Carver N. 2000 Mental Health Practice (Feb) 3 (6)
Atakan Z. 1995 Violence on psychiatric inpatient units: what can be done? Psychiatr Bull 19: 119–122
Atkin K, Kendall F, Gould D. 1996 Neutropenia and agranulocytosis in patients receiving clozapine in the UK and Ireland. Br J Psychiatry 169: 483–488
Audit Commission. 1999 National Report (1999). Children in Mind: Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. London: Audit Commission
Aumack L. 1968 The patient activity checklist: an instrument and an approach for measuring behaviour. J Clin Psychol 25: 134–137
Baastrup PC, Alhfors UG, Bjerkenstedt L et al. 1993 A controlled Nordic multicentre study of zuclopenthixol acetate in oil solution, haloperidol and zuclopenthixol in the treatment of acute psychosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 87: 48–58
Baastrup PC, Paulsen JC, Schou M, Thomsen K, Amidsen A. 1970 Prophylactic lithium: double-blind discontinuation in manic-depressive and recurrent depressive disorders. Lancet ii: 326–330
Backhouse R. 2001 Social work. In: Dale C, Thompson T, Woods P (eds) (2001) Forensic Mental Health. Edinburgh: Baillière
Bagley C. 1971 The social aetiology of schizophrenia in immigrant groups. Int J Soc Psychiatry 17: 292–304
Baker RW, Kinon BJ, Maguire GA, Liu H, Hill AL. 2003 Effectiveness of rapid initial dose escalation of up to forty milligrams per day of oral olanzapine in acute agitation. J Clin Psychopharmacol 23(4): 42–348
Balding JW. 1999 Young People in 1998. With a Look Back as Far as 1983. Exeterw: Schools Health Education
Ballenger JC, Post RM. 1980 Carbamazepine in manic-depressive illness: a new treatment. Am J Psychiatry 137: 782–790
Banerjee S, Bingley W, Murphy E. 1995 Deaths of Detained Patients: A Review of Reports to the Mental Health Act Commission. London: Mental Health Act Foundation
Barker P. 2001 Dismantling formal observation and refocusing nursing activity in acute in-patient psychiatry: a case study. J Psychiatr Mental Health Nurs 8(2): 183–188
Barlow T. 2003 What colour is aggression? Mental Health Pract 7(4): 32–33
Barnes TRE, Bridges PK. 1980 Disturbed behaviour induced with high-dose antipsychotic drugs. Br Med J 281: 274–275
Baron-Cohen S, Leslie AM, Frith U. 1985 Does the autistic child have a ‘theory of mind’? Cognition 21: 27–43
Barrowclough C, Terrier N, Watts S, Vaughn C. 1987 Assessing the functional value of relatives' knowledge about schizophrenia: a preliminary report. Br J Psychiatry 151: 1–8
Barthwick A, Holman C, Kennard D, McFetridge M, Messruther K, Wilkes J. 2001 Relevance of moral treatment to contemporary mental health care. J Mental Health 10(4): 427–439
Basson JV, Woodside M. 1981 Assessment of a secure/intensive care/forensic ward. Acta Psychiatr Scand 64: 132–141
Bateman A, Fonagy P. 2004 Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Mentalisation-Based Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Bateman N. 2000 Advocacy Skills for Health and Social Care Professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley
Bates P. (ed) 2002 Working for Inclusion. London: The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health
Bauer MS, Calabrese JR, Dunner DL. 1994 Multisite data vs analysis: validity of rapid cycling as a course modifier for bipolar disorder in DSM-IV. Am J Psychiatry 151: 506–515
Baxter P, Cutliffe J. 1999 Mental Health Practice (May) 2 (8)
Beasley CM Jr, Hamilton SH, Crawford AM. 1997 Olanzapine versus haloperidol: acute phase results of the international double-blind olanzapine trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 7: 125–137
Beasley CM Jr, Sanger T, Satterlee W. 1996b Olanzapine versus placebo: results of a double-blind, fixed-dose olanzapine trial. Psychopharmacology 124: 159–167
Beasley CM Jr, Tollefson G, Tran P. 1996a Olanzapine versus placebo and haloperidol. Acute phase results of the North American double-blind olazapine trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 14: 11–1123
Beauchamp T, Childress J. 1994 Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Beauford JE, McNiel DE, Binder RL. 1997 Utility of the initial therapeutic alliance in evaluating psychiatric patients' risk of violence. Am J Psychiatry 154: 1272–1276
Beck AT, Brown G, Berchick RJ et al. 1990 Relationship between hopelessness and ultimate suicide: a replication with psychiatric outpatients. Am J Psychiatry 147: 190–195
Beck AT, Brown G, Steer RA. 1989 Prediction of eventual suicide in psychiatric inpatients by clinical ratings of hopelessness. J Consult Clin Psychol 57: 309–310
Beck AT, Freeman A. 1990 Cognitve Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press
Beck AT, Rush J, Shaw B, Emery G. 1979 Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press
Beck AT, Steer RA, Kovacs M, Garrison B. 1985 Hopelessness and eventual suicide: a 10-year prospective study of patients hospitalized with suicidal ideation. Am J Psychiatry 142: 559–563
Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. 1961 An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 4: 561–571
Beck JS. 1996 Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. In: Salkovskis PM (ed) Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy. New York: Guilford Press
Beck R, Fernandez E. 1998 Cognitive behaviour therapy in the treatment of anger: a meta-analysis. Cogn Ther Res 22: 63–74
Beech B, Bowyer D. 2004 Management of aggression and violence in mental health settings. Mental Health Pract 7(7): 31–37
Beer D, Paton C, Pereira S. 1997 Hot beds of general psychiatry. A national survey of psychiatric intensive care units. Psychiatr Bull 21: 142–144
Beer D, Paton P, Pereira S. 1997 Hot Beds of general psychiatry: a national survey of psychiatric intensive care units. Psychiatr Bull 21: 142–144
Beer MD, Paton C, Pereira S. 1997 Hot beds of general psychiatry: a national survey of psychiatric intensive care units. Psychiatr Bull 21: 142–144
Beer MD, Paton C, Pereira S. 1997 Hot beds of general psychiatry: a national survey of psychiatric intensive care units. Psychiatr Bull 21: 142–144
Beer MD, Paton C, Pereira S. 1997 Hot beds of general psychiatry; a national survey of psychiatric intensive care units. Psychiatr Bull 21: 142–144
Bell MD, Rao VJ, Weitli C, Rodriguez RN. 1992 Positional asphyxia in adults: 30 cases. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 13: 101–107
Bellack AS, Mueser KT. 1993 Psychosocial treatment for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 19: 317–336
Bem SL. 1981 Gender schema theory: a cognitive account of sex typing. Psycholo Rev 88: 354–364
Bensley L, Nelson N, Kaufman J, Silverstein B, Shield J. 1995 Patient and staff views of factors influencing assaults on psychiatric hospital employees. Issues Mental Health Nursing 16: 433–446
Berg AZ, Bell CC, Tupin J. 2000 Clinical Safety: assessing and managing the violent patient. New Dir Mental Health Serv 86: 9–29
Bernal J, Hollins S. 1995 Psychiatric illness and learning disability: a dual diagnosis. Adv Psychiatr Treat 1: 138–145
Berne E. 1964 Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships. Harmondsworth: Penguin
Berney TP. 2000 Autism – an evolving concept. Br J Psychiatry 176: 20–25
Bersani G, Bressa GM, Meco G. 1990 Combined 5HT2 and dopamine D2 antagonism in schizophrenia: clinical, extrapyramidal and human neuroendocrine response in a preliminary study with risperidone. Hum Psychopharmacol 5: 225–231
Best D. 1996 The developing role of occupational therapy in psychiatric intensive care. Br J Occup Ther 59: 161–164
Betemps E, Buncher M. 1992 Length of time spent in seclusion and restraint by patients at 82 VA Medical Centres. Hosp Community Psychiatry 43(9): 912–916
Betemps E, Somoza E, Buncher C. 1992 Hospital characteristics and staff reasons associated with use of seclusion and restraint. Hosp Community Psychiatry 44(4): 367–371
Betempts E, Somoza E, Buncher C. 1993 Hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and staff reasons associated with the use of seclusion and restraint. Hosp Community Psychiatry 44: 367–361
Bhugra D, Leff J, Mallett R, Der G, Corridan B, Rudge S. 1997 Incidence and outcome of schizophrenia in whites, African-Caribbeans and Asians in London. Psychol Med 27: 791–798
Bick PA, Hannah AL. 1986 Intramuscular lorazepam to restrain violent patients. Lancet 1(8474):206
Biederman J, Lerner Y, Belmaker RH. 1979 Combination of lithium carbonate and haloperidol in schizoaffective disorder: a controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 327–333
Biederman J, Wilens T, Mick E et al. 1999 Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders reduces risk of substance use disorder. Paediatrics 104: e20
Binder RL, McCoy SM. 1985 Patients' attitudes towards placement in seclusion. J Nervous Mental Dis 173: 273–286
Birchwood M, Smith J, Cochrane R, Wetton S, Copestake S. 1990 The social functioning scale. Br J Psychiatry 157: 853–859
Birley J. 1996 Homicide and suicide by the mentally ill. J Forensic Psychiatry 7: 234–237
Birmingham L, Mason D, Grubin D. 1998 A Follow-up study of disordered men remanded to prison. Crim Behav Ment Health 8: 202–213
Birmingham L. 2003 The mental health of prisoners. Adv Psychiatr Treat 9: 191–199
Blair D. 1991 Assaultive behaviour: does provocation begin in the front office? J Psychosoc Nursing Mental Health Serv, 29 (5): 21–26
Blair DT. 1991 Assaultive behavaviour: does provocation begin in the front office? J Psychosoc Nursing Mental Health Serv 39: 21–26
Blanchard K. 2001 High Five. New York: Harper Collins
Bleuler E. 1911 Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias (translated 1950 by J. Zinkin). New York: International Universities Press
Blom-Cooper L. 1995 The Falling shadow – One Patient's Mental Health Care 1978–1993. Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Events Leading up to and Surrounding the Fatal Incident at the Edith Morgan Centre, Torbay on 1 September 1993 (Chair: Louis Blom-Cooper). London: Duckworth
Bluglass R. 1976 The design of security units, the type of patient and behaviour patterns. Hosp Eng pp. 5–7
Bluglass R. 1992 The Special Hospitals should be closed. Br Med J 305: 323–324
Blumenthal S, Lavender T. 2000. Violence and Mental Disorder. A Critical Aid to the Assessment and Management of Risk. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley
Bodin T, Martinsen EW. 2004 Mood and self-efficacy during acute exercise in clinical depression: a randomised, controlled study. J Sport Exerc Psychol 26: 623–633
Boettcher E. 1983 Preventing violent behaviour: an integrated theoretical model for nursing. Perspect Psychiatr Care 21 (2): 54–58
Bonta J, Law M, Hanson K. 1998 The prediction of criminal and violent recidivism among mentally disordered offenders: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 123: 123–142
Borrill C, West M, Shapiro D, Rees A. 2000 Team working and effectiveness in health care. Br J Health Care Manage 6(8): 364–371
Borum R. (1998) Improving the clinical practice of violence risk assessment: technology, guidelines, and training. Am Psychol 51: 945–956
Bourdouxhe S, Mirel J, Denys W, Bobon D. 1987 L'acetate de zuclopenthixol et l'haloperidol dans la psychose aigue. Acta Psychiatr Belg 87: 236–244
Bowers L, Gournay K, Duffy D. 2000a Suicide and self harm on inpatient psychiatric units: a national survey of observation policies. J Adv Nurs 32: 437–444
Bowers L, Jarret M, Clark N, Kiyimba F, McFarlane L. 2000b Determinants of absconding by patients on acute psychiatric wards. J Adv Nurs 32 (3): 644–649
Boyer P, Lecrucibier Y, Puech AJ. 1995 Treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia with amisulpride. Br J Psychiatry 166: 68–72
Bradford JM. 1983 Research on sex offenders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 6(4): 715–731
Bradshaw J. 1991 Homecoming. New York: Piatkus
Bradshaw T, Lovell K, Harris N. 2005 Healthy living interventions and schizophrenia: a systematic review. J Adv Nurs 49(6): 634–654
Brailsford D, Stevenson J. 1973 Factors related to violent and unpredictable behaviour in psychiatric hospitals. Nurs Times 69(3) Suppl 9–11
Brandon S, Cowley P, McDonald C, Neville P. 1984 Electroconvulsive therapy: results in depressive illness from the Leicestershire trial. Br Med J 288: 22–25
Brayne H, Carr H. 2003 Law for Social Workers. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Breakwell G. 1997 Coping With Aggressive Behaviour. Leicester: BPS Books
Breier A, Meehan K, Birkett M et al. 2002 A double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response comparison of intramusular olanzapine and haloperidol in the treatment of acute agitation in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59: 441–448
Breier A, Meehan K, Birkett M et al. 2002. A double-blind, placebo-controlled dose–response comparison of intramuscular olanzapine and haloperidol in the treatment of acute agitation in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59(5): 441–448
Brenner HD, Dencker SJ, Goldstein M. 1990 Defining treatment refractoriness in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 16: 551–561
Bridges W, Dunane P, Speight I. 1981 The provision of post basic education in psychiatric nursing. Nurs Times, 23 December, pp. 141–144
British Psychological Society and the Royal College of Psychiatrists. 2006 The Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults, Children and Adolescents in Primary and Secondary Care. National Clinical Practice Guideline Number 38. London: British Psychological Society and Royal College of Psychiatrist
Brody D, Adler LA, Kim T. 1990 Effects of buspirone in seven schizophrenic subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol 10: 68–69
Brook R, Coorey PR. 1996 An acute ICU in a maximum secure hospital. Psychiatr Bull 20: 306–311
Brook S, Lucey JV, Gunn KP for the Ziprasidone IM Study Group. 2000 Intramuscular ziprasadone compared with intramuscular haloperidol in the treatment of acute psychosis. J Clin Psychiatry 61(12): 933–941
Brooke D, Taylor C, Gunn J, Maden A. 1996 Point prevalence of mental disorder in unconvicted male prisoners in England and Wales. Br Med J 313: 1524–1527
Brown CS, Lloyd KR, Donovan M. 2001 Trends in admissions to a regional secure unit (1983–1997). Med Sci Law 41(1): 35–40
Brown CSH, Lloyd KR, Donovan M. 2001 Trends in admissions to a regional secure unit (1983–1997). Med Sci Law 41: 35–40
Brown S, Birtwistle J, Roe L, Thompson C. 1999 The unhealthy lifestyle of people with schizophrenia. Psychol Med 29(3): 697–701
Brown S, Birtwistle J, Roe L, Thompson C. 1999 The unhealthy lifestyle of people with schizophrenia. Psychol Med 29: 697–701
Brown S, Birtwistle J. 1998 People with schizophrenia and their families. Fifteen-year outcome. Br J Psychiatry 173 (8): 139–144
Brown S, Inskip H, Barraclough B. 2000 Causes of the excess mortality of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 177: 212–217
Browne D. 1997 Black people and sectioning. London: Little Rock Publishing, p. 47
Brugha T, Singleton N, Meltzer H et al. 2005 Psychosis in the community and in prisons: a report from the British National Survey of psychiatric morbidity. Am J Psychiatry 162(4): 774–780
Brunette MF, Noorsdy DL, Xie H, Drake RE. 2003 Benzodiazepine use and abuse among patients with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Psychiatric Serv 54: 1395–1401
Bryant M. 2001 Introduction to User Involvement. The Sainsbury Centre of Mental Health. Retrieved 13.06.06 from: http://www.scmh.org.uk/80256FBD004F3555/vWeb/flKHAL6H9G4N/$file/introduction+to+user+involvement.pdf (accessed 4 August 2007)
Brylewski J, Duggan L. 1999 Antipsychotic medication for challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability: a systematic review of randomised control trials. J Intellect Disabil Res 43: 360–371
Buckle D. 2004 Social outcomes of employment: the experience of people with mental ill health. A Life in the Day, 8(2)
Buckle D. 2005 Social work in a secure environment: towards social inclusion. J Psychiatr Intensive Care 1(1)
Buckley PF, Bartell J, Donenwirth K, Lee S, Torigoe F, Schulz SC. 1995 Violence and schizophrenia: clozapine as a specific antiaggressive agent. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 23(4): 607–611
Buckley PF, Thompson P, Way L, Meltzer HY. 1994 Substance abuse among patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia: characteristics and implications for clozapine therapy. Am J Psychiatry 151(3): 385–389
Buckley PF. 1998. Substance abuse in schizophrenia: a review. J Clin Psychiatry 3 [Suppl. 59]: 26–30
Bullard H, Bond M. 1988 Secure units: why they are needed? Med Sci Law 28(4): 312–318
Bursten B. 1975 Using mechanical restraints on acutely disturbed psychiatric patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry 30: 48–55
Busch KA, Fawcett J, Jacobs DG. 2003 Clinical correlates of inpatient suicide. J Clin Psychiatry 64: 1
Bushe C, Holt R. 2004 Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 47:S67–S71
Butler Committee Report. 1975 Better Services for the Mentally Ill. London: Home Office/DHSS
Butterworth T, Faugier J, Burnard P. 1998 Clinical supervision and mentorship in nursing, 2nd edn. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes
Butzlaff RL, Hooley JM. 1998 Expressed emotion and psychiatric relapse: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55: 184–195
Byrt R. 1999 Nursing: the importance of the psychosocial enviroment. In: Campling P, Haig R (eds) Therapeutic Communities Past, Present and Future. London: Jessica Kingsley
Cahn T. 1998 Beyond the treatment contract: psychoanalytical work in the public mental hospital. In: Pestalozzi J et al. (eds) Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy in Institutional Settings. London: Karnac
Callaghan P. 2004 Exercise: a neglected intervention in mental health care? J Psychiatr Mental Health Nurs 11: 476–483
Campling P. 1999 Chaotic personalities: maintaining the therapeutic alliance. In: Campling P, Haig R (eds) Therapeutic Communities Past, Present and Future. London: Jessica Kingsley
Cannon M, Walsh E, Hollis C et al. 2001 Predictors of later schizophrenia and affective psychosis among attendees at a child psychiatry department. Br J Psychiatry 178: 420–426
Cardoni AA. 1995 Risperidone: review and assessment of its role in the treatment of schizophrenia. Ann Pharmacother 29: 610–618
Carey KB, Maisto SA, Cary MP, Purnine DM. 2001 Measuring readiness-to-change substance misuse among psychiatric outpatients: I. Reliability and validity of self-report measures. J Stud Alcohol 62(1): 79–88
Carey MP, Carey KB, Weinhardt LS, Gordon CM. 1997 Behavioural risk for HIV infection among adults with a severe and persistent mental illness: patterns and psychological antecedents. Community Ment Health J 33(2): 133–142
Carless D, Douglas K. 2004 A golf programme for people with severe and enduring mental health problems. J Mental Health Promotion 3(4): 26–39
Carman JS, Bigelow LB, Wyatt RJ. 1981 Lithium combined with neuroleptics in chronic schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients. J Clin Psychiatry 42: 124–128
Carmel H, Hunter M. 1990 Compliance with training in managing assaultative behaviour and injuries from inpatient violence. Hosp and Community Psychiatry 41: 558–560
Carmel H, Hunter M. 1991 Psychiatrists injured by patient attack. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 19: 309–316
Carpenter PK. 2002 Should there be a faculty of learning disability psychiatry? Psychiatr Bull 26: 83–84
Carton G, Larkin E. 1991 Reducing violence in a Special Hospital. Nurs Stand 5(17): 29–31
Carton G, Larkin E. 1991 Reducing violence in a Special Hospital. Nurs Stand 5(17): 29–31
Carvel J. 2005 Hospital trust faces sentence for staff death. The Guardian, 18 April 2005
Castelao JF, Ferrerira L, Gelders YG, Heylen SLE. 1989 The efficacy of the D2 and 5HT2 antagonist risperidone in the treatment of chronic psychoses. An open dose finding study. Schizophr Res 2: 411–415
Castle K, Duberstein PR, Meldrum S, Conner MSK, Conwell Y. 2004 Risk factors for suicide in blacks and whites: an analysis of data from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey. Am J Psychiatry 161: 452–458
Caton CL, Drake RE, Hasin DS et al. 2005 Differences between early-phase primary psychotic disorders with concurrent substance use and substance-induced psychoses. Arch of Gen Psychiatry 62(2): 137–145
Cavallero R, Colombo C, Smeraldi E. 1995 A pilot, open study on the treatment of refractory schizophrenia with risperidone and clozapine. Hum Psychopharmacol 10: 231–243
Cawthra R, Gibb R. 1998 Severe personality disorder – whose responsibility? Br J Psychiatry 173: 8–10
Central Police Training and Development Authority. 2003 Personal Safety Manual. Harrogate: Centrex
Chalk A. 1999 Community mental health teams: reviewing the debate. Ment Health Nurs 19: 12–14
Chamberlin J. 1985 An ex-patients response to Soliday. J Nervous Mental Dis 173(5): 288–289
Chaplin R, Flynn A. 2000 Adults with learning disability admitted to psychiatric wards. Adv Psychiatr Treat 6: 128–134
Chaplin R. 2004 General psychiatric services for adults with learning disability and mental illness. J Intellect Disabil Res 48: 1–10
Chapple B, Chant D, Nolan P, Cardy S, Whiteford H, McGrath J. 2004 Correlates of victimisation amongst people with psychosis. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 39 (10): 836–840
Charlton JE. 1995 Monitoring and supplemental oxygen during endoscopy. Br Med J 310: 886–888
Chaudhry K, Kingsley M, Ghafur S. 2006 The Anger Management Group at Pathways PICU. National Association of Psychiatric Intensive Care Units Bulletin 4: 19–21
Cheasty M, Clare AW, Collins C. 1998 Relation between sexual abuse in childhood and adult depression: case-control study. Br Med J 316(7126): 198–201
Cheung P, Schweitzer I, Tuckwell V, Crowley K. 1997 A prospective study of assaults on staff by psychiatric in-patients. Med Sci Law 37 (1): 46–52
Chou KR, Chen R, Lee JF, Ku RB. 2004 The effectiveness of nicotine-patch therapy for smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Int J Nurs Stud 41(3): 321–330
Chouinard G, Jones B, Remington G. 1993 A canadian multicenter placebo-controlled study of fixed doses of risperidone and haloperidol in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol 13: 35–40
Chouinard G, Safadi G, Beauclair L. 1994 A double-blind controlled study of intramuscular zuclopenthixol acetate and liquid oral haloperidol in the treatment of schizophrenic patients with acute exacerbation. J Psychopharmacol 14(6): 126–129
Chouinard G, Vainer JL, Belanger MC. 1994 Risperidone and clozapine in the treatment of drug-resistant schizophrenia and neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 18: 1129–1141
Chung MC, Corbett J. 1998 The burnout of nursing staff working with challenging behaviour clients in hospital-based bungalows and a community unit. Int J Nurs Stud 35(1–2): 56–64
Citrome L, Green L, Frost R. 1994 Length of stay and recidivism on a psychiatric intensive care unit. Hosp Community Psychiatry 45 (1): 74–76
Clark RE, Xie H, Brunette MF. 2004 Benzodiazepine prescription practices and substance abuse in persons with severe mental illness. J Clin Psychiatry 65(2): 151–155
Claus A, Bollen J, de Cuyper H. 1992 Risperidone versus haloperidol in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic inpatient: a multi-centre double-blind comparative study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 85: 295–305
Cleary M, Freeman A, Hunt GE, Walter G. 2005 What patients and carers want to know: an exploration of information and resource needs in adult mental health services. Austr N Z J Psychiatry 39 (6): 507–513
Clinical Assessment of Risk Decision Support (CARDS). 2002 Health Services Research Department. London: Institute of Psychiatry
Clinton C, Pereira S, Mullins S. 2001 Training needs of psychiatric intensive care staff. Nursing Standards 15: 33–36
Clinton C. 2000 Pathways PICU. [Unpublished survey] Goodmayes Hospital, Essex
Clunis Inquiry. 1994 The Report of the Inquiry into the Care and Treatment of Christopher Clunis (Chair: Jean Ritchie QC). London: HMSO
CMO's update 1996 London Department of Health. In: P Snowden. Regional Secure Units and Forensic Services. In: eds. Bluglass R, Bowden P. Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1990, p. 1379
Cochrane R, Bal SS. 1989 Mental hospital admission rates of immigrants to England: a comparison of 1971 and 1981. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 24: 2–11
Cohen NJ, Cohen NH. 1974 Lithium carbonate, haloperidol and irreversible brain damage. J Am Med Assoc 230: 1283–1287
Cohen S, Khan A. 1990 Antipsychotic effect of milieu in the acute treatment of schizophrenia. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 12: 248–251
Coid J, Kahtan N, Gault S, Jarman B. 1999 Patients with personality disorder admitted to secure forensic psychiatric services. Br J Psychiatry 175: 528–536
Coid J, Kahtan N. 2000 Are Special Hospitals needed? J Forensic Psychiatry 11(1): 17–35
Coid JW. 1991 A survey of patients from five health districts receiving special care in the private sector. Psychiatr Bull 15: 257–262
Coid JW. 1991a A survey of patients from five health districts receiving special care in the private sector. Psychiatr Bull 15: 257–262
Coid JW. 1991b Difficult to place patients. The game of pass the parcel must stop. Br Med J 32: 603–604
Coldwell JB, Naismith LJ. 1989 Violent incidents on special care wards in a Special Hospital. Med. Sci Law 29(2): 116–123
Collacott R, Cooper SA, McGrother C. 1992 Differential rates of psychiatric disorders in adults with Down's syndrome compared with other mentally handicapped adults. Br J Psychiatry 161: 671–674
College Research Unit. 1998 Management of Imminent Violence: Clinical Practice Guidelines to Support Mental Health Services. Occasional Paper 41. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists
Collins J, Schlenger W. 1988 Acute and chronic effects of alcohol use on violence. J Stud Alcohol 4(6): 516–521
Committee on the Safety of Medicines. 1990 Cardiotoxic effects of Pimozide. Current Problems No. 29
Conlan L, Gage A, Hillis T. 1997 Managerial and nursing perspectives on the response to inpatient violence, 7. In: Crichton J (ed) Psychiatric Patient Violence: Risk and Response. London: Duckworth
Coope B, Ballard C, Saad K, Patel A. 1995 The prevalence of depression in the carers of dementia sufferers. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 10 (3): 237–242
Cooper AJ. 1986 Progestogens in the treatment of male sex offenders: a review. Can J Psychiatry 31(1): 73–79
Cooper T. 1996 Clozapine plasma level monitoring: current status. Psychiatr Q 67: 297–311
Cope R, Ndegwa D. 1990 Ethnic differences in admission to a regional secure unit. J Forensic Psychiatry 3: 368–378
Cope R, Ward M. 1993 What happens to Special Hospital patients admitted to medium security? J Forensic Psychiatry 4(1): 13–24
Cope R. 1993 A survey of forensic psychiatrists' views on psychopathic disorder. J Forensic Psychiatry 4: 215–235
Coppen A, Noguera R, Bailey J. 1971 Prophylactic lithium in affective disorders: a controlled trial. Lancet ii: 326–330
Corrigan PW, Yodufsky SC, Silver JM. 1993 Pharmacological and behavioural treatments for aggressive psychiatric inpatients. Hosp Community Psychiatry 44: 125–133
Couchmann W. 1995 Joint education for mental health teams. Nurs Stand 10: 32–34
Coulshed V, Orme J. 1998 Social Work Practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press
Coutinho E, Fenton M, Adams C, Campbell C. 2000 Zuclopenthixol acetate in psychiatric emergencies: looking for evidence from clinical trials. Schizophr Res 46: 111–118
Coutinho E, Fenton M, Campbell C, David A. 1997 Details of studies of zuclopenthixol are needed (letter). Br Med J 315: 884
Cowen H. 1999 Community Care, Ideology and Social Policy. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall Europe
CRAG/SCOTMEG Working Group on Mental Illness. 1995 Final Report. Nursing Observation of Acutely Ill Psychiatric Patients in Hospital: A Good Practice Statement. Edinburgh: Clinical Resource Audit Group
Craig C, Hix C. 1989 Seclusion and restraint: decreasing the discomfort. J Psychosoc Nurs Mental Health Serv 27(7): 16–19
Crain PM, Jordan EG. 1979 The psychiatric intensive care unit – an in-hospital treatment of violent adult patients. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law V11(2): 190–198
Crawford MJ, Aldridge T, Bhui K et al. 2003 User involvement in the planning and delivery of mental health services: a cross-sectional survey of service users and providers. Acta Psychiatr Scand 107: 410–414
Crawford MJ, Rutter D. 2004 Are the views of members of mental health user groups representative of those of ‘ordinary’ patients? A cross-sectional survey of service users and providers. J Ment Health 13 (6): 561–568
Crawford V, Crome IB, Clancy C. 2003 Co-existing problems of mental health and substance misuse (dual diagnosis): a literature review. Drugs Educ Prevent Policy Suppl 10: S1–S74
Creek J. 2002 The knowledge base of occupational therapy. In: Creek J (ed) Occupational Therapy and Mental Health, 3rd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone
Crighton J. 1995 A review of psychiatric inpatient violence. In: Crighton J (ed) Psychiatric Patient Violence: Risk and Response. London: Duckworth
Cripps J, Duffield G, James D. 1995 Bridging the gap in secure provision: evaluation of a new local combined locked forensic/intensive care unit. J Forensic Psychiatry 6(1): 77–91
Cripps J, Duffield G, James D. 1995 Bridging the gap in secure provision: evaluation of a new local combined locked forensic/intensive care unit. J Forensic Psychiatry 6: 77–91
Crome BI, McArdle P, Gilvarry E, Bailey S. 2004 Treatment. In: Crome I, Ghodse H, Gilvarry E, McArdle P (eds) Young People and Substance Misuse. London: The Royal College of Psychiatrists
Crone D, Heaney L, Herbert R, Morgan J, Johnston L, Macpherson R. 2004 A comparison of lifestyle behaviour and health perceptions of people with severe mental illness and the general population. J Mental Health Promotion 3(4): 19–25
Cunnane JG. 1994 Drug management of disturbed behaviour by psychiatrists. Psychiatr Bull 18: 138–139
Curkendall SM, Mo J, Glasser DB et al. 2004 Cardiovascular disease in patients with schizophrenia in Saskatchewan, Canada. J Clin Psychiatry 65:715–720
Curran C, Adnett C, Zigmond A. 2005 Factors to consider when designing and using a seclusion suite in a mental hospital. Hospital development. Sidcup: Wilmington Media Limited
Curran C, Byrappa N, McBride A. 2004 Stimulant psychosis: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry 185: 196–204
Dacey CM, Nelson WM 3rd, Stoeckel J. 1999 Reliability, criterion-related validity and qualitative comments of the fourth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale with a young adult population with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res 43: 179–184
Daffern M, Mayer MM, Martin T. 2003 A preliminary investigation into patterns of aggression in an Australian forensic psychiatric hospital. J Forensic Psychiatry Psychol 14(1): 67–84
Daley AJ. 2002 Exercise therapy and mental health in clinical population: is exercise therapy a worthwhile intervention? Adv Psychiatr Treat 8: 262–270
Daniel DG, Whitcomb SR. 1998 Treatment of the refractory schizophrenic patient. J Clin Psychiatry 59 [Suppl 1]: 13–19
Davenport S. 2002 Acute wards: problems and solutions, a rehabilitation approach to in-patient care. Psychiatr Bull 26: 385–388
David SR, Beasley CM Jr, Alaka K. 2002 QTc intervals during treatment with olanzapine in acutely agitated patients. Schizophr Res Suppl 53: 164
Davidson M, Emsley R, Kramer M et al. 2007 Efficacy, safety and early response of paliperidone extended-release tablets (paliperidone ER): results of a 6 week, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Schizophr Res 10.1016/j.schres.2007.03.003
Davidson M. 2002 Risk of cardiovascular disease and sudden death in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 63 [Suppl. 9]: 5–11
Davies W. 1993 The RAID Programme for Challenging Behaviour. Leicester: Association for Psychological Therapies
Davis H, Squire L 1984 Protein synthesis and memory. Psychol Bull 96: 518–559
Davis JM et al. 1994 Depot antipsychotic drugs: place in therapy. Drugs 47: 120–127
Davis P. 2004 Critical thoughts on restraint in hospital. Mental Health Nurs 24 May, pp. 20–21
Davis S. 1991 Violence by psychiatric in-patients: a review. Hosp Community Psychiatry 42 (6): 585–589
Davis S. 1998 Injection drug use and HIV infection among the seriously mentally ill: a report from Vancouver. Can J Community Ment Health 17(1): 121–127
Davis W. 1989 The prevention of assault on professional helpers. In: Howells K, Hollin C (eds) Clinical Approaches of Violence. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 311–328
Dawson P, Galis A, Hughes L, O' Shaughnessy. 2003 Development of an Anger Management Group Programme in PICU [Unpublished manuscript]. Pathways PICU. Goodmayes Hospital, Essex
Dawson P, Kingsley M, Pereira S. 2005 Violent patients within psychiatric intensive care units: treatment approaches, resistance and the impact upon staff. J Psychiatr Intensive Care 1: 45–53
DCMS/Strategy Unit. 2002 Game Plan: A Strategy for Develivering Government's Sport and Physical Activity Objectives. London: DCMS/Strategy Unit
De Cangas J, Shopflocher D. 1989 The practice of seclusion and factors affecting its use. In: Chi-Hui (Kao) Lo (ed) Proceedings of the Sigma Theta Tau International Research Congress. Advances in International Nursing Scholarship Taipei: Sigma Theta Tau, p. 83
De Cangas JP. 1993 Nursing staff and unit characteristics: do they affect the use of seclusion? Perspect Psychiatr Care 29(3): 15–22
De la Fuente JR, Rosenbaum AH, Martin HR Niven RG. 1980 Lorazepam-related withdrawal seizures. Mayo Clin Proc 55(3): 190–192
Deegan P. 1988 Recovery: the lived experience of rehabilitation. Psychosoc Rehabil J, 11: 11–19
Degenhardt L, Hall W, Lynskey M. 2003 Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis. Drug Alcohol Dep; 71(1): 37–48
Degenhardt L, Hall W. 2001 The association between psychosis and problematic drug use among Australian adults: findings from the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Psychol Med 31: 659–668
Degenhardt L, Hall W. 2002 Cannabis and psychosis. Curr Psychiatry Rep 4(3): 191–196
Dell S, Robertson G. 1988 Sentenced to Hospital. [Maudsley Monograph No. 32]. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Dennett D. 1991 Consciousness Explained. Boston, MA: Little Brown
Department of Health (DoH). 1998 Partnership in Action. London: DoH Publications
Department of Health (DoH). 1999a National Service Frameworks for Mental Health. London: DoH Publications
Department of Health (DoH). 1999b National Strategy for Carers. London: DoH Publications
Department of Health (DoH). 2000 The NHS Plan: A Plan for Investment, A Plan for Reform. London: DoH Publications
Department of Health (DoH). 2004 The NHS Improvement Plan: Putting People at the Heart of Public Services. London: DoH Publications
Department of Health and Home Office. 1992 Review of Health and Social Services for Mentally Disordered Offenders and other Requiring Similar Services. (Reed Report). London: DoH/Home Office
Department of Health and Home Office. 1992 Review of Health and Social Services for Mentally Disordered Offenders and Others Requiring Similar Services, Final Summary Report. CM2088. London: HMSO
Department of Health and Home Office. 1992 Review of Health and Social Services for Mentally Disordered Offenders and Others Requiring Similar Services. The Reed Report. Final Summary Report. Cm 2088. London: HMSO
Department of Health and Home Office. 1994 Report of the Department of Health and Home Office Working Group on Psychopathic Disorder. London: Department of Health and Home Office
Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS). 1977 The National Health Service Act. London: HMSO
Department of Health and Social Security. 1974 Revised Report of the Working Party on Security in NHS Psychiatric Hospitals (Glancy Report). London: HMSO
Department of Health and Social Security. 1980 Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Rampton Hospital. Cmnd 8073. London: HMSO
Department of Health and Social Security. 1981 Care in the Community: a consultative document on moving resources for care in England. London: DHSS
Department of Health and Social Security. 1988 Report of the committee of inquiry into the care and after-care of Miss Sharon Campbell. London: DHSS (Cm 440)
Department of Health and Social Services. 1974 Revised Report for the Working Party on Security in NHS Psychiatric Hospitals (Glancy Report). London: DHSS
Department of Health and the Welsh Office. 1983 Mental Health Act 1983. London: HMSO
Department of Health and Welsh Office. 1993 Code of Practice – Mental Health Act 1983. London: HMSO
Department of Health and Welsh Office. 1999 Mental Health Act Code of Practice. London: The Stationery Office
Department of Health. 1975 Better Services for the Mentally Ill. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1983 Mental Health Act 1983. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1983 Mental Health Act 1983: Code of Practice. London: Department of Health and Welsh Office
Department of Health. 1990 NHS and Community Care Act. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1992 Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Complaints about Ashworth Hospital. Cm-2028–1 and 2. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1992 The Health of the Nation. Strategy for Health in England. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1995 Building Bridges – A Guide to Arrangements for Interagency Working for the Care and Protection of Severely Mentally Ill People. London: HMSO, p. 88
Department of Health. 1995 Mental Health in England. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 1995. Buiding Bridges: A Guide to Arrangements for Inter-Agency Working for the Care and Protection of Severely Mentally Ill People. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1997 The New NHS: Modern, Dependable. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1998 A First Class Service: Quality in the New NHS. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1999 Mental Health Act 1983: Code of Practice. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 1999 National Service Framework for Mental Health. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 1999 National Service Framework for Mental Health. London: The Stationery Office
Department of Health. 1999 National Service Framework for Mental Health. Modern Standards and Service Model. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 1999 National Service Framework for Mental Health: Modern Standards and Service Models. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1999a Effective care co-ordination in mental health services: modernising the care programme approach – a policy booklet. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1999a National Service Frameworks. Mental Health. Modern Standards and Service models. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 1999a NHS National Service Framework for Mental Health. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1999a Practice Guidance: Safe and Supportive Observation of Patients at Risk; Mental Health Nursing, “Addressing Acute Concerns” (June 1999)
Department of Health. 1999b Code of Practice to the Mental Health Act 1983 (revised 1999). London: The Stationery Office
Department of Health. 1999b Effective Care Co-ordination in Mental Health Services: Modernising the Care Programme Approach – A Policy Booklet. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1999b National Service Framework for Mental Health: Modern Standards and Service Models. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1999b National Service Framework: Mental Health. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 1999c Managing Dangerous People with Severe Personality Disorder. Proposals for Policy Development. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1999c Mental Health Act 1983: Code of Practice. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 1999c Safety, Privacy and Dignity in Mental Health Units. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2000 National Service Framework: Mental Health. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2000 The NHS Plan – A Plan for Investment. A Plan for Reform. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2001 Changing the Outlook. A Strategy for Developing and Modernising Mental Health Services in Prisons. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2001 Health and Social Care Act. London: The Stationery Office
Department of Health. 2001 Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2002 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide. National Minimum Standards for General Adult Services in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) and Low Secure Environments. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2002 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide. National Minimum Standards for General Adult Services in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) and Low Secure Environments. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2002 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide. National Minimum Standards for General Adult Services in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) and Low Secure Environments. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2002 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Adult Acute Inpatient Care Provision. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2002 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: National Minimum Standards for General Adult Services in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units and Low Secure Environments. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2002 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: National Minimum Standards in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) and Low Secure Environments. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2002 National Minimum Standards for General Adult Services in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) and Low Secure Environments. In: Pereira S, Clinton C (eds) Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide. London: Department of Health Publications
Department of Health. 2002 National Minimum Standards for General Adult Services in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) and Low Secure Environments. London: Department of Health Publications
Department of Health. 2002 The National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. London: Department of Health Publications
Department of Health. 2002 Women's Mental Health: Into the Mainstream. Strategic Development of Mental Health Care for Women. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2002a Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Adult Acute Inpatient Care Provision. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2002a Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Adult Acute Inpatient Care Provision. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2002a National Minimum Standards for General Adult Services in Psychiatric Care Units (PICU) and Low Secure Environments. London: Department of Health Publications
Department of Health. 2002a National Minimum Standards for General Adult Services in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) and Low Secure Environments. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2002b Adult Acute In-Patient Care Provision. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2002b National Minimum Standards for Psychiatric Intensive Care Units and Low Secure Units. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2002b Social Circumstances Report by Social Workers for Mental Health Review Tribunals. London: Department of Health Publications. Available online at http://www.dh.gov.uk
Department of Health. 2002b Womens Mental Health: Into the Mainstream. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2002c National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2003 NHS Confidentiality Code of Practice. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2004 National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services: Executive Summary. London: The Stationary Office
Department of Health. 2004 Standard 9. The Mental Health and Psychological Wellbeing of Children and Young People. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2004 Treated as People: An Overview of Mental Health Services from a Social Care Perspective 2002–2004. London: Department of Health Publications. Available online at http://www.dh.gov.uk
Department of Health. 2004a Developing Positive Practice to Support the Safe and Therapeutic Management of Aggression and Violence in Mental Health In-Patient Settings. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2004b At Least Five a Week: Evidence on the Impact of Physical Activity and it's Relationship to Health. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2004c Choosing Health: Making Healthier Choices Easier. London: HMSO
Department of Health. 2005 Survey of Physical Environments in PICU and LSUs in England and Wales. London: Department of Health
Department of Health. 2006 Report on the Implementation of Standard 9 of the National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services. London: Department of Health
Devanand DP, Dwork AJ, Hutchinson ER, Bolwig TG, Sackeim HA. 1994 Does electroconvulsive therapy alter brain structure? Am J Psychiatry 151: 957–970
Devinsky O, Honigfield G, Patin J. 1991 Clozapin-related seizures. Neurology 41: 369–371
Dewar S. 1999 Clinical Governance Under Construction. London: Kings Fund
Diefendorf R. 1915 Dementia Praecox. In: Clinical Psychiatry: A Text-book for Students and Physicians. Abstracted and adapted from the 7th German edition of Kraepelin's “Lehrbuch der psychiatrie” by A. Ross Diefendorf. London: The Macmillan Company, pp. 229–230
Dix R, Meiklejohn C. 2003 Observation and technology: questions and answers. Nat Assoc Psychiatr Intensive Care Units Bull 3: 39–49
Dix R, Pereira SM, Chaudhry K et al. 2005 PICU/LSU environment assessment inventory. J Psychiatr Intensive Care 1: 65–69
Dix R, Williams K. 1996 Psychiatric Intensive Care Units, a design for living. Psychiatr Bull 20: 527–529
Dix R, Williams K. 1996 Psychiatric Intensive Care Units: a design for living. Psychiatr Bull 20: 527–529
Dix R. 1995 A nurse led psychiatric intensive care unit. Psychiatr Bull May: 285–287
Dix R. 1995 A nurse led psychiatric intensive care unit. Psychiatr. Bull 19: 285–287
Dix R. 1996 An investigation into patients presenting a challenge to Gloucestershire's Mental Health Care Services. Gloucester: Gloucestershire Health Authority
Dix R. 2001 The physical environment. In: Beer MD, Pereira SM, Paton C (eds) Psychiatric Intensive Care. London. Greenwhich Medical Publications
Dix R. 2002 Observation and technology: logical progression or ethical nightmare. Nat Assoc Psychiatr Intensive Care Units Bull 2 (4): 22–29
Dix R. 2004 Advances in the management of acute schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: impact of the new rapid-acting atypical intramuscular formulations of treatment choice. Therapeutic Focus, 5–10
Dixon L, Weiden P, Delahanty J, Goldberg R, Postrado L, Lucksted A, Lehman A. 2000 Prevalence and correlates of diabetes in national schizophrenia samples. Schizophr Bull 26:903–12
Docker-Drysdale B. 1991 The Provision of Primary Experience: Winnicottian Work with Children and Adolescents. New Jersey: Jason Aronson
Doctor R. 2004 Psychodynamic lessons in risk assessment and management. Adv Psychiatr Treat (2004) 10: 267–276
Dolan M, Doyle M. 2000 Violence risk prediction: clinical and actuarial measures and the role of the Psychopathy Checklist. Br J Psychiatry 177: 303–311
Dolan M, Lawson A. 2001 A psychiatric intensive care unit in a medium security unit. J. Forensic Psychiatry 12(3): 684–693
Dolan M, Snowden P. 1994 Escapes from a medium secure unit. J Forensic Psychiatry 5 (2): 275–286
Dombrovski A, Rosenstock J. 2004 Bridging general medicine and psychiatry: providing general medical and preventative care for the severely mentally ill. Curr Opin Psychiatry 17(6): 523–524
Dombrovski A, Rosenstock J. 2004 Bridging general medicine and psychiatry: providing general medical and preventive care for the severely mentally ill. Curr Opin Psychiatry 17:523–529
Donat D. 1998 Impact of a mandatory behavioural consultation on seclusion/restraint utilisation in a psychiatric hospital. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 29: 13–19
dosReis S, Barnett S, Love RC, Riddle MA, Maryland Youth Practice Committee. 2003 A guide for managing acute aggressive behavior of youths in residential and inpatient treatment facilities. Psychiatric Serv 54(10): 1357–1363
Douglas KG, Guy LS, Weir J. 2006 HCR-20 Violence Risk Assessment Scheme: overview and annotated bibliography. Burnaby, British Columbia: Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University
Douglas KS, Guy LS, Weir J. 2006 HCR-20 Violence risk assessment scheme: overview and annotated bibliography. Burnaby, British Columbia: Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University
Dratcu L, Grandison A, Adkin A. 2003 Acute hospital care in inner London: splitting from mental health services in the community. Psychiatr Bull 27: 83–86
Drew J, Rugg S. 2001 Acivity use in occupational therapy. Br J Occup Ther 64(10): 478–486
Drinkwater J, Gudjonsson G. 1989 The nature of violence in psychiatric hospitals. In: Howells K, Hollin C (eds) Clinical Approaches to Violence. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, pp. 287–307
Drinkwater J, Gudjonsson G. 1989 The nature of violence in psychiatric hospitals. In: Howells K, Hollin C (eds) Clinical Approaches To Violence. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 287–305
Drinkwater J, Gudjonsson GH. 1989 The nature of violence in psychiatric hosptials. In: Howell K, Hollin CR (eds) Clinical Approaches to Violence. New York: John Wiley and Sons
Dubin WR, Weiss KJ. 1986 Rapid tranquillization: a comparison of thiothixene with loxapine. J Clin Psychiatry 47(6): 294–297
Dubin WR. 1988 Rapid tranquillization: antipsychotics or benzodiazepines? J Clin Psychiatry Suppl 49: 5–12
Duffy D. 1995 Out of the shadows: a study of the special observation of suicidal psychiatric in-patients. J Adv Nurs 21(5): 944–950
Dunn S. 1999 Creating Accepting Communities. London: MIND Publications
Dunn V, Goodyer IM. 2006 Longitudinal investigation into childhood and adolescence-onset depression: psychiatric outcome in early adulthood. Br J Psychiatry 188: 216–222
Dunner DL, Fieve RR. 1974 Clinical factors in lithium carbonate prophylaxis failure. Arch Gen Psychiatry 30: 229–233
Dwyer DS, Bradley RJ, Kablinger AS, Freeman AM. 2001 Glucose metabolism in relation to schizophrenia and antipsychotic drug treatment. Ann Clin Psychiatry 13: 103–113
Dye S, Johnston A, Pereira S. 2005 The national psychiatric intensive care governance network 2004–2005. J Psychiatr Intensive Care 1(2): 97–104
Dye S, Johnston A. 2005 After the standards … a gaping cavity filled by clinical governance? J Psychiatr Intensive Care 1(1): 3–5
Dyer C. 1996. Violence may be predicted among psychiatric patients. Br Med J 313: 318
Eastman NLG, Bellamy S. 1998 Admission criteria to secure services and service definitions. Unpublished
Eastman NLG. 1993 Forensic psychiatric services in Britain. Int J Law Psychiatry 16: 1–26
Edwards J, Steed P, Murray K. 2002 Clinical and forensic outcome 2 years and 5 years after admission to a medium secure unit. J Forensic Psychiatry 13(1): 68–87
Edwards S. 2002 Physical exercise and psychological wellness. Int J Mental Health Promot 4(2): 40–46
Einfeld SL. 2001 Systematic management approach to pharmacotherapy for people with learning disabilities. Adv Psychiatr Treat 7: 43--49
Eklund M, Erlandsson LK, Persson D. 2003 Occupational value among individuals with long-term mental illness. Can J Occup Ther 70(5): 276–284
El-Guebaly N, Cathcart J, Currie S, Brown D, Gloster S. 2002 Smoking cessation approaches for persons with mental illness or addictive disorders. Psychiatr Serv 53(9): 1166–1170
Elbogen EB, Swanson JW, Swartz MS, Van Dorn R. 2005 Medication nonadherence and substance abuse in psychotic disorders: impact of depressive symptoms and social stability. J Nerv Mental Disord 193(10): 673–679
Ellison J, Hughes D, White K. 1989 An emergency psychiatry update. Hosp Community Psychiatry 40(3): 250–260
Emerson C. 1995 In: Challenging behaviour. Analysis and intervention in people with learning difficulties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Emerson E. 1995 Challenging Behaviour: Analysis and Intervention in People with Learning Disabilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Emerson E. 1998 People with challenging behaviour. In: Emerson E, Hatton C, Bromley J, Caine A (eds.) Clinical Psychology and People with Intellectual Disabilities. Chichester: Wiley
Emrich HM, Dose M, von Serssen D. 1985 The use of sodium valproate and oxycarbamazepine in patients with affective disorders. J Affect Disord 8: 243–250
Esbensen AJ, Benson BA. 2003 Integrating behavioural, psychological and pharmacological treatment: a case study of an individual with borderline personality disorder and mental retardation. Mental Health Aspects Dev Disabil 6: 107–113
Esterberg ML, Compton MT. 2005 Smoking behaviour in persons with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: a qualitative investigation of the transtheoretical model. Soc Sci Med 61(2): 293–303
Etter M, Etter JF. 2004 Alcohol consumption and the CAGE test in outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in the general population. Schizophr Bull 30(4): 947–956
Evans M, Morgan HG, Hayward A, Gunnell, DJ. 1999 Crisis telephone consultation for deliberate self-harm patients: effects on repetition. Br J Psychiatry 175: 23–27
Evins AE, Cather C, Rigotti NA et al. 2004 Two-year follow-up of a smoking cessation trial in patients with schizophrenia: increased rates of smoking cessation and reduction. J Clini Psychiatry 65(3): 307–403
Fadden G, Bebbington P, Kuipers L. 1987 The burden of care: the impact of functional psychiatric illness on the patient's family. Br J Psychiatry 150: 285–292
Faddon G, Bebbington P, Kuipers L. 1987 The burden of care: the impact of functional psychiatric illness on the patient's family. Br J Psychiatry 150: 285–292
Faedda GL, Baldessarini RJ, Tohen M, Strakowski SM, Waternaux C. 1991 Episode sequence in bipolar disorder and response to lithium treatment Am J Psychiatry 148: 1237–1239
Fallon P, Bluglass R, Edwards B, Daniels D. 1999 The Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Personality Disorders Unit, Ashworth Special Hospital. Cmnd 4194. London: Stationery Office
Farrell C. 2004 Patient and Public Involvement: The Evidence for Policy Implementation. London: DoH Publications
Farrell G, Gray C. 1992 Aggression: A Nurse's Guide to Therapeutic Management. London: Scutari Press
Farrell M, Boys A, Bebbington P et al. 2002 Psychosis and drug dependence: results form a national survey of prisoners. Br J Psychiatry 181: 393–398
Faulk M, Taylor J. 1984 The Wessex interim secure unit. Issues Crimin Legal Psychol 6: 47–57
Faulk M. 1995 Basic Forensic Psychiatry, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell
Faulkner G, Biddle S. 2001 Exercise and mental health: it's not just psychology! J Sports Sci 19: 433–444
Faulkner G, Soundy AA, Lloyd K. 2003 Schizophrenia and weight management: a systematic review of interventions to control weight. Acta Psychiatr Scand 108(5): 324–332
Faulkner G, Sparkes A. 1999 Exercise as therapy for schizophrenia: an ethnographic study. J Sport Exerc Psychol 21: 52–69
FDA Patient Safety News; Show 28, June 2004. Warning about hyperglycemia and atypical antipsychotic drugs. URL address http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/psn/printer.cfm?id_229
Feeney A. 2003. Dangerous severe personality disorder. Adv Psychiatr 9: 349–358
Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Lynskey MT. 1996b Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: II. Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35(10): 1365–1374
Fergusson DM, Lynskey MT, Horwood LJ. 1996a Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: I. Prevalence of sexual abuse and factors associated with sexual abuse. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35(10): 1355–1364
Fichter MM, Koniarczyk M, Greifenhagen A et al. 1996 Mental illness in a representative sample of homeless men in Munich, Germany. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 246: 185–196
Fieve RR, Kumbaraci T, Dunner DL. 1976 Lithium prophylaxis of depression in bipolar I, bipolar II, and unipolar patients. Am J Psychiatry 133: 925–930
Fink M. 1990 How does ECT work? Neuropsychopharmacology 3: 77–82
Fink M. 1994 Indications for the use of ECT. Psychopharm Bull 30(3): 269–280
Fitzgerald M, Corvin A. 2001 Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Adv Psychiatr Treat 7: 310–318
Fitzgerald P. 1999 Long-acting antipsychotic medication, restraint and treatment in the management of acute psychosis. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 33: 660–666
Fitzpatrick NK, Thompson CJ, Hemingway H et al. 2003 Acute in-patient admissions in inner London: changes in patient characteristics and clinical admission thresholds between 1988 and 1998. Psychiatr Bull 27: 7–11
Flett GL, Hewitt PL. eds. 1994 Perfectionism: Theory, Research and Treatment. Washington DC: American Psychological Association
Floyd AG, Boutros NN, Struve FA, Wolf E, Oliwa GM. 2006 Risk factors for experiencing psychosis during cocaine use: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 40(2): 178–182
Flynn A, Matthews H, Hollins S. 2002 Validity of the diagnosis of personality disorder in adults with learning disability and severe behavioural problems. Br J Psychiatry 180: 543–546
Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. 1975 ‘Mini-Mental State’: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the Clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12: 189
Fonagy P, Gergely G, Jurist E, Target M. 2004 Affect regulation, mentalisation and the development of the self. London: Karnac
Fonagy P, Target M, Cottrell D, Phillips J, Kurtz Z. 2002 What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Treatments for Children and Adolescents. New York: Guilford Press
Fonagy P, Target M, Steele M, Steele H. 1997 The development of violence and crime as it relates to security of attachment. In: Osofsky JD (ed) Children in a Violent Society. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 150–177
Fontaine KR, Heo M, Harrigan EP et al. 2001 Estimating the consequences of anti-psychotic induced weight gain on health and mortality rate. Psychiatry Res 101(3): 277–288
Ford I, Whiffin M. 1991 The role of the psychiatric ICU. Nurs Times 87(51): 47–49
Ford I, Whiffin M. 1991 The role of the psychiatric ICU. Nursing Times 87(51): 47–49
Ford K, Farrington A. 1999 Risk assessment. Assessing dangerousness in regional secure units – decision making in the multidisciplinary team. Ment Health Care 2(6): 201–204
Forster PL, Cavness C, Phelps MA. 1999 Staff training decreases use of seclusion and restraint in an acute psychiatric hospital. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 13 (5): 269–271
Foster M. 2002 Theoretical frameworks. In: Turner A, Foster M, Johnson S (eds) Occupational Therapy and Physical Dysfunction: Principle Skills and Practice, 5th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone
Fottrell E. 1980 A study of violent behaviour amongst patients in psychiatric hospitals. Br J Psychiatry 136: 216–221
Fowler NO, McCall D, Chuan T. 1976 Electrocardiographic changes and cardiac arrhythmias in patients receiving psychotropic drugs. Am J Cardiol 37: 223–230
Fox KR. 2000 Physical activity and mental health promotion: the natural partnership. Int J Mental Health Promot 2(1): 4–12
Freeman CPL, Basson JV, Creighton A. 1978 Double-blind controlled trial of electroconvulsive ttherapy (ECT) and simulated ECT in depressive illness. Lancet i: 738–740
Freeman TW, Clothier JL, Passaglia P, Lesem MD. 1992 A double blind comparison of VPA and LI in the treatment of acute mania. Am J Psychiatry 149: 108–111
Freinhar JP, Alvarez WH. 1985 Use of clonazepam in two cases of acute mania. J Clin Psychiatry 46(1): 29–30
Fried BJ. 1989 Power acquisition in a health care setting – an application of strategic contingency theory. Hum Relat 41: 915–927
Frilis S. 1986 Characteristics of a good ward atmosphere. Acta Psychiatr Scand 74: 469–473
Frude N. 1989 The physical abuse of children. In: Howells K, Hollin C (eds) Clinical Approaches to Violence. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 155–181
Fryers T. 1997 Impairment, disability and handicap: categories and classifications. In: Russell O (ed) Seminars in the Psychiatry of Learning Disabilities. London: Gaskell, pp. 16–30
Fuller J, Cowan J. 1999 Risk assessment in a multidisciplinary forensic setting: clinical judgement revisited. J Forensic Psychiatry 10: 276–289
Gabbard GO. 1994 Psychodynamic Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press
Galvin SW, McCarthy S. 1994 Multi-disciplinary community teams: clinging to the wreckage. J Ment Health 3: 157–166
Gentilini L. 2005 The importance of advocacy. Nat Assoc Psychiatr Intensive Care Units Bull 4 (1): 12
Gentle J. 1996 Mental health intensive care units: the nurses experience and perceptions of a new unit. J Adv Nurs 24: 1194–1200
Geoff DG, Brotman AW, Waites M, McCormick S. 1990 Trial of fluoxetine added to neuroleptics for treatment resistant schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 147: 492–494
George C, Kaplan N, Main M. 1996 Adult Attachment Interview, 3rd edn. Unpublished Manuscript. University of California, Berkeley: Department of Psychology
George TP, Ziedonis DM, Feingold A et al. 2000 Nicotine transdermal patch and atypical antipsychotic medications for smoking cessation in patients with schizophrena. Am J Psychiatry 157(11): 1835–1842
Gerlock A, Solomons H. 1983 Factors associated with the seclusion of psychiatric patients. Perspect Psychiatr Care 21(2): 46–53
Gianfresco FD, Grogg AL, Mahmoud RA, Wang RH, Nasrallah HA. 2002 Differential effects of risperidone, olanzapin, clozapine, and conventional antipsychotics on type 2 diabetes: findings from a large health plan database. J Clin Psychiatry 63:920–930
Gibb CE, Morrow M, Clarke CL, Cook G, Gerting P, Ramprogus V. 2002 Transdisciplinary working: evaluating the development of health and social care provision in mental health. J Ment Health 11(3): 339–350
Giese AA, Thomas MR, Dubovsky SL, Hilty S. 1998 The impact of a history of childhood abuse on hospital outcome of affective episodes. Psychiatr Serv 49(1): 77–81
Gilles M, Wilke A, Kopf D, Nonell A, Lehnert H, Deuschle M. 2005 Antagonism of the serotonin (5-HT)-2 receptor and insulin sensitivity: implications for atypical antipsychotics. Psychosom Med 67:748–751
Glasser M. 1979 Some aspects of the role of aggression in the peversions. In: Rosen I (ed) Sexual Deviation. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Glassman AH, Bigger JT Jr. 2001 Antipsychotic drugs: prolonged QTc interval, torsades de pointes and sudden death. Am J Psychiatry 158: 1774–1782
Goldberg FG, Singer TM, Garno JL. 2001 Suicidality and substance abuse in affective disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 62 [Suppl. 25]
Goldberg RJ, Dubin WR, Fogel BS. 1989 Review. Behavioural emergencies, assessment of psychopharmacologic management. Clin Neuropharmacol 12(4): 233–248
Goldman LS. 1999 Medical illness in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 60: 10–15
Goldney R et al. 1985 The psychiatric intensive care unit. Br J Psychiatry 146: 50–54
Goldney R, Bowes J, Spence N, Czechowicz A, Hurley R. 1985 The Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit. Br J Psychiatry 146: 50–54
Goldney RD, Spence ND, Bowes JA. 1986 The safe use of high-dose neuroleptics in a psychiatric intensive care unit. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 20: 370–375
Goldstein MJ. 1999 Psychological Approaches to Management of Violence. Paper delivered at King George Hospital, Goodmayes, Essex
Goodman R, Scott S. 1997 Child Psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Science
Goodnick PJ, Jerry JM. 2002 Aripiprazole: profile on efficacy and safety. Expert Opin Pharmacother 3(12): 1773–1781
Goodwin FK, Jamison KR. 1990 Manic-depressive illness. New York: Oxford University Press
Goodyer IM, Cooper PJ. 1993 A community study of depression in adolescent girls. II: the clinical features of identified disorder. Br J Psychiatry 163: 374–380
Goodyer IM, Herbert J, Tamplin A. 2003 Psychoendocrine antecedents of persistent first-episode major depression in adolescents: a community-based longitudinal enquiry. Psychol Med 33: 601–610
Gordon H, Haider D. 2004 The use of ‘drug dogs’ in psychiatry. Psychiatr Bull 28(6): 196–198
Gordon H, Hammond S, Veeramani R. 1998 Special care units in Special Hospitals. J. Forensic Psychiatry 9(3): 571–587
Gordon H, Hindley N, Marsden A, Shirayogi M. 1999 The use of mechanical restraint in the management of psychiatric patients: is it ever appropriate? J Forensic Psychiatry 10(1): 173–186
Gordon H. 1999 International perspectives on relationships and sexuality in secure institutions. In: Taylor PJ, Swan T (ed) Couples in Care and Custody. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 188–199
Gordon H. 2002 Suicide in secure psychiatric facilities. Adv Psychiatr Treat 8: 408–417
Gournay K, Ward M, Thornicroft G, Wright S. 1998 Crisis in the capital: inpatient care in inner London. Mental Health Practice 1: 10–18
Graham P, Turk J, Verhulst FC. 1999 Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders: pervasive developmental disorders. In: Child Psychiatry: A Developmental Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 120–131
Grassi L. 1996 Risk of HIV infection in psychiatrically ill patients. AIDS Care 8(1): 103–116
Green A. 1986 On Private Madness. London: Karnac
Green AI, Burgess ES, Dawson R, Zimmet SV, Strous RD. 2003 Alcohol and cannabis use in schizophrenia: effects of clozapine vs. risperidone. Schizophr Rese. 60: 81–85
Green AI, Tohen MF, Hamer RM et al. 2004 First episode schizophrenia-related psychosis and substance use disorders: acute response to olanzapine and haloperidol. Schizophr Res 1;66(2–3): 125–135
Green B, Young R, Kavanagh D. 2005 Cannabis use and misuse prevalence among people with psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 187: 306–313
Green J, Grindel C. 1996 Supervision of suicidal patients in adult inpatient psychiatric units in general hospitals. Psychiatr Serv 47 (8): 859–863
Greening J. 2005 Physical health of patients in rehabilitation and recovery: a survey of case note records. Psychiatr Bull 29: 210–212
Gregory S, Shawcross CR, Gill D. 1985 The Nottingham ECT study: a double blind comparison of bilateral, unilateral, and simulated ECT in depressive illness. Br J Psychiatry 146: 520–524
Griffiths L. 2001 Does seclusion have a role to play in modern mental health nursing? Br J Nurs 10(10): 656–661
Grounds A, Gunn J, Mullen P, Taylor P. 1993a Secure institutions: their characteristics and problems. In: Gunn J, Taylor PJ (eds) Forensic Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Issues. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Grounds A, Melzer D, Fryers T, Brugha T. 2004 What determines access to medium secure psychiatric provision? J Forensic Psychiatry Psychol 15: 1–6
Grounds A, Snowden P, Taylor P, Basson J, Gunn J. 1993b Forensic psychiatry in the National Health Service of England and Wales. In: Gunn J, Taylor PJ (eds) Forensic Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Issues. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Gudjonsson GH, Clare I. 1986 Suggestibility in police interrogation: a social psychology model. Soc Behav 1: 83–104
Gunn J, Maden A, Swinton M. 1991 Treatment needs of prisoners with psychiatric disorders. Br Med J 300: 338–341
Gunn J, Taylor PJ. 1993 Forensic Psychiatry Clinical Legal and Ethical Issues. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 624–640, 716
Gutheil TG. 1985 Rogers v. Commissioner. Denouement of an important right-to-refuse-treatment case. Am J Psychiatry 142(2): 213–216
Haddad PM, Anderson IM. 2002 Antipsychotic-related QTc prolongation, torsade de pointes and sudden death. Drugs 62:1649–1671
Haddock A, Snowden P, Dolan M, Parker J, Rees H. 2001 Managing dangerous people with severe personality disorder: a survey of forensic psychaitrists' opinions. Psychiatr Bull 25: 293–296
Haddock G, Barrowclough C, Tarrier N et al. 2003 Cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational intervention for schizophrenia and substance misuse: 18 month outcomes of a randomised control trial. Br J Psychiatry 183: 418–426
Hagedorn R. 2001 Foundations for Practice in Occupational Therapy, 3rd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone
Haigh R. 2002 Acute wards: problems and solutions. Modern milieux, therapeutic community solutions to acute ward problems. Psychiatr Bull 26: 380–382
Hakola HP, Laulumaa VA. 1982 Carbamazepine in treatment of violent schizophrenics [Letter]. Lancet ii: 1358
Hall RC, Gardner ER, Popkin MK et al. 1981 Unrecognized physical illness prompting psychiatric admission: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry 138: 629–635
Hallé P, Fiset S, Hodgins S et al. 1995 Profil Neuropsychologique de Personnes Atteintes de Schizophrénie Avec ou Sans Trouble d'Abus, de Drogues ou d'Alcool.” Poster presented at Société Québécoise de la Recherche en Psychologie, Ottawa, Canada, 1995
Hamil K. 1987 Seclusion: inside looking out. Nurs Times 83 (5): 174–179
Hammill K. 1987 Seclusion: inside looking out. Nurs Times, 4 February, pp. 38–39
Hamolia C. 1985 Managing aggressive behaviour. In: Stuart G, Sundeen S (eds) Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing, 5th edn. St Louis, Mo.: Mosby, pp. 719–741
Hansen RA, Atchison B (eds). 2000 Conditions in Occupational Therapy, Effect on Occupational Performance, 2nd edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
Happé F. 1999 Understanding assets and deficits in autism: why success is more interesting than failure. Psychologist 12: 540–547
Harding T. 1993 A comparative survey of medico-legal systems. In: Gunn J, Taylor PJ (eds) Forensic Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Issues. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Hare R. 2003 Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised, Version 2. Toronto, Ontario: Multi-Health Systems
Harrington M, Lelliott P, Paton C, Konsolaki M, Sensky T, Okocha C. 2002b Variation between services in polypharmacy and combined high dose of antipsychotic drugs prescribed for in-patients. Psychiatr Bull 26: 418–420
Harrington M, Lelliott P, Paton C, Okocha C, Duffett R, Sensky T. 2002a The results of a multi-centre audit of the prescribing of antipsychotic drugs for in-patients in the United Kingdom. Psychiatr Bull 26: 414–418
Harrington R, Dubicka B. 2001 Natural history of mood disorders in children and adolescents. In: Goodyer IM (ed) The Depressed Child and Adolescent. Cambridge Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 311–343
Harrington R. 1994 Affective disorders. In: Rutter M, Taylor E, Hersov L (eds) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches, 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Science, p. 330–350
Harrington R. 2001 Depression, suicide and deliberate self harm in adolescence. Br Med Bull 57: 47–60
Harrison G, Owens D, Holton A, Neilson D, Boot D. 1988 A prospective study of severe mental disorder in Afro-Caribbean patients. Psychol Med 18: 643–657
Harrison P. 1990 Multidisciplinary teams and how to survive them. Occasional paper for Community and Rehabilitation Section. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists
Harrison PA, Fulkerson JA, Beebe TJ. 1997 Multiple substance use among adolescent physical and sexual abuse victims. Child Abuse Negl 21(6): 529–539
Harriss L, Hawton K. 2005 Suicidal intent in deliberate self-harm and the risk of suicide: the predictive power of the Suicide Intent Scale. J Affect Disord 86: 225–233
Hasegawa M, Gutierrez-Esteinou R, Way L, Meltzer HY. 1993 Relationship between clinical efficacy and clozapine plasma concentrations in schizophrenia: effect of smoking. J Clin Psychopharmacol 13: 383–390
Hasin DS, Trautman KD, Miele GM. 1996 Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental disorders (PRISM): reliability for substance abusers. Am J Psychiatry 153: 1195–1201
Hastings RP, Remington B, Hopper GM. 1995 Experienced and inexperienced health care workers' beliefs about challenging behaviours. J Intellect Disabil Res 39(6): 474–483
Hawton K, Fagg J, Simkin S, Bale E, Bond A. 1997 Trends in deliberate self-harm in Oxford, 1985–1995. Br J Psychiatry 171: 556–560
Hawton K, Fagg J. 1988 Suicide, and other causes of death, following attempted suicide. Br J Psychiatry 152: 359–366
Hawton K, Houston K, Hae C, Townsend E, Harris L. 2003 Comorbidity of axis 1 and axis II disorders in patients who attempted suicide. Am J Psychiatry 160: 1494–1500
Hawton K, Rodham K. 2006 By their Own Young Hand, Deliberate Self Harm and Suicidal Ideas in Adolescents. London: Jessica Kinglsey
Hawton K, Townsend E, Arensman E et al. 2003 Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for deliberate self-harm (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2003. Oxford: Update Software
Hayes SG. 1989 Longterm use of VPA in primary psychiatric disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 50: 35–39
Health Advisory Service. 1986 Bridge over Troubled Waters: A Report on Services for Adolescents. London: HMSO
Health Advisory Service. 1995 A Handbook on Children and Adolescent Mental Health. London: HMSO
Health Advisory Service. 1996 Children and Young people: Substance Misuse Services: The Substance of Young Needs. London: HMSO
Hegarty JD et al. 1994 One hundred years of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of the outcome literature. Am J Psychiatry 151: 1409–1416
Heil SH, Badger G, Higgins ST. 2001 Alcohol dependence among cocaine-dependent outpatients: demographics, drug use, treatment outcome and other characteristics. J Stud Alcohol 62: 14–22
Heilbrun K, Peters L. 2000 The efficacy of community treatment programs. In: Hodgins S, Müller-Isberner R. (eds) Violence, Crime and Mentally Disordered Offenders: Concepts and Methods for Effective Treatment and Prevention. London UK: Wiley, pp. 187–210
Heisel MJ, Flett GL, Hewitt PL. 2003 Social hopelessness and college student suicide ideation. Arch Suicide Res 7(3): 221–235
Heisel MJ, Marnin J. 2004 Suicide ideation in the elderly. Psychiatr Times XⅪ (3)
Helseth V, Lykke-Enger T, Aamo TO, Johnsen J. 2005 Drug screening among patients aged 17–40 admitted with psychosis. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 4;125(9): 1178–1180
Henderson C, Flood C, Leese M, Thornicroft G, Sutherby K, Szmukler G. 2004 Effect of joint crisis plans on use of compulsory treatment in psychiatry: single blind randomised controlled trial. Br Med J 329:136–138
Henderson D. 1954 A Text Book of Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Henderson DC, Cagliero E, Gray C et al. 2000 clozpinel, diabetes mellitus, weight gain and lipid abnormalities: a five-year naturalistic study. Am J Psychiatry 157(6): 975–981
Henderson R, Pochin M. 2001 A Right Result? Advocacy, Justice and Empowerment. Bristol: The Policy Press
Hennessy S, Bilker WB, Knauss JS, et al. 2002 Cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients taking antipsychotic drugs: cohort study using administrative data. Br Med J 325(7372):1070–1074
Henquet C, Krabbendam L, Spauwen et al. 2005 Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis and psychotic symptoms in young people. Br Med J 330(7481): 11
Henriques GR, Brown GK, Berk MS, Beck AT. 2002 Marked increases in psychopathology found in a 30-year cohort comparison of suicide attempters. Psychol Med 34: 833–841
Henry JA, Oldfield WL, Kon OM. 2003 Comparing cannabis with tobacco. Br Med J 326: 942–943
Hewitt PL, Norton GR, Flett GL, Callander L, Cowan T. 1998 Dimensions of perfectionism, hopelessness, and attempted suicide in a sample of alcoholics. Suicide Life Threatening Behav 28: 395–406
Heyman E. 1987 Seclusion. J Psychosoc Nurs Mental Health Serv 25(11): 8–12
Hiday VA, Swartz MS, Swanson JW, Borum R, Wagner HR. 1999 Criminal victimisation of persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 50(1): 62–68
Higgins J. 1981 Four years experience of an interim secure unit. Br Med J 282: 889–893
Higgo R, Shetty G. 1991 Four years experience of a regional secure unit. J Forensic Psychiatry 2(2): 202–210
Hinshelwood RD. 1999 The difficult patient. Br J Psychiatry 174: 187–190
Hirsch SR, Barnes TRE. 1994 Clinical use of high-dose neuroleptics. Br J Psychiatry 164: 94–96
Hirsch SR, Link CGG, Goldstein JM. 1996 ICI204,636: a new atypical antipsychotic drug. Br J Psychiatry 168 [Suppl 29]: 45–56
Hirschowitz J, Casper R, Garver DL. 1980 Lithium response in good prognosis schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 137(8): 916–920
Hoar S. 1997 The A–Z of Judo. Bristol: Ippon Books
Hodges V, Sanford D, Elzinga R. 1986 The role of ward structure on nursing staffing behaviours: an observational study of three psychiatric wards. Acta Psychiatr Scand 73: 6–11
Hodgins S, and Müller-Isberner R. (eds) 2000 Violence, Crime and Mentally Disordered Offenders: Concepts and Methods for Effective Treatment and Prevention. London: Wiley
Hodgins S, Côté G, Toupin J. 1998 Major mental disorders and crime: an aetiologic hypothesis. In: Cooke D, Forth A, Hare RD (eds) Psychopathy: Theory, Research and Implications for Society Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, pp. 231–256
Hodgins S, Toupin J, Côté G. 1996 Schizophrenia and antisocial personaltiy disorder: a criminal combination. In: Schlesinger LB. (ed) Explorations in Criminal Psychopathology: Clinical Syndromes with Forensic Implications. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, pp. 217–237
Hodgkinson P, McIvor L, Phillips M. 1985 Patient assaults on staff in a psychiatric hospital. A two year retrospective study. Med Sci Law 28: 288–294
Hollin CR. 2001 The Essential Handbook of Offender Assessment and Treatment. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Hollis C. 2000 Adolescent Schizophrenia: Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists
Holmes J. 1993 Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy. Br J Psychiatry 163: 430–438
Home Office and Department of Health and Social Security. 1975 Report of the Committee on Mentally Abnormal Offenders (Butler Report). Cmnd 6244. London: HMSO
Home Office, Department of Health and Social Security. 1975 Committee on Mentally Abnormal Offenders (Butler Report). London: HMSO
Home Office. 2000 Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000. London: HMSO
Honig A, Hofman A, Hilwig M, Moorthoorn E. 1995 Psychoeducation and expressed emotion in bipolar disorder: preliminary findings. Psychiatry Res 56 (3): 299–301
Horner N. 2003 What is Social Work? Exeter: Learning Matters
Horwath E, Cournas F, McKinnon K, Guido JR, Herman R. 1996 Illicit-drug injection among psychiatric patients without a primary substance use disorder. Psychiatr Serv 47(2): 181–185
Hossack A, Wall G. 2005 Service users: undervalued and underused? Psychologist 18 (30): 134–136
Howe D. 1998 Psychosocial work. In: Adams R, Dominelli L, Payne M (eds) Social Work. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press
Hunter M, Love C. 1996 Total quality management and the reduction of inpatient violence and costs in a forensic psychiatric hospital. Psychiatr Serv 47 (7): 751–754
Hunter R, Macalpine I. 1963 Three hundred years of psychiatry 1535–1860: a history presented in selected English texts. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Hutchison M. 2000 Issues around empowerment. In: Basset T (ed) Looking to the Future: Key Issues for Contemporary Mental Health Services. Brighton: Pavillion Publishing/Mental Health Foundation
Huyse F, van Schijndel RS. 1988 Haloperidol and cardiac arrest. Lancet ⅱ: 568–569
Hyde CE, Harrower-Wilson C, Morris J. 1998 Violence, dissatisfaction and rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric intensive care. Psychiatr Bull 22: 477–480
Hyde CE, Harrower-Wilson C. 1994 Psychiatric intensive care: principles and problems. Hosp Update May: 287–295
Infantino J, Mustingo S. 1985 Assaults and injuries among staff with and without training in aggression control techniques. Hosp Community Psychiatry 36: 1312–1314
Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence. 1993 National Audit of Drug Misuse in Britain. London: Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence
Isaac M, Isaac M, Holloway F. 2005 Is cannabis an anti-antipsychotic? The experience in psychiatric intensive care. Hum Psychopharmacol 20(3): 207–210
Ital T, Keskiner A, Heinemann L. 1970 Treatment of resistant schizophrenics with extreme high dosage fluphenazine. Psychosomatics 11: 496–491
Jablensky A, McGrath J, Herrman H et al. 1999 People living with psychotic illness: an Australian study 1997–98. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, 1999. Available online at: http://www.health.gov.au/hsdd/mentalhe/resources/reports/pdf/psychot.pdf [accessed March 2003]
Jacobs D. 1983 Evaluation and management of the violent patient in emergency settings. Psychiatr Clin North Am 6(2): 259–269
James A. 1996 Suicide reduction in medium security. J Forensic Psychiatry 7(2): 406–412
James AJ, Smith J, Hoogkamer R, Laing J, Donovan M. 1996 Minimum and medium security: the interface: use of Section 17 trial leave. Psychiatr Bull 20: 201–204
James D. 1999 Court Diverson at ten years: can it work, does it work and has it a future? J Forensic Psychiatry, 10: 507–524
James DV, Fineberg NA, Shah AK, Priest RG. 1990 An increase in violence on an acute psychiatric ward: a study of associated factors. Br J Psychiatry 156: 846–852
James DV, Hamilton LW. 1991 Assessing efficacy and cost of a psychiatric liaison service to a magistrates' court. Br Med J 303: 282–285
James DV, Hamilton LW. 1991 The Clerkenwell scheme: assessing efficacy and cost of a psychiatric liaison service to a magistrates' court. Br Med J 303: 282–285
James W, Preston NJ, Koh G, Spencer C, Kisely SR, Castle DJ. 2004 A group intervention which assists patients with dual diagnosis reduce their drug use; a randomized controlled trial. Psychol Med. 34(6): 983–990
Jeammet P. 1999 Links between internal and external reality in devising a therapeutic setting for adolescents who present with serious conduct disorders. In: Amastasopoulous D, Laylou-Lignos E, Wadder M (eds) Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy of the Severely Disturbed Adolescent. London: Karnac
Jeffery DP, Ley A, McLaren S, Siegfried N. 2000 Psychosocial treatment programmes for people with both severe mental illness and substance misuse. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001088. DOI: 10. 1002/14651858. CD001088
Jenkins MG, Rocke LG, McNicholl BP, Hughes DM. 1998 Violence and verbal abuse against staff in accident and emergency departments: a survey of consultants in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. J Accid Emerg Med 15: 262–265
Jensen K. 1985 Comments on Dr Stanley M. Soliday's comparison of patient and staff attitudes towards seclusion. J Nervous Mental Dis 173(5): 290–291
Jeste DV, Galdsjo JA, Lindamer LA, Lacro JP. 1996 Medical co-morbidity in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 22(3): 413–430
Johns A. 2001 Psychiatric effects of cannabis. Br J Psychiatry 78: 116–122
Johnson JG, Rabkin JG, Lipsitz JD, Williams JB, Remien RH. 1999 Recurrent major depressive disorder among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative intravenous drug users: findings of a 3-year longitudinal study. Compr Psychiatry 40(1): 31–34
Johnston I, Crim M, Taylor PJ. 2003 Mental disorders and serious violence. J Clin Psychiatry 64: 819–824
Johnstone EC, Deakin JFW, Lawler P, Frith CD. 1980 The Northwick Park electroconvulsive therapy trial. Lancet ii: 1317–1320
Jones K. 1993 Asylums and After. A Revised History of the Mental Health Services: From the Early 18th Century to the 1900s. London: Athlone Press
Jones M, O'Beney C. 2004 Promoting mental health through physical activity: examples from practice. J Mental Health Promot 3(1): 39–48
Jones MK. 1985 Patient violence: report of 200 incidents. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 23(6): 12–17
Jones R. 1999 Mental Health Act Manual, 6th edn. London: Sweet and Maxwell
Jones R. 2004 Mental Health Act Manual, 9th edn. London: Sweet and Maxwell
Jones R. ed. 1996 Mental Health Act Manual, 5th edn. London: Sweet & Maxwell
Jones SE. 1995 Getting the balance right. Professional Nurse 368–373
Junginger J, McGuire L. 2004 Current research on serious mental illness and rates of violence. Schizophr Bull 30: 21–22
Jusic N, Lader M. 1994 Post-mortem antipsychotic drug concentrations and unexplained deaths. Br J Psychiatry 165: 787–791
Kallen B, Tandberg A. 1983 Lithium and pregnancy – a cohort study of manic-depressive women. Acta Psychiatr Scand 62: 134–139
Kalyoncu A, Mirsal H, Pektas O, Unsalan N, Tan D, Beyazyurek M. 2005 Use of lamotrigine to augment clozapine in patients with resistant schizophrenia and comorbid alcohol dependence: a potent anti-craving effect? J Psychopharmacol 19(3): 301–305
Kane J, Canas F, Kramer M et al. 2006 Treatment of schizophrenia with paliperidone extended-release tablets: A 6-week placebo-controlled trial. Schizophr Res 90: 147–161
Kane J, Honigfield G, Singer J, Meltzer HY. 1988 The clozaril collaboration study group. Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic: a double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45: 789–796
Kane JM, Marder SR. 1993 Psychopharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 19: 287–302
Kane JM. 1977 Treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 13(1): 133–156
Kane JM. 1992 Clinical efficacy of clozapine in treatment refractory schizophrenia: an overview. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 17: 41–45
Kane JM. 1996 Factors which can make patients difficult to treat. Br J Psychiatry 169 [Suppl. 31]: 10–14
Kanner L. 1943 Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child 2: 217--250
Kaplan HI, Sadock B, Grebb J. 1994 Synopsis of Psychiatry, 7th edn. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins
Kaplan S, Wheeler E, 1983 Survival skills for working with potentially violent clients. J Contemp Social Work 339–346
Kaplan, T et al. 2002. From a short life project to a mainstream service: convincing commissioners to fund a community adolescent mental health team. Child Adolesc Mental Health 7 (3): 114–120
Kapur N. 2000 Evaluating risk. Adv Psychiatr Treat 6: 399–406
Kapur S, Seeman P. 2001 Does fast dissociation from dopamine D2 receptor explain the action of atypical antipsychotics?: a new hypothesis. Am J Psychiatry 158: 360–369
Kapur S. Remington G. 2000 Atypical antipsychotics. Patients value the lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. Br Med J 321: 1360–1361
Karagianis JL, Dawe IC, Thakur A, Begin S, Raskin J, Roychowdhury SM. 2001 Rapid tranquillization with olanzapine in acute psychosis: a case series. J Clin Psychiatry 62(2): 12–16
Karliner W. 1994 Maintenance ECT. Convuls Ther 10: 238–242
Karson CN, Weinberger DR, Bigelow L, Wyatt RJ. 1982 Clonazepam treatment of chronic schizophrenia: negative results in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 139: 1627–1628
Katz P, Kirkland FR. 1990 Violence and social structure on mental hospital wards. Psychiatry 53: 262–277
Kaul A. 1994 Interim hospital order – a regional secure unit experience. Med Sci Law 34(3): 233–236
Kavanagh DJ, McGrath J, Saunders JB, Dore G, Clark D. 2002 Substance misuse in patients with schizophrenia, epidemiology and management. Drugs 65(5): 743–755
Kavanagh DJ, Waghorn G, Jenner L et al. 2004 Demographic and clinical correlates of comorbid substance use disorders in psychosis: multivariate analyses from an epidemiological sample. Schizophr Res 66(2–3): 115–124
Kelly S, McKenna H, Parahoo K, Dusoir A. 2001 The relationship between involvement in activities and quality of life for people with severe and enduring mental illness. J Psychiatr Mental Health Nurs 8: 139–146
Kemp P, Hayward P, David A. 1997 Compliance Therapy Manual. London: Institute of Psychiatry
Kemp R, Hayward P, Applewhaite G, Everitt A, David A. 1996 Compliance therapy in psychotic patients: randomised controlled trial. Br Med J 312: 345–349
Kennedy J, Harrison J, Hillis T, Bluglass R. 1995 Analysis of violent incidents in a regional secure unit. Med Sci Law 35 (3): 255–260
Kennedy J, Harrison J, Hills T, Bluglass R. 1995b Analysis of violent incidents on an RSU. Med Sci Law 35(3): 255–260
Kennedy J, Wilson C, Cope R. 1995a Long stay patients in a regional secure unit. J Forensic Psychiatry 6: 541–551
Kernberg OF. 1975 Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism. New Jersey: Jason Aronson
Kerr IB, Taylor D. 1997 Acute disturbed or violent behaviour: principles of treatment. J Psychopharmol 11(3): 271–277
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S et al. 1994 Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51: 8–19
Kessler RC. 1994 Lifetime and 12 month prevalence of DSMIIIR psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Co-morbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51: 8–20
Khan A, Cohen S, Chiles J, Stowell M, Hyde T, Robbins M. 1987 Therapeutic role of a psychiatric intensive care unit in acute psychosis. Compr Psychiatry 28: 3, 264–269
Kidd B, Stark C (eds). 1995 Management of Violence and Aggression in Health Care. London: Gaskell
Kielhofner G, Butler J (eds). 2002 A Model of Human Occupation: Theory and Application. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
Kielhofner G. 2002 The Model of Human Occupation. Theory and Application. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
King DJ, Burke M, Lucas RA. 1995 Antipsychotic drug-induced dysphoria. Br J Psychiatry 167: 480–482
King E. 1994 Suicide in the mentally ill: an epidemiological sample and implications for clinicians. Br J Psychiatry 165: 658–663
King EA, Baldwin KDS, Sinclair JMA, Campbell MJ. 2001 The Wessex Recent In-Patient Suicide Study, 2. Case-control study of 59 in-patient suicides. Br J Psychiatry 178: 537–542
King M, Coker E, Leavey G, Hoare A, Johnson-Sabine E. 1994 Incidence of psychotic illness in London: comparison of ethnic groups. Br Med J 309: 1115–1119
King M, Nazroo J, Weich S et al. 2005 Psychotic symptoms in the general population of England–a comparison of ethnic groups (The EMPIRIC study). Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 40(5):375–81
Kingdon D, Bakewell E. 1988 Aggressive behaviour: evaluation of a non-seclusion policy of a district service. Br J Psychiatry 153: 631–634
Kinsella C, Brosman C. 1993 An alternative to seclusion? Nurs Times 89 (18): 62–64
Kinsella C, Brosnan C. 1993 An alternative to seclusion? Nurs Times 89(18): 62–64
Kitson A. 1985 Education for quality. Senior Nurse 3(4): 11–16
Klein E, Bental E, Lerer B, Belmaker RH. 1984 Carbamazepine and haloperidol v placebo and haloperidol in excited psychoses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 165–170
Klinge A. 1994 Staff opinions about seclusion and restraint at a state forensic hospital. Hosp Community Psychiatry 45: 138–141
Koegel P, Burnam MA, Farr RK. 1988 The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among homeless individuals in the inner city of Los Angeles. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45: 1085–1092
Konikoff F, Kuritzky A, Jerushalmi Y, Theodor E. 1984 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by a single injection of haloperidol [letter]. Br Med J 289: 1228–1229
Koran LM, Sox HC, Marton KI et al. 1989 Medical evaluation of psychiatric patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46: 733–740
Koranyi EK. 1979 Morbidity and rate of undiagnosed physical illnesses in a psychiatric clinic population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 414–419
Kovasznay B, Fleischer J, Tanenberg-Karant M, Jandorf L, Miller AD, Bromet E. 1997 Substance use disorder and the early course of illness in schizophrenia and affective psychosis. Schizophr Bull 23(2): 195–201
Krakowski M, Czobor P, Chou JC. 1999 Course of violence in patients with schizophrenia: relationship to clinical symptoms. Schizophr Bull 25(3): 505–517
Krakowski M, Czobor P. 2004 Gender difference in violent behaviours: relationship to clinical symptoms and psychological factors. Am J Psychiatry 161: 459–465
Kramer M, Simpson G, Maciulis V et al. 2007 Paliperidone extended-release tablets for prevention of symptom recurrence in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 27(1): 6–14
Kramlinger KG, Post RM. 1989 Adding lithium carbonate to carbamazepine: antimanic efficacy in treatment-resistant mania. Acta Psychiatr Scand 79: 378–385
Kraus T, Haack M, Schuld A et al. 1999 Body weight and leptin plasma levels during treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Am J Psychiatry 156(2): 312–314
Krawiecka M, Goldberg D, Vaughan M. 1977 A standardised psychiatric assessment scale for rating chronic psychotic patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 55: 209–308
Krawiecka M, Goldberg D, Vaughan M. 1977 A standardised psychiatric assessment scale for rating chronic psychotic patients. Acta Psychol Scand 55: 299–308
Kuipers E, Bebbington P, Dunn G et al. 2006 Influence of carer expressed emotion and affect on relapse in non-affective psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 188: 173–179
Kukopulos A, Reginaldi D, Laddomada P, Floric G. 1980 Course of the manic depressive cycle and changes caused by treatment. Pharmacopsych 13: 156–167
Kumar A. 1997 Sudden unexplained death in a psychiatric patient – a case report: the role of the phenothiazines and physical restraint. Med Sci Law 37: 170–175
Lévéillée S. 1994 Evaluation multidimensionelle du reseau de support social de sujts schizophrenes. Thése de doctorat, Université de Montréal
Laidlaw J, Buckle D. 2006 Informal patients in secure wards; restriction of movement or deprivation of liberty? J Psychiatr Intensive Care 1(2): 61–63
Laidler P. 1994 Stroke Rehabilitation: Structure and Strategy. London: Chapman and Hall
Lam JA, Rosenheck R. 1998 The effect of victimisation on clinical outcomes of homeless persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 49(5): 678–683
Lambert TJR, Velakoulis, D, Pantellis C. 2003 Medical comorbidity in schizophrenia in schizophrenia. Med J Aust 178 [Suppl. 5]: S67–S70
Langee HR. 1990 Retrospective study of lithium use for institutionalised mentally retarded individuals with behaviour disorders. Am J Mental Retard 94(4): 448--452
Lanza M, Campbell R. 1991 Patient assault: a comparison of reporting measures. Qual Assur 5: 60–68
Lanza M, Campbell R. 1991 Patient assault: a comparison of reporting measures. Qual Assurance 5: 60–68
Lanza M. 1988 Factors relevant to patient assault. Issues Mental Health Nursing 9: 259–270
Lanza ML. 1988 Factors relevant to patient assault. Issues Mental Health Nurs 9: 239–257
Laposata A. 1988 Evaluation of sudden death in psychiatric patients with special reference to phenothiazine therapy: forensic pathology. J Forensic Sci 33: 432–440
Larkin E, Murtagh S, Jones S. 1988 A preliminary study of violent incidents in a Special Hospital (Rampton). Br J Psychiatry 153: 226–231
Laroche I, Hodgins S, Toupin J. 1995 Liens entre les symptômes et le fonctionnement social chez des personnes souffrant de schizophrénie ou de trouble affectif majeur. Can J Psychiatry 40: 27–34
Law M. 2002 Participation in the occupations of everyday life. Am J Occup Ther 56(6): 640–649
Lawlor D, Hopker SW. 2001 The effectiveness of exercise as an intervention in the management of depression: systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br Med J 322(7289): 763–767
Lawrence G. 1977 Management Development. Some ideals, images and realities In: Coleman AD, Geller MH (eds) Group Relations Reader No. 2. Washington, DC: Rice Institute
Le Poole S. 1987 Never Take No For An Answer: A Guide to Successful Negotiation. London: Kogan Page
Leadbetter D, Paterson B. 1995 De-escalating aggressive behaviour. In: Kidd B, Stark C (eds) Management of Violence and Aggression in Health Care. London: Gaskell, pp. 49–84
Lee S, Wright S, Sayer J, Parr AM, Gray R, Gournay K. 2001 Physical restraint for nurses in English and Welsh psychiatric intensive care and regional secure units. J Mental Health 10(2): 151–162
Leiper R. 2005 Mentalisation and beyond. Presented at Salomons continuing professional development training December 2005
Lelliott P, Paton C, Harrington M, Konsolaki M, Sensky T, Okocha, C. 2002 The influence of patient variables on polypharmacy and combined high dose of antipsychotic drugs prescribed for in-patients. Psychiatr Bull 26: 411–414
Lelliott P, Wing JK, Clifford P. 1994 A national audit of new long-stay psychiatric patients I: Method and description of the cohort. Br J Psychiatry 164: 160–169
Lelliott P, Wing JK. 1994 A national audit of new long stay psychiatric patients. II: Impact on services. Br J Psychiatry 165: 170–178
Lerner Y, Lwow E, Levitin A, Belmaker RH. 1979 Acute high-dose parenteral haloperidol treatment of psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 136: 1061–1064
Lesem MD, Zajecka JM, Swift RH, Reeves KR, Harrigan EP. 2001 Intramuscular ziprasidone, 2 mg versus 10 mg, in the short-term management of agitated psychotic patients. J Clin Psychiatry 62(1): 12–18
Levy P, Hartocollis P. 1976 Nursing aides and patient violence. Am J Psychiatry 133(4): 429–431
Lieberman JA, Kane JM. 1994 Predictors of response to clozapine. J Clin Psychiatry 55(9): 126–128
Lillywhite A, Morgan N, Walter E. 1995 Reducing the risk of violence to junior psychiatrists. Psychiatr Bull 19: 24–27
Lindenmayer JP, Czobor P, Volavka J et al. 2003 Changes in glucose and cholesterol levels in patients with schizophrenia treated with typical or atypical antipsychotics. Am J Psychiatry 160: 290–296
Lindstedt G, Nilsson LA, Walinder J, Skott A, Ohman R. 1977 On the prevalence, diagnosis and management of lithium induced hypothyroidism in psychiatric patients. Br J Psychiatry 130: 452–458
Lindstrom LH, Persson E. 1980 Propranolol in chronic schizophrenia controlled study in neuroleptic treated patients. Br J Psychiatry 137: 126–130
Linehan M. 1993 Cognitive Behavioural Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. New York: Guilford Press
Linehan MM, Goodstein JL, Nielsen SL et al. 1983 Reasons for staying alive when you are thinking of killing yourself: the reasons for living inventory. J Consult Clin Psychol 51: 276–286
Link B, Stueve C. 1994 Psychotic symptoms and the violent/illegal behaviour of mental patients compared to community controls. In: Monahan J, Steadman HJ (eds) Violence and Mental Disorder. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, pp. 137–159
Link BG, Stueve A. 1994 Psychotic symptoms and the violent/illegal behaviour of mental patients compared to community controls. In: Monahan J, Steadman HJ (eds) Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 137–160
Linszen D et al. 1994 Cannabis abuse and the course of schizophrenic disorder. Arc Gen Psychiatry 51: 273–279
Lion JR. 1977 Training for battle: thoughts on managing aggressive patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry 38(8): 875–882
Lipsedge M. 2000 Clinical risk management in psychiatry. In: Vincent C (ed) Clinical Risk Management, 2nd edn. London: BMJ Publishing
Little KY, Gay TL, Vore M. 1989 Predictors of response to high-dose antipsychotics in chronic schizophrenics. Psychiatr Res 30: 1–9
Littlewood R, Lipsedge M. 1988 Psychiatric illness among British Afro-Caribbeans. Br Med J 296: 950–951
Lloyd C. 1995 Forensic psychiatry for health professionals. Therapy in practice. London: Chapman and Hall
Lomax M. 1922 The Experiences of an Asylum Doctor. London: George Allen & Unwin
Loo H, Poirer-Littre MF, Theron M. 1997 Amisulpride versus placebo in the medium term treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 170: 18–22
Lowe T. 1992 Characteristics of effective nursing interventions in the management of challenging behaviour. J Adv Nurs 17: 1226–1230
Lucas J. 1996 Multidisciplinary care in the community for clients with mental health problems: guidelines for the future. In: Watkins M, Hervey N, Carson J, Ritter S (eds) Collaborative Community Mental Health Care. London: Arnold, pp. 351–370
Luchins DL. 1984 Carbamazepine in violent non-epileptic schizophrenics. Psychopharmacol Bull 20(3): 569–571
MacLeod AK, Tata P, Tyrer P, Schmidt U, Davidson K, Thompson S. 2005 Hopelessness and positive and negative future thinking in parasuicide. Br J Clin Psychol 44 (4): 495–504
Macpherson R, Anstee B, Dix R. 1996 Guidelines for the management of acutely disturbed patients. Adv Psychiatr Treat 2: 194–201
MacPherson R, Dix R, Morgan S. 2005 Revisiting guidelines for the management of acutely disturbed psychiatric patients. Adv Psychiatr Treat 11: 404–415
Macpherson R, Jerrom B, Hughes A. 1996 A controlled study of education about drug treatment in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 168: 709–717
Macpherson R, Jerrom B, Hughes A. 1996 A controlled study of education about drug treatment in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry168: 709–717
Maden A, Rutter S, McClintock T, Friendship C, Gunn J. 1999 Outcome of admission to a medium secure psychiatric unit. I. Short and long term outcome. Br J Psychiatry 175: 321–335
Maden A. 1996 Risk assessment in psychiatry. Br J Hosp Med 56: 78--82
Maden A. 2003 Standardised risk assessment: why all the fuss? [Editorial] Psychiatr Bull 27: 201–204
Maden T, Curle C, Meux C, Burrow S, Gunn J. 1995 Treatment and Security Needs of Special Hospital Patients. London: Whurr
Maier G. 1996 Managing threatening behaviour. The role of talk down and talk up. J Psychosoc Nursing 34 (6): 25–30
Maier GJ. 1996 The role of talk down and talk up in managing threatening behaviour. J Psychosoc Nurs Mental Health Serv 34(6): 25–30
Mak M, Koning PD. 1995 Clinical research in aggressive patients, pitfalls in study design and measurement of aggression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatr 19: 993–1017
Malone KM, Oquendo MA, Haas GL, Ellis SP, Li S, Mann JJ. 2000 Protective factors against suicidal acts in major depression: reasons for living. Am J Psychiatry 157: 1084–1088
Man PL, Chen CH. 1973 Rapid tranquillization of acutely psychotic patients with intramuscular haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Psychsomatics 14: 59–63
Mann JJ, Kapur S. 1994 Elucidation of the biochemical basis of the antidepressant action of electroconvulsive therapy by human studies. Psychopharmacol Bull 30(3): 445–453
Mann JJ, Waternaux C, Haas GL, Malone KM. 1999 Toward a clinical model of suicidal behaviour in psychiatric patients. Am J Psychiatry 156(2): 181–189
Mann S, Cree W. 1976 ‘New’ long stay psychiatric patients: a national sample survey of fifteen mental hospitals in England and Wales 1972/73. Psychol Med 6: 603–616
Mann S, Cree W. 1976 New long stay psychiatric patients: a national sample survey of fifteen mental hospitals in England and Wales 1972/1973. Psychol Med 6: 603–616
Mannion L, Sloan D, Connolly L. 1997 Rapid tranquillisation: are we getting it right? Psychiatr Bull 21(7): 411–413
March J, Silva S et al. 2006 The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): methods and message at 12 weeks. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45(12): 1393–1403
Marder SR, Essock SM, Miller AL et al. 2004 Physical health monitoring of patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 161:1334–1349
Marder SR, Meibach RC. 1994 Risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 15: 825–835
Margolese HC, Malchy L, Negrete JC, Tempier R, Gill K. 2004 Drug and alcohol use among patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses: levels and consequences. Schizophr Res 67(2–3): 157–166
Markowitz JS, Candace SB, Moore TR. 1999 Atypical antipsychotics: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy. Ann Pharmacother 33: 73–85
Marlatt GA, Gordon RG. 1985 Relapse Prevention. London: Guilford Press
Martin P. 1995 Nurse–patient relationship. In: Martin P (ed) Psychiatric Nursing. Harrow: Scutari, pp. 271–281
Martinez-Arevalo MJ, Calcedo-Ordonez A, Varo Prieto JR. 1994 Cannabis consumption as a prognostic factor in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 164(50): 679–681
Martino S, Carroll K, Kostas D, Perkins J, Rounsaville B. 2002 Dual diagnosis motivational interviewing: a modification of Motivational Interviewing for substance-abusing patients with psychotic disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat 23: 297–308
Mason T, Chandley M. 1995 The chronically assaultive patient: benchmarking best practices. Psychiatr Care 2(5): 180–183
Mason T, Chandley M. 1999 Managing Violence and Aggression. A Manual for Nurses and Health Care Workers. New York: Churchill Livingstone
Mason T. 1993 Seclusion theory reviewed: a benevolent or malevolent intervention? J Med Sci Law 33: 1–8
Mason T. 1994 Seclusion: an international comparison. Med Sci Law 34: 54–60
Mattson MR, Sacks MH. 1978 Seclusion: uses and complications. Am J Psychiatry 135: 1210–1213
McAllister-Williams R, Ferrier IN. 2001 Rapid tranquilllisation: time for a reappraisal of options for parenteral therapy. Br J Psychiatry 179: 485–489
McCambridge J, Strang J. 2004 The efficacy of single-session motivational interviewing in reducing drug consumption and perceptions of drug-related risk and harm among young people: results from a multi-site cluster randomized trial. Addiction 99: 39–52
McClure W, Schaffer D et al. 1966 Psychiatric diagnosis in child and adolescent suicide. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53: 339–348
McCreadie RG, Flanagan WL, McKnight J. 1979 High-dose flupenthixol decanoate in chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 135: 175–179
McCreadie RG, MacDonald IM. 1977 High-dose haloperidol in chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 131: 310–316
McCreadie RG. 2002 Use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by people with schizophrenia: case-control study. Br J Psychiatry 181: 321–325
McDougall T. 1997 Coercive interventions: the notion of the ‘last resort’. Psychiatr Care 4: 19–21
McDougle CJ, Holmes JP, Carlson DC, Pelton GH, Cohen DJ, Price LH. 1998 A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone in adults with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55: 633--641
McDougle CJ, Naylor ST, Cohen DJ, Volkmar FR, Heninger GR, Price LH. 1996 A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine in adults with autistic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53: 1001--1008
McEvoy JP, Hogarty GE, Steingard S. 1991 Optimal dose of neuroleptic in acute schizophrenia. A controlled study of the neuroleptic threshold and higher haloperidol dose. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48: 739–745
McGovern D, Cope R. 1987 First psychiatric admission rates of first and second generation Afro-Caribbeans. Soc Psychiatry 22: 139–149
McGuire DE. 1997 ‘Self-Talk’ in adults with Down syndrome. Disabil Solut 2 [Issue 2] [http://www.altonweb.com/cs/downsyndrome/agetalk.html]
McHugh I, West M. 1995 Handle with care. Nursing Times. 91 (6): 62–63
McHugo GJ, Drake RE, Burton HL, Ackerson TH. 1995 A scale for assessing the stage of substance abuse treatment in persons with severe mental illness. J Ner Men Dis 183: 762–767
McKenna J. 1996 In-patient characteristics in a regional secure unit. Psychiatr Bull 20: 264–268
McLaren S, Browne FWA, Taylor PJ. 1990 A study of psychotropic medication given as required in a regional secure unit. Br J Psychiatry 156: 732–735
McLellan AT, Kushner H, Metzger, et al. 1992 The fifth edition of the addiction severity index. J Subs Abuse Treat 9(3): 199–213
McLellan AT, Luborsky L, Woody GE, O'Brien CP. 1980 An improved diagnostic evaluation instrument for substance abuse patients. The Addiction Severity Index. J Nerv Ment Dis 168: 26–33
McNeil DE, Binder RL. 1994 The relationship between acute psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis and short term risk of violence. Hosp Community Psychiatry 45: 133–137
McNeil DE, Eisner JP, Binder RL. 2000 The relationship between command hallucinations and violence. Psychiatr Serv 51(10): 1288–1292
Mears A, White R, Banerjee S et al. 2001 An Evaluation of the Use of the Children Act 1989 and the Mental Health Act 1983 in Children and Adolescents in Psychiatric Settings (CAMHA –CAPS). College Research Unit Report. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists
Mee J, Sumsion T, Craik C. 2004 Mental health clients confirm the value of occupation in building competence and self-identity. Br J Occup Ther 67(5): 225–233
Mee J, Sumsion T. 2001 Mental health clients confirm the motivating power of occupation. Br J Occup Ther 64(3): 121–128
Meehan K, Zhang F, David S et al. 2001 A double-blind, randomized comparison of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular injections of olanzapine, lorazepam, or placebo in treating acutely agitated patients diagnosed with bipolar mania. J Clin Psychopharmacol 21(4): 389–397
Meehan K, Zhang F, David S et al. 2001 A double-blind, randomized comparison of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular injections of olanzapine, lorazepam, or placebo in treating acutely agitated patients diagnosed with bipolar mania. J Clin Psychopharmacol 21(4): 389–397
Meehan T, Vermeer C, Windsor C. 2000 Patients' perceptions of seclusion: a qualitative investigation. J Adv Nurs 31: 370–377
Mehtonen OP, Aranko K, Malkonen L. 1991 A survey of sudden death associated with the use of antipsychotic or antidepressant drugs. Acta Psychiatr Scand 84: 58–64
Meltzer HY. 1991 The mechanism of action of novel antipsychotic drugs. Schizophr Bull 17: 263–287
Meltzer HY. 1992 Treatment of the neuroleptic, non-responsive schizophrenic patient. Schizophr Bull 18: 515–542
Melzer D, Tom B, Brugha T. 2004 Access to medium secure psychiatric care in England and Wales. 1. A national survey of admission assessments. J Forensic Psychiatry Psychol 15: 7–31
Mendoza R, Djenderedjian AH, Adams J, Ananth J. 1987 Midazolam in acute psychotic patients with hyperarousal. J Clin Psychiatry 48(7): 291–292
Menezes PR, Johnson S, Thornicroft G et al. 1996 Drug and alcohol problems among individuals with severe mental illness in South London. Br J Psychiatry 168(5): 612–619
Mental Health Act Commission (MHAC). 2005 The House of Lords Munjaz Ruling. MHAC Policy Briefing for Commissioners, Issue 12, October 2005
Mental Health Act Commission. 1995 Sixth Biennial Report. London: HMSO
Merskey H. 1991 Shell-shock. in: Berrios G, Freeman H (eds) 150 years of British Psychiatry, 1841–1991. London: Gaskell, pp. 245–267
Mervis J. 1999 Workshop on loss and grief. Presented to Mental Health Professionals at Tara Hospital, Gauteng, South Africa
Metherall A, Worthington R, Keyte A. 2006 Twenty four hour medical emergency response teams in a mental health in-patient facility – new approaches for safer restraint. J Psychiatr Intensive Care 1: 21–29
Meyer JM. 2002 A retrospective comparison of weight, lipid, and glucose changes between risperidone- and olanzapine-treated inpatients: metabolic outcomes after 1 year. J Clin Psychiatry 63: 425–433
Michalon M, Richman A. 1990 Factors affecting length of stay in a psychiatric intensive care unit. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 12(5): 303–308
Miles H, Johnson S, Amponsah-Afuwape S, Finch E, Leese M, Thornicroft G. 2003 Characteristics of subgroups of individuals with psychotic illness and a comorbid substance use disorder. Psychiatr Serv 54: 554–561
Miller A. 1987 For Your Own Good. London: Virago
Miller A. 1995 The Drama of Being a Child: The Search for the True Self. London: Virago
Miller C, Freeman M, Ross N. 2001 Interprofessional Practice in Health Social Care. London: Arnold
Miller EJ, Wright AK. 1967 Systems of Organisation: The Control of Task and Central Boundaries. London: Tavistock
Miller P, Plant M. 1966 Drinking, smoking and illicit drug use among 15 and 16 year olds in the United Kingdom. Br Med J 313: 394–397
Miller R, Caponi JM, Sevy S, Robinson D. 2005 The Insight–Adherence–Abstinence triad: an integrated treatment focus for cannabis-using first-episode schizophrenia patients. Bull Meninger Clin 69(3): 220–230
Miller WR, Rollnick S. 1991 Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change Addictive Behaviours. London: Guilford Press
Milmis Project Group. 1995 Monitoring Inner London mental illness services. Psychiatr Bull 19: 276–280
Milner WR, Rolnick S. 1991 Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change Addictive Behaviour. New York: Guilford Press
Milnes D, Owens D, Blenkiron P. 2002 Problems reported by self-harm patients: perception, hopelessness, and suicidal intent. J Psychosom Res 53 (3): 819M
Minghella E, Benson A. 1994 Developing reflective practice in mental health nursing through critical incident analysis. J Adv Nurs 21: 205–213
Mitchell GD. 1992 A survey of psychiatric intensive care units in Scotland. Health Bulletin 50(3): 228–232
Modell JG. 1986 Further experience and observations with lorazepam in the management of behavioural agitation. J Clin Psychopharmacol 6(6): 85–387
Mohan D, Murray K, Taylor P, Steed P. 1997 Developments in the use of regional secure unit beds over a 12 year period. J Forensic Psychiatry 8(2): 321–335
Mohan R, Slade N, Fahy T. 2004 Clinical characteristics of community forensic mental health services. Psychiatr Serv 55(11): 1294–1298
Mohrman SA, Cohen SG, Morhrman AM. 1995 Designing Team-Based Organisations. San Francisco: Josey Bass
Moldin SO. 1985 The effect of Rogers on forensic, emergency psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry 142(12): 1521–1522
Monahan J, Henry J, Silver E et al. 2001 Rethinking Risk Assessment. The MacArthur Study of Mental Disorder and Violence
Monahan J, Steadman H, Robbins P, Appelbaum, P et al. 2005 An actuarial model of violence risk assessment for persons with mental disorders. Psychiatr Serv 56: 810–815
Monahan J, Steadman HJ. 1994 Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
Monahan J, Steadman HJ. 1994 Violence and Mental Illness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Monahan J. 1992 Mental disorder and violent behaviour. Am Psychologist April: 511–521
Moore THM, Zammit S, Lingford-Hughes A et al. 2007 Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet 370: 319–328
Mora G. 1967 History of psychiatry. In: Freeman AM, Kaplan HI (eds) Comprehensive Text Book of Psychiatry. Baltimore, Md.: Williams and Wilkins
Morales T. 1995 Least restrictive measures. J Psychosoc Nurs Mental Health Serv 33(10): 42–43
Moran P, Walsh E, Tyrer P, Burns T, Creed F, Fahy T. 2003 Impact of comorbid personality disorder on violence in psychosis. Report from the UK700 trial. Br J Psychiatry 182: 129–134
Morgan HG, Stanton R. 1997 Suicide among psychiatric inpatients in a changing clinical scene. Br J Psychiatry 171: 561–563
Morrison P, Lehane M. 1995 Saffing levels and seclusion use. J Adv Nurs 55: 1193–1202
Morrison P, Lehane M. 1996 A study of the official records of seclusion. Int J Nur Stud 33(2): 223–235
Morrison P. 1990 A multi-dimensional scalogram analysis of the use of seclusion in acute psychiatric settings. J Adv Nurs 15: 59–66
Morrison P. 1995 Research in the effects of staffing levels on the use of seclusion. J Psychiatr Mental Health Nurs 2(6): 365–366
Mortimer A. 1995 Reducing violence on a secure ward. Psychiatr Bull 19: 605–608
Mortimer A. 1995 Reducing violence on a secure ward. Psychiatr Bull 19: 605–698
Mortimer A. 1997 Treatment of the patient with long-term schizophrenia. Adv Psychiatr Treat 3: 339–346
Mounsey N. 1979 Psychiatric intensive care. Nurs Times 1811–1813
Mueller C. 1983 Environmental stressors and aggressive behaviour. In: Green R. Donnerstein R (eds) Aggression; theoretical and empirical reviews, volume 2. Issues in Research. New York: Academic Press
Mueser KT, Yarnold PR, Rosenberg SD, Swett C Jr, Miles KM, Hill D. 2000 Substance use disorder in hospitalized severely mentally ill psychiatric patients: prevalence, correlates and subgroups. Schizophr Bull 26(1): 179–192
Muijen M. 1999 Acute hospital care: ineffective, inefficient and poorly organised. Psychiatr Bull 23: 257–259
Muldoon MF, Kackey RH, Williams KV, Korytkowski MT, Flory JD, Manuck SB. 2004 Low central nervous system serotonergic responsivity is associated with the metabolic syndrome and physical inactivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:266–271
Mullen P. 1988 Violence and mental disorder. Br J Hosp Med 40: 460–463
Mullen PE, Burgess P, Wallace C, Palmer S, Ruschena D. 2000 Community care and criminal offending in schizophrenia. Lancet 355: 614–617
Mullen R, Caan AW, Smith S. 1994 Perception of equivalent doses of neuroleptic drugs. Psychiatr Bull 18(6) 335–337
Mulvey EP. 1994 Assessing the evidence of a link between mental illness and violence. Hosp Community Psychiatry 45(7): 663–668
Munetz MR, Peterson GA, Vandershie PW. 1996 Safer houses for patients who need asylum. Psychiatr Serv 47(2): 117
Murray K. 1996 The use of beds in NHS medium secure units in England. J Forensic Psychiatry 7(3): 504–524
Musisi S, Wasylenki D, Rapp M. 1989 A Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit in a psychiatric hospital. Can J Psychiatry 34 (3): 200–204
Musisi S, Wasylenski DA, Rapp MS. 1989 A psychiatric intensive care unit in a psychiatric hospital. Can J Psychiatry 34: 200–204
Myers DH, Campbell PL, Cooks NM. 1981 A trial of propranolol in chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 139: 118–121
Myers S. 1990 Seclusion: a last resort measure. Perspect Psychiatr Care 26(3): 25–25
Nasrallah H. 2003 A review of the effect of atypical antipsychotics on weight. Psychoneuroendocrinology 28 [Suppl. 1]: 83–96
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). 2005 Clinical Guideline 25: The Short-term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in In-patient Psychiatric Settings and Emergency Departments. London: NICE
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2002 Schizophrenia, Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Primary and Secondary Care. Clinical Guideline 1. London: NICE
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2002 Schizophrenia: Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Primary and Secondary Care. Clinical Guideline1. www.nice.org.uk
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2003 Guidance on the Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy. Technology appraisal 59. www.nice.org.uk
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2005 Short Term Management of Disturbed (Violent) Behaviour in Psychiatric In-patient Settings. NICE Guidelines. London: NICE
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2005 Violence. The Short Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in Inpatient Psychiatric Settings and Emergency Departments. Clinical Guideline 25. www.nice.org.uk
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2005 Violence: The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in Psychiatric Inpatient Settings and Emergency Departments. London: NICE
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. 2005 Violence: The Short-Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in Psychiatric Inpatient Settings and Emergency Departments. London: NICE
National Institute for Mental Health for England. 2003 Personality Disorder: No Longer a Diagnosis of Exclusion. Policy Implementation Guidance for the Development of Services for People with Personality Disorder. Gateway reference 105. London: NIMH(E)
National Institute for Mental Health in England (NIMHE). 2004 Developing Positive Practice to Support the Safe and Therapeutic Management of Aggression and Violence in Mental Health In-patient Settings. Leeds: NIMHE
National Institute for Mental Health in England (NIMHE). 2004 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide – Developing Positive Practice to Support the Safe and Therapeutic Management of Aggression and Violence in mental Health In-patient Settings. London: Department of Health
National Institute for Mental Health in England. 2004 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Developing Positive Practice to Support the Safe and Therapeutic Management of Aggression and Violence in Mental Health Inpatient Settings. London: NIMHE
National Institute for Mental Health in England. 2004 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Developing Positive Practice to Support the Safe and Therapeutic Management of Aggression and Violence in Mental Health Inpatient Settings. London: NIMHE
National Institute for Mental Health in England. Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Developing Positive Practice to Support the Safe and Therapeutic Management of Aggression and Violence in Mental Health In-patent Settings. 2004. London: Department of Health
National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) 2005 Violence – The Short-term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in Inpatient Psychiatric Settings and Emergency Departments. Clinical Guideline 25. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Available online at http://www.nice.org.uk/pdf/ cg025niceguideline.pdf
National Institute of Mental Health in England (NIMHE). 2004 Toolkit for Suicide Prevention. London: Department of Health
Nazroo JY. 1997 Ethnicity and Mental Health: Findings from a National Community Survey. London: Policy Studies Institute
Neal LA, Watson D, Hicks T et al. 2004 Root cause analysis applied to the investigation of serious untoward incidents in mental health services. Psychiatr Bull 28: 75–77
Newcomer JW, Haupt DW, Fucetola R et al. 2002 Abnormalities in glucose regulation during antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:337–345
NHS Estates. 1993 Design Guide: Medium Secure Psychiatric Units, NHS Estates. Leeds: Executive Agency of the Department of Health
NHS Estates. 1996 Accommodation for people with mental illness. Health Building Note 35: Part 1 – the acute unit. Leeds: Executive Agency of the Department of Health
NHS Health Advisory Service. 1995 Together We Stand: Thematic review of the Commissioning, Role and Management of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. London: The Stationery Office
NHS London. 2006 Report of the External Review of John Meyer Ward Following the Death of Eshan Chattun. Commissioned by South West London Strategic Health Authority. Review by Barnard M, Neill P.
NHS Security Management Service. 2004 Conflict Resolution Training: Implementing the National Syllabus. London: NHS
NHS Service Delivery and Organisation Research and Development (SDO R&D) Programme. 2004 Briefing Paper: How Managers can Help Users to Bring About Change in the NHS. London: NHS SDO R&D Programme
NHS Service Delivery and Organisation Research and Development (SDO R&D) Programme. 2006 Briefing Paper: Sharing Mental Health Information with Carers: Pointers to Good Practice for Service Providers. London: NHS SDO R&D Programme
NICE 2002 Schizophrenia: Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Primary and Secondary Care. Clinical Guideline 1. London: NICE
NICE 2004 Self Harm Clinical Guideline 16. The Short Term Physical and Psychological Management and Secondary Prevention of Self Harm in Primary and Secondary Care. London: NICE
NICE 2005 Depression in Children and Young People. Identification and Management in Primary, Community and Secondary Care. Clinical Guideline 28. London: NICE
NICE 2007 Community Based Interventions to Reduce Substance Misuse Among Vulnerable and Disadvantaged Children and Young People. NICE public Health Intervention Guidance 4. London: NICE
NICE. 2004 Guidelines for the Short-Term Physical and Psychological Management and Secondary Prevention of Self-Harm in Primary and Secondary Care. Developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence
NICE. 2005 Violence: The Short Term Management of Disturbed/Violent Behaviour in Inpatient Psychiatric Settings and Emergency Departments. Clinical Guideline CG25. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence
Niederecker M, Naber D, Riedel R, Perro C, Goebel FD. 1995 Incidence and aetiology of psychotic disorders in HIV infected patients. Nervenartz 66(5): 367–371
NIMHE. 2004 Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Developing Positive Practice to Support the Safe and Therapeutic Management of Aggression and Violence in Mental Health In-patient Settings. Leeds: NIMHE
Nitsun M. 1996 The Anti-Group: Destructive Forces in the Group and their Creative Potential. London: Routledge
Nolan KA, Volavka J, Mohr P, Czobor P. 1999 Psychopathy and violent behaviour among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatr Serv 50(6): 787–792
Nolan P. 1989 Face value. Nursing Times 85(35): 62–65
Nolan P. 1993 A History of Mental Health Nursing. London: Chapman Hall
Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority (2003) Independent Inquiry into the care of David Bennett. Cambridge: Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority. Available online at www.irr.org.uk/pdf/bennett_inquiry.pdf
Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority. 2003 Independent Inquiry into the Death of David Bennett. Cambridge: Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority
Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority. 2003 Independent Inquiry into the Death of David Bennett. Cambridge: Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority
Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority. 2003 Independent Inquiry into the Death of David Bennett. Cambridge: Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority. Available online at www.irr.org.uk/pdf/bennett_inquiry.pdf
Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority. 2003 Independent Inquiry into the Death of David Bennett. Cambridge: Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority. Available online at www.irr.org.uk/pdf/bennett_inquiry.pdf
Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority. 2003 Independent Inquiry into the death of David Bennett. Cambridge: Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority. Available online at www.irr.org.uk/pdf/bennett_inquiry.pdf
Norman IJ, Peck E. 1999 Working together in adult community mental health services: an inter-professional dialogue. J Ment Health 8(3): 217–230
Norris M, Kennedy W. 1992 The view from within: how patients perceive the seclusion process. J Psychosoc Nurs 30(3): 7–13
Nutt DJ, Glue P. 1993 The neurobiology of ECT: animal studies. In: Coffey CE, ed The Clinical Science of Electroconvulsive Therapy. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press, pp. 213–234
Nyberg-Coles M. 2005 Promoting safer and therapeutic services. Mental Health Practice 8 (7): 16–17
O'Brien G, Yule W. 1995 Behavioural Phenotypes. Cambridge: McKeith Press
O'Herlihy A, Worrall A, Banerjee S, Jaffa A et al. 2001 National In-patient Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Study. College Research Unit Report submitted to Department of Health, May 2001
O'Rourke M, Hammond S, Bucknall M. 2001 Multi-Agency Risk Management: Safeguarding Public Safety and Individual Care. RAMAS report available online at www. ramas.co.uk/rptmultia.pdf
Offen L, Taylor PJ. 1985 Violence and resources: factors determining admission to an interim secure unit. Med Sci Law 25: 165–171
Okocha CI. 1995 Treating addiction to benzodiazepines. Hospital Update September, pp. 396–401
Okocha CI. 1996 Managing anxiety disorders in general practice. Hospital Update November, pp. 415–419
Okuma T. 1983 Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of carbamazepine in bipolar disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 6: 147–174
Olfson M, Mechanic D, Hansell S, Boyer CA, Walkup J. 1999 Prediction of homelessness within three months of discharge among inpatients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv 50(5): 667–663
Oliver M. 1993 Disabling People and Disabling Environments. London: Jessica Kingsley
Onyett S, Pillinger T, Muijen M. 1997 Job satisfaction and burnout among members of community mental health teams. J Ment Health 6: 55–66
Onyett S. 2003 Teamworking in Mental Health. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan
Onyett SR, Heppleston T, Bushnell D. 1994 A national survey of community mental health teams. J Ment Health 3: 175–194
Opie A. 1997 Thinking teams thinking clients; issues of discourse and representation in the work of health care teams. Sociol Health Illn 19(3): 259–280
Oquendo MA, Ellis SP, Greenwald S, Malone KM, Weissman MM, Mann JJ. 2001. Ethnic and sex differences in suicide rates relative to major depression in the United States. Am J Psychiatry 158: 1652–1658
Orr M, Morgan J. 1995 The medical management of violence In: Kidd B, Stark C (eds) Management of Violence and Aggression in Health Care. London: Gaskell
Ostman T, Wallsten, Kjellin L. 2005 Family burden and relatives' participation in psychiatric care: are the patient's diagnosis and the relation to the patient of importance? Int J Soc Psychiatry 51(4): 291–301
Ostrom M et al. 1996 Fatal overdose with citalopram. Lancet 348: 339–340
Outlaw FH, Lowery BJ. 1992 Seclusion: the nursing challenge. J Psychiatr Nurs Mental Health Serv 30(4): 13–17
Overall JE, Gorham DR. 1962 The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychol Rep 10: 799–812
Ovretveit J. 1993 Coordinating Community Care: Multidisciplinary Teams and Care Management. Buckingham: Open University Press
Ovretveit J. 1995 Team decision making. J Interprofess Care 9: 41–51
Ovretveit J. 1996 Five ways to describe a multidisciplinary team. J Interprofess Care 10: 163–171
Owen RR, Fischer EP, Booth BM, Cuffel BJ. 1996 Medication noncompliance and substance abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv 46(8): 853–858
Owens D, Dennis M, Read S et al. 1994 Outcome of deliberate self-poisoning. An examination of risk factors for repetition. Br J Psychiatry 165: 797–801
Owens D, Horrocks J, House A. 2002 Fatal and non-fatal repetition of self-harm: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry 181: 193–199
Page M, Meiklejohn C, Warr J. 2004 CCTV and night-time observations. Ment Health Pract 7 (10): 28–31
Page M. (2005) Low secure care: a description of a new service. J Psychiatr Intensive Care 1(2) 89–96
Palmer A, Burns S, Bulman C. 1994 Reflective practice in nursing. Oxford: Blackwell Science
Palmstierna T, Huitfeldt B, Wistedt B. 1991 The relationship between crowding and aggressive behaviour in the psychiatric intensive care unit. Hosp Community Psychiatry 42 (12): 1237–1240
Palmstierna T, Huitfeldt B, Wistedt B. 1991 The relationship of crowding and aggressive behaviour on a psychiatric intensive care unit. Hosp Community Psychiatry 42: 1237–1240
Palmstierna T, Wistedt B. 1990 Risk factors for aggressive behaviour are of limited value in predicting the violent behaviour of acute involuntarily admitted patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 81: 152–155
Palmstierna T, Wistedt B. 1995 Changes in the pattern of aggressive behaviour among inpatients with changed ward organisation. Acta Psychiatr Scand 91: 32–35
Papageorgiou A, King M, Janmohamed A, Davidson O, Dawson J. 2002 Advance directives for patients compulsorily admitted to hospital with serious mental illness. Randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 181: 513–519
Paris J. 2000 Chronic suicidality among patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatr Serv 53: 738–742
Parker E. 1973 An Inquiry into the Reliability of Special Hospital Case Records with Reference to the Recording of Previous Psychiatric Hospitalisations and Criminal Histories. London: Special Hospitals Research Unit, Department of Health and Social Security
Parkes J. 1996 Control and restraint training: a study of its effectiveness in a medium secure unit. J Forensic Psychiatry 7(3): 525–534
Parkes J. 2002 A review of the literature on positional asphyxia as a possible cause of sudden death during restraint. Br J Forensic Pract 4(1)
Parkes J. 2002 A review of the literature on positional asphyxia as a possible cause of sudden death during restraint. Br J Forensic Pract 4: 24–27
Parkman S, Davies S, Leese M, Phelan M, Thornicroft G. 1997 Ethnic differences in satisfaction with mental health services among representative people with psychosis in south London: PRISM study 4. Br J Psychiatry 171: 260–264
Parks J. 1996 Control and restraint training: a study of its effectiveness in a medium secure psychiatric unit. J Forensic Psychiatry 7(3): 525–534
Paterson B, Bradley P, Stark C, Saddler D, Leadbetter D, Allen D. 2003 Deaths associated with restraint use in health and social care in the UK. The results of a preliminary study. J Psychiatr Mental Health Nurs 10: 3–15
Paterson B, Leadbetter D, McComish A. 1998 Restraint and sudden death from asphyxia. Nurs Times 94(44): 62–64
Paterson B, Leadbetter D. 2004 Learning the right lessons. J Mental Health Pract 7(7): 12–15