Human Senescence

Evolutionary and Biocultural Perspectives

Predicting water runoff in ungauged water catchment areas is vital to practical applications such as the design of drainage infrastructure and flooding defences, runoff forecasting, and for catchment management tasks such as water allocation and climate impact analysis. This full colour book offers an impressive synthesis of decades of international research, forming a holistic approach to catchment hydrology and providing a one-stop resource for hydrologists in both developed and developing countries. Topics include data for runoff regionalisation, the prediction of runoff hydrographs, flow duration curves, flow paths and residence times, annual and seasonal runoff, and floods. Illustrated with many case studies and including a final chapter on recommendations for researchers and practitioners, this book is written by expert authors involved in the prestigious IAHS PUB initiative. It is a key resource for academic researchers and professionals in the fields of hydrology, hydrogeology, ecology, geography, soil science, and environmental and civil engineering.

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Adams, M. R., Williams, J. K., and Kaplan, J. R. (1995). Effects of androgens on coronary artery atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related impairement of vascular responsiveness. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 15: 562–70
Adelman, R., Saukm, R. L., and Ames, B. N. (1988). Oxidative damage to DNA: relation to species metabolic rate and life span. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 85: 2706–8
Albin, R. L. (1988). The pleiotropic gene theory of senescence: supportive evidence from human genetic disease. Ethology and Sociobiology 9: 371–82
Albin, R. L. (1994). Antagonistic pleiotropy, mutation accumulation, and human genetic disease. In Genetics and Evolution of Aging, M. R. Rose and C. E. Finch (eds.). Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Alexander, R. M. (1998). Mammalian life history. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston, and M. A. Preece, (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 98
Alfie, J., Waisman, G. D., Galarza, C. R. et al. (1995). Relationships between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level are sex dependent. Hypertension 26: 1195–99
Allsopp, R. C. (1992). Models of initiation of replicative senescence by loss of telomeric DNA. Experimental Gerontology 31: 235–43
Allsopp, R. C. (1996). Models of initiation of replicative senescence by loss of telomeric DNA. Experimental Gerontology 31: 235–43
Aloia, J. F., Vaswani, A., Kuimei, M., and Flaster, E. (1996). Aging in women – the four-compartment model of body composition. Metabolism 45: 43–8
Alterm, G. and Riley, J. C. (1989). Frailty, sickness, and death: models of morbidity and mortality in historic populations. Population Studies 43: 25–43
Alvarez, H. P. (2000). Grandmother hypothesis and primate life histories. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 113: 435–50
Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association, Inc. (ADRDA) (1996). The use of apo E testing in Alzheimer's disease. Research and Practice
American Heart Association (AHA). (1988). The Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the 1988 Report. Archives of Internal Medicine 148: 1020–38
Ames, B. N., Shigenaga, M. K., and Hagen, T. M. (1993). Oxidants, antioxidants and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90: 7915–22
Anderson, J. J. and Pollitzer, W. S. (1994). Ethnic and genetic differences in susceptibility to osteoporotic fractures. Advances in Nutritional Research 9: 129–49
Anderson, K., Launer, L. J., Dewey, M. E. et al. (1999). Gender differences in the incidence of AD and vascular dementia. The EURODEM Studies. Neurology 53: 1992–7
Anderson, R. N. (2001). United States Life Tables, 1998. National Vital Statistics Report, 48. Hyattsville, M. D.: NCHS
Andres, R. (1971). Aging and diabetes. Medical Clinics of North America 55: 835–46
Andres, R. (1980). Effects of obesity on total Mortality. International Journal of Obesity 4: 381
Anemone, R. L., Moorey, M. P., and Siegel, M. I. (1996). Longitudinal study of dental development in chimpanzees of known chronological age: implications for understanding the age at death of plio-pleistocene hominids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 99: 119–33
Arking, R. (1991). Biology of Aging: Observations and Principles. Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc
Arking, R. (1998). Biology of Aging: Observations and Principles, 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Arking, R. and Dudas, S. P. (1989). A review of genetic investigations into aging processes of Drosophila. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 37: 757–73
Arking, R., Buck, S., Berrios, A., Dwyer, S., and Baker, G. T. (1991). Elevated paraquat resistance can be used as a bioassay for longevity in a genetically based long-lived strain of Drosophila. Developmental Genetics 12: 362–70
Armelagos, G. J. (1991). Human evolution and the evolution of disease. Ethnicity and Disease 1: 21–5
Armstrong, D. (1984). Free radicals involvement in the formation of lipopigments. In Free Radicals in Molecular Biology, Aging, and Disease, D. Armstrong, R. S. Sohal, R. G. Cutler, and T. F. Slater (eds.). New York: Raven Press, pp. 129–42
Austad, S. N. (1992). On the nature of aging. Natural History 2: 25–57
Austad, S. N. (1994). Menopause: an evolutionary perspective. Experimental Gerontology 29: 255–63
Austad, S. N. (1997). Comparative aging and life histories in mammals. Experimental Gerontology 32: 23–38
Baker, P. T. (1979). The use of human ecological models in biological anthropology: examples from the Andes. Collegium Anthropologicum (Zagreb, Yugoslavia) 3: 157–71
Baker, P. T. (1982). Human population biology: a viable transdisciplinary science. Human Biology 54: 203–20
Baker, P. T. (1984). The adaptive limits of human populations. Man 19: 1–14
Baker, P. T. (1990). Human adaptation theory: successes, failure and prospects. Journal of Human Ecology Special Issue 1: 41–50
Baker, P. T. (1991). Human adaptation theory: successes, failure and prospects. Journal of Human Ecology Special Issue 1: 41–50
Baker, P. T. and Baker, T. S. (1977). Biological adaptations to urbanization and industrialization: some research strategy considerations. In Colloquia in Anthropology, Volume I, R. K. Wetherington (ed.), Fort Burgwin Research Center, pp. 107–18
Baltes, M. M., Wahl, H. W., and Schmis-Furstoss, U. (1990). The daily life of elderly Germans: activity patterns, personal control, and functional health. Journal of Gerontology 45: P173–9
Barker, D. J. P. (1989). The rise and fall of Western disease. Nature 338: 371–2
Barker, D. J. P. (1998). Mothers, Babies and Health in Later Life, 2nd edition. New York: Churchill Livingston
Barker, D. J. P., Bull, A. R., Osmond, C., and Simmonds, S. J. (1990). Fetal and Placental Size and Risk of Hypertension in Adult Life. British Medical Journal 301: 259–62
Barker, D. J. P., Hales, C. N., Fall, C. H. D., Osmond, C., Phipps, K., and Clark, P. M. S. (1993). Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 36: 62–7
Barker, D. J. P., Osmond, C., and Golding, J. (1989b). Height and mortality in the counties of England and Wales. Annals of Human Biology 17: 1–6
Barker, D. J. P., Winter, P. D., Osmond, C., Margetts B., and Simmonds, S. J. (1989a). Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 577–80
Barinaga, G. T. (1991). How long is the human life span? Science 254: 936–8
Barley, J., Blackwood, A., Carter, N. et al. (1994). Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism – association with ethnic origin. Journal of Hypertension 12: 955–7
Barzilai, N. and Shuldiner, A. R. (2001). Searching for human longevity genes: the future history of gerontology in the post-genomic era. Journals of Gerontology Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical 56: M83–7
Baxter, J. D. (1997). Introduction to endocrinology. In Basic and Clinical Endocrinology, 5th edition, F. S. Greenspan and G. J. Strewler (eds.). Appleton and Lang
Beall, C. M. (1994). Aging and adaptation to the environment. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation Over the Life Span, D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 339–69
Beall, C. M. and Steegman, A. T. (2000). Human adaptations to climate: temperature, ultraviolet radiation and altitude. In Human Biology: An Evolutionary and Biocultural Approach, S. Stinson, B. Bogin, R. Huss-Ashmore and D. O'Rourke (eds.). New York: Wiley-Liss, pp. 163–224
Beall, C. M., Blangero, J., Williams-Blangero, S., and Goldstein, M. C. (1994). A major gene for percent of oxygen saturation of arterial hemoglobin in Tibetan highlanders. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95: 271–6
Bendich, A. (1995). Criteria for determining recommended daily allowances for healthy older adults. Nutrition Reviews 53: S105–10
Bengtson, V. L. and Schaie, K. W. (eds.) (1999). Handbook of Theories of Aging. New York: Springer Publishing Company
Bengston, V. L., Burgess, E. O., and Parrot, T. M. (1997). Theory, explanation, and a third generation of theoretical development in social gerontology. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 522: 577–8
Berkovitch, F. B. and Harding, R. S. O. (1993). Annual birth patterns of savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) over a ten-year period at Gilgil, Kenya. Folia Priatol, 61: 115–22
Bindon, J. R. and Crews, D. E. (1993). Changes in Some Health Status Characteristics of American Samoan Men: A 12-Year Follow-Up Study. American Journal of Human Biology 5: 31–8
Bindon, J. R., Crews, D. E., and Dressler, W. (1992). Lifestyle, modernization, and adaptation among Samoans. Collegium Anthropologicum 15: 101–10
Bindon, J. R., Knight, A., Dressler, W. W., and Crews, D. E. (1997). Social context and psychosocial influences on blood pressure. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 103: 7–18
Bockxmeer, F. (1994). ApoE and ACE genes: impact on human longevity. Nature Genetics 6: 4–5
Bodkin, N. L., Ortmeyer, H. K., and Hansen, B. C. (1995). Long-Term Dietary Restriction in Old-Aged Rhesus Monkeys: Effects on Insulin Resistance. Journal of Gerontology 50A: B142–7
Bogin, B. (1998). Patterns of human growth. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston, and M. A. Preece, (eds.). Cambridge University Press, pp. 91–95
Bogin, B. (1999). Patterns of Human Growth. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Bogin, B. and Smith, H. (1996). Evolution of the human life cycle. American Journal of Human Biology 8: 703–16
Bolzan, A. D., Brown, O. A., Goya, R. G., and Bianchi, M. S. (1995). Hormonal modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in young and old rats. Experimental Gerontolology 30: 169–75
Borkan, G. A. (1986). Biological age assessment in adulthood. In The Biology of Human Aging, A. H. Bittles and K. J. Collins (eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 81–94
Borkan, G. A. and Norris, A. H. (1980). Assessment of age using a profile of physical parameters. Journal of Gerontology 35: 177–84
Borkan, G. A., Hults, D. E., and Mayer, P. J. (1982). Physical anthropological approaches to aging. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 25: 181–202
Boullion, R., Bex, M., Van, E. Herck et al. (1995). Influence of age, sex, and insulin on osteoblast function: osteoblast dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80: 1194–202
Boult, C., Kane, R. L., Louis, T. A., Boult, L., and McCaggrey, D. (1994). Chronic Conditions that Lead to Functional Limitations in the Elderly. Journal of Gerontology 49: M28–36
Bowden, D. M. and Jones, M. L. (1979). Aging Research in Nonhuman Primates. In Aging in Nonhuman Primates, D. M. Bowden, (ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
Bowling, A. C. and Beal, M. F. (1995). Bioenergetic and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Life Sciences 56: 1151–71
Brach, C. and Fraserirector, I. (2000). Can cultural competency reduce racial and ethnic health disparities? A review and conceptual model. Medical Research and Review 57: 181–217
Breitner, J. C., Welsh, K. A., Gau, B. A. et al. (1995). Alzheimer's disease in the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Registry of aging twin veterans III. Detection of cases, longitudinal results, and observations on twin concordance. Archives of Neurology 52: 763–71
Brennan, P. A., Grekin, E. R., and Mednick, S. A. (1999). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Archives of General Psychiatry 56: 215–19
Brock, D. B., Guralnik, J. M., and Brody, J. A. (1990). Demography and epidemiology of aging in the United States. In Handbook of the Biology of Aging, E. L. Schneider and J. W. Rose (eds.). San Diego: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 3–23
Brody, J. (1983). Limited importance of cancer and competing risk theories of aging. Journal of Clinical Experimental Gerontology 5: 141–54
Broe, G. A. and Creasey, H. (1995). Brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases: a minor public health issue of the twenty-first century. Perspectives in Human Biology, 1: 53–8
Brown, D. T., Samuels, D.C., Michael, E. M., Turnbull, D. M., and Chinnery, P. F. (2001). Random genetic drift determines the level of mutant mtDNA in human primary oocytes. American Journal of Human Genetics 68: 533–6
Brownlee, M., Cerami, A., and Vlassara, H. (1988). Advanced glycosylation end products in tissue and the biochemical basis of diabetic complications. Seminars in Medicine of the Beth Israel Hospital, Boston 318: 1315–21
Buck, S., Nicholson, M., Dudas, S. et al. (1993). Larval regulation of adult longevity in a genetically-selected long-lived strain of Drosophila. Heredity 71: 23–32
Buckley, C. E. and Roseman, J. M. (1976). Immunity and survival. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 24: 241–8
Burnet, F. M. (1970). An Immunological Approach to Aging. Lancet 2: 358–60
Burnet, F. M. (1970). Immunological Surveillance. New York: Pergamon Press
Campbell, D. M., Hall, M. H., Barker, D. J. P., Cross, J., Shiell, A. W., and Godfrey, K. M. (1996). Diet in pregnancy and the offspring's blood pressure 40 years later. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 103: 273–80
Carey, J. R. (1997). What demographers can learn from fruit fly actuarial models and biology. Demography 34: 17–30
Carmichael, C. M. and McGue, M. (1995). A cross-sectional examination of height, weight, and body mass index in adult twins. Journals of Gerontology, Series A, Biological and Medical Sciences 50: B237–44
Caro, T., Sellen, D., Parrish, A. et al. (1995). Termination of reproduction in nonhuman and human female primates. International Journal of Primatology 16: 205–20
Carey, J. R., Liedo, P., Müeler, H.-G., Love, B., Harshman, L., and Partridge, L. (2001). Female sensitivity to diet and irradiation treatments underlies sex-mortality differentials in the Mediterranean fruit fly. Gerontology: Biological Sciences 56A: B89–95
Caspari, R. and Wolpoff, M. (2003). Race and Human Evolution. Cambridge, M. A.: Westview Press
Cassel, J. (1976). The contribution of the social environment to host resistance. American Journal of Epidemiology 104: 107–23
Cassel, C. K. (2001). How increased life expectancy and medical advances are changing geriatric care. Geriatrics 56: 35–9
Cauley, J. A., Eichmer, J. E., Kamboh, M. I., Ferrell, R. E., and Kuller, L. H. (1993). Apolipoprotein E allele frequencies in younger (age 42–50) vs. older (65–90) women. Genetics and Epidemiology 10: 27–34
The C. elegans Sequencing Consortium. (1998). Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology. Science 282: 2012–18
Cerami, A. (1985). Hypothesis: glucose as a mediator of aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 33: 626–34
Cerami, A. (1986). Aging of proteins and nucleic acids: what is the role of glucose? Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 11: 311–14
Cerami, A., Vlassara, H., and Brownlee, M. (1987). Glucose and aging. Scientific American 256: 90–6
Chagnon, N. A. (1968). Yanomamo: the Fierce People. New York: Rinehard and Winston
Chandra, R. (1992). Nutrition and immunity in the elderly. Nutrition Reviews 50: 367–71
Chang-Claude, J., Frentzel-Beyrne, R., and U. Eliber (1992). Mortality pattern of German vegetarians after 11 years of follow-up. Epidemiology 3: 395–401
Charlesworth, B. (1994). Evolution in Age-Structured Populations, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Charlesworth, B. (2001). Patterns of age-specific means and genetic variances of mortality rates predicted by the mutation-accumulation theory of aging. Journal of Theoretical Biology 210: 47–65
Charnov, E. L. (1993). Life History Invariants: Some Explanations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press
Chartier-Harlin, M. C., Parfitt, M., Legrain, S. et al. (1994). Apolipoprotein E, epsilon 4 allele as a major risk factor for sporadic early and late onset forms of Alzheimer's disease: analysis of the 19q13.2 chromosomal region. Human Molecular Genetics 3: 569–74
Chen, F.-C. and Lei, W.-H. (2001). Genomic divergences between humans and other hominoids and the effective population size of the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. American Journal of Human Genetics 68: 444–56
Clare, M. J. and Luckinball, L. S. (1985). The effects of gene–environment interaction on the expression of longevity. Heredity 55: 19–29
Clark, W. R. (1999). A Means to an End: The Biological Basis of Aging and Death. New York: Oxford University Press
Cohen, M. N. (1989). Health and the Rise of Civilization. New Haven, C. T.: Yale University Press
Comfort, A. (1979). Aging: The Biology of Senescence, 3rd edition. New York: Elsevier North Holland Inc.
Comuzzie, A. G., Blangero, J., Mahaney, M. C. et al. (1995). Major gene with sex-specific effects influences fat mass in Mexican Americans. Genetic Epidemiology 12: 475–88
Coon, C. S. (1965). The Living Races of Man. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
Cooper C., Fall, C., Egger, P., Eastell, R., and Barker, D. (1996). Growth in infancy and bone mass in later life. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 55: 1–6
Corr, J. A. (2000). The Effects of Aging on Social Behavior in Male and Female Rhesus Macaques of Cayo Santiago. Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University
Corder, E. H., Lannfelt, L., Viitanen, M. et al. (1996). Apoliopoprotein E genotype determines survival in the oldest old (85 years or older) who have good cognition. Archives of Neurology 53: 418–22
Cotton, P. (1994). Alzheimer's/Apo E link grows stronger. JAMA 272: 1483
Cowgill, D. O. (1986). Aging Around the World. Belmont, C. A.: Wadsworth
Crews, D. E. (1988). Multiple causes of death and the epidemiological transition in American Samoa. Social Biology 35: 198–213
Crews, D. E. (1990a). Anthropological issues in biological gerontology. In: RL Rubinstein (ed.) Anthropology and Aging: Comprehensive Reviews. Dordecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel Publishing Co., pp. 11–38
Crew, D. E. (1990b). Multiple causes of death, chronic diseases, and aging. Collegium Anthropologicum 14: 197–204
Crews, D. E. (1993a). Biological Anthropology and Aging: Some Current Directions in Aging Research. Annual Review of Anthropology, 22: 395–420
Crews, D. E. (1993b). Cultural lags in social perceptions of the aged. Generations 17: 29–33
Crews, D. (1993c). The organizational concept and vertebrates with out sex chromosomes. Brain, Behavior, and Evolution 42: 202–14
Crews, D. E. (1997). Aging and gerontology: a paradigm of transdisciplinary research. Collegium Anthropologicum 21: 83–92
Crews, D. E. and Bindon, J. R. (1991). Ethnicity as a taxonomic tool in biomedical and biosocial research. Ethnicity and Disease 1: 42–9
Crews D. E. and Gerber, L. M. (1994). Chronic degenerative diseases and aging. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation Over the Lifespan. D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). New York, Oxford University Press, pp. 174–208
Crews D. E. and Gerber, L. M. (1999). Evolutionary perspectives on chronic degenerative diseases. In Evolutionary Medicine, W. Trevathan, J. McKenna, and N. Smith (eds.). New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 443–69
Crews D. E. and Garruto, R. M. (1994). Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation Over the Life Span. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Crews, D. E. and Harper, G. J. (1998). Renin, ANP, ACE polymorphisms, Blood pressure, and Age in American Samoans. American Journal of Human Biology 10: 439–49
Crews, D. E. and Harper, G. J. (1997). Congregate care retirement communities, a case study of current directions. Gerontologist 37: 179
Crews, D. E. and James, G. D. (1991). Human evolution and the genetic epidemiology of chronic degenerative diseases. In Applications of Biological Anthropology of Human Affairs, G. W. Lasker and N. Mascie-Taylor (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Crews, D. E. and Losh, S. R. (1994). Structural modeling of blood pressure in Samoans. Collegium Anthropologicum 18: 101–13
Crews, D. E. and MacKeen, P. C. (1982). Mortality related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in a modernizing population. Social Science and Medicine 16:175–81
Crews D. E. and Williams, S. R. (1999). Molecular aspects of blood pressure regulation. Human Biology 71: 475–503
Crews, D. E., Murrell, S. A. and Lang, C. A. (1985). High mental health occurs in physically healthy elderly women. The Gerontologist 26: 165
Cristofalo, V. J., Allen, R. G., Pignolo, R. J., Martin, B. G., and Beck, J. C. (1998). Relationship between donor age and the replicative lifespan of human cells in culture: a reevaluation. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95: 10614–19
Cristofalo, V. G., Tresini, M., Francis, M. K., and Volker, C. (1999). Biological theories of senescence. In Handbook of Theories of Aging, V. L. Bengston and K. W. Shaie (eds.). New York: Springer Publishing Company, pp. 98–112
Crognier, E., Baali, A., Hilali, M-K. (2001). Do helpers at the nest increase their parents' reproductive success? American Journal of Human Biololgy 13: 365–73
Crose, R. (1997). Why Women Live Longer Than Men and What Men Can Learn From Them. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers
Cummings, S. R. and Nevitt, N. C. (1989). A Hypothesis: The Cause of Hip Fractures. Journal of Gerontology 44: M107–11
Curtin, P. D. (1992). The slavery hypothesis for hypertension among African-Americans: the historical evidence. American Journal of Public Health 82: 1681–6
Curtsinger, J. W., Fukui, H. H., Townsend, D. R., and Vaupel, J. W. (1992). Demography of genotypes: failure of the limited life-span paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 258: 461–3
Cutler, R. G. (1975). Evolution of Human Longevity and the Genetic Complexity Governing Aging Rate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 72: 4664–8
Cutler, R. G. (1976). Evolution of longevity in primates. Journal of Human Evolution 5: 169–202
Cutler, R. G. (1980). Evolution of human longevity. In Aging, Cancer, and Cell Membranes, C. Borek, C. M. Fenoglis, and D. W. King (eds.). New York: Thieme-Straton, Inc., pp. 43–79
Cutler, R. G. (1991). Antioxidants and aging. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53: 373S–9S
Darwin, C. R. (1859). On the Origin of Species by Means Of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races In the Struggle For Life, 2nd edition. London: Murray
Davies, K. J. A. (1987). Protein damage and degradation by oxygen radicals, I. General aspects. Journal of Biological Chemistry 262: 9895–901
Davignon, J., Gregg, R. E., and Sing, C. F. (1988). Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 8: 1–21
Davison, A. N. (1987). Pathophysiology of the aging brain. Gerontology 33: 129–35
Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press
De Benedictus, Ross, G., Carrieri, G. et al. (2000a). Mitochondrial DNA inherited variants are associated with successful aging and longevity in humans. FASEB Journal 13: 1532–1536
De Benedictus, Ross, G., Carrieri, G. et al. (2000b). Inherited variability of the mitochondrial genome and successful aging in humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 908: 208–218
Deevey, E. S. (1950). The probability of death. Scientific American 18: 58–30
DeFronzo, R. A. and Ferrannini, E. (1991). Insulin Resistance: A Multifaceted Syndrome Responsible for NIDDM, Obesity, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease. Diabetes Care 14: 173–94
De Lange, T. (1998). Telomeres and senescence: ending the debate. Science 249: 334–5
De Grey, A. D. N.J. (1997). A proposed refinement of the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging. Bioessays 19: 161–6
De Haan, J. B., Cristano, F., Iannello, R. C., and Kola, I. (1995). Cu/Zn–superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase during aging. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 35: 1281–97
de la Torre, M. R., Casado, A., Lopez-Fernandez, M. E. et al. (1996). Human aging brain disorders: role of antioxidant enzymes. Neurochemical Research 21: 885–8
Demographic Yearbook (1996). New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Demographic Yearbook (1998). New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Dennison, E., Fall, C., Cooper, C., and Barker, D. (1997). Prenatal factors influencing long-term outcome. Hormone Research 48(Suppl. 1): 25–6
DeRousseau, C. (1990). Primate Life History and Evolution. New York: Wiley-Liss
Dietz, J. M. and Baker, A. J. (1993). Polygyny and female reproductive success in golden lion tamarins, (Leotopithecus rosalia). Animal Behavior 46: 1067–78
Dietz, J. M. and Baker, A. J. (1994). Seasonal variation in reproduction, juvenile growth, and adult body mass in golden lion tamarins. American Journal Primatology 34: 115–132
Doblhammer, G. and Kytir, J. (2001). Compression or expansion of morbidity? Trend in healthy-life expectancy in the elderly Austrian population between 1978 and 1998. Social Science and Medicine 52: 385–91
Dressler, W. W. (1991). Social class, skin color, and arterial blood pressure in two societies. Ethnicity and Disease 1: 60–77
Dressler, W. W. (1996). Hypertension in the African community: social, cultural, and psychological factors. Seminars in Nephrology 16: 71–82
Dressler, W. W., Bindon, J. R., and Neggers, Y. H. (1998). Culture, socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease risk factors in an African American community. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 21: 527–45
Dressler, W. W., Grell, G. A., and Viteri, F. E. (1982). Intracultural diversity and the sociocultural correlates of blood pressure: a Jamaican example. Medical Anthroplogy Quarterly 9: 291–313
Drinkwater, B. (1994). Does physical activity play a role in preventing osteoporosis? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sports 65: 197–206
Driscoll, M. (1995). Genes Controlling Programmed Cell Death: Relation to Mechanisms of Cell Senescence and Aging? In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 45–60
Duara, R., London, E. D., and Rapoport, S. I. (1985). Changes in structure and energy metabolisms of the aging brain. In Handbook of the Biology of Aging, 2nd edition, E. L. Schnieder and C. E. Finch (eds.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp. 595–616
Dudas, S. P. and Arking, R. (1995). A Coordinate Upregulation of Antioxidant Gene Activities is Associated with the Delayed Onset of Senescence in a Long-Lived Strain of Drosophila. Journal of Gerontology 50A: B117–27
Dufour, D. L. (1992). Nutritional ecology in the tropical rainforests of Amazonia. American Journal of Human Biology 4: 197–207
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1988). Primate Social Systems, Studies in Behavioral Adaptation. London: Croom Helm
Durham, W. H. (1991). Coevolution: Genes, Minds, and Human Diversity. Palo Alto, C. A.: Stanford University Press
Easterbrook, P. J., Berlin, J. A., Goplan, R., and Matthews, D. R. (1991). Publication bias in clinical research. Lancet 1: 867–72
Eaton, S. B. and Konner, M. J. (1985). Paleolithic nutrition: a consideration of its nature and current implications. New England Journal of Medicine 312: 283–9
Eaton, S. B. and Nelson, D. A. (1991). Calcium in evolutionary perspective. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54 (suppl.): 2815–75
Eaton, S. B., Konner, M., and Shostak, M. (1988). Stone agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective. American Journal of Medicine, 84: 739–749
Elson, J. L., Samuels, D.C., Turnbull, D. M., and Chinnery, P. F. (2001). Random intercellular drift explains the clonal expansion of mitochondrial DNA mutations with age. American Journal of Human Genetics 68: 802–6
Erdos, E. S. and Skidgel, R. A. (1987). The angiotensin I-converting enzyme. Laboratory Investigation 56: 345–348
Erhardt, C. L. and Berlin, J. E. (eds.) (1974). Mortality and Morbidity in the United States. Cambridge, M. A.: Harvard University Press
Esser K. and Martin, G. E. (eds.). (1995). Molecular Aspects of Aging. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Fall, C. H. D., Barker, D. J. P., Osmond, C., Winter, P. D., Clark, P. M. S., and Hales, C. N. (1992). Relation of Infant Feeding to Adult Serum Cholesterol Concentration and Death from Ischaemic Heart Disease. British Medical Journal 304: 801–5
Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics (FIFARS). (2000). Older Americans 2000: Key Indicators of Well-Being. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office
Fenner, F. (1970). The Effects of Changing Social Organization on the Infectious Diseases of Man. In The Impact of Civilization on the Biology of Man, S. V. Boyden (ed.). Toronto: Toronto University Press, pp. 48–68
Fergusson, D. M. (1999). Prenatal smoking and antisocial behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry 56: 223–4
Fergusson, D. M., Woodward, L. J., and Harwood, L. J. (1998). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry 55: 721–7
Ferrannini, E. S., Haffner, S. M., Mitchell, B. D., and Stern, S. P. (1991). Hyperinsulinemia: the key feature of a cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia 34: 416–22
Finch, C. E. (1990). Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome. Chicago: Chicago University Press
Finch, C. E. (1994). Longevity, Senescence and the Genome. 2nd edition. Chicago: Chicago University Press
Finch, C. E. and Hayflick, L. (eds.) (1977). Handbook of the Biology of Aging. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company
Finch, C. E. and Rose, M. R. (1995). Hormones and the physiological architecture of life history evolution. The Quarterly Review of Biology 70: 1–52
Finch, C. E. and Seeman, T. E. (1999). Stress theories of aging. In Handbook of Theories of Aging, V. L. Bengston and K. W. Schaie (eds.). New York: Springer Publishing Co., pp. 81–97
Finch, C. E. and Tanzi, R. E. (1997). Advances in aging research: genetics of aging. Science 278: 407–11
Fisher, R. A. (1930). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Fitton, L. J. (1999). Is Acculturation Healthy? Biological, Cultural, and Environmental Change Among the Cofan of Ecuador. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University
Fozard, J. L., Metter, E. J., and Brant, L. J. (1990). Next steps in describing aging and disease in longitudinal studies. Journal of Gerontology 45: pp. 116–27
Fridovich, I. (1978). The biology of oxygen radicals. Science 201: 875–880
Fridovich, I. (1995). Superoxide radical and superoxide dismutases. Annals of Developmental Biochemistry 64: 97–112
Fried, L. P., Tangen, C. M., Walston, J. et al. for the Collaborative Health Study Collaborative Research Group. (2001). Fraility in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. Journal of Gerontology 56A: M146–56
Friedlaender, J. S. (1987). The Solomon Islands Project. New York: Oxford University Press
Friedman, D. B. and Johnson, T. E. (1988). A mutation in the age-1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans lengthens life and reduces hermaphrodite fertility. Genetics 118: 75–86
Fries, J. F. (1980). Aging, natural death, and the compression of morbidity. New England Journal of Medicine 303: 130–5
Fries, J. F. (1983). The compression of morbidity. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 61: 397–419
Fries, J. F. (1984). The compression of morbidity: miscellaneous comments about a theme. The Gerontologist 24: 354–9
Fries, J. F. (1988). Aging, illness, and health policy: implications of the compression of morbidity. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 31: 407–28
Fries, J. F. (2001). Aging, cumulative disability, and the compression of morbidity. Comprehensive Therapy 27: 322–9
Fries, J. F. and Carpo, L. M. (1981). Vitality and Aging: Implications of the Rectangular Curve. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company
Frisancho, A. R. (1993). Human Adaptation and Accommodation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Frolkis, V. V. (1993). Stress-age syndrome. Mechanisms of Aging and Development 69: 93–107
Garn, S. (1994). Fat, lipid, and blood pressure changes in adult years. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation over the Life Span, D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 301–20
Gavrilov, L. A. and Gavrilova, N. S. (1986). The Biology of Life Span: A Quantitative Approach. New York: Harwood Academic Publishers
Gavrilov, L. A. and Gavrilova, N. S. (1991). The Biology of Life Span: A Quantitative Approach, V. P. Skulachev (ed.), Trans. J. Payne and L. Payne, New York: Harwood Academic
Gavrilov, L. A. and Gavrilova, N. S. (2001). The reliability theory of aging and longevity. Journal of Theoretical Biology 213: 527–45
Geodakian, V. A. (1982). Sexual dimorphism and the evolution of duration of ontogenesis and its stages. In Evolution and Environment, V. J. A. Novák and J. Mlikovsky (eds.). Prague: CSAV
Gerber, L. M. and Crews, D. E. (1999). Evolutionary perspective on chronic degenerative diseases. In Evolutionary Medicine, W. Trevathan, J. McKenna, and N. Smith (eds.). New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 443–69
Gibbons, A. (1990). Gerontology research comes of age. Science 250: 622–5
Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, M. A.: Belknop Press of Harvard University Press
Goodman, A. and Leatherman, T. (1999). Building a Biocultural Synthesis. Ann Arbor, M. I.: University of Michigan Press
Goodman, L. A. (1969). The analysis of population growth when the birth and death rates depend upon several factors. Biometrics 25: 659–81
Gould, S. J. (1996). The Mismeasure of Man: Revised and Expanded. New York: W. W. Norton and Co.
Greenberg, L. J. and Yunis, E. J. (1978). In Birth Defects: Original Article Series, Genetic Control of Autoimmune Disease and Immune Responsiveness and the Relationship to Aging, vol. XIV, no. 1, pp. 249–60
De Grey, A. D. N.J. (1997). A proposed refinement of the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging. BioEssays 19: 161–5
Grigsby, J. S. (1991). Paths for future population aging. Gerontologist 31: 195–203
Grossman, C. J. (1985). Interactions between the gonadal steroids and the immune system. Science 227: 257–61
Greksa, L. P., Hilde, S., and Caceres, E. (1994). Total lung capacity in young highlanders of aumara ancestry. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 94: 477–86
Guralnik, J. M., Simonsick, E. M., Ferrucci, L. et al. (1994). A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. Journal of Gerontology 49: M85–94
Guralnik, J. M., Yanagishita, M., and Schneider, E. L. (1988). Projecting the older population of the United States: lessons from the past and prospects for the future. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 66: 622–5
Hales, C. N. (1997). Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. Journal of Clinical Pathology 50: 359–60
Hales, C. N. and Barker, D. J. P. (1992). Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35: 595–601
Hamilton, W. D. (1966). The moulding of senescence by natural selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 12: 12–45
Harley, C. B., Futcher, A. B. and Greider, C. W. (1990). Telomeres Shorten During Aging of Human Fibroblasts. Nature 345: 458–60
Harman, D. (1956). Aging: a Theory Based on Free Radical and Radiation Chemistry. Journal of Gerontology 11: 298–300
Harman, D. (1981). The aging process. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences USA 178: 7124–8
Harman, D. (1984). Free radicals and the origination, evolution, and present status of the Free Radical Theory in Aging. In Free Radicals in Molecular Biology, Aging, and Disease, D. Armstrong, R. S. Sohal, R. G. Cutler, and T. F. Slater (eds.). New York: Raven Press, pp. 1–12
Harman, D. (1988). Free radicals in aging. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 84: 155–61
Harman, D. (1999). Aging: prospects for further increases in the functional lifespan. Age 17: 119–46
Harper, G. J. (1998). Stress and Adaptation Among Elders in Life-Care Communities, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University
Harper, G. J. and Crews, D. E. (2000). Aging, senescence, and human variation. In Human Biology, S. Stinson, R. Huss-Ashmore, and D. O'Rourke (eds.). New York: Wiley-Liss, pp. 465–505
Harper, G. J., Crews, D. E. and Wood, J. W. (1996). Lack of Age-Related Blood Pressure Increase in the Gainj, Papua New Guinea: Another Low Blood Pressure population. American Journal of Human Biology 6: 122–3 (abstract)
Harrington, C. R. and Wischik, C. M. (1995). Pathogenic Mechanisms in Alzheimer Syndromes and Related Disorders. In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 227–40
Harris, M. (1983). Classification and diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 141: 21–8
Harrison, G. A. (1973). The effects of modern living. Journal of Biosocial Science 5: 217–28
Hart, R. W. and Tuturro, A. (1983). Theories of Aging. In Review of Biological Research in Aging, Vol. 1. New York: Alan R. Liss Inc., pp. 5–18
Harvey, P. H. and Bennet, P. M. (1983). Brain size, energetics, ecology and life history patterns. Nature 306: 314–15
Harvey, P. H., Martin, R. D., and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1987). Life histories in comparative perspective. In Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts et al. (eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 181–96
Hastie, N. D., Dempster, M., Dunlop, M. G., Thompson, A. M., Green, D. K., and Allshire, R. C. (1990). Telomere reduction in human colorectal carcinoma and with ageing. Nature 346: 866–8
Hauspie, R. C. and Susanne, C. (1998). Genetics of child growth. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston, and M. A. Preece (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 124–8
Hawkes, K., O'Connell, J. F., and Blurton Jones, N. G. (1997). Hadza women's time allocation, offspring provisioning, and the evolution of long postmenopausal life span. Current Anthropology 48: 551–77
Hawkes, K., O'Connell, J. F., Blurton Jones, N. G., Alvarez, H., and Charnov, E. L. (1998). Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 95: 1336–9
Hayflick, L. (1965). The Limited In Vitro Lifetime of Human Diploid Cell Strains. Experimental Cell Research 37: 614–36
Hayflick, L. (1987). Origins of longevity. In Modern Biological Theories of Aging, H. R. Warner et al. (eds.). New York: Raven Press, pp. 21–34
Hayflick, L. (1988). Why do we live so long? Geriatrics 43: 77–83
Hayflick, L. and Moorhead, P. S. (1961). The Serial Cultivation of Human Diploid Cell Strains. Experimental Cell Research 25: 585–621
Hazzard, W. R. (1986). Biological basis of the sex differential in longevity. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 34: 455–71
Hendricks, J. and Achenbaum, A. (1999). Historical development of theories of aging. In: Handbook of Theories of Aging, V. L. Bengtson and K. W. Schaie (eds.). New York: Springer, pp. 21–39
Hernández, M. (1998). Hormonal regulation of fetal growth. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston, M. A. Preece (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 151–3
Hill, K. and Hurtado, A. M. (1991). The evolution of premature reproductive senescence in human females: an evaluation of the “Grandmother Hypothesis”. Human Nature 2: 313–50
Hill, K. and Hurtado, A. M. (1999). Packer and colleagues' model of menopause for humans. Human Nature 10: 199–204
Hindmarsh, P. (1998). Endocrinological regulation of post-natal growth. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Uljaszek, F. E Johnston, M. A. Preece (eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 182–3
Hirokawa, K. (1992). Understanding the mechanism of the age-related decline in immune function. Nutrition Reviews 50: 361–6
Hodge, A. M., Dowse, G. K., Gareeboo, H., Tuomilehto, J., Alberti K. G. M. M., J., and Zimmer, P. Z. (1996). Incidence, increasing prevalence, and prediction of change in obesity and fat distribution over 5 years in the rapidly developing population of Mauritius. International Journal of Obesity 20: 137–46
Hoffman, W. R. (1983). On the presumed coevolution of brain size and evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 13: 371–6
Hoffman, W. R. (1984). Energy metabolism, brain size, and longevity in mammals. The Quarterly Review of Biology 58: 495–512
Holden, C. (1987). Why do women live longer than men? Science 238: 158–60
Holmes, L. D. and Rhodes, E. C. (1983). Aging and change in Samoa. In Growing Old in Different Societies: Cross-Cultural Perspectives, J. Sokolovsky (ed.). Belmont, C. A.: Wadsworth, pp. 119–29
Holt, I. J., Harding, A. E., and Morgan Hughes, J. A. (1988). Deletions of muscle mitochondrial DNA in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Nature 331: 717–19
Hong, Y., de Faire, U., Heller, D. A., McClearn, G. E. and Pedersen, N. (1994). Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure in elderly twins. Hypertension 24: 663–70
Howell, T. H. (1963). Multiple pathology in nonagenarians. Geriatrics 18: 899–902
Hunt, K. D. (1994). The evolution of human bipedality: ecology and functional morphology. Journal of Human Evolution 26: 183–202
Idler, E. L. and Kasl, S. (1991). Health perspectives and survival: do global evaluations of health status really predict mortality? Journal of Gerontology 46: S55–65
Imahori, K. (1992). How I understand aging. Nutrition Reviews 50(12): 351–352
Ingram, D. K., Cutler, R. G., Weindruch, R. et al. (1990). Dietary restriction and aging: the initiation of a primate study. Journal of Gerontology 45: B148–63
Ivanova, R., Henon, N., Lepage, V., Charron, D., Vincent, E., and Schachter, F. (1998). HLA-Dr alleles display sex-dependent effects on survival and discriminate between individual and familial longevity. Human Molecular Genetics 7: 187–94
James, G. D. and Baker, P. T. (1990). Human population biology and hypertension: evolutionary and ecological aspects of blood pressure. In Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, J. H. Laragh, B. M. Brenner (eds). New York: Raven Press, pp. 137–145
James, G. D., Crews, D. E., and Pearson, J. (1989). Catecholamine and stress. In Human Population Biology: A Transdisciplinary Science, M. A. Little and J. D. Haas (eds.), New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 280–95
Jialal, I. and Grundy, S. M. (1992). Influence of antioxidant vitamins on LDL oxidation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 669: 237–48
Johnson, R. J. and Wolinsky, F. D. (1994). Gender, race, and health: the structure of health status among older adults. The Gerontologist 34: 24–35
Johnson, T. E. (1990). Increased Life-Span of Age-1 Mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans and lower Gompertz Rate of Aging. Science 249: 908–12
Johnson, T. E. et al. (1995). Group report: research on diverse model systems and the genetic basis of aging and longevity. In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 5–15
Johnston, F. E. (1999). Screening for growth failure in developing countries. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston and M. A. Preece (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Joint National Committee V (JNC V) (1993). The Fifth Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Archives of Internal Medicine 153: 154–83
Judge, D. S. and Carey, J. R. (2000). Postreproductive life predicted by primate patterns. Journal of Gerontology 55A: B201–9
Jun, T., Ke-yan, F., and Catalano, M. (1996). Increased superoxide anion production in humans: a possible mechanism for the pathogenesis of hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension 10: 305–9
Kaplan, G. A. (1991). Epidemiologic observations on the compression of mortality: evidence from the Alameda County Study. Journal of Aging Health 3: 155–71
Katz, S. A. and Armstrong, D. A. (1994). Cousin marriage and the X-chromosome: evolution of longevity. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation Over the Lifespan, D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 101–26
Katz, S. A., Ford, A. B., Moskowitz, R. W., Jackson, B. A., and Jaffee, M. W. (1963). Studies of illness in the aged. The index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. Journal of the American Medical Association 185: 94–101
Katzmarzyk, P. T. and Leonard, W. R. (1998). Climatic influences on human body size and proportions: ecological adaptations and secular trends. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 106: 483–503
Kemnitz, J. W., Weindruch, R., Roecker, E. B., Crawford, K., Kaufman, P. L., and Ershler, W. B. (1993). Dietary Restriction of Adult Male Rhesus Monkeys: Design, Methodology and Preliminary Findings From the First Year of Study. Journal of Gerontology 45: B17–26
Kerber, R. A., O'Brian, E., Smith, K. R., and Cawthan, R. M. (2001). Familial excess longevity in Utah genealogies. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences 56A: B130–9
Keyfitz, N. (1968). Introduction to the Mathematics of Population. Reading, M. A.: Addison-Wesley
Khaw, K. T., Wareham, N., Luben, R. et al. (2001). Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and mortality in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk). British Medical Journal 322: 15–18
Khazaeli A. A., Xiu, L., and Curtsinger, J. W. (1996). Effect of adult cohort density on age-specific mortality in Drosophila: a density supplementation experiment. Genetica 98: 21–31
Kiecolt-Glasser, J. K., Dura, J. R., Speicher, C. E., Trask, O. J., and Glasser, R. (1991). Spousal caregivers of dementia victims: longitudinal changes in immunity and health. Psychosomatic Medicine 53: 345–62
Kiecolt-Glasser, J. K., Fisher, C. D., Ogrocki, P., Stout, J. C., Spencer, C. E., and Glasser, R. (1987). Marital quality, marital disruption, and immune function. Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 13–32
Kinsella, K. and R. Suzman. (1992). Demographic Dimensions of Population Aging in Developing Countries. American Journal of Human Biology 4: 3–8
Kirkwood, TBL. (1977). Evolution of aging. Nature 270: 301–4
Kirkwood, TBL. (1981). Repair and its evolution: survival versus reproduction. In Physiological Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach to Resource Use, C. R. Townsend and P. Calow (eds.). Oxford: Blackwell
Kirkwood, TBL. (1990). The Disposable Soma Theory of Aging. In Genetic Effects on Aging II, D. E. Harrison (ed.). New Jersey: Telford Press, pp. 9–19
Kirkwood, TBL. (1995). What can evolution theory tell us about the mechanisms of aging? In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons
Kirkwood, TBL. (2000). Molecular gerontology – bridging the simple and the complex. Molecular and Cellular Gerontology 908: 14–20
Kirkwood, TBL. and Austad, S. N. (2000). Why do we age? Nature 408: 233–8
Kirkwood, TBL. and Cremer, T. (1982). Cytogerontology since 1881: a reappraisal of August Weismann and a review of modern progress. Human Genetics 60: 101–21
Kirkwood, T. B. and Kowald, A. (1997). Network theory of aging. Experimental Gerontology 32: 395–9
Knopman, D., Boland, L. L., Mosley, T. et al. (2001). Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults. Neurology 56: 42–8
Kondo, O., Dode, Y., Akazawa, T., and Muhesen, S. (2000). Estimation of stature from the skeletal reconstruction of an immature Neanderthal from Dederiyeh Cave, Syria. Journal of Human Evolution, 38: 457–73
Korpelainen, H. (2000). Variation in the heritability and evolvability of human lifespan. Naturwissenschaften 87: 566–8
Kosciolek, B. A. and Rowley, P. T. (1998). Human lymphocyte telomerase is genetically regulated. Genes, Chromosomes, and Cancer 21: 124–30
Kowald, A. and Kirkwood, TBL. (1994). Towards a network theory of aging: a model combining the free radical theory and the protein error theory. Journal of Theoretical Biology 168: 75–94
Krall, E. (1997). Bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in healthy elderly men and women. Journal of Gerontology 52: M61–7
Kreisberg, R. A. (1987). Aging, glucose, metabolism, and diabetes: current concepts. Geriatrics, 42: 67–72
Kurtz, T. W. and Spence, M. A. (1993). Genetics of essential hypertension. American Journal of Medicine 94: 77–84
Kusnetsova, S. M. (1987). Polymorphism of heterochromatin areas on chromosomes 1, 9, 16, and T in long lived subjects and persons of different ages in two regions of the Soviet Union. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 6: 177–86
Lagaay, A. M., D'Amaro, J., Ligthart, G. J., Th. Schreuder, G. M., van Rood, J. J., and Hijmans, W. (1991). Longevity and Heredity in Humans: Association with the Human Leucocyte Antigen Phenotype. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 621: 78–89
Lakatta, E. G. (1990). Heart and circulation. In Handbook of the Biology of Aging, E. L. Schneider and J. W. Rowe (eds.). San Diego: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 181–218
Lakowski, B. and Hekimi, S. (1996). Determination of life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans by Four Clock Genes. Science 272: 1010–13
Lancaster, J. B. and King, B. J. (1985). An evolutionary perspective on menopause. In In Her Prime, J. K. Brown and V. Kerns (eds.). South Hadley, M. A.: Bergin and Garvey
Lane, M. A., Ingram, D. K., and Roth, G. S. (1997). Beyond the rodent model: calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys. Age 20: 45–56
Lapidot, M. B. (1987). Does the brain age uniformly? Evidence from effects of smooth pursuit eye movements on verbal and visual tasks. Journal of Gerontology 42: 329–31
Lasker, G. W., Crews, D. E. (1996). Behavioral influences on the evolution of human genetic evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5: 232–40
Laveist, T. A., Nickerson, K. J. and Bowie, J. V. (2000). Attitudes about racism, medical mistrust and satisfaction with care among African American and white cardiac patients. Medical Care Research and Review 57: 146–61
Law, C. M. (1996). Fetal and infant influences on non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Diabetic Medicine 13: 549–52
Law, C. M., de Swiet, M., and Osmond, C. (1993). Initiation of Hypertension in Utero and its Amplification Throughout Life. British Medical Journal 306: 24–7
Lee, P. C. (1998). Primate life-history. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston, and M. A. Preece (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 102–3
Leidy, L. E. (1999). Menopause in evolutionary perspective. In Evolutionary Medicine, W. R. Trevathan, E. O. Smith and J. J. McKenna (eds). New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 407–27
Leidy-Sievert, L. (2001). Menopause as a measure of population health: an overview. American Journal of Human Biology 13: 429–33
Leigh, S. R. (1996). Evolution of human growth spurts. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 101: 455–74
Le Sourd, B. (1995). Protein undernutrition as the major cause of decreased immune function in the elderly: clinical and functional implications. Nutrition Reviews 53: 586–91
LeSourd, B. (1997). Nutrition and immunity in the elderly: modification of immune responses with nutritional treatments. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66: 478S–84
LeSourd, B., Mazori, L., and Ferry, M. (1998). The role of nutrition in immunity in the aged. Nutrition Reviews 56: S113–25
Levi, L. and Anderson, L. (1975). Psychological Stress. New York: Spectrum Publications
Lezhava, T. (2001). Chromosome and aging: genetic conception of aging. Biogerontology 2: 253–60
Lifton, R. P. (1996). Molecular aspects of human blood pressure variation. Science 272: 676–80
Little, M. A. and Haas, J. D. (eds.). (1989). Human Population Biology: A Transdisciplinary Science. New York: Oxford University Press
Livshits, G., Karasik, D., Pavlovsky, O., and Kobyliansky, E. (1999). Segregation analysis reveals a major gene effect in compact and cancellous bone mineral density in 2 populations. Human Biology 71: 155–72
Loth, S. R., and Isçan, M. V. (1994). Morphological Indicators of Skeletal Aging: Implications for Paleodemography and Paleogerontology. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation Over the Life Span, D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 394–425
Luciani, F., Turchetti, G., Franceschi, C. and Valensin, S. (2001). A mathematical model for the immunosenescence. S. Rivista Di Biologia 94: 305–18
Luckinbill, L. S., Arking, R., Clare, M. J., Cirocco, W. C., and Buck, S. A. (1984). Selection for delayed senescence in Drosophila melangaster. Evolution 38: 996–1003
Ly D. H., Lockhart, D. J., Lerner, R. A., Schultz, P. G. (2000). Mitotic misregulation and human aging. Science 287: 2486–92
Lynn J. (1994). Bad to the bone. Prevention 46: 73
Macdonald, D. (1989). The Encyclopedia of Mammals, 2nd edition. Oxford: Equinox
Macintyre, S., Hunt, K., and Sweeting, H. (1996). Gender differences in health: are things really as simple as they seem? Social Science and Medicine 42: 617–24
Macurová, H., Ivanyi, P., Sajdlova, H., and Trojan, J. (1975). HLA antigens in aged persons. Tissue Antigens 6: 269–71
Malino, R. M. and Bouchard, C. (1991). Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity. Champaign, I.L: Human Kinetics Books
Mancilha-Carvalho, J. J. (1985). Estudo da presso arterial de Indios Yanami. Rio de Janiero, Brazil: Fese de Doutorado
Mancilha-Carvalho, J. J. and Crews, D. E. (1990). Lipid profiles of Yanomamo Indians. Preventative Medicine 19: 66–75
Mangel, M. (2001). Complex adaptive system, aging and longevity. Journal of Theoretical Biology 213: 559–71
Mann, A., Lampl, M., and Monge, J. M. (1996). The evolution of childhood: dental evidence for the appearance of human maturation patterns. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 21(Suppl.): 156 (abstract)
Manton, K. G. (1986a). Cause Specific Mortality Patterns Among the Oldest Old: Multiple Cause of Death Trends 1968 to 1980. Journal of Gerontology 41: 282–9
Manton, K. G. (1986b). Past and Future Life Expectancy Increases at Later Ages: Their Implications for the Linkage of Chronic Morbidity, Disability, and Mortality. Journal of Gerontology 41: 672–81
Manton, K. G. and Gu, X. (2001). Changes in the prevalence of chronic disability in the United States black and nonblack population above age 65 from 1982 to 1999. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 98: 6354–9
Manton, K. G. and Stallard, E. (1984). Recent Trends in Mortality Analysis. Academic Press: New York
Manton, K. G., Corder, L., Stallard, E. (1997). Chronic disability trends in elderly United States populations: 1982–1994. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 94: 2593–8
Manton, K. G., Stallard, E., Tolley, H. D. (1991). Limits to human life expectancy. Population and Development Review 17: 603–37
Manton, K. G., Woodbury, M., and Stallard, E. 1995. Sex differences in human mortality and aging at late ages: the effects of mortality selection and state dynamics. The Gerontologist 35: 597–608
Marks, J. (1994). Human Biodiversity: Genes, Race, and History. New York: Aldine de Gruyter
Marmot M. G., Shipley, M. J., Rose, G. (1984). Inequalities in sex-specific explanations of a general pattern? Lancet 1984(ⅰ): 1003–6
Martin, G. M. (1978). Genetic syndromes in man with potential relevance to the pathobiology of aging. Birth Defects Original Article Series 14: 5–39
Martin, G. M. and Turker, M. S. (1994). Genetics of human disease, longevity, and aging. In Principles of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, W. R. Hazzard, E. L. Bierman, J. P. Blass et al. (eds.). New York: McGraw-Hill
Martin, G. M. et al. (1995). Group report: do common underlying mechanisms of aging contribute to the pathogenesis of major geriatric disorders? In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and B. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley & Sons
Martin, G. M., Austad, S. N., and Johnson, T. E. (1996). Genetic analysis of ageing: role of oxidative damage and environmental stresses. Nature Genetics 13: 25–34
Marx, J. (2000). Chipping away at the causes of aging. Science 287: 2390
Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. (1991). Nutritional status: its measurement and relation to health. In Applications of Biological Anthropology to Human Affairs C. G. N. Masice-Taylor and G. W. Lasker (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–82
Masoro, E. J. (1995). McCay's Hypothesis: Undernutrition and Longevity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 54: 657–664
Masoro, E. J. (1996). The biological mechanism of aging: is it still an enigma? Age 19: 141–5
Mattock, C., Marmot, M., and Stern, G. (1988). Could Parkinson's disease follow intra-uterine influenza? A speculative hypothesis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 51: 753–6
Mayer, P. J. (1982). Evolutionary advantage of the menopause. Human Ecology 10: 477–93
Mayer, P. J. (1991). Inheritance of Longevity Evinces no Secular Trend Among Members of Six New England Families Born in 1650–1874. American Journal of Human Biology 3: 49–58
Mayer, P. J. (1994). Human immune system aging: approaches, examples, and ideas. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation over the Life Span, D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 182–213
McCay, C. M., Crowell, M. F., and Maynard, L. A. (1935). The Effect of Retarded Growth on the Length of Life Span and upon Ultimate Body Size. Journal of Nutrition 10: 255–63
McEwen, B. S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine 338: 171–9
McEwen, B. S. (1999). Allostasis and allostatic load: implications for neuropsychopharmacology. Neuropsycopharmacology 22: 108–24
McEwen, B. S. and Seeman, T. (1999). Protecting and damaging effects of mediators of stress: elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 896: 30–47
McEwen, B. S. and Steeler, E. (1993). Stress and the individual: mechanisms leading to disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 153: 2093–101
McGarvey, S. T., Levinson, P. D., Bausserman, L., Galanis, D. L., and Hornick, C. A. (1993). Population Change in Adult Obesity and Blood lipids in American Samoa from 1976–1978 to 1990. American Journal of Human Biology 5: 17–30
McIntosh, W. A., Kaplan, H. B., Kubena, K. S., and Landman, W. A. (1993). Life events, social support, and immune response in elderly individuals. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 37: 23–36
McLong, P. A. (2000). Aging and Glycemia in a Nonwesternized Context: Rural Maya Females in Yucatan, Mexico, Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, I. L
Mead, J. F. (1976). Free radical mechanisms of lipid damage and consequences for cellular membranes. In Free Radicals in Biology, vol. 1, W. A. Pryor (ed.). New York: Academic Press, pp. 51–68
Medawar, P. B. (1946). Old age and natural death. Mod. Quart. 1: 30–56
Medawar, P. B. (1952). An Unsolved Problem of Biology. London: H. K. Lewis
Menzel, H-J., Kladetzky, R-G., and Assmann, G. (1983). Apoliopoprotein E polymorphism and coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis 3: 310–15
Miller, R. A. (1995). Geroncology: The Study of Aging as the Study of Cancer. In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 265–80
Minc-Golomb, D., Knobler, H., and Groner, Y. (1991). Gene dosage of CuZnSOD and Down's Syndrome: diminished prostaglandin synthesis in human trisomy 21, transfected cells and transgenic mice. EMBO. J. 10: 2119–2124
Mitrushina, M., Fogel, T., D'Elia, L., Uchiyama, C., and Satz, P. (1995). Performance on motor tasks as an indication of increased behavioral asymmetry with advancing age. Neuropsychologia 33: 359–64
Mitrushina, M., Uchiyama, C., and Satz, P. (1995). Heterogeneity of cognitive profiles in normal aging: implications for early manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Research 17: 374–82
Miyamoto, H., Manabe, N., Akiyama, Y., Mitani, Y., Sugimoto, M., and Salo, E. (1994a). Quantitative studies on spermatogenesis in the senescence accelerated mouse. In The SAM Model of Senescence, T. Takeda (ed.). Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam, pp. 275–8
Miyamoto, H., Manabe, N., Watanabe, T. et al. (1994b). Female reproductive characteristics of the senescence accelerated mouse. In The SAM Model of Senescence, T. Takeda (ed.). Elsevier Science B. V., Amsterdam, pp. 279–90
Molnar, S. (2000). Human Variation: Races, Types, and Ethnic Groups, 5th edition. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall
Monnier, V. M., Sell, D. R., Nagara, R. H., and Miyata, S. (1991). Mechanisms of protection against damage mediated by the maillard reactions in aging. Gerontology 37: 152–65
Montagu, M. F. A. (1962). The concept of race. American Anthropologist 64: 919–28
Morrison, N. A., Tokita, A., Kelly, P. J., Crofts, L., Nguyen, T. V., Sambrook, N., and Eisman, J. A. (1994). Prediction of bone density from vitamin D reception alleles. Nature, 367: 284–87
Mossey, J. M. and Shapiro, E. (1982). Self-related health: a predictor of mortality among the elderly. American Journal of Public Health 72: 800–8
Mueller, W. H. (1998). Genetic and environmental influences on fetal growth. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston, and M. A. Preece (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 133–56
Muldoon, M. F., Manuck, S. B., and Matthews, K. A. (1990). Lowering cholesterol of concentrations and mortality: a quantitative review of primary prevention trials. British Medical Journal 301: 309–14
Mulrow, C. D., Gerety, M. B., Cornell, J. E., Lawrence, V. A., and Katen, D. N. (1994). The relationship of disease and function and perceived health in very frail elders. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 42: 374–80
Multhaup, G., Ruppert, T., Schlicksupp, A. et al. (1997). Reactive oxygen species and Alzheimer's disease. Biochemical Pharmacology 54: 533–9
Murphy, S. L. 2000. Deaths: Final Report for 1998. National Vital Statistics Reports 48. Hyattsville, M. D.: NCHS
Myers G. C. and Manton, K. G. (1984). Compression of mortality: myth or reality? The Gerontologist 24: 346–53
Namba, Y., Tomonaga, M., Kawasaki, H., Otomo, E., and Ikeda, K. (1991). Apolipoprotein E immunoreactivity in cerebral amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease and kuryplaque amyloid in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Brain Research 541: 163–6
Nathanielsz, P. W. (1996). The timing of birth. American Scientist 84: 562–9
National Center for Health Statistics. (1987). Aging in the eighties, functional limitations of individuals age 65 years and over. Advance Data from Vital Health Statistics (No. 133. DHHS Publ. No (PHS) 87–1250). Hyattsville, M. D.: Public Health Services
National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (NCEP) (1993). Expert Panel on Detection and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Summary of the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel II). Journal of the American Medical Association 269: 3015–23
Neel, J. V. (1962). Diabetes mellitus: a “thrifty” genotype rendered detrimental by “progress.” American Journal of Human Genetics 14: 353–62
Neel, J. V. (1982). The thrifty genotype revisited. In The Genetics of Diabetes Mellitus, J. Kobberling and R. Tattersall (eds.). London: Academic Press
Newcomb, T. G. and Leob, L. A. (1998). Oxidative DNA damage and mutagenesis. In DNA Damage and Repair, J. Nickoloff and M. Hoekstra (eds.). New Jersey: Human Press
Nimchimsky, E. A., Gilssen, E., Allman, J. M., Perl, D. P. Erwin, J. M., and Hof, P. R. (1999). A neuronal morphologic type unique to humans and great apes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 96: 5268–73
O'Hara, R., Yesavage, J. A., Kraemer, H. C. et al. (1998). The APOE 4 allele is associated with decline on delayed recall performance in community-dwelling elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 46: 1493–8
O'Connor, K., Holman, D. J., and Wood, J. W. (1998). Declining fecundity and ovarian aging in natural fertility populations. Maturitas 21: 103–13; 30: 127–36
Okabe T., Hamaguchi, K., Inafuku, T., and Hara, M. (1996). Aging and superoxide dismutase activity in cerebrospinal fluid. Journal of Neurological Science 141: 100–4
Olofsson, P., Schwalb, O., Chakraborty, R., and Kimmel, M. (2001). An application of a general branching process in the study of the genetics of aging. Journal of Theoretical Biology 213: 547–57
Oliver, D. L. (1961). The Pacific Islanders. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Company. Inc.
Oliver, M. F. (1992). Doubts about preventing coronary heart disease. Multiple interventions in middle aged men may do more harm than good. British Medical Journal 304: 393–4
Olovnikov, A. M. (1996). Telomeres, telomerase, and aging: origin of the theory. Experimental Gerontology 4: 443–8
Olshansky, S. J. and Carnes, B. A. (1994). Demographic perspectives of human senescence. Population and Development Review 20: 57–80
Olshansky, S. J., Carnes, B. A., and Cassel, C. (1990). In search of Methuselah: estimating the upper limits to human longevity. Science 250: 634–40
Olshansky, S. J., Carnes, B. A., and Grahn, D. (1998). Confronting the boundaries of human longevity. American Scientist 86: 52–61
Omran, A. R. (1971). The epidemiologic transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 49: 509–38
Omran, A. R. (1983). The epidemiological transition theory. A preliminary update. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 29: 305–16
Orgel, L. E. (1970). The maintenance of the accuracy of protein synthesis and its relevance to aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 49: 517–21
Orgel, L. E. (1973). Aging of clones of mammalian cells. Nature 243: 441–5
Orr, W. C. and Sohal, R. S. (1994). Extension of life span by overexpression of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 263: 1128–30
Ossa, K. and Crews, D. E. (in press). Biological and genetic theories of the process of aging throughout life. In Age-Between Nature and Culture, C. Sauvain-Dugergil and N. Mascie-Taylor (eds.). International Union for the Scientific Study of Population
Packer, C., Tatar, M., and Collin, A. (1998). Reproductive cessation in female mammals. Nature 392: 807–10
Paffenbarger, R. S., Hyde, R. T., Wing, A. L., and Hsieh, C. (1986). Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. New England Journal of Medicine 314: 605–13
Page, et al. (1974)
Pamuk, E., Makue, D., Heck, K., Reuben, C., and Lochner, K. (1998). Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook. Hyattsville, M. D.: National Center for Health Statistics
Papasteriades, C., Boki, K., Pappa, H., Hedonopoulos, S., Papasteriadis, E., and Economidou, J. (1997). HLA phenotypes in healthy aged subjects. Gerontology 43: 176–81
Partridge, L. and Fowler, K. (1992). Direct and correlated responses to selection on age at reproduction in Drosophila melangaster. Evolution 46: 76–91
Pavelka, M. S. M. and Fedigan, L. M. (1991). Menopause: a comparative life history perspective. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 34: 13–38
Paz, et al. (1995). Chapter 11. In Molecular Aspects of Aging K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Willey and Sons
Pearl, R. (1922). The Biology of Death. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co.
Pearl, R. (1928). The Rate of Living Theory. New York: A. A. Knopf
Pearl, R. (1931). Studies on human longevity III: the inheritance of longevity. Human Biology 3: 245–53
Pearl, R. and Pearl, H. D. (1934). The Ancestry of the Long-Lived. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Pearson, J. D. and Crews, D. E. (1998). Apoptosis: programmed cell death. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E Johnston, M. A. Preece (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 431
Peccei, J. S. (1995a). A hypothesis for the origin and evolution of menopause. Mauritas 21: 83–9
Peccei, J. S. (1995b). The origin and evolution of menopause: the altriciality-lifespan hypothesis. Etiology and Sociobiology 16: 425–49
Peccei, J. S. (2001a). A critique of the grandmother hypotheses: old and new. American Journal of Human Biology 13(4): 434–452
Peccei, J. S. (2001b). Menopause: Adaptation or Epiphenomenon? Evolutionary Anthropology. 10 (2001): 43–57
Perls, T. T. (1995). The oldest old. Scientific American 272: 70–5
Perls, T. T. (2001). Genetic and phenotypic markers among centenarians. Journal of Gerontology 56A: M67–70
Perls, T. P. and Silver, M. H. with Lanerman, J. F. (1995). Living to 100: Lessons in Living to your Maximum Potential at any Age. New York: Basic Books
Pfeiffer, S. (1982). The evolution of human longevity: distinctive mechanisms? Canadian Journal on Aging 9: 95–103
Plassman, B. L., Welsh, K. A., Helms, M., Brandt, J., Page, W. F., and Breitner, J. C. (1995). Intelligence and education as predictors of cognitive state in late life: a 50-year follow-up. Neurology 45: 1446–50
Pletcher, S. D. and Curtsinger, J. W. (1998). Age-specific properties of spontaneous mutations affecting mortality in Drosophila melangaster. Genetics 148: 287–303
Prothero, J. and Jürgens. K. D. (1987). Scaling of maximum life span in mammals: a review. Basic Life Sciences 42: 49–74
Proust, J., Moulias, R., Fumero, F., Bekkhoucha, F., Busson, M., and Schmid, M. (1982). HLA and longevity. Tissue Antigens 19: 168–73
Pryor, W. A. (1984). Free radicals in autoxidation and in aging. In Free Radicals in Molecular Biology, Aging, and Disease, D. Armstrong, R. S. Sohal. R. G. Cutler, and T. F. Slater (eds.). New York: Raven Press, pp. 13–42
Puca, A., Shea, M., Bowen, J. et al. (2000). Familial clustering for extreme longevity and patterns of inheritance. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 48: 1483–5
Raeven, G. M. and Raeven, E. P. (1985). Age, glucose intolerance, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of the Geriatric Society 33: 286–90
Raeven, G. M. (1988). Banting Lecture. Role of Insulin Resistance in Human Disease. Diabetes 37: 1595–607
Rakowski, W., and Pearlman, D. N. (1995). Demographic aspects of aging: current and future trends. In Care of the Elderly: Clinical Aspects of Aging, W. Reichel (ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 488–495
Reff, M. E. (1985). RNA and protein metabolism. In Handbook of the Biology of Aging, 2nd edition, C. E. Finch and E. L. Schneider (eds.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold CO.: pp. 225–54
Resnick, D. (1985). Costs of reproduction: an evaluation of the empirical evidence. Oikos 44: 257–67
Richter, C. (1988). Do mitochondrial DNA fragments promote cancer and aging? FEBS Letters 241: 1–5
Richter, C. (1995). Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and its relationship to aging. In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin, (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 99–108
Richter, C., Park, J. W., and Ames, B. N. (1988). Normal oxidative damage to mitochondrial nuclear DNA is extensive. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 85: 6465–67
Rogers, R. (1992). Living and dying in the U.S. A.: sociodemographic determinants of death among blacks and whites. Demography, 29: 287–303
Rose, M. R. (1984). Laboratory evolution of postponed senescence in Drosophila melangaster. Evolution 38: 1004–10
Rose, M. R. (1991). The Evolutionary Biology of Aging. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Rosen, D. R., Siddique, T., and Patterson, D. (1993). Mutations on Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature 362: 59–62
Rosenwaike, L. (1985). A demographic portrait of the oldest old. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 63: 187–205
Roth, G. S., Ingram, D. K., and Lane, M. A. (1995). Slowing aging by caloric restriction. Nature Medicine 1: 414–15
Rowland, R. and Roberts, J. (1982). Blood pressure levels and hypertension in persons ages 6–74 years: United States, 1976–1980. In Vital Health Statistics, no. 84. Department of Health and Human Services Publication 82–1250. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office
Sacher, G. A. (1975). Maturation and longevity in relation to cranial capacity in hominid evolution. In Primate Functional Morphology and Evolution, R. Tuttle (ed.). The Hague: Mouton, pp. 417–41
Sacher, G. A. (1977). Life table modification and life prolongation. In Handbook of the Biology of Aging, L. Hayflick and C. E. Finch (eds.). New York: Academic Press, pp. 582–638
Sacher, G. A. (1980). Mammalian life histories: their evolution and molecular genetic mechanism. In Aging, Cancer, and Cell Membranes, C. Borek, C. M. Fenoglis and D. W. King (eds.). New York: Thieme-Straton Inc.
Santos, R. V. and Coimbra, C. A. E. (1996). Socioeconomic differentiation and body morphology in the Surui of Southwestern Amazonia. Current Anthropology 37: 851–6
Sapolsky, R. M. (1990). The adrenocortical axis. In Handbook of the Biology of Aging, E. L. Schneider and J. W. Rowe (eds.). San Diego: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 330–48
Sapolsky, R. M. (1992). Stress, the Aging Brain, and the Mechanism of Neuron Death. Cambridge, M. A.: NIT Press
Satta, Y., O'Huigin, C., Takahata, N., and Klein, J. (1994). Intensity of natural selection at the major histocompatibility complex loci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 91: 7184–8
Schächter, F., Faire–Delanef, L., Guenot, F. et al. (1994). Genetic association with human longevity at the APOE and ACE loci. Nature Genetics 6: 29–32
Schell, L. M. (1991). Pollution and human growth: lead, noise, polychlorobiphenyl compounds and toxic wastes. In Applications of Biological Anthropology in Human Affairs, C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor and G. W. Lasker (eds.). New York Cambridge University Press, pp. 83–116
Schlenker, E. (1998). Nutrition in Aging. Dubuque, I. A.: WCB/McGraw-Hill
Schoenfeld, D. E., Malmrose, L. C., Blazer, D. G., Gold, D. T., and Seeman, T. E. (1994). Self-rated health and mortality in the high-functioning elderly – a closer look at healthy individuals: MacArthur field study of successful aging. Journal of Gerontology 49: M109–15
Schulz-Aellen, M. F. (1997). Aging and Human Longevity. Boston: Birkhauser
Schuster, H., Wienker, T. F., Stremmler, U., Noll, B., Steinmetz, A., and Luft, F. C. (1995). An angiotensin-converting enzyme gene variant is associated with acute myocardial infarction in women but not in men. American Journal of Cardiology 76: 601–3
Schrimshaw, N. S. and Young, V. R. (1989). Adaptation to low protein and energy intakes. Human Organization 48: 20–30
Seeman, T. E., Singer, B. H., Rowe, J. W., Horowitz, R. I., and McEwen, B. S. (1997). Price of adaptation – allostatic load and its consequences. Archives of Internal Medicine 157: 2259–68
Seltzer, C. C. (1966). Some re-evaluations of the build and blood pressure study, 1959, as related to ponderal index, somatotype and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 274: 254–9
Selye, H. (1956). The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw-Hill
Service, P. M. (1987). Physiological mechanisms of increased stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster selected for postponed senescence. Physiological Zoology 60: 321–6
Service, P. M. (2000a). The genetic structure of female life history in D. melanogaster: comparisons among populations. Genetic Research 75: 153–66
Service, P. M. (2000b). Heterogeneity in individual mortality risk and its importance for evolutionary studies of senescence. The American Naturalist 156: 1–13
Service, P. M., Hutchinson, E. W., Mackinley, M. D., and Rose, M. R. (1985). Resistance to environmental stress in Drosophila melangaster selected for postponed senescence. Physiological Zoology 58: 380–9
Service, P. M., Micheli, C. A., and McGill. (1998). Experimental evolution of senescence: an analysis using a “heterogeneity” mortality model. Evolution 52: 1844–50
Sevanian, A. (1985). Mechanisms and consequences of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Annual Review of Nutrition 5: 365–90
Severson, L. D. (2001). HLA, microsatellite, and viral DNA sequences in American Samoans and Yanomami Indians. Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University
Severson, L. D., Crews, D. E., and Lang, R. W. (1997). Application of SSP/ARMS to HLA class 1 loci in Samoans. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference, vol. 11 (ed. D. Charron). Paris: EDK
Shay, J. W. (1997). Molecular pathogenesis of aging and cancer: are telomeres and telomerase the connection? Journal of Clinical Pathology 50: 799–800
Shay, J. W. and Werbin, H. (1992). New evidence for the insertion of mitochondrial DNA into the human genome: significance for cancer and aging. Mutation Research 275: 227–35
Shay, J. W. et al. (1995). Chapter 13. In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons
Shay, J. W. (1998). Molecular pathogenesis of aging and cancer: are telomeres and telomerase: the connection. Journal of Clinical Pathology 50: 799–800
Shea, B. (1998). Growth in non-human primates. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston, and M. A. Preece (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 100–3
Shimokata, H., Muller, D.C., Fleg, J. L., Sorkin, J., Ziemba, A. W., and Andres, R. (1991). Age as an independent determinant of glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 40: 44–51
Shippen, D. E. (1993). Telomeres and telomerase. Current Opinions in Genetics of Development 3: 759–63
Shock, N. W. (1984). Normal Human Aging: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: NIH Publication No. 84–2450
Shock, N. W. (1985). Longitudinal studies of aging in humans. In Handbook of the Biology of Aging, 2nd edition, C. E. Finch and E. L. Schneider (eds.). New York: Van Nostrans Reinhold. pp. 721–43
Silva, H. P. (2001). Growth, development, nutrition, and health in Caboclo populations from the Brazilian Amazon, PhD dissertation. The Ohio State University
Silva, H. P., Crews, D. E. (in preparation). Race and ethnicity in biomedical and biosocial research: where are we and where do we go from here?
Silva, H. P., Crews, D. E., and Neves, W. A. (1995). Subsistence patterns and blood pressure variation in two rural “Caboclo” communities on Marajo Island, Para, Brazil. American Journal of Human Biology 7: 535–42
Sing, C. F. E., Boerwinkle, E. A., and Moll, P. P. (1985). Strategies for elucidating the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of a chronic disease with a complex etiology. In Diseases of Complex Etiology in Small Populations, R. Chakraborty and E. J. E. Szathmary (eds.). New York: Alan R. Liss
Slagboom, P. E., Droog, S., and Boomsma, D. I. (1994). Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: a twin study of three age groups. American Journal of Human Genetics 55: 876–82
Smith, B. H. (1986). Dental development in Australopithecus and early Homo. Nature 323: 327–30
Smith, B. H. (1991). Dental development and the evolution of life history in Hominidae. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 86: 157–74
Smith, B. H. (1992). Life history and the evolution of human maturation. Evolutionary Anthropology 1: 134–42
Smith, B. H. (1993). The physiological age of KNM-WT 1500. In The Nariokotome Homo erectus Skeleton, A. Walker and R. Leakey (eds.). New York: Harvard University Press, pp. 195–220
Smith, B. H. and Tompkins, R. L. (1995). Toward a life history of the Hominidae. Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 257–79
Smith, D. (1993). Human Longevity. New York: Oxford University Press
Snieder, H., van Doornen, L. J., and Boomsma, D. I. (1997). The age dependency of gene expression for plasm lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. American Journal of Human Genetics 60: 638–50
Snowdon, D. (1990). Early natural menopause and the duration of postmenopausal life: findings for a mathematical model of life expectancy. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 38: 402–408
Snowdon, D. A., Lane, R. A., Beeson, W. L. et al. (1989). Is Early Natural Menopause a Biological Marker of Health and Aging? American Journal of Public Health 79: 709–14
Sohal, R. S. and Orr, W. C. (1995). Is Oxidative Stress a Causal Factor in Aging? In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 109–38
Sohal, R. S. and Weindruch, R. (1996). Oxidative stress, caloric restriction, and aging. Science 273: 59–63
Sorlie, P. D., Backlund, E., and Keller, J. B. (1995). U.S. mortality by economic, demographic, and social characteristics: the national longitudinal mortality study. American Journal Public Health 85: 949–56
Soubrier, F. and Bonnardeaux, A. (1994). Role and identification of the genes involved in human hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 8: 579–85
Sozou, P. D. and Krikwood, TBL. (2001). A stochastic model of cell replicative senescence based on telomere shortening, oxidative stress, and somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. American Journal of Human Biology 213: 573–86
Stadtman, E. R. (1992). Protein oxidation and aging. Science 257: 1220–3
Stadtman, E. R. (1995). The Status of Oxidatively Modified Proteins as a Marker of Aging. In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 129–144
Sternberg, E. M. (1997). Perspectives Series: Cytokines and the Brain. Neural-immune interactions in health and disease. Journal of Clinical Investigation 100: 2641–7
Sterns, S. C. (1992). The Evolution of Life Histories. New York: Oxford University Press
Sterns, S. C. and Hoekstra, R. F. (2000). Evolution: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press
Steward, J. H. (1977). Evolution and Ecology: Essays on Social Transformation, J. C. Steward and R. F. Murphy, (eds.). University of Illinois Press
Stini, W. A. (1971). Evolutionary implications of changing nutritional patterns in human populations. American Anthropologist 73: 1019–30
Stini, W. A. (1972). Malnutrition, body size, and proportion. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 1: 1–6
Stini, W. A. (1990). Changing patterns of morbidity and mortality and the challenge to health care delivery systems of the future. Collegium Anthropologium 14: 189–95
Stini, W. A. (1991). Nutrition and Aging: Intraindividual Variation. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation over the Life Span, D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 232–71
Stini, W. A. (in press). Sex differences in bone loss: an evolutionary perspective on a clinical problem. Collegium Anthropologicum
Stinson, S. (1985). Sex differences in environmental sensitivities during growth and development. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 28: 123–47
Strehler, B. (1982). Time, Cells, and Aging. New York: Academic Press
Strittmatter, J. J. and Roses, A. D. (1995). Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 92: 4725–7
Strong, M. J. and Garruto, R. M. (1994). Neuronal aging and age-related disorders. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation Over the Life Span, D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 214–31
Sugiyama, Y. (1994). Age-specific birth rate and lifetime reproductive success of chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. American Journal of Primatology 32: 311–18
Sullivan, T. V. (2002). The Growth Status of Guatamallian Street Children. PhD. thesis, Suny-Buffalo
Susser, M., Watson, W., and Hopper, K. (1985). Sociology in Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press
Swartz, H. M. and Mäder, K. (1995). Free radicals in aging: theories, facts, and artifacts. In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and B. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons
Swedlund, A. C. et al. (1976). Population studies in the Connecticut Valley: a prospectus. Journal of Human Ecology, 5: 75
Swedlund A. C., Meindl, R. S., and Gradie, M. I. (1980). Family reconstitution in the Connecticut valley: progress on record linkage and the mortality survey. In Genealogical Demography, B. Dyke, W. Morrill (eds.). New York: Academic Press. pp. 139–55
Swedlund, A. C., Meindl, R. S., Nydon., J., and Gradie, M. I. (1983). Family Patterns in Longevity and Longevity Patterns of the Family. Human Biology 55: 115–29
Takata, H., Suzuki, M., Ishi, T., Seiguchi, S., and Iri, H. (1987). Influence of major histocompatibility complex region genes on human longevity among Okinawan-Japanese centenarians and nonagenarians. Lancet 2: 824–6
Takeda, T., Hosokawa, M., and Higuchi, K. (1991). Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). A novel murine model of aging. 39: 911–19
Takeda, T., Hosokawa, M., and Higuchi, K. (1994). Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). A novel murine model of aging. In The SAM model of Senescence, T. Takeda (ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, pp. 15–22
Tanaka, M., Gong, J-S., Zang, J., Yaneda, M., and Yagi, K. (1998). Mitochondrial genotype associated with longevity. Lancet 351: 185–6
Tanner, J. M. (1981). A History of the Study of Human Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Tanner, C. M., Offman, R., Goldman, S. M. et al. (1999). Parkinson's disease in twins: an etiologic study. Journal of the American Medical Association 281: 341–6
Tanner, J. M. (1990). Fetus Into Man: Physical Growth from Conception to Maturity (revised and enlarged). Cambridge MA: Harvard Press
Templeton, A. R. (2002). Out of Africa again and again. Nature 416: 45–51
Thomas, P. D., Goodwin, J. M., and Goodwin, J. S. (1985). Effect of social support on stress-related changes in cholesterol level, uric acid level, and immune function in an elderly sample. American Journal of Psychiatry 142: 735–7
Thompson, J.S, Wekstein, D. R., Rhoades, J. L. et al. (1984). The immune Status of healthy centenarians. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 32: 274–81
Thompson, J. L. and Nelson, A. J. (2000). The place of Neanderthals in the evolution of hominids patterns of growth and development. Journal of Human Evolution 38: 475–95
Tietlebaum, M. S. (1975). Relevance of demographic transition theory to developing populations. Science 188: 420–5
Tissenbaum, H. A. and Ruvkun, G. (1998). An insulin-like signaling pathway effects both longevity and reproduction in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 148: 703–17
Torrey, E. F., Miller, J., Rawlings, R., and Yolken, R. (2000). Seasonal birth patterns of neurological disorders. Neuroepidemiology 19: 177–85
Toupance, B., Gordelle, B., Gouyon, P-H., and Schacter, F. (1998). A model for antagonistic pleiotropic gene action for mortality and advanced age. American Journal of Human Genetics 62: 1525–34
Tucker, K. (1995). Micronutrient status and aging. Nutritional Reviews 53: 59–15
Tuomo, P., Sulkava, R., Haltia, M. et al. (1996). Apolipoprotein E, dementia, and cortical deposition of β-amyloid protein. New England Journal of Medicine 333: 1242–7
Turke, P. W. (1997). Hypothesis: menopause discourages infanticide and encourages continued investment by agnates. Evolution and Human Behavior 18: 3–13
Turner, T. and Weiss, M. (1994). The genetic of longevity in humans: models, biomarkers and population data. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation Over the Life Span, D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). New York: Oxford University Press
Ulijaszek, S. (1998a). Comparative growth and development of mammals. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston, and M. A. Preece, (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 96–9
Ulijaszek, S. (1998b). The genetics of growth. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Ulijaszek, F. E. Johnston, and M. A. Preece (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 121–3
Ulijaszek S. J., Johnston, F. E., and Preece M. A. (eds.) (1999). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
United Nations. (1996). Demographic Yearbook. New York: United Nations
Vaag, A., Alford, F., and Becknielsen, H. (1996). Intracellular glucose and fat metabolism in identical twins discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM): aquired verses genetic metobolic defects? Diabetic Medicine 13: 806–15
van Bockxmeer, F. M. (1994). ApoE and ACE genes: impact on human longevity. Nature Genet. 6: 4–5
VanVoorhies, W. A. (1992). Production of sperm reduces nematode life span. Nature 360: 456–8
Vaupel, J. W. (1988). Inherited frailty and longevity. Demography 25: 277–87
Vaupel, J. W., Carey, J. R., Christensen, K. et al. (1998). Biodemographic trajectories of longevity. Science 280: 855–60
Vaupel, J. W., Manton, K. G., and Stallard, E. (1979). The Impact of Heterogeneity in Individual Frailty on the Dynamics of Mortality. Demography 16: 439
Verbrugge, L. M. (1984). Longer life but worsening health: trends in health and mortality of middle-aged and older persons. Millbank Memorial Fund. Quartely 62: 475–519
Verbrugge, L. M. (1989). The dynamics of population aging and health. In Aging and Health, S. J. Lewis and P. Baran (eds.). Chelsea: Lewis Publishers, Inc., pp. 23–40
Vijg, J. and Wei, J. Y. (1995). Understanding the biology of aging: the key to prevention and therapy. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 43: 426–34
Waldron, I. (1983). The role of genetic and biological factors in sex differences in mortality. In Sex Differentials in Mortality: Trends, Determinants, and Consequences, A. D. Lopez and L. T. Ruzicka (eds.). Canberra: Australian National University Press
Walford, R. L. (1968). The 120-Year Diet. New York: Simon and Schuster
Walford, R. L. (1969). The Immunological Theory of Aging. Copenhagen: Munksgaard Kobenhaven
Walford, R. (1984). Maximum Life Span. New York: Avon Printing. (p. 70)
Wallace, D.C. (1992a). Diseases of the mitochondrial DNA. Annual Review of Biochemistry 61: 1175–212
Wallace, D.C. (1992b). Mitochondrial genetics: a paradigm for aging and degenerative diseases? Science 256: 628–32
Wallace, D.C. (2001). A mitochondrial paradigm for degenerative diseases and aging. Novartis Foundation Symposium 235: 247–63
Wallace, D.C., Bohr, V. A., Cortopassi, G. et al. (1995). Group report: The role of bioenergetic and mitochondrial DNA mutations in aging and age-related diseases. In Molecular Aspects of Aging, K. Esser and G. M. Martin (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 199–225
Wallace, D.C., Singh, G., Lott, M. T. et al. (1988). Mitochondrial DNA mutation associated with Lieber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Science 242: 1427–30
Warner, H. R. (1994). Superoxide dismutase, aging and degenerative disease. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 17: 249–58
Webster, N. (1983). Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, Deluxe Second Edition. New York: Simon and Schuster
Weder, A. B. and Schork, N.J. (1994). Adaptation, allometry, and hypertension. Hypertension 24: 145–56
Wei, Y. H. (1998). Oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA mutations in human aging. Publication of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 217: 53–63
Weindrunch, R. (1989). Dietary restriction, tumors, and aging in rodents. Journal of Gerontology 44: 67–71
Weindrunch, R. and Walford, R. L. (1988). The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas
Weindrunch, R., Marriott, B. M., Conway, J. et al. (1995). Measures of body size and growth in rhesus and squirrel monkeys subject to long-term dietary restriction. American Journal of Primatology 35: 207–28
Weismann, A. (1889). The Duration of Life (A Paper Presented in 1881). In Essays upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems, E. B. Poulton, S. Schonland, and A. E. Shipley (eds.). Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 1–66
Weiss, K. M. (1981). Evolutionary perspectives on aging. In Other Ways of Growing Old: Anthropological Perspectives, P. T. Amoss and S. Harrell (eds.). Stanford, C. A.: Stanford University Press, pp. 25–58
Weiss, K. M. (1984). On the Number of Members of Genus Homo Who Have Ever Lived, and Some Evolutionary Interpretations. Human Biology 56: 637–49
Weiss, K. M. (1989a). Are Known Chronic Diseases Related to the Human Lifespan and its Evolution? American Journal of Human Biology 1: 307–19
Weiss, K. M. (1989b). A survey of biodemography. J Quantitative Anthropology 1: 79–151
Weiss, K. M. (1990). The Biodemography of Variation in Human Frailty. Demography 27: 185–206
Weiss, K. M., Ferrell, R. E., and Hanis, C. L. (1984). A New World “Syndrome” of metabolic diseases with a genetic and evolutionary basis. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 27: 153
Westendorp, R. J. P. and Kirkwood, TBL. (1998). Human longevity at the cost of reproductive success. Nature 396: 743–6
Whitbourne, S. K. (1985). The Aging Body: Physiological Changes and Psychological Consequences. New York: Springer-Verlag
Wilding, G. (1995). Endocrine control of prostate cancer. Cancer Surveys 23: 43–62
Williams, D. R. (1998). African American health: the role of the social environment. Journal of Urban Health Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 75: 300–21
Williams, G. C. (1957). Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 11: 398–411
Wilmoth, J. R., Deegan, L. J., Lunström, H., Horiuchi, S. (2000). Increase of maximum life-span in Sweden, 1861–1999. Science 289: 2366–8
Wilson, E. O. and Bossert, W. H. (1971). A Primer of Population Biology. Stamford, C. T.: Sinauer Associates
Wilson, T. W. and Grim, C. E. (1991). Biohistory of slavery and blood pressure differences in Blacks today: a hypothesis. Hypertension 17: I122–8
Wolpoff, M. (1998). Paleoanthropology. McGraw-Hill
Wood, J. W., Bentley, G. R., and Weiss, K. M. (1994). Human population biology and the evolution of human aging. In Biological Anthropology and Aging: Perspectives on Human Variation Over the Life Span, D. E. Crews and R. M. Garruto (eds.). New York: Oxford University Press
World Health Organization (2002). Diabetes Mellitus Fact Sheet. http://www.who.int/inffs/en/fact138.html
Wright, R. O. (1997). Life and Death in the United States. Jefferson, N. C.: McFarland and Company
Yarnell, J. W. G., St. Leger, A. S., Balfour, I. C., and Russell, R. B. (1979). The distribution, age effects, and disease associations of HLA antigens and other blood group markers in a random sample of an elderly population. Journal Chronic Disease 32: 555–61
Yegorov, Y. et al. (2001). Senescent accelerated mouse (SAM): a model that binds in vivo and in vitro aging. Journal of Anti-Aging Medicine 4: 39–47
Yeung, A. C. (1997). Estrogen for men: reversal of cardiovascular misfortune. American College of Cardiology 29: 1445–6
Yu, B. P. (1993). Oxidative damage by free radicals and lipid peroxidation in aging. In: Free Radicals in Aging, B. P. Yu (ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Yunis, E. J. and Salazar, M. (1993). Genetics of life span in mice. Genetica 91: 211–23
Zeman, F. D. (1962). Pathologic anatomy of old age. Archives of Pathology 73: 126–45
Zhao, Z., Weiss, K., and Stock, D. W. (1998). Growth factor and development. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Growth and Development, S. J. Uljaszek, F. E Johnston, M. A. Preece (eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 151–3
Ziegler, R. and Scheidt-Nave, C. (1995). Pathophysiology of osteoporosis: unresolved problems and new insights. Journal of Nutrition 125: 2033S–7S
Zwaan, B., Bijlmsa, R., and Hoekstra, R. F. (1995). Direct selection on life span in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 49: 649–59