Navigating Social-Ecological Systems

Building Resilience for Complexity and Change

Navigating Social-Ecological Systems

Drawing on complex systems theory, this book investigates how human societies deal with change in linked social-ecological systems, and build capacity to adapt to change. The concept of resilience is central in this context. Resilient social-ecological systems have the potential to sustain development in a manner that does not lead to loss of future options. Resilient systems provide capacity for renewal and innovation in the face of rapid transformation and crisis. Case studies and examples from several geographic areas, cultures and resource types are included; merging forefront research from natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities into an innovative framework for sustainable systems.


 Reviews:

"...the book is a useful addition, introducing the role of property rights in different management systems across scales and providing an interesting review that explores the relationship between ecological and social systems from a range of disciplines. It should be of interest to anyone interested in research into, or application of, new ways of thinking about social and ecological systems and how they interact." Ecoscience

Östlund, L. 1993. Exploitation and Structural Changes in the North Swedish Boreal Forest 1800–1992. Dissertations in Forest Vegetation Ecology 4. Umeå: Swedish University of Agriculture
Orsa Besparingsskog 100 år. (Orsa Forest Common 100 Years.) 1980. Orsa: Orsa Sockens Allmänningsstyrelse
Abel, T. 1998. Complex adaptive systems, evolutionism, and ecology within anthropology: interdisciplinary research for understanding cultural and ecological dynamics. Georgia Journal of Ecological Anthropology 2: 6–29
Acheson, J. M. 1988. The Lobster Gangs of Maine. Hanover, NH: New England University Press
Acheson, J. M. 1993. Capturing the commons: legal and illegal strategies. In The Political Economy of Customs and Culture: Informal Solutions to the Commons Problem, pp. 69–83, ed. T. L. Anderson and R. T. Simmons. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
Acheson, J. M., Wilson, J. A., and Steneck R. S. 1998. Managing chaotic fisheries. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 390–413, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Adger, W. N. 2000. Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24: 347–64
Adger, W. N. 2000. Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24: 347–64
Adger, W. N. 2000. Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24: 347–64
Agrawal, A. 1995. Indigenous and scientific knowledge: some critical comments. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 3(3): 3–6
Alcorn, J. B. 1990. Indigenous agroforestry systems in the Latin American tropics. In Agroecology and Small Farm Development, pp. 203–20, ed. M. A. Altieri and S. B. Hecht. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Alcorn, J. B. 2000. Borders, Rules and Governance: Mapping to Catalyze Policy and Management Change. Gatekeeper Series No. 91. London: IIED
Alcorn, J. B. and Toledo, V. M. 1998. Resilient resource management in Mexico's forest ecosystems: the contribution of property rights. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems, Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 216–49, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Alcorn, J. B. and Toledo, V. M. 1998. Resilient resource management in Mexico's forest ecosystems: the contribution of property rights. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 216–49, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Alcorn, J. B. and Toledo, V. M. 1998. Resilient resource management in Mexico's forest ecosystems: the contribution of property rights. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 216–49, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Alcorn, J. B. and Toledo, V. M. 1998. Resilient resource management in Mexico's forest ecosystems: the contribution of property rights. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 216–49, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Alcorn, J. B. and Toledo, V. M. 1998. Resilient resource management in Mexico's forest ecosystems: the contribution of property rights. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 216–49, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Alcorn, J. B., Bamba, J., Masiun, S., Natalia, I., and Royo, A. G. 2000. Lessons about tactics and strategies: recommendations for supporting social movements to recouple society to ecological feedback. In Indigenous Social Movements and Ecological Resilience: Lessons from the Dayak of Indonesia, pp. 87–96, ed. J. B. Alcorn and A. G. Royo. Washington DC: Biodiversity Support Program
Alland, A. Jr and McCay, B. 1973. The concept of adaptation in biological and cultural evolution. In Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology, pp. 143–77, ed. J. J. Honigmann. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co
Allen, T. F. H. and Starr, T. B. 1982. Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Allen, W. J., Bosch, O. J., Gibson, R. G., and Jopp, A. J. 1998. Co-learning our way to sustainability: an integrated and community-based research approach to support natural resource management decisionmaking. In Multiple Objective Decision Making for Land, Water and Environmental Management, pp. 51–9, ed. S. A. El-Swaify and D. S. Yakowitz. Boston: Lewis Publishers
Allison, G. W., Lubchenco, J., and Carr, M. H. 1998. Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation. Ecological Applications 8: 79–92
American Forest and Paper Association 2000a. SFI Program. Web page [accessed 6 March 2000]. Available at http://www.afandpa.org/forestry/forestry.html
American Forest and Paper Association 2000b. Welcome to AF&PA's ‘Washington Watch.’ Web page [accessed 6 March 2000]. Available at http://www.afandpa.org/legislation/legislation.html
Ames, R. 1979. Social, Economic and Legal Problems of Hunting in Northern Labrador. Nain: Labrador Inuit Association
Ames, T., Watson, S., and Wilson, J. 2000. Rethinking overfishing: insights from oral histories of retired groundfishermen. In Finding Our Sealegs: Linking fishery People and their Knowledge with Science and Management, pp. 153–64, ed. B. Neis and L. Felt. St Johns, Canada: ISER Press
Anderson, D. 1995. Hunters, anglers need to question DNR plan. Minneapolis Star Tribune January 20, 1995
Anderson, D. and Grove, R. 1987. Conservation in Africa: People, Policies, Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Anderson, D. G. 2000. Rangifer and human interests. Rangifer 20(2–3): 153–74
Anderson, E. N. 1996. Ecologies of the Heart. Emotion, Belief, and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press
Anderson, E. N. 1996. Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief and the Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Anderson, J. N. 1973. Ecological anthropology and anthropological ecology. In Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology, pp. 179–239, ed. J. J. Honigmann. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co
Andreatta, E. R., Beltrame, E., Galves, A. O., et al. 1996. Relatório Final: Repovoamento da Lagoa de Ibiraquera com Pós-larvas de camarões. Report. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil
Andreatta, E. R., Beltrame, E., Vinatea, L. A., et al. 1993. Relatório Final: Projeto de Repovoamento de Post-larvas das Lagoas Ibiraquera. Report. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil
Anon. 1995. Two herds total almost 800,000: 1994 surveys. Caribou News March 1995, 15(1): 1–2
Anonymous 1998. Plantation projects and logging concessions: impacts and resistance. Kalimantan Review English Language No. 1: 22–8
Appell, G. N. 1992. The history of research on traditional land tenure and tree ownership in Borneo. Working Paper No. 6. Phillips, ME: Social Transformation and Adaptation Research Institute
Archer, M. S. 1995. Realist Social Theory: the Morphogenetic Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Archer, M. S. 1996. Culture and Agency: the Place of Culture in Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Argyris, C. 1990. Overcoming Organizational Defenses: Facilitating Organizational Learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Arman, S. 1996. Diversity and trade of market fruits in West Kalimantan. In Borneo in Transition, pp. 256–65, ed. C. Padoch and N. L. Peluso. New York: Oxford University Press
Arnold, J. E. M. 1993. Management of forests resources as common property. Commonwealth Forestry Review 72(3): 157–61
Arpi, G., ed. 1959. Sveriges skogar under 100 år (Sweden's forests during 100 years). Stockholm: Domänstyrelsen
Arrow, K., Bolin, B., Costanza, R., et al. 1995. Economic growth, carrying capacity and the environment. Science 268: 520–1
Ashby, W. R. 1960. Design for a Brain: the Origin of Adaptive Behavior, 2nd edn. New York: Wiley
Axelrod, R. and Cohen, M. D. 2000. Harnessing Complexity: Organizational Implications of a Scientific Frontier. New York: The Free Press
Börjeson, L. 1998. Landscape, Land Use and Land Tenure in Mama Issara, Tanzania. Mapping a ‘Traditional’ Intensive Farming System. Minor Field Study Report. Uppsala: Swedish University for Agricultural Studies
Börjeson, L. 1999. Listening to the land. The Iraqw intensive farming system as told by a hill and its inhabitants. In ‘Islands’ of Intensive Agriculture in the East African Rift and Highlands: a 500-Year Perspective, pp. 56–73, ed. M. Widgren and J. Sutton. Working Paper Series No. 42. Stockholm: Environment and Development Studies Unit, Stockholm University
Börjeson, L. 2001. Geography and history of an intensive farming system in Tanzania. Unpublished licentiate dissertation in Human Geography, Stockholm University
Babbie, E. 1992. The Practice of Social Research. Belmont: Wadsworth
Baland, J. M. and Platteau, J. P. 1996. Halting Degradation of Natural Resources. Is There a Role for Rural Communities? Oxford: Clarendon Press
Baland, J. M. and Platteau, J. P. 1996. Halting Degradation of Natural Resources: is there a Role for Rural Communities? Oxford: FAO of the United Nations and Oxford University Press
Balee, W., ed. 1998. Advances in Historical Ecology. New York: Columbia University Press
Balee, W., ed. 1998. Advances in Historical Ecology. New York: Columbia University Press
Bamba, J. 2000. Land, rivers, and forests: Dayak solidarity and ecological resilience. In Indigenous Social Movements and Ecological Resilience: Lessons from the Dayak of Indonesia, pp. 35–59, ed. J. B. Alcorn and A. G. Royo. Washington DC: Biodiversity Support Program
Barber, C. V. 1997. Case Study of Indonesia. Project on Environmental Scarcities, State Capacity, and Civil Violence. Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the University of Toronto
Barbier, E. B., Burgess, J., and Folke, C. 1994. Paradise Lost? The Ecological Economics of Biodiversity. London: Earthscan
Barbosa, F. I. and Hartman, V. D. 1997. Participatory management of reservoir fisheries in North-Eastern Brazil. In Inland Fishery Enhancements, pp. 427–45, ed. T. Pert. Fisheries Technical Paper 374. Toowoomba, Queensland: FAO
Baskerville, G. 1995. The forestry problem: adaptive lurches of renewal. In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 37–102, ed. L. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Baskerville, G. 1995. The forestry problem: adaptive lurches of renewal. In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 37–102, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Baskerville, G. L. 1995. The forestry problem: adaptive lurches of renewal. In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 37–102, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Baskin, Y. 1997. The Work of Nature: How the Diversity of Life Sustains Us. Washington DC: Island Press
Bassett, T. J. 1986. Fulani herd movements. Geographical Review 76: 233–48
Basso, K. H. 1996. Wisdom sits in places: notes on a Western Apache Landscape. In Senses of Place, pp. 53–89, ed. S. Feld and K. H. Basso. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press
Bateson, G. 1973. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. London: Granada
Bateson, G. 1979. Mind and Nature. A Necessary Unity. New York: Dutton
Bateson, G. 1979. Mind and Nature: a Necessary Unity. New York: Dutton
Bateson, G. 1979. Mind and Nature: a Necessary Unity. New York: Dutton
Bateson, G. and Bateson, M. C. 1987. Angels Fear – Towards an Epistemology of the Sacred. New York: Macmillan
Bateson, M. C. 1991. Our Own Metaphor – a Personal Account of a Conference on the Effects of Conscious Purpose on Human Adaptation. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press
Bawden, R. 1992. Creating learning systems: a metaphor for institutional reform for development. Paper for joint IIED/IDS Beyond Farmer First: Rural People's Knowledge, Agricultural Research and Extension Practice Conference, 27–29 October, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK. London: IIED
Behan, R. W. 1990. Multiresource forest management: a paradigmatic challenge to professional forestry. Journal of Forestry 88(4): 12–18
Bendor, J. 1985. Parallel Systems: Redundancy in Government. Berkeley: University of California Press
Bengtsson J., Angelstam P., Elmqvist T., et al. press. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes. Ambio
Bengtsson, B. 1998. The legal status to resources in Swedish Lapland. In Law and the Management of Renewable Resources, pp. 221–43, ed. E. Berge and N. C. Stenseth. Oakland, CA: ICS Press,
Bengtsson, J. 1998. Which species? What kind of diversity? Which ecosystem function? Some problems in studies of relations between biodiversity and ecosystem function. Applied Soil Ecology 10: 191–9
Bengtsson, J., Angelstam, P., Elmqvist, T., et al. Reserves, resilience, and dynamic landscapes. Ambio, in press
Bennett, J. 1969. Northern Plainsman: Adaptive Strategy and Agrarian Life. Arlington Heights, IL: AHM Publishing Co
Berkes, F, Colding, J and Folke, C. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10(5): 1251–62
Berkes, F. 1995. Indigenous knowledge and resource management systems: a native Canadian case study from James Bay. In Property Rights in a Social and Ecological Context, pp. 99–109, ed. S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe. Washington DC: Beijer International Institute and World Bank and World Bank
Berkes, F. 1995. Indigenous knowledge and resource management systems: a native case study from James Bay. In Property Rights in a Social and Ecological Context: Case Studies and Design Applications, pp. 99–109, ed. S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe. Washington DC: Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and the World Bank
Berkes, F. 1998. Indigenous knowledge and resource management systems in the Canadian subarctic. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 98–128, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. 1998. Indigenous knowledge and resource management systems in the Canadian subarctic. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 98–128, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology – Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Resources. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis
Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems. Philadelphia and London: Taylor & Francis
Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems. Philadelphia and London: Taylor & Francis
Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Philadelphia and London: Taylor and Francis
Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Philadelphia and London: Taylor & Francis
Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis
Berkes, F. 2001. Religious traditions and biodiversity. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 109–20
Berkes, F. and Folke C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 1992. A systems perspective on the interrelations between natural, human-made and cultural capital. Ecological Economics 5: 1–8
Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 1994. Investing in cultural capital for a sustainable use of natural capital. In Investing in Natural Capital: the Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability, pp. 128–49, ed. A. M. Jansson, M. Hammer, C. Folke, and R. Costanza. Washington DC: Island Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 1994. Investing in cultural capital for a sustainable use of natural capital. In Investing in Natural Capital, pp. 128–49, ed. A. M. Jansson, M. Hammer, C. Folke, and R. Costanza. Washington DC: Island Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 2002. Back to the future: ecosystem dynamics and local knowledge. In Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature, pp. 121–46, ed. L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. Washington DC: Island Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 2002. Back to the future: ecosystem dynamics and local knowledge. In Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature, pp. 121–46, ed. L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. Washington DC: Island Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 2002. Back to the future: ecosystem dynamics and local knowledge. In Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature, pp. 121–46, ed. L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. Washington DC: Island Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 2002. Back to the future: ecosystem dynamics and local knowledge. In Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature, pp. 121–46, ed. L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. Washington DC: Island Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 2002. Back to the future: ecosystem dynamics and local knowledge. In Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature, pp. 121–46, ed. L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. Washington DC: Island Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F. and Folke, C., eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Berkes, F., Colding, J., and Folke, C. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10: 1251–62
Berkes, F., Colding, J., and Folke, C. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10: 1251–62
Berkes, F., Colding, J., and Folke, C. 2000. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10: 1251–62
Berkes, F., ed. 1989. Common Property Resources. Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development. London: Belhaven
Berkes, F., ed. 1989. Common Property Resources: Ecology and Community-based Sustainable Development. London: Belhaven Press
Berkes, F., ed. 1989. Common Property Resources: Ecology and Community-based Sustainable Development. London: Belhaven Press
Berkes, F., Folke, C., and Gadgil, M. 1995. Traditional ecological knowledge, biodiversity, resilience and sustainability. In Biodiversity Conservation, pp. 269–87, ed. C. Perrings, K.-G. Mäler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling, and B.-O. Jansson. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Berkes, F., Folke, C., and Gadgil, M. 1995. Traditional ecological knowledge, biodiversity, resilience and sustainability. In Biodiversity Conservation, pp. 281–300, ed. C. A. Perrings, K-G. Mäler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling, and B-O. Jansson. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press
Berkes, F., George, P., and Preston, R. J. 1991. Co-management. Alternatives 18(2): 12–18
Berkes, F., Kislalioglu, M., Folke, C., and Gadgil, M. 1998. Exploring the basic ecological unit: ecosystem-like concepts in traditional societies. Ecosystems 1(5): 409–15
Berkes, F., Kislalioglu, M., Folke, C., and Gadgil, M. 1998. Exploring the basic ecological unit: ecosystem-like concepts in traditional societies. Ecosystems 1: 409–15
Berkes, F., Kislalioglu, M., Folke, C., and Gadgil, M. 1998. Exploring the basic ecological unit: ecosystem-like concepts in traditional societies. Ecosystems 1: 409–15
Berkes, F., Mahon, R., McConney, P., Pollnac, R. C., and Pomeroy, R. S. 2001. Managing Small-Scale Fisheries: Alternative Directions and Methods. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre
Bielawski, E. 1992. Inuit indigenous knowledge and science in the Arctic. Northern Perspectives. 20(1): 5–8
Biersack, A. 1999. Introduction: from the ‘new ecology’ to the new ecologies. American Anthropologist 101: 5–18
Bish, R. L. 2001. Local government amalgamations: discredited nineteenth-century ideals alive in the twenty-first. C.D. Howe Institute Commentary 150 (March): 1–35
Blaikie, P. 1985. The Political Economy of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries. Harlow, UK: Longman
Blaikie, P. and Jeanrenaud, S. 1996. Biodiversity and human welfare. Discussion Paper No. 72. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
Blann, K., Light, S., Barton, K., Carlson, E., Fagrelius, S., and Stenquist, B. 1998. Citizens, Science, Watershed Partnerships, and Sustainability: the Case in Minnesota. St Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
Bolle, A. W., Behan, R. W., Browder, G., et al. 1970. Report on the Bitterroot National Forest. Senate Document 91–115. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office
Borofsky, R. 1994. Introduction. In Assessing Cultural Anthropology, pp. 1–19, ed. R. Borofsky. New York: McGraw-Hill
Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Farvar, M. T., Nguinguiri, J. C., and Ndangang, V. A. 2000. Co-management of Natural Resources: Organising, Negotiating and Learning-by-Doing. Heidelberg: GTZ and IUCN, Kasparek Verlag
Bowes, M. D. and Krutilla, J. V. 1989. Multiple-Use Management: the Economics of Public Forestlands. Washington DC: Resources for the Future
Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. J. 1985. Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press
Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. J. 1985. Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Bradbury, R. H. 1990. Acanthaster and the Coral Reef: a Theoretical Perspective. Proceedings of a workshop held at the Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Aug. 6–7, 1988. Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag
Brand, S. 1999. The Clock of the Long Now. New York: Basic Books
Breining, G. 1981. Managing Minnesota's Natural Resources: the DNR's First 50 Years, 1931–1981. St Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Information and Education
Bromley, D. W. 1991. Environment and Economy: Property Rights and Public Policy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Bromley, D. W., ed. 1992. Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy. San Francisco: ICS Press
Bromley, D. W., ed. 1992. Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy. San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies
Bromley, D. W., ed. 1992. Making the Commons Work. San Francisco: ICS Press
Brookfield, H., Potter, L., and Byron, Y. 1995. In Place of the Forest: Environmental and Socio-economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula. Tokyo: United Nations University Press
Brookfield, J. F. Y. 1997. Genetic redundancy. Advances in Genetics 36: 137–55
Brooks, A. S., Gelburd, D. E. and Yellen, J. E. 1984. Food production and cultural change among the Kung San: implication for prehistoric research. In From Hunters to Farmers, pp. 293–310, ed. J. D. Clark and S. A. Brandt. Berkeley: University of California Press
Brooks, H. 1986. The typology of surprises in technology, institutions and development. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 325–47, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Laxenburg, Austria: IIASA
Brunner, R. D. and Clark, T. W. 1997. Practice-based ecosystem management. Conservation Biology 11(1): 48–58
Buck, S. J. 1985. No tragedy on the commons. Environmental Ethics 7: 49–61
Budiansky, S. 1995. Nature's Keepers: the New Science of Nature Management. New York: The Free Press
Burch, E. 1991. Herd following reconsidered. Current Anthropology 32(4): 439–45
Bussidor, I. and Bilgen-Reinart, U. 1997. Night Spirits – the Relocation of the Sayisi Dene. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press
Butz, D. 1996. Sustaining indigenous communities: symbolic and instrumental dimensions of pastoral resource use in Shimshal, northern Pakistan. The Canadian Geographer 40: 36–53
Butz, D. and Eyles, J. 1997. Reconceptualizing senses of place: social relations, ideology and ecology. Geografiska Annaler 79: 1–25
Callaghan, A., Guillemaud, T., Matake, N., and Raymond, M. 1998. Polymorphisms and fluctuations in copy number of amplified esterase genes in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Insect Moleular Biology 7: 295–300
Callicott, J. B. 1994. Earth's Insights. A Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback. Berkeley: University of California Press
Campbell, T. 1996. Co-management of aboriginal resources. Information North 22(1): 1–6
Caniago, I. 1999. The diversity of medicinal plants in secondary forest post-upland farming in West Kalimantan. In Management of Secondary and Logged-Over Forests in Indonesia, pp. 13–20, ed. P. Sist, C. Sabogal, and Y. Byron. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
Capra, F. 1996. The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books
Capra, F. 1996. The Web of Life: a New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems. New York: Anchor Books
Capra, F. 1996. The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books
Carey, H. 1999. The guiding star of ecological and rural sustainability. Journal of Forestry 97(5): 42–3
Carlsson, L. 1995. Skogsallmänningarna i Sverige. (Forest Commons in Sweden.) Research Report, TLULEA 1995: 22, Luleå University, Sweden
Carlsson, L. 1998. The Swedish forest commons: challenges for sustainable forestry. In Sustainability: the Challenge, pp. 80–9, ed. A. Sandberg and S. Sörlin. Montreal: Black Rose Books
Carlsson, L. 1999. Still going strong, community forests in Sweden. Forestry 72(1): 11–26
Carlsson, L. 2000. Towards a sustainable Russian forest sector. Natural Resources Forum 24: 31–7
Carlsson, L. and Olsson, M-O. 1998. Institutions and the Emergence of Markets, Transition in the Tomsk Forest Sector. IIASA, Interim Report, IR-98-084/October. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
Carlsson, L., Lundgren, N-G., Olsson, M-O., and Varakin, M. 1999. Institutions and the Emergence of Markets, Transition in the Arkhangelsk Forest Sector. IIASA, Interim Report, IR-99-021/June. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
Carpenter, S. R. and Cottingham, K. L. 1997. Resilience and restoration of lakes. Conservation Ecology 1: 2. URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol1/iss1/art2
Carpenter, S. R. and Gunderson, L. H. 2001. Coping with collapse: ecological and social dynamics in ecosystem management. BioScience 51: 451–7
Carpenter, S. R. and Kitchell, J. J., eds. 1993. The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Carpenter, S. R., Brock, W., and Hanson, P. 1999a. Ecological and social dynamics in simple models of ecosystem management. Conservation Ecology 3(2): 4. [online] URL:http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art4
Carpenter, S. R., Ludwig, D., and Brock, W. 1999b. Management of lakes subject to potentially irreversible change. Ecological Applications 9(3): 751–71
Carpenter, S. R., Ludwig, D., and Brock, W. A. 1999. Management of eutrophication for lakes subject to potentially irreversible change. Ecological Applications 9(3): 751–71
Carpenter, S. R., Ludwig, D., and Brock, W. A. 1999. Management of eutrophication for lakes subject to potentially irreversible change. Ecological Applications 9: 751–71
Carpenter, S., Brock, W., and Hanson, P. 1999. Ecological and social dynamics in simple models of ecosystem management. Conservation Ecology 3(2): 4. www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art4
Carson, J. M. and Doyle, J. 1999. Highly optimized tolerance: a mechanism for power laws in designed systems. Physical Review E 60(2): 1412–27
Cash, D. W. and Moser, S. C. 2000. Linking global and local scales: designing dynamic assessment and management processes. Global Environmental Change 10: 109–20
Caulfield, R. A. 1997. Greenlanders, Whales and Whaling – Sustainability and Self-Determination in the Arctic. Hanover: University Press of New England
Cavalier-Smith, T. 1985. Selfish DNA and the origin of introns. Nature 315: 283–4
Chambers, R. 1996. Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First Last. London: Intermediate Technology
Chandran, M. D. S., Gadgil, M., and Hughes, J. D. 1998. Sacred groves of the Western Ghats of India. In Conserving the Sacred for Biodiversity Management, pp. 211–32, ed. P. S. Ramakrishnan, K. G. Saxena, and U. M. Chandrashekara. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd
Chapeskie, A. 1986. Indigenous law, state law and the management of natural resources: wild rice and the Wabigoon Lake Ojibway Nation. Law and Anthropology 5: 129–66
Chapin, M. 1991. Losing the way of the great father. New Scientist 131: 40–4
Chernella, J. 1987. Endangered ideologies: Tukano fishing taboos. Cultural Survival 11(2): 50–2
Chernella, J. 1987. Endangered ideologies: Tukano fishing taboos. Cultural Survival 11: 50–2
Chichilnisky, G. 1997. What is sustainable development? Land Economics 73: 467–91
Christensen, N. L., Bartuska, A. M., Brown, J. H., et al. 1996. The report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management. Ecological Applications 6(3): 665–91
Clément, D. 1998. Evolution of concepts in ethnobiological studies. In Aboriginal Environmental Knowledge in the North, pp. 7–19, ed. L-J. Dorais, M. Nagy, and L. Müller-Wille. Québec: GÉTIC, Université Laval
Clark, A. G. 1994. Invasion and maintenance of a gene duplication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 91: 2950–4
Clark, C. W. 1990. Mathematical Bioeconomics: the Optimal Management of Renewable Resources, 2nd edn. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Clark, W. C. and Munn, R. E., eds. 1986. Sustainable Development of the Biosphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Clark, W. C., Jones, D. D., and Holling, C. S. 1979. Lessons for ecological policy design: a case study of ecosystem management. Ecological Modelling 7: 2–53
Clarke, T. 1993. The effects of a cyclone on crops. Journal of South Pacific Agriculture 1(1): 66–77
Clarke, W. C. and Thaman, R. R., eds. 1993. Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for Sustainability. Tokyo: United Nations University Press
Clarke, W. C., Manner, H. I., and Thaman, R. R. 1999. Agriculture and Forestry. The Pacific Islands. Environment and Society. Honolulu, HI: Bess Press
Cleary, M. and Eaton, P. 1992. Borneo: Change and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Cleary, M. and Eaton, P. 1996. Tradition and Reform: Land Tenure and Rural Development in South-East Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Colding, J. and Folke, C. 1997. The relations among threatened species, their protection, and taboos. Conservation Ecology 1 (1): 6. [online] URL:http://www.consecol.org/vol1/iss1/art6
Colding, J. and Folke, C. 2001. Social taboos: ‘invisible’ systems of local resource management and biological conservation. Ecological Applications 11: 584–600
Colding, J. and Folke, C. 2001. Social taboos: ‘invisible’ systems of local resource management and biological conservation. Ecological Applications 11: 584–600
Colding, J. and Folke, C. 2001. Social taboos: ‘invisible’ systems of local resource management and biological conservation. Ecological Applications 11: 584–600
Colding, J. and Folke, C. 2001. Social taboos: ‘invisible’ systems of local resource management and biological conservation. Ecological Applications 11: 584–600
Colfer, C. J. P. 1993. Shifting Cultivators of Indonesia: Marauders or Managers of the Forest? Rice Production and Forest Use Among the Uma' Jalan of East Kalimantan. Rome: FAO
Colfer, C. J. P. 1997. Beyond Slash and Burn: Building on Indigenous Management of Borneo's Tropical Rain Forests. Bronx: New York Botanical Garden
Committee of Scientists 1999. Sustaining the People's Lands: Recommendations for Stewardship of the National Forests and Grasslands into the Next Century. Washington DC: United States Forest Service
Conklin, H. C. 1957. Hanunoo Agriculture. Report of an Integral System of Shifting Cultivation in the Philippines. FAO Forestry Development Paper No. 5. Rome: FAO
Conway G. R. 1993. Sustainable agriculture: the trade-offs with productivity, stability and equitability. In Economics and Ecology: New Frontiers and Sustainable Development, pp. 88–101, ed. E. B. Barbier. London: Chapman and Hall
Cooper, A. W. 1999. The Second Committee of Scientists: moving forward while looking backward. Journal of Forestry 97(5): 24–5
Costanza, R. 1987. Social traps and environmental policy. BioScience 37: 407–12
Costanza, R. and Greer, J. 1995. Chesapeake Bay. In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 169–213, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., de Groot, R., et al. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387: 253–60
Costanza, R., Daly, H., Folke, C., et al. 2000. Managing our environmental portfolio. BioScience 50: 149–55
Costanza, R., ed. 1991. Ecological Economics: the Science and Management of Sustainability. New York: Columbia University Press
Costanza, R., Low, B. S., Ostrom, E., and Wilson, J., eds. 2001. Institutions, Ecosystems, and Sustainability. Boca Raton, FL.: CRC Press
Costanza, R., Low, B. S., Ostrom, E., and Wilson, J., eds. 2001. Institutions, Ecosystems, and Sustainability. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers
Costanza, R., Norton, B. G., and Haskell, B. D., eds. 1992. Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management. Washington DC: Island Press
Costanza, R., Norton, B. G., and Haskell, B. D., eds. 1992. Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management. Washington DC: Island Press
Costanza, R., Waigner, L., Folke, C., and Mäler, K.-G. 1993. Modeling complex ecological economic systems: towards an evolutionary dynamic understanding of people and nature. BioScience 43: 545–55
Cox, P. A. and Elmqvist, T. 1991. Indigenous control of rain forest preserves. Ambio 20: 317–21
Cronon, W. 1983. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang
Cronon, W. 1983. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang
Cronon, W., ed. 1995. Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York: Norton & Co
Cruikshank, J. 1998. The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in the Yukon Territory. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, and Vancouver: UBC Press
Csonka, Y. 1991. Les Ahiarmiut (1920–1950) dans la perspective de l'histoire des Inuit caribous. PhD Thesis, Université Laval, Québec
Cyert, R. and March, J. 1963. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Dörner, D. 1996. Logic of Failure: Why Things Go Wrong and What We Can Do to Make Them Right, translated by R. and R. Kimber. New York: Metropolitan Books
D'Antonio, C. M. and Vitousek, P. M. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 63–87
Daily, G. 1997. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Washington DC: Island Press
Daily, G. C. 1997. Nature's Services. Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Washington DC: Island Press
Daily, G. C. and Ehrlich, P. R. 1995. Population extinction and the biodiversity crisis. In Biodiversity Conservation, pp. 45–55, ed. C. A. Perrings, K.-G. Mäler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling, and B.-O. Jansson. Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Dale, V. H., Brown, S., Haeuber, R. A., et al. 2000. Ecological principles and guidelines for managing the use of land. Ecological Applications 10: 639–70
Dale, V. H., Lugo, A. E., MacMahon, J. A., Steward, T. A., and Pickett, S. T. A. 1998. Ecosystem management in the context of large, infrequent disturbances. Ecosystems 1: 546–57
Dasgupta, P. and Mäler, K.-G. 1991. The environment and emergent development issues. In Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1990, pp. 101–31. Washington DC: World Bank
Dasmann, R. F. 1988. Towards a biosphere consciousness. In The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History, pp. 277–88, ed. D. Worster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Dasmann, R. F. 1991. The importance of cultural and biological diversity. In Biodiversity: Culture, Conservation, and Ecodevelopment, pp. 7–15, ed. M. L. Oldfield and J. B. Alcorn. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Davis, L. S. and Johnson, K. N. 1987. Forest Management, 3rd edn. New York: McGraw Hill
Davis, L. S., Johnson, K. N., Bettinger, P. S., and Howard, T. E. 2001. Forest Management: To Sustain Ecological, Economic, and Social Values, 4th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill
Davis, S. M. 1994. Phosphorus inputs and vegetation sensitivity. In The Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration, pp. 357–78, ed. S. Davis and J. Ogden. Florida: St Lucie Press
de Groot, R. 1992. Functions of Nature. Amsterdam: Wolters-Noordhoff
Denevan, W. M., Treacy, J. M., Alcorn, J. B., Padoch, C., Denslow, J., and Paitan, S. F. 1984. Indigenous agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon: Bora Indian management of swidden fallows. Interciencia 9: 346–57
Descola, P. and Pálsson, G., eds. 1996. Nature and Society: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Routledge
Djuweng, S. 1998. The Dayak: children of the soil. Kalimantan Review, English Language Version No. 1: 6–8
Dorm-Adzobu, C., Ampadu-Agyei, O., and Veit, P. G. 1991. Religious Beliefs and Environmental Protection: the Malshegu Sacred Grove in Northern Ghana. The Ground Up Case Study Series 4. Washington, DC: Center for International Development and Environment, Word Resources Institute
Dove, M. R. 1985. Swidden Agriculture in Indonesia. New York: Mouton Publishers
Dove, M. R. 1996a. Process versus product in Bornean augery: a traditional knowledge system's solution to the problem of knowing. In Redefining Nature: Ecology, Culture, and Domestication, pp. 557–96, ed. R. Ellen and K. Fukui. Oxford: Berg
Dove, M. R. 1996b. Rice-eating rubber and people-eating governments – peasant versus state critiques of rubber development in Colonial Borneo. Ethnohistory 43(1): 33–63
Dove, M. R. and Kammen, D. M. 1997. The epistemology of sustainable resource use – managing forest products, swiddens, and high-yielding variety crops. Human Organization 56(1): 91–101
Doyle, J. 1999. http://www.cds.caltech.edu/∼doyle/notes/1.html
Drayton, B. and Primack, R. B. 1996. Plant species lost in an isolated conservation area in Metropolitan Boston from 1894 to 1993. Conservation Biology 10: 30–9
Dreyfus, H. and Dreyfus, S. 1986. Mind Over Machine. New York: Free Press
Dublin, H. T., Sinclair, A. R. E., and McGlade, J. 1990. Elephants and fire as causes of multiple stable states in the Serengeti-mara woodlands. Journal of Animal Ecology 59: 1147–64
Dyson-Hudson, R., Meekers, D., and Dyson-Hudson, N. 1998. Children of the dancing ground, children of the house: costs and benefits of marriage rules (South Turkana, Kenya). Journal of Anthropological Research 54: 19–47
Edwards, M. 1999. NGO performance – what breeds success? New evidence from South Asia. World Development 27: 361–74
Eggertsson, T. 1998. The economic rationale of communal resources. In Law and the Management of Renewable Resources, pp. 55–74, ed. E. Berge and N. C. Stenseth. Oakland, CA: ICS Press
Ehrlich, P. and Ehrlich, A. 1996. The Betrayal of Science and Reason. Washington DC: Island Press
Elmqvist, T., Rainey, W. E., Pierson, E. D., and Cox, P. A. 1994. Effects of tropical cyclones Ofa and Val on the structure of a Samoan lowland rain forest. Biotropica 26: 384–91
Escobar, A. 1995. Encountering Development: the Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Escobar, A. 1999. After nature: steps to an antiessential political ecology. Current Anthropology 40: 1–30
Ezumah, H. C. and Ezumah, N. N. 1996. Agricultural development in the age of sustainability: crop production. In Sustaining the Future: Economic, Social, and Environmental Change in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp. 215–44, ed. G. Benneh, W. B. Morgan, and J. I. Uitto. Tokyo: United Nation University Press
Faast, T. and Simon-Brown, V. 1999. A social ethic for fish and wildlife management. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 4(3): 86–92
Farmer, J. D., Packard, N. H., and Perelson, A. S. 1986. The immune system, adaptation and machine learning. Physica D22: 187–204
Fast, H. and Berkes, F. 1998. Climate change, northern subsistence and land based economies. In Canada Country Study: National Cross-Cutting Issues, Vol. VIII, pp. 205–26, ed. N. Mayer and W. Avis. Downsview, Ontario: Environment Canada
Feeny, D., Berkes, F., McCay, B. J., and Acheson, J. M. 1990. The tragedy of the commons: twenty-two years later. Human Ecology 18: 1–19
Feeny, D., Berkes, F., McCay, B., and Acheson, J. M. 1990. The tragedy of the commons: twenty-two years later. Human Ecology 18(1): 1–17
Feit, H. A. 1998. Reflections on local knowledge and institutionalized resource management: differences, dominance and decentralization. In Aboriginal Environmental Knowledge in the North, pp. 123–48, ed. L-J. Dorais, M. Nagy, and L. Müller-Wille. Québec: GÉTIC, Université Laval
Fenge, T. 1997. Ecological change in the Hudson Bay bioregion: a traditional ecological knowledge perspective. Northern Perspectives 25(1): 2–3
Ferguson, M. A. D. and Messier, F. 1997. Collection and analysis of traditional ecological knowledge about a population of Arctic Tundra caribou. Arctic. 50(1): 17–28
Ferguson, M. A. D., Williamson, R. G., and Messier, F. 1998. Inuit knowledge of long-term changes in a population of Arctic Tundra caribou. Arctic 51(3): 201–19
Field, L. M. and Devonshire, A. L. 1998. Evidence that E4 and FE4 esterase genes responsible for insecticide resistance in the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) are part of a gene family. Biochemical Journal 330: 169–73
Fienup-Riordan, A. 1990. Eskimo Essays: Yupik Lives and How We See Them. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press
Fienup-Riordan, A. 1999. Yaqulet Qaillun Pilartat (what the birds do): Yup'ik Eskimo understanding of geese and those who study them. Arctic 52(1): 1–22
Fiering, M. 1982. Alternative indices of resilience. Water Resources Research 18: 33–9
Finlay, B. J., Maberly, S. C., and Cooper, J. I. 1997. Microbial diversity and ecosystem function. OIKOS 80: 209–13
Finlayson, A. C. and McCay, B. J. 1998. Crossing the threshold of ecosystem resilience: the commercial extinction of northern cod. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 311–37, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Finlayson, A. C. and McCay, B. J. 1998. Crossing the threshold of ecosystem resilience: the commercial extinction of northern cod. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 311–38, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Finlayson, A. C. and McCay, B. J. 1998. Crossing the thresholds of ecosystem resilience: the commercial extraction of northern cod. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 311–37, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Fisher, W. F. 1997. Doing good? The politics and antipolitics of NGO practices. Annual Review of Anthropology 26: 439–64
Floyd, D. W., ed. 1999. Forest of Discord: Options for Governing Our National Forests and Federal Public Lands. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters
Floyd, D. W., Vonhof, S. L., and Seyfang, H. E. 2001. Forest sustainability: a discussion guide for professional resource managers. Journal of Forestry 99(2): 8–28
Folke, C. and Berkes, F. 1998. Understanding Dynamics of Ecosystem–Institution Linkages for Building Resilience. Beijer Discussion Paper Series No. 122. Stockholm: Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics
Folke, C. and Berkes, F. 1998. Understanding Dynamics of Ecosystem–Institution Linkages for Building Resilience. Beijer Discussion Paper Series, No. 112. Stockholm: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics
Folke, C. and Berkes, F. 1998. Understanding Dynamics of Ecosystem–Institution Linkages for Building Resilience. The Beijer Discussion Papers, No. 112. Stockholm: The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Folke, C. and Colding, J. 2001. Traditional conservation practices. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 681–93
Folke, C., Berkes, F. and Colding, J. 1998. Ecological practices and social mechanisms for building resilience and sustainability. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 414–36, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Folke, C., Berkes, F., and Colding J. 1998. Ecological practices and social mechanisms for building resilience and sustainability. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 414–36, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Folke, C., Berkes, F., and Colding, J. 1998. Ecological practices and social mechanisms for building resilience and sustainability. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 414–36, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Folke, C., Berkes, F., and Colding, J. 1998. Ecological practices and social mechanisms for building resilience and sustainability. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 414–36, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Folke, C., Berkes, F., and Colding, J. 1998. Ecological practices and social mechanisms for building resilience and sustainability. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 414–36, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Folke, C., Berkes, F., and Colding, J. 1998a. Ecological practices and social mechanisms for building resilience and sustainability. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems, pp. 414–36, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Folke, C., Pritchard, L. Jr, Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Svedin, U. 1997. The Problem of Fit Between Ecosystems and Institutions. Beijer Discussion Paper Series No. 108. Stockholm: Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics
Folke, C., Pritchard, L. Jr, Berkes, F., Colding, J., and Svedin, U. 1998. The Problem of Fit Between Ecosystems and Institutions. International Human Dimensions Project Working Paper No. 2. International Human Dimensions Program on Global Environmental Change, Washington DC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Folke, C., Pritchard, L. Jr, Colding, J., Berkes, F., and Svedin, U. 1998. The Problem of Fit between Ecosystems and Institutions. IHDP Working Paper No. 2. Bonn: IHDP
Folke, C., Pritchard, L., Berkes, F., Colding, J., and Svedin, U. 1998. The problem of fit between ecosystems and institutions. IHDP Working Paper No. 2. Bonn: International Human Dimensions Program on Global Environmental Change
Forest Stewardship Council 2000. Certification. Web page [accessed 19 March 2002] available at http://fscus.org/html/certification/index.html
Fowler, C. S. 2000. ‘We live by them’: native knowledge of biodiversity in the Great Basin of Western North America. In Biodiversity and Native America, pp. 99–132, ed. P. E. Minnis and W. J. Elisens. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press
FPCO (Flood Plan Coordination Organization). 1994. Report on the Flood Action Plan. Draft. Dhaka: Ministry of Water Resources
FPCO. 1995. Bangladesh Water and Flood Management Strategy. Dhaka: Flood Plan Coordination Organization
Frank, D. A. and McNaughton, S. J. 1991. Stability increases with diversity in plant communities: empirical evidence from the 1988 Yellowstone drought. OIKOS 62: 360–2
Franklin, J. F. and MacMahon, J. A. 2000. Enhanced: messages from a mountain. Science 288: 1183–90
Fratkin, E. 1986. Stability and resilience in East African pastoralism: the Rendille and the Ariaal of Northern Kenya. Human Ecology 14: 269–86
Fredenberg, K. 1913. Det ekonomiska resultatet af Hamra kronoparks förvaltning, jämfördt med samma resultat för Orsa besparingsskog åren 1884–1911. (The economic outcome of a comparison between the management of Hamra State Park and Orsa Forest Common, 1884–1911.) Skogsvårdsföreningens Tidskrift 6: 335–40
Fredenberg, K. 1924. Det ekonomiska resultatet af Hamra kronoparks förvaltning, jämfördt med samma resultat för Orsa besparingsskog åren 1884–1922. (The economic outcome of a comparison between the management of Hamra State Park and Orsa Forest Common, 1884–1922.) Skogsvårdsföreningens Tidskrift Series B: 225–32
Freeland, S. J. and Hurst, L. D. 1998. The genetic code: one in a million. Journal of Molecular Evolution 47: 238–48
Freeman, M. M. R. 1989. Graphs and gaffs: a cautionary tale in the common property resource debate. In Common Property Resources – Ecology and Community-based Sustainable Development, pp. 92–109, ed. F. Berkes. London: Belhaven Press
Friedman, D. and McAdam, D. 1992. Collective identity and activism: networks, choices and the life of a social movement. In Frontiers in Social Movement Theories, pp. 156–73, ed. A. D. Morris and C. M. Mueller. New Haven: Yale University Press
Fryxell, K. J. 1996. The coevolution of gene family trees. Trends in Genetics 12: 364–9
Gadgil, M. 1987. Diversity: cultural and biological. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12: 369–73
Gadgil, M. and Chandran, M. D. S. 2000. M. K. Prasad: scientist as a social activist. Frontline 17: 84–7
Gadgil, M. and Guha, R. 1992. This Fissured Land. An Ecological History of India. Delhi: Oxford University Press
Gadgil, M. and Vartak, V. D. 1976. The sacred groves of Western Ghats in India. Economic Botany 30: 152–60
Gadgil, M., Acharya, S., Barman, R., et al. 1998. Where are the people? The Hindu Survey of the Environment'98. pp. 107–37. Chennai: The Hindu Press
Gadgil, M., Berkes, F., and Folke, C. 1993. Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation. Ambio 22: 151–6
Gadgil, M., Berkes, F., and Folke, C. 1993. Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation. Ambio 22: 151–6
Gadgil, M., Folke, C., and Berkes, F. 1993. Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation. Ambio 22: 151–6
Gadgil, M., Hemam, N. S., and Reddy, B. M. 1998. People, refugia and resilience. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 30–47, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Gadgil, M., Hemam, N. S., and Reddy, B. M. 1998. People, refugia, and resilience. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 30–47, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Gadgil, M., Seshagiri Rao, P. R., Utkarsh, G., Pramod, P., Chatre, A., and Members of the People's Biodiversity Initiative. 2000. New meanings for old knowledge: the People's Biodiversity Registers Programme. Ecological Applications 10: 1307–17
Gadgil, M., Seshagiri Rao, P. R., Utkarsh, G., Pramod, P., Chhatre, A., and Members of the People's Biodiversity Initiative. 2000. New meanings for old knowledge: the People's Biodiversity Registers program. Ecological Applications 10: 1307–17
Gamson, W. A. 1975. The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood, IL: The Dorsey Press
Geertz, C. 1963. Agricultural Involution: the Process of Ecological Change in Indonesia. Berkeley: University of California Press
Geisinger, J. 1999. Nonscience from the Committee of Scientists. Journal of Forestry 97: 24–5
Gerlach, L. and Bengston, D. 1994. If ecosystem management is the solution, what's the problem? Journal of Forestry 92(8): 18–21
Gibson, C. C., Ostrom, E., and Ahn, T. K. 2000. The concept of scale and the human dimensions of global change: a survey. Ecological Economics 32: 217–39
Gibson, C., McKean, M., and Ostrom, E. 1996. Explaining Deforestation: the role of Local Institutions. Paper presented at the 6th annual conference of the IASCP, Berkeley, CA, June 5–9, 1996. Bloomington: Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University
Giddens, A. 1987. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press
Giller, K. E., Beare, M. H., Lavelle, P., Izac, A.-M. N., and Swift, M. J. 1997. Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and agroecosystem function. Applied Soil Ecology 6: 3–16
Glacken, C. 1967. Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. Berkeley: University of California Press
Glantz, M. H., Katz, R. W., and Nicholls, N. 1991. Teleconnections Linking Worldwide Climate Anomalies: Scientific Basis and Societal Impact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Goldstein, D. B. and Holsinger, K. E. 1992. Maintenance of polygenic variation in spatially structured poulations. Evolution 46: 412–29
González-Gaitán, M., Rothe, M., Wimmer, E. A., Taubert, H., and Jäckle, H. 1994. Redundant functions of the genes knirps and knirps-related for the establishment of anterior Drosophila head structures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91: 8567–71
Gottesfeld Johnson, L. M. 1994. Aboriginal burning for vegetation management in northwest British Columbia. Human Ecology 22: 171–88
Graur, D. and Li, W-H. 2000. Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution, 2nd edn. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, Inc
Greenberg, J. B. and Park, T. K. 1994. Political ecology. Journal of Political Ecology 1: 1–12
Greenberg, J. B. and Park, T. K. 1994. Political Ecology. Journal of Political Ecology 1: 1–12. [online] www.library.arizona.edu/ej/jpe/jpeweb.html
Griffiths, B. S., Ritz, K., Bardgett, R. D., et al. 2000. Ecosystem response of pasture soil communities to fumigation-induced microbial diversity reductions: an examination of the biodiversity–ecosystem function relationship. OIKOS 90: 279–94
Grime, J. P. 1997. Biodiversity and ecosystem function: the debate deepens. Science 277: 1260–1
Grime, J. P. 1998. Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects. Journal of Ecology 86: 902–10
Grimm, N., Grove, M., Pickett, S. T. A., and Redman, C. L. 2000. Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience 50: 571–84
Groffman, P. M., and Bohlen, P. J. 1999. Soil and sediment biodiversity: cross-system comparisons and large-scale effects. Bioscience 49: 139–48
Grumbine, R. E. 1994. What is ecosystem management? Conservation Biology 8(1): 27–38
Gunderson L. H., Holling, C. S., and Light, S. S. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunderson, L. and Walters, C. J. 1999. Florida Bay; alternative or alternating states? Unpublished manuscript, Department of Zoology, University of Florida
Gunderson, L. H. 1996. A Primer on Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. St Lucie, FL: CRC Press
Gunderson, L. H. 1999. Antidotes to spurious certitude? Conservation Ecology 3(1): 7. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art7
Gunderson, L. H. 1999. Resilience, flexibility and adaptive management – antidotes for spurious certitude? Conservation Ecology 3(1). Available online: URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art7
Gunderson, L. H. 1999. Resilience, flexibility and adaptive management – antidotes for spurious certitude? Conservation Ecology 3(1): 7 www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art7
Gunderson, L. H. 1999. Resilience, flexibility and adaptive management: antidotes for spurious certitude? Conservation Ecology 3: 7. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art7
Gunderson, L. H. 1999a. Resilient management: comments on ecological and social dynamics in simple models of ecosystem management by S. R. Carpenter, W. A. Brock, and P. Hanson. Conservation Ecology, 3(2): 7 [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art7
Gunderson, L. H. 1999b. Resilience, flexibility and adaptive management: antidotes for spurious certitude. Conservation Ecology 3(1): 7. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art7
Gunderson, L. H. 2000. Ecological resilience – in theory and application. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 425–39
Gunderson, L. H. 2000. Resilience in theory and practice. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 425–36
Gunderson, L. H. and Holling, C. S., eds. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature. Washington DC: Island Press
Gunderson, L. H. and Holling, C. S., eds. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature. Washington DC: Island Press
Gunderson, L. H. and Holling, C. S., eds. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature. Washington DC: Island Press
Gunderson, L. H. and Holling, C. S., eds. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature. Washington DC: Island Press
Gunderson, L. H. and Holling, C. S., eds. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature. Washington, DC: Island Press
Gunderson, L. H. and Pritchard, L. Jr 2002. Resilience and the Behavior of Large Scale Ecosystems. Washington DC: Island Press
Gunderson, L. H. and Pritchard, L., eds. 2002. Resilience and the Behavior of Large-Scale Ecosystems. Washington DC: Island Press
Gunderson, L. H. and Pritchard, L., eds. 2002. Resilience and the Behavior of Large-Scale Ecosystems. Washington DC: Island Press
Gunderson, L. H., Holling C. S., and Light, S. S., eds. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunderson, L. H., Holling, C. S., and Light, S. S. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunderson, L. H., Holling, C. S., and Light, S. S. 1995. Barriers broken and bridges built: a synthesis. In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 489–532, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunderson, L. H., Holling, C. S., and Light, S. S., eds. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunderson, L. H., Holling, C. S., and Light, S. S., eds. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunderson, L. H., Holling, C. S., and Light, S. S., eds. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunderson, L. H., Holling, C. S., and Light, S., eds. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunderson, L. H., Holling, C. S., Pritchard, L., and Peterson, G. 1997. Resilience in ecosystems, institutions, and societies. Beijer Discussion Papers No. 95. Stockholm: Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Gunderson, L., Holling, C. S., and Light, S. S. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunderson, L., Holling, C. S., and Light, S. S., eds. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press
Gunn, A., Arlooktoo, G., and Kaomayok, D. 1988. The contribution of the ecological knowledge of Inuit to wildlife management in the NWT. In Traditional Knowledge and Renewable Resource Management in Northern Regions, pp. 22–30, ed. M. M. R. Freeman, and L. N. Carbyn. Edmonton, Alberta: IUCN Commission on Ecology and the Boreal Institute for Northern Studies
Gunther, F. and Folke, C. 1993. Characteristics of nested living systems. Journal of Biological Systems 1: 257–74
Haas, P. 1990. Saving the Mediterranean: the Politics of International Environmental Cooperation. New York: Columbia University Press
Hammer, M., Jansson, A.-M., and Jansson, B.-O. 1993. Diversity change and sustainability – implications for fisheries. Ambio 22: 97–105
Hampson, C. W. 1997. Redundancy and high volume manufacturing methods. Intel Technology Journal Q4'97. (Available at http://developer.intel.com)
Hanna, S., Folke, C., and Mäler, K.-G., eds. 1996. Rights to Nature. Washington DC: Island Press
Harries-Jones, P. 1995. A Recursive Vision: Ecological Understanding and Gregory Bateson. Toronto: University of Toronto Press
Harvey, D. 1974. Population, resources and the ideology of science. Economic Geography 50: 256–77
Harvey, D. 1996. Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
Hawkins, B. W. and Ihrke, D. M. 1999. Reexamining the Suburban Exploitation Thesis in American Metropolitan Areas. Publius 29(3): 109–21
Hawley, A. and Zimmer, B. G. 1970. The Metropolitan Community: its People and Government. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications
Heal, G. 1998. Valuing the Future: Economic Theory and Sustainability. New York: Columbia University Press
Hernández Castillo, R. A. and Nigh, R. 1998. Global processes and local identity among Mayan coffee growers in Chiapas, Mexico. American Anthropologist 100: 136–47
Hilborn, R. 1992. Can fisheries learn from experience? Fisheries 17(4): 6–14
Hilborn, R. and Mangel, M. 1997. The Ecological Detective. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Hirsch, W. Z. 1970. The Economics of State and Local Government. New York: McGraw-Hill
Hirt, P. W. 1994. A Conspiracy of Optimism: Management of the National Forests since World War II. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press
Hodgson, J. G., Thompson, K., and Wilson, P. J. 1998. Does biodiversity determine ecosystem function? The Ecotron experiment reconsidered. Functional Ecology 12: 843–56
Holland, J. H. 1995. Hidden Order. How Adaptation Builds Complexity. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Holland, J. H. 1995. Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Holland, J. H. 1995. Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review in Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–23
Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–23
Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–23
Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–23
Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–24
Holling, C. S. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. London: John Wiley
Holling, C. S. 1986. Resilience of ecosystems; local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1986. Resilience of ecosystems; local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge, UK: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–317, ed. W. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1986. The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 292–320, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S. 1988. Temperate forest insect outbreaks, tropical deforestation and migratory birds. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 146: 21–32
Holling, C. S. 1992. Cross-scale morphology, geometry and dynamics of ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62(4): 447–502
Holling, C. S. 1992. Cross-scale morphology, geometry and dynamics of ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62: 447–502
Holling, C. S. 1992. Cross-scale morphology, geometry, and dynamics of ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62: 447–502
Holling, C. S. 1995. What barriers, what bridges? In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 3–34, ed. L. Gunderson, C. S. Holling and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Holling, C. S. 1995. What barriers? What bridges? In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 13–14, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Holling, C. S. 1995. What barriers? What bridges? In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 3–34, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Holling, C. S. 1995. What barriers? What bridges? In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 3–34, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Holling, C. S. 1995. What barriers? What bridges? In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 3–34, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Holling, C. S. 1995. What Barriers? What Bridges? In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 3–34, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Holling, C. S. 1996. Engineering resilience versus ecological resilience. In Engineering Within Ecological Constraints, pp. 32–43, ed. P. C. Schulze. Washington DC: National Academy Press
Holling, C. S. 1998. Two cultures of ecology. Conservation Ecology 2(2): 4. Available from the Internet. URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol2/iss2/art4
Holling, C. S. 2001. Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological and social systems. Ecosystems 4: 390–405
Holling, C. S. 2001. Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems 4(5): 390–405
Holling, C. S. 2001. Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems 4(5): 390–405
Holling, C. S. and Goldberg. M. A. 1971. Ecology and planning. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 37: 221–30
Holling, C. S. and Meffe, G. K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10(2): 328–36
Holling, C. S. and Meffe, G. K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10(2): 328–37
Holling, C. S. and Meffe, G. K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328–37
Holling, C. S. and Meffe, G. K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328–37
Holling, C. S. and Meffe, G. K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328–37
Holling, C. S. and Meffe, G. K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328–37
Holling, C. S. and Meffe, G. K. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328–37
Holling, C. S. and Sanderson, S. 1996. Dynamics of (dis)harmony in ecological and social systems. In Rights to Nature: Ecological, Economic, Cultural, and Political Principles of Institutions for the Environment, pp. 57–85, ed. S. Hanna, C. Folke, and C. G. Maler. Washington DC: Island Press
Holling, C. S. and Sanderson, S. 1996. Dynamics of (dis)harmony in ecological and social systems. In Rights to Nature: Ecological, Economic, Cultural, and Political Principles of Institutions for the Environment, pp. 57–86, ed. S. Hanna, C. Folke, and K-G. Mäler. Washington DC and Covelo: Island Press
Holling, C. S. and Sanderson, S. 1996. Dynamics of (dis)harmony in ecological and social systems. In Rights to Nature, pp. 57–85, ed. S. Hanna, C. Folke, and K.-G. Mäler. Washington DC: Island Press
Holling, C. S. and Sanderson, S. 1996. Dynamics of (dis)harmony in ecological and social systems. In Rights to Nature, pp. 57–86, ed. S. S. Hanna, C. Folke, and K-G. Mäler. Washington DC: Island Press
Holling, C. S., Berkes, F., and Folke, C. 1998. Science, sustainability and resource management. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 342–62, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S., Berkes, F., and Folke, C. 1998. Science, sustainability and resource management. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 342–62, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S., Berkes, F., and Folke, C. 1998. Science, sustainability and resource management. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems, pp. 342–62, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S., Berkes, F., and Folke, C. 1998. Science, sustainability, and resource management. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems, pp. 342–62, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S., ed. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. London: Wiley
Holling, C. S., ed. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. London: Wiley
Holling, C. S., ed. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. London: Wiley
Holling, C. S., ed. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons
Holling, C. S., Gunderson, L. H., and Peterson, G. 2002. Panarchies and sustainability. In Panarchy, Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature, pp. 63–102, ed. L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. Washington DC: Island Press
Holling, C. S., Gunderson, L., and Peterson, G. 1993. Comparing Ecological and Social Systems. Beijer Discussion Paper, No 36. Stockholm: Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economy
Holling, C. S., Schindler, D. W., Walker, B. H., and Roughgarden, J. 1995. Biodiversity in the functioning of ecosystems: an ecological synthesis. In Biodiversity Loss: Economic and Ecological Issues, pp. 44–83, ed. C. A. Perrings, K.-G. Maler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling, and B.-O. Jansson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S., Schindler, D. W., Walker, B. W., and Roughgarden, J. 1995. Biodiversity in the functioning of ecosystems: an ecological synthesis. In Biodiversity Loss. Economic and Ecological Issues, pp. 44–83, ed. C. Perrings, K-G. Mäler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling, and B-O. Jansson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S., Schindler, D. W., Walker, B. W., and Roughgarden, J. 1995. Biodiversity in the functioning of ecosystems: an ecological synthesis. In Biodiversity Loss: Economic and Ecological Issues, pp. 44–83, ed. C. A. Perrings, K.-G. Mäler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling, and B.-O. Jansson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holling, C. S., Schindler, D. W., Walker, B. W., and Roughgarden, J. 1995. Biodiversity in the functioning of ecosystems: an ecological synthesis. In Biodiversity Loss, pp. 44–83, ed. C. A. Perrings, K.-G. Mäler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling, and B.-O. Jansson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holmberg, J., ed. 1992. Policies for a Small Planet. London: Earthscan
Hoxby, C. 1994. Does competition among public schools benefit students and taxpayers? Working Paper No. 4979. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research
Hudak, A. T. 1999. Rangeland mismanagement in South Africa: failure to apply ecological knowledge. Human Ecology 27: 55–78
Huff, P. R. and Pecore, M. 1995. Case Study: Menominee Tribal Enterprises. Web page. Available at http://www.menominee.com/sdi/articles/csstdy.htm
Hughes, J. D. and Chandran, M. D. S. 1998. Sacred groves around the Earth: an overview. In Conserving the Sacred for Biodiversity Management, pp. 69–86, ed. P. S. Ramakrishnan, K. G. Saxena, and U. M. Chandrashekara. New Delhi: UNESCO, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD
Hurst, D. K. 1995. Crisis and Renewal: Meeting the Challenge of Organizational Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press
Hurst, L. D. 1996. Further evidence consistent with Stellate's involvement in meiotic drive. Genetics 142: 641
Ingold, T. 1980. Hunters, Pastoralists and Ranchers: Reindeer Economies and their Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Ingold, T. 2000. The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. London: Routledge Press
Innes, J. E. 1998. Information in communicative planning. Journal of the American Planning Association 64(1): 52–63
International Labour Organization (ILO) 1996. Indigenous and Tribal Peoples: a Guide to ILO Convention No. 169. Geneva: ILO
Irimoto, T. 1997. Ainu shamanism: oral tradition, healing, and dramas. In Circumpolar Animism and Shamanism, pp. 21–46, ed. T. Yamada and T. Irimoto. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press
Irvine, D. 1989. Succession management and resource distribution in an Amazonian rain forest. In Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies, pp. 223–37, ed. D. A. Posey and W. L. Balee. Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden
Ives, A. R., Klug, J. L., and Gross, K. 2000. Stability and species richness in complex communities. Ecology Letters (2000)3: 399–411
Jackson, J. B. C., Kirby, M. X., Berher, W. H., et al. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629–38
Jackson, J. B. C., Kirby, M. X., Berher, W. H., et al. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629–38
Jansson, A. M., Hammer, M., Folke, C., and Costanza, R., eds. 1994. Investing in Natural Capital: the Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability. Washington, DC: Island Press
Jansson, B. O. and Velner, H. 1995. The Baltic, sea of surprises. In Barriers and Bridges for the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 292–372, ed. L. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Janzen, D. 1999. Gardenification of tropical conserved wildlands: multitasking, multicropping, and multiusers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 96(11): 5987–94
Jasanoff, S., Colwell, R., Dresselhaus, S., et al. 1997. Conversations with the community: AAAS at the millennium. Science 278: 2066–7
Jeffrey, D. K. 2000. Organizational change as a component of ecosystem management. Society and Natural Resources 13: 537–48
Jentoft, S., McCay, B. J., and Wilson, D. C. 1998. Social theory and fisheries co-management. Marine Policy 22: 423–36
Johannes, R. E. 1981. Words of the Lagoon. Fishing and Marine Lore in the Palau District of Micronesia. Berkeley: University of California Press
Johannes, R. E. 1998. The case of data-less marine resource management: examples from tropical nearshore finfisheries. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 243–6
Johnson, L. M. 1999. Aboriginal burning for vegetation management in Northwest British Columbia. In Indians, Fire and the Land in the Pacific Northwest, pp. 238–54, ed. R. Boyd. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press
Johnson, N. K., Swanson, F., Herring M., and Greene S., eds. 1999. Bioregional Assessments: Science at the Crossroads of Management and Policy. Washington DC: Island Press
Kates, R. W. and Clark, W. C. 1996. Expecting the unexpected. Environment March: 6–11, 28–34
Kates, R. W. and Clark, W. C. 1996. Expecting the unexpected. Environment March: 6–11, 28–34
Kates, R. W., Clark, W. C., Corell, R., et al. 2001. Sustainability science. Science 292: 641–2. Statement of the Friibergh Workshop on Sustainability Science. Available from the Internet. URL: http://sustsci.harvard.edu/keydocs/friibergh.htm
Kauffman, S. 1993. The Origins of Order. New York: Oxford University Press
Kaufman, H. 1977. Reflections on administrative reorganization. In Setting National Priorities: the 1978 Budget, ed. J. Pechman. Washington DC: Brookings Institution
Kay, J. J. 1991. A nonequilibrium thermodynamic framework for discussing ecosystem integrity. Environmental Management 15: 483–95
Keesing, R. M. 1976. Cultural Anthropology: a Contemporary Perspective. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
Kellert, S. R., Mehta, J. N., Ebbin, S. A., and Lichtenfeld, L. L. 2000. Community natural resource management: promise, rhetoric, and reality. Society and Natural Resources 13: 705–15
Kelly, T. and Sushak, R. 1996. Using surveys as input to comprehensive watershed management: a case study from Minnesota. General Technical Report NC-181. St Paul, MN: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
Kemmis, D. 1990. Community and the Politics of Place. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press
Kendrick, A. 1994. Community perspectives, caribou user participation and the Beverly-Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board in northcentral Canada. Unpublished MA thesis, McGill University, Montreal
Kendrick, A. 2000. Community perceptions of the Beverly-Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies. 20(1): 1–33
Kikula, I. S. 1996. Policy Implications on Environment. Dar es Salaam: Dar es Salaam University Press
Kinder, D.and Weiss, J. 1978. In lieu of rationality: psychological perspectives on foreign policy decision-making. Journal of Conflict Resolution 22(4): 707–35
King, A. 1995. Avoiding ecological surprise: lessons from long-standing communities. Academy of Management Review 20: 961–85
King, T. D. 1997. Folk management among Belizean lobster fishermen: success and resilience or decline and depletion? Human Organization 56: 418–26
King, V. T. 1993. The Peoples of Borneo. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers
Kingdon, J. 1984. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company
Kirch, P. V. 1991. Polynesia agricultural systems. In Islands, Plants and Polynesians. An Introduction to Polynesian Ethnobotany, pp. 113–33, ed. P. A. Cox and S. A. Banack. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press
Kirch, P. V. 1997. Introduction. The Environmental History of Oceanic Islands. In Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands, pp. 1–21, ed. P. V. Kirch and T. L. Hunt. New Haven: Yale University Press
Klandermans, B. 1992. The social construction of protest and multiorganizational fields. In Frontiers in Social Movement Theories, pp. 77–103, ed. A. D. Morris and C. M. Mueller. New Haven: Yale University Press
Klein, D. R. 1991. Caribou in the changing North. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 29: 279–91
Klein, D. R., Moorehead, L., Kruse, J., and Braund, S. R. 1999. Contrasts in use and perceptions of biological data for caribou management. The Wildlife Society Bulletin 27(2): 488–98
Kloppenburg, J. 1991. Social theory and the de/reconstruction of agricultural science: local knowledge for an alternative agriculture. Rural Sociology 56(4): 519–48
Klose, F. 1985. A Brief History of the German Forest, Achievements and Mistakes Down the Ages. Eschborn: Deutche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit
Knight, R. L. and Meffe, G. K. 1997. Ecosystem management: agency liberation from command and control. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25(3): 676–8
Kofinas, G. P. 1998. The costs of power sharing: communities in porcupine caribou herd co-management. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
Kolmodin, G. 1953. Besparingsskogen (The forest common). In Orsa, pp. 274–371, ed. J. Boetius and O. Veirulf. Stockholm: Nordisk Rotogravyr
Kottak, C. P. 1999. The new ecological anthropology. American Anthropologist 101: 23–35
Kruse, J., Klein, D., Braund, S., Moorehead, L., and Simeone, B. 1998. Co-management of natural resources: a comparison of two caribou management systems. Human Organization 57(4): 447–58
KUDETA (Coalition for the Democratization of Natural Resources) 1998. Return Natural Resources to the People! Position statement released to the media 11 June 1998, Jakarta
Kuhn, T. 1970. Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Kvale, S. 1996. Interviews: an Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Lamson, C. 1986. Planning for resilient coastal communities: lessons from ecological systems theory. Coastal Zone Management Journal 13: 265–79
Landau, M. 1969. Redundancy, rationality, and the problem of duplication and overlap. Public Administration Review 29(4): 346–58
Landau, M. 1973. Federalism, redundancy, and system reliability. Publius, 3(2): 533–42
Langbein, W. D. 1996. Final Report, Seventh American Forest Congress. Office of the Seventh American Forest Congress, New Haven, 205 Prospect St, New Haven, CT 06511
Larkin, P. A. 1977. An epitaph for the concept of maximum sustained yield. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106: 1–11
Latour, B. 1999. Pandora's Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Lawi, Y. Q. 1999. May the spider web blind witches and wild animals: local knowledge and the political ecology of natural resource use in the Iraqwland, Tanzania, 1900–1985. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Boston University
Leach, M. and Mearns, R. 1996. The Lie of the Land. Challenging Received Wisdom on the African Environment. London: Villiers Publications
Lebbie, A. R. and Guries, R. P. 1995. Ethnobotanical value and conservation of sacred groves of the Kpaa-Mende in Sierra Leone. Economic Botany 49: 297–308
Lee, K. 1993. Compass and the Gyroscope. Washington DC: Island Press
Lee, K. 1993. Compass and the Gyroscope. Washington DC: Island Press
Lee, K. N. 1993. Compass and Gyroscope: Integrating Science and Politics for the Environment. Washington DC: Island Press
Lees, S. H. and Bates, D. G. 1990. The ecology of cumulative change. In The Ecosystem Approach in Anthropology, pp. 247–77, ed. E. F. Moran. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Lehman, C. L. and Tilman, D. 2000. Biodiversity, stability, and productivity in competitive communities. American Naturalist 156: 534–52
Leopold, A. (1988). A Sand County Almanac, with Essays on Conservation from Round River. New York: Ballantine Books
Leopold, A. 1949. Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There. New York: Oxford University Press
Levin, S. 1995. Ecosystems and the biosphere as complex adaptive systems. Ecosystems 1: 431–6
Levin, S. 1998. Ecosystems and the biosphere as complex adaptive systems. Ecosystems 1: 431–6
Levin, S. 1999. Fragile Dominion. Complexity and the Commons. Reading, MA: Perseus Books
Levin, S. 1999. Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Reading, MA: Perseus Books
Levin, S. 1999. Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Reading, MA: Perseus Books
Levin, S. 1999. Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Reading, MA: Perseus Books
Levin, S. A. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73: 1943–67
Levin, S. A. 1999. Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Reading, MA: Perseus Books
Levin, S. A. 1999. Fragile Dominion. Reading, MA: Perseus Books
Levin, S. A. 1999a. Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Reading, MA: Perseus Books
Levin, S. A. 1999b. Towards a science of ecological management. Conservation Ecology 3 (2): 6. [online] URL:http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art6
Levin, S. A., Barrett, S., Aniyar, S., et al. 1998. Resilience in natural and socioeconomic systems. Environment and Development Economics 3: 225–36
Levine, J. M. 2000. Species diversity and biological invasions: relating local process to community pattern. Science 288: 852–4
Levins, R. 1992. Evolutionary ecology looks at environmentalism. Paper delivered at the Symposium on Science, Reason and Modern Democracy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, May 1, 1992, 3–6. Quoted by Marc Landy in Civic environmentalism in the American political tradition, Presented at the Conference on Civic Environmentalism Working Group, Portland, ME, August 18, 2000
Lewis, H. T. 1989. Ecological and technical knowledge of fire: aborigines versus park managers in Northern Australia. American Anthropologist 91: 940–61
Lewis, H. T. and Ferguson, T. A. 1988. Yards, corridors and mosaics: how to burn a boreal forest. Human Ecology 16: 57–77
Lewis, H. T. and Ferguson, T. A. 1988. Yards, corridors and mosaics: how to burn a boreal forest. Human Ecology 16: 57–77
Lewis, H. T. and Ferguson, T. A. 1999. Yards, corridors, and mosaics: how to burn a boreal forest. In Indians, Fire and the Land in the Pacific Northwest, pp. 164–84, ed. R. Boyd. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press
Light, S. S. and Dineen, J. W. 1994. Water control in the Everglades. In The Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration, pp. 47–84, ed. S. Davis and J. Ogden. Delray Beach, FL: St Lucie Press
Light, S. S. and Dineen, J. W. 1994. Water control in the Everglades: a historical perspective. In The Everglades: the Ecosystem and its Restoration, pp. 47–84, ed. S. Davis and J. Ogden. Delray Beach, FL: St Lucie Press
Light, S. S., Gunderson, L. H., and Holling, C. S. 1995. Everglades, the evolution of management in a turbulent ecosystem. In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 103–68, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Light, S., compiler 1999. Citizens, Science, Watershed Partnerships, and Sustainability in Minnesota: the Citizens' Science Project. Minneapolis: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
Liljenäs, I. 1977. Allmänningskogarna i Norrbottens Län. (Forest commons in the county of Norrbotten.) Dissertation, Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundets Handlingar, No. 16. Umeå: Umeå University
Lindberg, P. and Mossing, A. 1996. The effects of cyclones on agriculture in Western Samoa. Department of Physical Geography, Umeå University, Sweden
Linder, P. and Östlund, L. 1992. Förändringar i norra Sveriges skogar. (Changes in the forests of northern Sweden.) Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 86: 199–215
Livingston, J. A. 1981. The Fallacy of Wildlife Conservation. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd
Lockwood, B. 1971. Samoan Village Economy. London: Oxford University Press
Loiske, V.-M. 1995. The village that vanished. The roots of erosion in a Tanzanian village. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Stockholm University
Loiske, V.-M. 1999a. Natural Resource Management Institutions among the Iraqw of Northern Tanzania. Working Paper Series No. 35. Stockholm: Environment and Development Studies Unit, Stockholm University
Loiske, V.-M. 1999b. Persistent peasants: the case of the Iraqw intensive agriculture in Tanzania. In ‘Islands’ of Intensive Agriculture in the East African Rift and Highlands: a 500-Year Perspective, pp. 44–55, ed. M. Widgren and J. Sutton. Working Paper Series No. 42. Stockholm: Environment and Development Studies Unit, Stockholm University
Longino, H. E. 1990. Science as Social Knowledge – Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Lovelock, J. 1995. The Ages of Gaia: a Biography of Our Living Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Low, B., Costanza, R., Ostrom, E., Wilson, J., and Simon, C. P. 1999. Human–ecosystem interactions: a dynamic integrated model. Ecological Economics 31(2): 227–42
Ludwig, D. 1995. A theory of sustainable harvesting. Siam Journal of Applied Mathematics 55: 564–75
Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R., and Walters, C. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation and conservation: lessons from history. Science 260: 17, 36
Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R., and Walters, C. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: lessons from history. Science 260: 17, 36
Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R., and Walters, C. J. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: lessons from history. Science 260: 17, 36
Ludwig, D., Jones, D. D., and Holling, C. S. 1978. Qualitative analysis of insect outbreak systems: the spruce budworm and forest. Journal of Animal Ecology 47: 315–32
Lugo, A. 1995. Management of tropical biodiversity. Ecological Applications 5: 956–61
Lugo, A., Scatena, F. N., Silver, W., et al. 2002. An exploration of resilience mechanisms in subtropical wet and subtropical dry forests in Puerto Rico. In Resilience and the Behavior of Large Scale Systems, ed. L. H. Gunderson and L. Pritchard Jr. Washington, DC: Island Press. (In press.)
Lundberg, J. and Moberg, F. in review. The role of mobile link species for ecosystem functions. Effects of global environmental change and the implications for management
Lundgren, N-G. 1984. Skog för export. (Forests for export.) Dissertation, Umeå Studies in Economic History 6. Umeå: Umeå University
Lynam, T. 1999. Adaptive analysis of locally complex systems in a globally complex world. Conservation Ecology 3(2): 13. www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art13
Mäler, K.-G. 2000. Development, ecological resources and their management: a study of complex dynamic systems. European Economic Review 44: 645–65
Mäler, K.-G. and Starrett, D., eds. in process. Ecological and Economic Modelling
MacArthur, R. H. 1955. Fluctuations of animal populations and a measure of community stability. Ecology 36: 533–6
Mackinson, S. and Nøttestad, L. 1998. Combining local and scientific knowledge. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 8: 481–90
Maine Department of Marine Resources, 2000. http://janus.state.me.us/dmr/Comfish/am.lobster.htm
Maniloff, J. 1996. The minimal cell genome: ‘on being the right size.’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93: 10004–6
Margalef, R. 1969. Diversity and stability: a practical proposal and a model of interdependence. In Diversity and Stability in Ecological Systems, pp. 25–37. Brookhaven Symposium in Biology Vol. 22. Upton, NY: Brookhaven National Laboratory
Maroni, G., Wise, J., Young, J. E., and Otto, E. 1987. Metallothionein gene duplication and metal tolerance in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 117: 739–44
Martini, I. P., ed. 1986. Canadian Inland Seas. Amsterdam: Elsevier
Masiun, S. 2000. National frameworks affecting Adat governance in Indonesia, and Dayak NGO responses. In Indigenous Social Movements and Ecological Resilience: Lessons from the Dayak of Indonesia, pp. 17–33, ed. J. B. Alcorn and A. G. Royo. Washington DC: Biodiversity Support Program
Matson, P. A., Parton, W. J., Power, A. G., and Swift, M. J. 1997. Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277: 504–9
Mattsson, L. and Stridsberg, E. 1981. Skogens roll i svensk markanvändning, en utvecklingsstudie. (The role of forests in the utilization of Swedish land.) Report 32a, Umeå: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Economics
Mayer, J. 1996. Environmental organizing in Indonesia: the search for a newer order. In Global Civil Society and Global Environmental Governance: the Politics of Nature from Place to Planet, pp. 169–216, ed. R. Lipschutz and J. Mayer. Albany: State University of New York Press
Maynard Smith, J. 1978. The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
McAdam, D. 1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency 1930–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
McCay, B. and Jentoft, S. 1998. Market or community failure? Critical perspectives on common property research. Human Organization 57: 21–9
McCay, B. J. 1978. Systems ecology, people ecology, and the anthropology of fishing communities. Human Ecology 6: 397–422
McCay, B. J. 1981. Optimal foragers or political actors? Ecological analysis of a New Jersey fishery. American Ethnologist 8: 356–82
McCay, B. J. and Acheson, J. M., eds. 1987. The Question of the Commons. The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources. Tucson: University of Arizona Press
McCay, B. J. and Acheson, J. M., eds. 1987. The Question of the Commons: the Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources. Tucson: University of Arizona Press
McCay, B. J. and Jentoft, S. 1996. From the bottom up: participatory issues in fisheries management. Society and Natural Resources 9: 237–50
McClanahan, T., Done, T., and Polunin, N. C. 2002. Resiliency of coral reefs. In Resilience and the Behavior of Large Scale Systems, ed. L. H. Gunderson and L. Pritchard Jr. Washington, DC: Island Press. (In press.)
McDonald, M., Arragutainaq, L., and Novalinga, Z., compilers. 1997. Voices from the Bay: Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Inuit and Cree in the Hudson Bay Bioregion. Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee and Municipality of Sanikiluaq
McGinnis, M., ed. 1999a. Polycentric Governance and Development: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
McGinnis, M., ed. 1999b. Polycentricity and Local Public Economies: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
McGinnis, M., ed. 2000. Polycentric Games and Institutions: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
McGovern, T. H. 1980. Cows, harp seals, and churchbells: adaptation and extinction in Norse Greenland. Human Ecology 8: 245–75
McGovern, T. H., Bigelow, G. F., Amorosi, T., and Russell, D. 1988. Northern islands, human error, and environmental degradation. Human Ecology 16: 225–70
McGrady-Steed, J. and Morin, P. J. 1998. Biodiversity, density compensation, and the dynamics of populations and functional groups. Ecology 81: 361–73
McGrady-Steed, J., Harris, P. M., and Morin, P. J. 1997. Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability. Nature 390: 162–5
McGregor, G. R. and Nieuwolt, S. 1998. Tropical Climatology. Chichester: Wiley and Sons
McIntosh, R. J. 2000. Climate, history and human action. In The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History and Human Action, pp. 1–42, ed. R. J. McIntosh, J. A. Tainter, and S. K. McIntosh. New York: Columbia University Press
McIntosh, R. J. 2000. Social memory in Mande. In The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action, pp. 141–80, ed. R. J. McIntosh, J. A. Tainter, and S. K. McIntosh. New York: Columbia University Press
McIntosh, R. J., Tainter, J. A., and McIntosh, S. K., eds. 2000. The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History and Human Action. New York: Columbia University Press
McIntosh, R. J., Tainter, J. A., and McIntosh, S. K., eds. 2000. The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action. New York: Columbia University Press
McKean, M. A. 1992. Management of traditional common lands (Iriaichi) in Japan. In Making the Commons Work, pp. 63–98, ed. D. W. Bromley. San Francisco: ISC Press
McKean, M. A. and Ostrom, E. 1995. Common property regimes in the forest: just a relic from the past? Unasylva 46: 3–15
Meier, K. 1980. Executive reorganization of government: impact on employment and expenditures. American Journal of Political Science 23(3): 396–412
Meindertsma, J. D. and Kessler, J. J. 1997. Towards a Better Use of Environmental Resources. A Planning Document of Mbulu and Karatu Districts, Tanzania. Mbulu District Council, Tanzania
Melnyk, M. 2001. Resource rights: A condition for effective community-based fire management. In International Workshop on Community Based Fire Management, p. 25, ed. D. Ganz, P. Moore and B. Shields. RECOFTC Training and Workshop Report Series 2001/1. Bangkok: RECOFTC
Merlo, M. 1995. Common property forest management in northern Italy: a historical and socio-economic profile. Unasylva 46: 58–63
Messerschmidt, D. A., ed. 1993. Common Forest Resource Management: Annotated Bibliography of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
Mikkelsen, B. 1995. Methods for Development Work and Research: a Guide for Practitioners. New Dehli: Sage Publications
Miles, M. B. and Huberman, A. M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: an Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Miranda, R.and Lerner, A. 1995. Bureaucracy, organizational redundancy, and the privatization of public services. Public Administration Review 55(2): 193–200
MNDNR 1996. DNR Regions IV and V plan for managing ecosystems. February 15, 1996. Internal report. St Paul, MN: MNDNR
MNDNR 2000. Organization reinvention efforts. St Paul, MN: MNDNR. URL: http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/ebm/activities/orginvent.html
Moniaga, S. 1993. Toward community-based forestry and recognition of adat property rights in the Outer Islands of Indonesia. In Legal Frameworks for Forest Management in Asia, pp. 131–50, ed. J. Fox. Honolulu: East-West Center
Moran, E. F. 1979. Human Adaptability: an Introduction to Ecological Anthropology. North Scituate: Duxbury Press
Moran, E. F. 1990. Ecosystem ecology in biology and anthropology: a critical assessment. In The Ecosystem Approach in Anthropology: From Concept to Practice, pp. 3–40, ed. E. F. Moran. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press
Mouchès, C., Pasteur, N., Bergé, J. B., et al. 1986. Amplification of an esterase gene is responsible for insecticide resistance in a California Culex mosquito. Science 233: 778–80
Muchagata, M. and Brown, K. 2000. Colonist farmers' perceptions on fertility and the frontier environment in eastern Amazonia. Agriculture and Human Values 17(4): 371–84
Mueller, C. M. 1992. Building social movement theory. In Frontiers in Social Movement Theories, pp. 3–25, ed. A. D. Morris and C. M. Mueller. New Haven: Yale University Press
Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in South Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645–58
Nabhan, G. P. 1997. Cultures of Habitat: On Nature, Culture and Story. Washington DC: Counterpoint
Nabhan, G. P. 1997. Cultures of Habitat: on Nature, Culture, and Story. Washington DC: Counterpoint
Nabhan, G. P. 2001. The launch of a transboundary, transcultural sense of place project. [online] http://www.desertmuseum.org/place/launch.html
Nabhan, G. P. and Buchmann, S. L. 1997. Services provided by pollinators. In Nature's Services. Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, pp. 133–50, ed. G. C. Daily. Washington DC: Island Press
Nadeau, J. H. and Sankoff, D. 1997. Comparable rates of gene loss and functional divergence after genome duplications early in vertebrate evolution. Genetics 147: 1259–66
Naeem, S. 1998. Species redundancy and ecosystem reliability. Conservation Biology 12: 39–45
Naeem, S., Hahn, D. R., and Schuurman, G. 2000. Producer–composer co-dependency influences biodiversity effects. Nature 403: 762–4
Naeem, S.and Li, S. 1997. Biodiversity enhances ecosystem reliability. Nature 390: 507–9
Naess, A. 1989. Ecology, Community and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy, translated and edited by D. Rothenberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Nagl, W. 1990. Polyploidy in differentiation and evolution. International Journal of Cell Cloning 8: 216–23
Nakashima, D. J. 1991. The ecological knowledge of Belcher Island Inuit: a traditional basis for contemporary wildlife co-management. Unpublished PhD thesis, McGill University, Montréal
Natalia, I. 2000. Protecting and regaining Dayak lands through community. In Indigenous Social Movements and Ecological Resilience: Lessons from the Dayak of Indonesia, pp. 61–71, ed. J. B. Alcorn and A. G. Royo. Washington DC: Biodiversity Support Program
National Film Board 1982. The Kaminuriak Herd Film/Videotape Project. (Film crew: Snowden, D., Kusagak, L. and Macleod, P.)
National Research Council 1998. Sustaining Marine Fisheries. Washington DC: National Academy Press
Nayak, P. K., Rao Giri, Y., and Singh Neera, M. 1996. India's emerging experiences with joint forest management (mimeographed report). Bhuvaneshwar, Vasundhara, Orissa: Vasundhara
Nazarea, V. D., ed. 1999. Ethnoecology: Situated Lives/Located Lives. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press
Nelson, J. G. and Serafin, R. 1992. Assessing biodiversity: a human ecological approach. Ambio 21: 212–18
Nelson, L. 1994. Leading from behind to solve natural resource controversies. Transactions of the 59th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. Washington DC: Wildlife Management Institute
Netting, R. 1981. Balancing on an Alp: Ecological Change and Continuity in a Swiss Mountain Community. New York: Cambridge University Press
Netting, R. 1993. Smallholders, Householders. Farm Families and the Ecology of Intensive, Sustainable Agriculture. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Netting, R. McC. 1974. Agrarian ecology. Annual Review of Anthropology 3: 21–56
Netting, R. McC. 1986. Cultural Ecology, 2nd edn. Prospect Heights, IL.: Waveland Press
Netting, R. McC. 1993. Smallholders, Householders: Farm Families and the Ecology of Intensive Sustainable Agriculture. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Ngecu, W. M. and Mathu, E. M. 1999. The El-Nino-triggered landslides and their socio-economic impact on Kenya. Environmental Geology 38 (4): 277–84
Ngo, T. H. G. M. 1996. A new perspective on property rights: examples from the Kayan of Kalimantan. In Borneo in Transition, pp. 137–49, ed. C. Padoch and N. L. Peluso. New York: Oxford University Press
Niamir-Fuller, M. 1998. The resilience of pastoral herding in Sahelian Africa. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 250–84, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Niamir-Fuller, M. 1998. The resilience of pastoral herding in Sahelian Africa. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 250–84, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Niamir-Fuller, M. 1998. The resilience of pastoral herding in Sahelian Africa. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 250–84, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Niamir-Fuller, M. 1999. Toward a synthesis of guidelines for legitimizing transhumance. In Managing Mobility in African Rangelands. The Legitimization of Transhumance, pp. 266–90, ed. M. Niamir-Fuller. London: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd
Niamir-Fuller, M. and Turner, M. D. 1999. A review of recent literature on pastoralism and transhumance in Africa. In Managing Mobility in African Rangelands. The Legitimization of Transhumance, pp. 18–46, ed. M. Niamir-Fuller. London: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd
Nilsson, S. and Shvidenko, A. 1998. Is Sustainable Development of the Russian Forest Sector Possible? IUFRO Occasional Paper No. 11, ISSN 1024-414X. Vienna: International Union of Forestry Research Organizations
Niskanen, W. 1975. Bureaucrats and politicians. Journal of Law and Economics 18(3): 617–44
Norgaard, R. B. 1994. Development Betrayed: the End of Progress and a Coevolutionary Revisioning of the Future. New York: Routledge
Norgaard, R. B. 1994. Development Betrayed: the End of Progress and a Coevolutionary Revisioning of the Future. New York: Routledge
Norman, B.and Bean, J. 1999. A genetic algorithm methodology for complex scheduling problems. Naval Research Logistics 46: 199–211
North, D. 1991. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
North, D. C. 1994. Economic performance through time. American Economic Review 84: 359–68
North, D. C. 1994. Economic performance through time. American Economic Review 84: 359–68
Nowak, M. A., Boerlljst, M. C., Cooke, J., and Smith, J. M. 1997. Evolution of genetic redundancy. Nature 388: 167–71
NSS, 1994. Land Resources Inventory and Land Suitability Assessment of Mbulu District, Arusha Region, Tanzania. Reconnaissance Soil Survey, Report R5. Tanga, Tanzania: Ministry of Agriculture, National Soil Service, Mlingano Agricultural Research Institute
Nuttall, M. 1998. Critical reflections on knowledge gathering in the Arctic. In Aboriginal Environmental Knowledge in the North, pp. 21–35, ed. L-J. Dorais, M. Nagy, and L. Müller-Wille. Québec: GÉTIC, Université Laval
Nyström, M. and Folke, C. 2001. Spatial resilience of coral reefs. Ecosystems 4: 406–17
Nyström, M. and Folke, C. 2001. Spatial resilience of coral reefs. Ecosystems 4: 406–17
Nyström, M., Folke, C., and Moberg, F. 2000. Coral-reef disturbance and resilience in a human-dominated environment. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 413–17
O'Neill, R. V., DeAngelis, D. L., Waide J. B., and Allen T. F. H. 1986. A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Oakerson, R. J. 1999. Governing Local Public Economies: Creating the Civic Metropolis. Oakland, CA: ICS Press
Ohno, S. 1970. Evolution by Gene Duplication. Berlin: Springer
Olsson, P. and Folke, C. 2001. Local ecological knowledge and institutional dynamics for ecosystem management: a study of crayfish management in the Lake Racken watershed, Sweden. Ecosystems 4: 85–104
Olsson, P. and Folke, C. 2001. Local ecological knowledge and institutional dynamics for ecosystem management: a study of Lake Racken watershed, Sweden. Ecosystems 4: 1–23
Olsson, P. and Folke, C. 2001. Local ecological knowledge and institutional dynamics for ecosystem management: a study of Lake Racken watershed, Sweden. Ecosystems 4: 85–104
Olsson, P. and Folke, C. 2001. Local ecological knowledge and institutional dynamics for ecosystem management: a study of Lake Racken Watershed, Sweden. Ecosystems 4: 85–104
Orejuela, J. E. 1992. Traditional productive systems of the Awa (Cuaiquer) Indians of Southwestern Colombia and neighboring Ecuador. In Conservation of Neotropical Forests. Working from Traditional Resource Use, pp. 58–82, ed. K. H. Redford and C. Padoch. New York: Columbia University Press
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons. The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: the Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: the Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: the Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: the Evolution of Institutions for Collective Actions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: the Evolution of Institutions for Collective Actions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons. New York: Cambridge University Press
Ostrom, E. 1992. Crafting Institutions for Self-Governing Irrigation Systems. San Francisco: ICS Press
Ostrom, E. 1992. Crafting Institutions for Self-Governing Irrigation Systems. San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies Press
Ostrom, E. 1995. The International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program: a Methodology for Relating Human Incentives and Actions on Forest Cover and Biodiversity. Paper (W95I-12) presented at the Smithsonian/Man and the Biosphere Biodiversity Program (SI/MAB), International Symposium Measuring and Monitoring Forest Biological Diversity: The International Network of Biodiversity Plots, Washington DC, May 23–25, 1995. Bloomington IN: Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University
Ostrom, E. 1998. Scales, polycentricity, and incentives: designing complexity to govern complexity. In Protection of Global Biodiversity: Converging Strategies, pp. 149–67, ed. L. D. Guruswamy and J. A. McNeely. Durham, NC: Duke University Press
Ostrom, E. 2000. Private and common property rights. In Encyclopedia of Law and Economics, Vol. II, pp. 332–79, ed. B. Bouckaert and G. De Geest. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar
Ostrom, E., Burger, J., Field, C. B., Norgaard, R. B., and Policansky, D. 1999. Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges. Science 284: 278–82
Ostrom, E., Burger, J., Field, C. B., Norgaard, R. B., and Policansky, D. 1999. Sustainability – revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges. Science 284: 278–82
Ostrom, E., Dietz, T., Dolsak, N., Stern, P. C., Stonich, S., and Weber, E. U., eds. 2002. The Drama of the Commons. Washington DC: National Academy Press
Ostrom, E., Parks, R. B., and Whitaker, G. P. 1973. Do we really want to consolidate urban police forces? Public Administration Review 33: 423–33
Ostrom, V. 1987. The Political Theory of a Compound Republic: Designing the American Experiment, 2nd revised edn. San Francisco: ICS Press
Ostrom, V. 1991. The Meaning of American Federalism: Constituting a Self-Governing Society. San Francisco: ICS Press
Ostrom, V. 1997. The Meaning of Democracy and the Vulnerability of Democracies: a Response to Tocqueville's Challenge. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Ostrom, V., Bish, R., and Ostrom, E. 1988. Local Government in the United States. San Francisco: ICS Press
Ostrom, V., Tiebout, C. M., and Warren, R. 1961. The organization of government in metropolitan areas: a theoretical inquiry. American Political Science Review 55(4): 831–42
Padoch, C. and Peluso, N. 1996. Borneo people and forests in transition: an introduction. In Borneo in Transition, pp. 1–9, ed. C. Padoch and N. L. Peluso. New York: Oxford University Press
Padoch, C. and Peters, D. 1993. Managed forest gardens in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. In Perspectives on Biodiversity: Case Studies of Genetic Resource Conservation and Development, pp. 167–76, ed. C. S. Potter, J. I. Cohen and D. Janczewski. Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Pandey, D. N. 1998. Ethnoforestry: Local Knowledge for Sustainable Forestry and Livelihood Security. New Delhi: Himanshu
Panigrahi, R. and Rao Giri, Y. 1996. Conserving biodiversity: a decade's experience of Dhani Panch Mouza people. Bhuvaneshwar, Orissa: Vasundhara
Pankhurst, C. E., Ophel-Keller, K., Doube, B. M., and Gupta, V. V. S. R. 1996. Biodiversity of soil microbial communities in agricultural systems. Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 197–209
Park, R. E. 1936. Human ecology. American Journal of Sociology 42: 1–15
Parks, R. B. and Ostrom, E. 1999. Complex models of urban service systems. In Polycentricity and Local Public Economies: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, pp. 355–80, ed. M. McGinnis, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Originally published in Clark, T. N. 1981. Policy Analysis: Directions for Future Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications
Paulson, D. D. and Rogers, S. 1997. Maintaining subsistence security in Western Samoa. Geoforum 28: 173–87
Pearce, J. 1993. NGOs and social change: agents or facilitators? Development in Practice 3: 222–7
Pecore, M. 1992. Menominee sustained yield management: a successful land ethic in practice. Journal of Forestry 90(7): 12–16
Peet, R. and Watts, M., eds. 1996. Liberation Ecologies: Environment, Development, Social Movements. London: Routledge
Peltzman, S. 1976. Towards a more general theory of regulation. Journal of Law and Economics 19: 211–40
Peluso, N. 1996. Fruit trees and family trees in an anthropogenic forest – ethics of access, property zones, and environmental change in Indonesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 38(3): 510–48
Peluso, N. L. and Padoch, C. 1996. Changing resource rights in managed forests of West Kalimantan. In Borneo in Transition, pp. 121–36, ed. C. Padoch and N. L. Peluso. New York: Oxford University Press
Penot, E. 1999. Prospects for conservation of biodiversity within productive rubber forests in Indonesia. In Management of Secondary and Logged-Over Forests in Indonesia, pp. 21–32, ed. P. Sist, C. Sabogal, and Y. Byron. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
Perrings, C. A. and Walker, B. W. 1995. Biodiversity loss and the economics of discontinuous change in semi-arid grasslands. In Biodiversity Loss, pp. 190–210, ed. C. A. Perrings, K.-G. Mäler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling, and B.-O. Jansson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Perrings, C. A., Mäler, K. G., Folke, C., Holling, C. S., and Jansson, B.-O., eds. 1995. Biodiversity Loss: Ecological and Economic Issues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Perrings, C. A., Maler, K-G., Folke, C., Holling, C. S., and Jansson, B-O., eds. 1995. Biodiversity Loss: Economic and Ecological Issues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Perrings, C. and Walker, B. H. 1995. Biodiversity loss and the economics of discontinuous change in semi-arid rangelands. In Biodiversity Loss: Ecological and Economic Issues, pp. 190–210, ed. C. A. Perrings, K.-G. Mäler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling and B.-O Jansson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Peters, C. 1996. Illipe nuts (Shorea spp.) in West Kalimantan: use, ecology, and management potential of an important forest resource. In Borneo in Transition, pp. 230–44, ed. C. Padoch and N. L. Peluso. New York: Oxford University Press
Peterson, G. D., Allen, C. R., and Holling, C. S. 1998. Ecological resilience, biodiversity and scale. Ecosystems 1: 6–18
Peterson, G., Allen, C. R., and Holling, C. S. 1998. Ecological resilience, biodiversity and scale. Ecosystems 1: 6–18
Peterson, G., Allen, C. R., and Holling, C. S. 1998. Ecological resilience, biodiversity, and scale. Ecosystems 1: 6–18
Pimbert, M. P. 1993. IPM options for Asia – explorations for a sustainable future. Journal of Asian Farming Systems Association 1: 537–55
Pimbert, M. P., Bainbridge, V., Foerster, S., Pasteur, K., Pratt, G., and Arroyo, I. Y. 2000. Transforming bureaucracies: institutionalising participation and people centred processes in natural resource management. An annotated bibliography. International Institute for Environment and Development. Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods. URL: http://www.iied.org/agri
Pimentel, D. and Kounang, N. 1998. The ecology of soil erosion in ecosystem. Ecosystems 1(5): 416–26
Pimm, S. L. 1984. The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature 307: 321–6
Pinkerton, E. 1998. Integrated management of a temperate montane forest ecosystem through wholistic forestry: a British Columbia example. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 363–89, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Pinkerton, E., ed. 1989. Co-operative Management of Local Fisheries: New Directions for Improved Management and Community Development. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press
Poffenberger, M. and McGean, B., eds. 1996. Village Voices, Forest Choices: Joint Forest Management in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press
Polanyi, M. 1958. Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Polski, M. M. 2000. Institutional evolution and change: interstate banking reform in the United States. PhD Dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Pomeroy, R. S. and Berkes, F. 1997. Two to tango: the role of government in fisheries co-management. Marine Policy 21: 465–80
Posey, D. A. 1985. Indigenous management of tropical forest ecosystems: the case of the Kayapo Indians of the Brazilian Amazon. Agroforestry Systems 3: 139–58
Posey, D. A., ed. 1999. Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity. London: Intermediate Technology Publications
Potter, L. 1993. The onslaught on the forests in South-East Asia. In South East Asia's Environmental Future, pp. 103–28, ed. H. Brookefield and L. Potter. New York: United Nations University Press
Pretty, J. 1995. Regenerating Agriculture. Policies and Practices for Sustainability and Self-Reliance. London: Earthscan
Pritchard, L. Jr and Sanderson, S. 1999. The power of politics in agent-based models of ecosystem management: comment on ‘Ecological and social dynamics in simple models of ecosystem management’ by S. R. Carpenter, W. A. Brock and P. Hanson. Conservation Ecology 3(2): 9. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art9
Pritchard, L. Jr and Sanderson, S. 2002. The dynamics of political discourse in seeking sustainability. In Panarchy, Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature, pp. 147–69, ed. L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. Washington DC: Island Press
Pritchard, L. Jr, Folke, C., and Gunderson, L. 2000. Valuation of ecosystem services in institutional context. Ecosystems 3: 36–40
Pritchett, L.and Filmer, D. 1999. What education production functions really show: a positive theory of education expenditures. Economics of Education Review 18(2): 223–39
Przeworski, A. and Teune, H. 1970. The Logic of Comparative Social Inquiry. New York: John Wiley and Sons
Pushpangadan, P., Rajasekharan, S., and George, V. 1998. Benefit sharing with Kani tribe: a model experimented by Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI). Presented at Medicinal Plants for Survival: International Conference on Medicinal Plants, February 16–19. Bangalore, India: National Institute of Advanced Studies
Röling, N. G. and Wagemakers, M. A. E. 1998. Facilitating Sustainable Agriculture: Participatory Learning and Adaptive Management in Times of Environmental Uncertainty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Ragone, D. 1991. Ethnobotany of breadfruit in Polynesia. In Islands, Plants and Polynesians. An Introduction to Polynesian Ethnobotany, pp. 203–20, ed. P. A. Cox, and S. A. Banack. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press
Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1998. Conserving the sacred for biodiversity: the conceptual framework. In Conserving the Sacred for Biodiversity Management, pp. 3–16, ed. P. S. Ramakrishnan, K. G. Saxena, and U. M. Chandrashekara. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd
Ramakrishnan, P. S., Saxena, K. G., and Chandrashekara, U. M., eds, 1998. Conserving the Sacred for Biodiversity Management. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd
Ramakrishnan, P. S., Saxena, K. G., and Chandrashekara, U. M., eds. 1998. Conserving the Sacred for Biodiversity Management. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd
Ramakrishnan, P. S., Saxena, K. G., and Chandrashekara, U. M., eds. 1998. Conserving the Sacred for Biodiversity Management. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd
Rappaport, R. A. 1967. Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People. New Haven: Yale University Press
Rappaport, R. A. 1979. Ecology, Meaning, and Religion. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books
Redford, K. H. and MacLean Stearman, A. 1993. Forest-dwelling native Amazonians and the conservation of biodiversity: interests in common or in collision? Conservation Biology 7: 248–55
Regier, H. A. and Baskerville G. L. 1986. Sustainable redevelopment of regional ecosystems degraded by exploitive development. In Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, pp. 75–101, ed. W. C. Clark and R. E. Munn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Reichhardt, K. L., Mellink, E., Nabham, G. P., and Rea, A. 1994. Habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity associated with indigenous agriculture in the Sonoran Desert. Ethnoecologica 2(3): 21–33
Reij, C., Scoones, I., and Toulmin, C., eds. 1996. Sustaining the Soil. Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation in Africa. London: Earthscan
Reijntjes, C., Haverkort, B., and Waters-Bayer, A. 1992. Farming for the Future, an Introduction to Low-External-Input and Sustainable Agriculture. London: MacMillan
Resilience Alliance 2002. www.resalliance.org/programdescription
Richerson, P. J. 1977. Ecology and human ecology: a comparison of theories in the biological and social sciences. American Ethnologist 4: 1–27
Ridington, R. 1990. Little Bit Know Something – Stories in a Language of Anthropology. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre Ltd
Riedlinger, D. and Berkes, F. 2001. Contributions of traditional knowledge to understanding climate change in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Record 37: 315–28
Riedlinger, D. and Berkes, F. 2001. Contributions of traditional knowledge to understanding climate change in the Canadian arctic. Polar Record 37: 315–28
Risser, P. G. 1995. Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Conservation Biology 9: 742–6
Rist, G. 1997. The History of Development: from Western Origins to Global Faith. London: Zed Books
Robblee, M. B., Barber, T. R., Carlson, J. P. R., et al. 1991. Mass mortality of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum in Florida Bay (USA). Marine Ecology Progress Series 71: 297–9
Robertson, G. J. and Gilchrist, H. G. 1998. Evidence of population declines among common eiders breeding in the Belcher Islands, Northwest Territories. Arctic 51: 378–85
Rocheleau, D., Tomas-Slayter, B., and Wangari, E. 1996. Feminist Political Ecology. Global Issues and Local Experiences. London: Routledge
Roots, F. 1998. Inclusion of different knowledge systems in research. Terra Borealis 1: 42–9
Routledge, P. 1996. Critical geopolitics and terrains of resistance. Political Geography 15: 509–31
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 1996. Restructuring the Relationship, Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 665–774. Ottawa: The Commission
Royo, A. G. 2000. The power of networking: building force to navigate cross-scale turbulence where solo efforts fail. In Indigenous Social Movements and Ecological Resilience: Lessons from the Dayak of Indonesia, pp. 73–85, ed. J. B. Alcorn and A. G. Royo. Washington DC: Biodiversity Support Program
Ruddle, K. 1988. Social principles underlying traditional inshore fishery management systems in the Pacific Basin. Marine Resource Economics 5: 351–63
Rusk, D. 1993. Cities Without Suburbs. Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press
Ruthenberg, H. 1980. Farming Systems in the Tropics. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Rybczynski, N. 1997. Predators and cosmologies. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies 17(1): 103–13
Sabatier, P. A. and Jenkins-Smith, H. C. 1999. The advocacy coalition framework: an assessment. In Theories of the Policy Process, pp. 117–66, ed. P. A. Sabatier. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Santa Fe Institute 2002. www.santafe.edu
Sapp, J. 1999. What is Natural? Coral Reef Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press
Sarin, M. 1996. From conflict to collaboration: institutional issues in community management. In Village Voices, Forest Choices: Joint Forest Management in India, pp. 165–209, ed. M. Poffenberger and B. McGean. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Sauer, C. O. 1956. The agency of Man on the earth. In Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, Vol. 1, pp. 49–69, ed. W. L. Thomas, Jr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Saxena, N. C. 1997. The Saga of Participatory Forest Management in India. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR Publications
Scheffer, M. 1998. The Ecology of Shallow Lakes. London: Chapman and Hall
Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J., Folke, C., and Walker, B. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413: 591–6
Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J., Folke, C., and Walker, B. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413: 591–6
Schmuck-Widmann, H. 1996. Living with the Floods. Survival Strategies of Char-Dwellers in Bangladesh. Berlin: FDCL
Schumpeter, J. A. 1950. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper and Row
Scoones, I. 1999. Ecological dynamics and grazing-resource tenure: a case study from Zimbabwe. In Managing Mobility in African Rangelands. The Legitimization of Transhumance, pp. 217–35, ed. M. Niamir-Fuller. London: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd
Scoones, I. 1999. New ecology and the social sciences: what prospects for a fruitful engagement? Annual Review of Anthropology 28: 479–507
Scoones, I. 1999. New ecology and the social sciences: what prospects for a fruitful engagement? Annual Review of Anthropology 28: 479–507
Scott, J. C. 1990. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press
Scott, J. C. 1998. Seeing Like a State. New Haven: Yale University Press
Sedjo, R. A. 1996. Toward an operational approach to public forest management. Journal of Forestry 94(8): 24–7
Sedjo, R. A. 1999. Mission impossible. Journal of Forestry 97(5): 13–15
Seixas, C. S. 2002. Social – ecological dynamics in management systems: investigating a coastal lagoon fishery in southern Brazil. PhD dissertation, University of Manitoba, Canada
Sen, A. K. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Sharp, H. S. 1997. Non-directional time and the Dene life-cycle. In Circumpolar Animism and Shamanism, pp. 93–104, ed. T. Yamada and T. Irimoto. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press
Sida, 1995. Change in Tanzania 1980–1994. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency
Sierra Club 2000. Stop logging our National Forests! Web page [accessed 6 March 2000]. Available at http://www.sierraclub.org/forests/
Simon, H. 1947. Administrative Behavior: a Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization. New York: Macmillan
Simpson, L. R. 1999. The construction of traditional ecological knowledge: issues, implications and insights. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg
Sinaga, K. 1995. NGOs in Indonesia. Saarbrucken: Verlag Entwicklungspolit
Sinclair, A. R. E., Olsen, P. D., and Redhead, T. D. 1990. Can predators regulate small mammal populations? Evidence from house mouse outbreaks in Australia. Oikos 59: 382–92
Singleton, S. 1998. Constructing Cooperation: the Evolution of Institutions of Co-management. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press
Smaling, E. M. A. and Braun, A. R. 1996. Soil fertility research in Sub-Saharan Africa: new dimensions, new challenges. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 27(3–4): 365–86
Smith, D. M. 1998. World as event: aspects of Chipewyan ontology. In Circumpolar Animism and Shamanism, pp. 67–91, ed. T. Yamada and T. Irimoto. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press
Smith, J. G. E. 1978. Economic uncertainty in an ‘original affluent society’: caribou and caribou eater Chipewyan adaptive strategies. Arctic Anthropology 15(1): 68–88
Smith, V., Chou, K. N., Lashkari, D., Botstein, D., and Brown, P. O. 1996. Functional analysis of the genes of yeast chromosome V by genetic footprinting. Science 274: 2069–74
Snyder, K. A. 1993. Like water and honey. Moral ideology and the construction of community among the Iraqw of Northern Tanzania. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Yale University
Snyder, K. A. 1996. Agrarian change and land-use strategies among Iraqw farmers in Northern Tanzania. Human Ecology 24(3): 315–40
Snyder, K. A. 1997. Elder's authority and women's protest: the Masay ritual and social change among the Iraqw of Tanzania. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3(3): 561–76
Speiss, A. E. 1979. Reindeer and Caribou Hunters – an Archaeological Study. New York: Academic Press
Sporrong, U. 1998. Dalecarlia in central Sweden before 1800, a society of social stability and ecological resilience. In Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, pp. 67–94, ed. F. Berkes and C. Folke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Spriggs, M. 1997. Landscape catastrophe and landscape enhancement: are either or both true in the Pacific? In Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands, pp. 80–104, ed. P. V. Kirch and T. L. Hunt. New Haven: Yale University Press
Stebbins, G. L. 1974. Flowering Plants: Evolution above the Species Level. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Stein, J. 1997. How institutions learn: a socio-cognitive perspective. Journal of Economic Issues 31(3): 729–40
Stephens, G. R. and Wikstrom, N. 1999. Metropolitan Government and Governance: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Analysis, and the Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Steward, J. H. 1955. Theory of Culture Change: the Methodology of Multilinear Evolution. Urbana: University of Illinois Press
Stjernquist, P. 1973. Law in the Forest, a Study of Public Direction of Swedish Private Forestry. Lund: CWK Gleerup
Swedish Ministry of Agriculture (Jordbruksdepartementet) 1984. Skogsallmänningar. (Forest Commons.) The Swedish Commission on Collectively-Owned Forest Lands, Ds Jo 1984: 15. Stockholm: Swedish Ministry of Agriculture
Swift, M. 1997. Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and agroecosystem function in the tropics. Applied Soil Ecology 6(1): 1–2
Symstad, A. J., Tilman, D., Willson, J., and Knops, J. M. H. 1998. Species loss and ecosystem functioning: effects of species identity and community composition. OIKOS 81: 389–97
Tainter, J. 1988. The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Tautz, D. 1992. Redundancies, development, and the flow of information. BioEssays 14(4): 263–6
Tengö, M. 1999. Integrated nutrient management and farming practices in the agro-ecological system of Mama Issara. Unpublished Honors thesis in Natural Resources Management, Stockholm University
Tenner, E. 1996. Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences. New York: Knopf
Thomas, D. C. and Schaefer, J. 1991. Wildlife co-management defined: the Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board. Rangifer, Special Issue No. 7: 73–89
Thomas, J. H. 1993. Thinking about genetic redundancy. Trends in Genetics 9: 395–9
Thompson, M. 1983. A cultural bias for comparison. In Risk Analysis and Decison Processes: the Siting of Liquid Energy Facilities in Four Countries, pp. 232–62, ed. H. C. Kunreuther and J. Linnerooth. Berlin: Springer
Thornton, R. J. 1980. Space, Time and Culture among the Iraqw of Tanzania. New York: Academic Press
Thornton, T. F. 1998. Alaska native subsistence: a matter of cultural survival. Cultural Survival Quarterly 22(3): 29–34
Tiebout, C. 1956. A pure theory of local expenditures. Journal of Political Economy 64(5): 416–24
Tilman, D. 1996. Biodiversity: population versus ecosystem stability. Ecology 77(2): 350–63
Tilman, D., Wedin, D., and Knops, J. 1996. Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems. Nature 379: 718–20
Toledo, V. M. 1992. What is ethnoecology? Origins, scope and implications of a rising discipline. Ethnoecológica 1(1): 5–21
Tuan, Y.-F. 1979. Thought and landscape: the eye and the mind's eye. In The Interpretation of Landscape: a Cultural Geography, pp. 89–102, ed. D. W. Meinig. New York: Greenwood Press
Tuchmann, E. T., Connaughton, K. P., Freedman, L. E., and Moriwaki, C. B. 1996. The Northwest Forest Plan: a Report to President and Congress. Washington DC: US Department of Agriculture, Office of Forestry and Economic Assistance
Turner, B. L., Clark, W. C., and Kates, W. C., eds. 1990. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Turner, B. L., Clark, W. C., Kates, R. W., Richards, J. F., Mathews, J. T., and Meyer, W. B., eds. 1990. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action. Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Turner, M. G. and Dale, V. H. 1998. Comparing large, infrequent disturbances: what have we learned? Ecosystems 1: 493–6
Turner, N. J., Boelscher Ignace, M., and Ignace, R. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge and wisdom of aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Ecological Applications 10: 1275–87
Urquhart, D. 1996. Caribou co-management needs from research. Simple questions – tricky answers. Rangifer Special Issue No. 9: 263–71
US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service 2000. 36 CFR Parts 217 and 219: national forest system land resource management planning: final rule. Federal Register 65 (218): 67513–81
Usher, P. J. 2000. Caribou Crisis or Administration Crisis? Wildlife and Aboriginal Policies on the Barren Grounds of Canada, 1947–1960. Paper presented at the 12th Inuit Studies Conference, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, 26 August 2000
van der Leeuw, S. E. 2000. Land degradation as a socio-natural process. In The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action, pp. 357–83, ed. R. J. McIntosh, J. A. Tainter, and S. K. McIntosh. New York: Columbia University Press
van der Leeuw, S. E. 2000. Land degradation as a socionatural process. In The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History and Human Action, pp. 190–210, ed. R. J. McIntosh, J. A. Tainter, and S. K. McIntosh. New York: Columbia University Press
VanNijnatten, D. L. 1999. Participation and environmental policy in Canada and the United States: trends over time. Policy Studies Journal 27(2): 267–87
Vayda, A. P. and McCay, B. J. 1975. New directions in ecology and ecological anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology 4: 293–306
Vayda, A. P. and Rappaport, R. 1968. Ecology, cultural and noncultural. In Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, pp. 477–97. ed. J. A. Clifton. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin
von Bertalanffy, L. 1968. General Systems Theory. New York: George Brazilier
Von Neumann, J. 1956. Probabilistic logics and the synthesis of reliable organisms from unreliable components. In Automata Studies, pp. 43–98, ed. C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Wagner, A. 1998. The fate of duplicated genes: loss or new function? BioEssays 20: 785–8
Wagner, A. 1999. Redundant gene functions and natural selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12: 1–16
Wagner, A. 2000. Robustness against mutations in genetic networks of yeast. Nature Genetics 24: 355–61
Walker, B. 1992. Biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Conservation Biology 6: 18–23
Walker, B. 1995. Conserving biological diversity through ecosystem resilience. Conservation Biology 9 (4): 747–52
Walker, B. H. 1992. Biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Conservation Biology 6: 18–23
Walker, B. H. 1993. Rangeland ecology: understanding and managing change. Ambio 22: 80–7
Walker, B. H., Ludwig, D., Holling, C. S., and Peterman, R. M. 1969. Stability of semi-arid savanna grazing systems. Ecology 69: 473–98
Walker, B., Kinzig, A., and Langridge, J. 1999. Plant attribute diversity, resilience, and ecosystem function. Ecosystems 2(2): 139–50
Wallinger, S. 1995. A commitment to the future: AF&PA's Sustainable Forestry Initiative. Journal of Forestry 93(1): 16–19
Walsh, J. B. 1995. How often do duplicated genes evolve new functions? Genetics 139: 421–8
Walters, C. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: MacMillan
Walters, C. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: McGraw Hill
Walters, C. J. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: Macmillan
Walters, C. J. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: McGraw-Hill
Walters, C. J. 1997. Challenges in adaptive management of riparian and coastal ecosystems. Conservation Ecology 1(2):1 [on line] URL:http://www.consecol.org/vol1/iss2/art1
Walters, C. J. and Holling, C. S. 1990. Large scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71(6): 2060–8
Walters, C., Gunderson, L., and Holling, C. S. 1992. Experimental policies for water management in the Everglades. Ecological Applications 2(2): 189–202
Wapner, P. 1995. In defense of banner hangers: the dark green politics of Greenpeace. In Ecological Resistance Movements, pp. 300–14, ed. B. R. Taylor. Albany: State University of New York Press
Wardle, D. A., Bonner, K. I., and Nicholson, K. S. 1997. Biodiversity and plant litter: experimental evidence which does not support the view that enhanced species richness improves ecosystem function. OIKOS 79: 247–58
Warner, K. 1991. Shifting Cultivators: Local Technical Knowledge and Natural Resource Management in the Humid Tropics. Rome: FAO
Warren, D. M., Slikkerveer, L. J., and Brokensha, D., eds. 1995. The Cultural Dimension of Development. Indigenous Knowledge Systems. London: Intermediate Technology Publications
Webler, T., Kastenholz, H., and Renn, O. 1995. Public participation in impact assessment: a social learning perspective. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 15: 443–63
Weick, K. 1995. Sensemaking in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Weinstein, M. 1996. Traditional Knowledge, Impact Assessment, and Environmental Planning. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, BHP Diamond Mine Environmental Assessment Panel. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services
Westley, F. 1995. Governing design: the management of social systems and ecological management. In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 391–427, ed. L. H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Westley, F. 1995. Governing design: the management of social systems and ecosystems management. In Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, pp. 391–428, ed. C. S. Holling, L. H. Gunderson, and S. S. Light. New York: Columbia University Press
Westley, F. 2002. The devil is in the dynamic. In Panarchy, Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature, pp. 333–60, ed. L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. Washington DC: Island Press
White, P. S. and Pickett, S. T. A., eds. 1985. Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: an introduction. In The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics, pp. 3–13, ed. S. T. A. Pickett and P. S. White. Orlando, FL: Academic Press
Widgren, M. 1999. Islands of intensive agriculture in eastern Africa: the social, ecological and historical contexts. In ‘Islands’ of Intensive Agriculture in the East African Rift and Highlands: a 500-Year Perspective, pp. 3–14, ed. M. Widgren and J. Sutton. Working Paper Series No. 42. Stockholm: Environment and Development Studies Unit, Stockholm University
Widgren, M. and Sutton, J., eds. 1999. ‘Islands’ of Intensive Agriculture in the East African Rift and Highlands: a 500-Year Perspective. Working Paper Series No. 42. Stockholm: Environment and Development Studies Unit, Stockholm University
Wilkinson, C. F. 1992. Crossing The Next Meridian: Land, Water, and the Future of the West. Washington DC: Island Press
Williams, B. A. and Matheny, A. R. 1995. Democracy, Dialogue, and Environmental Disputes: the Contested Languages of Social Regulation. New Haven: Yale University Press
Williams, G. C. 1975. Sex and Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Wilson, A. 1993. Sacred forests and the elders. In Indigenous Peoples and Protected Areas, pp. 244–8, ed. E. Kemf. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.
Wilson, J. 2000. Scientific uncertainty and institutional scale: ocean fisheries. Papers of the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP), Bloomington, Indiana, June 2000. www.indiana.edu/∼iascp2000.htm
Wilson, J. A. 1997. Maine fisheries management initiative. In The Social Impacts of Individual Transferable Quotas, pp. 335–53, ed. G. Palsson. Copenhagen: TemaNord
Wilson, J. A. 2002. Scientific uncertainty, complex systems and the design of common pool institutions. In The Drama of the Commons, pp. 327–59, ed. E. Ostrom, T. Dietz, N. Dolsak, P. Stern, S. Stonich, and E. Weber. Washington DC: National Academy Press
Wilson, J. A., Low, B., Costanza, R., and Ostrom, E. 1999. Scale misperceptions and the spatial dynamics of a social–ecological system. Ecological Economics 31(2): 243–57
Winterhalder, B. 1983. The boreal forest, Cree-Ojibwa foraging and adaptive management. In Resources and Dynamics of the Boreal Zone, pp. 331–45, ed. R. W. Wein, R. R. Riewe, and I. R. Methven. Ottawa: Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies
Wolf, E. 1982. Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press
Wolfe, R. J. 1998. Subsistence economies in rural Alaska. Cultural Survival Quarterly 22(3): 49–50
Wondalleck, J. M. and Yaffee, S. L. 2000. Making Collaboration Work: Lessons from Innovation in Natural Resource Management. Washington DC: Island Press
Wondolleck, J. M. and Yaffee, S. L. 2000. Making Collaboration Work: Lessons from Innovation in Natural Resource Management. Washington DC: Island Press
Wood, D. 1992. The Power of Maps. New York: Guilford Press
Woodhill, J. and Röling, N. G. 1998. The second wing of the eagle. In Facilitating Sustainable Agriculture: Participatory Learning and Adaptive Management in Times of Environmental Uncertainty, pp. 283–306, ed. N. G. Röling and M. A. E. Wagemakers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Worster, D. 1977. Nature's Economy: a History of Ecological Ideas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Worster, D., ed. 1988. The Ends of the Earth. Perspectives on Modern Environmental History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Worster, D., ed. 1988. The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Yaffee, S. L. 1994. The Wisdom of the Spotted Owl. Washington DC: Island Press
Yaffee, S. L. 1997. Why environmental policy nightmares recur. Conservation Biology 11(2): 328–37
Yamada, T. and Irimoto T., eds. 1997. Circumpolar Animism and Shamanism. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press
Yellen, J. E. 1977. Long term hunter–gatherer adaptation to desert environments: a biogeographical perspective. World Archeology 8: 262–74
Yin, R. K. 1994. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 5. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Young, M. and McCay, B. J. 1995. Building equity, stewardship and resilience into market-based property rights systems. In Property Rights and the Environment, pp. 87 102, ed. S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe. Washington DC: Beijer International Institute and World Bank
Zachariah, M. and Sooryamoorthy, R. 1994. Science for Social Revolution? Achievements and Dilemmas of a Development Movement. New Delhi: Vistaar Publications
Zimmerer, K. S. 1994. Human geography and the ‘new ecology’: the prospect and promise of integration. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84: 108–25
Zimmerer, K. S. and Young, K. R., eds. 1998. Nature's Geography: New Lessons for Conservation in Developing Countries. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press