Abe, M., Kitoh, A. and Yasunari, T. (2003) An evolution of the Asian summer monsoon associated with mountain uplift – simulation with the MRI atmosphere-ocean coupled GCM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 81, 909–933.
Abram, N. J., Gagan, M. K., Liu, Z., Hantoro, W. S., McCulloch, M. T. and Suwargadi, B. W. (2007) Seasonal characteristics of the Indian Ocean Dipole during the Holocene epoch. Nature, 445, 299–302.
Agnihotri, R., Dutta, K., Bhushan, R. and Somayajulu, B. L. K. (2002) Evidence for solar forcing on the Indian monsoon during the last millennium. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 198, 521–527.
Aitchison, J. C., Ali, J. R. and Davis, A. M. (2007) When and where did India and Asia collide? J. Geophys. Res., 112, B05423, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004706.
Alam, M. and Subrahmanyam, S. (1998) The Mughal state, 1526–1750. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press, p. 455.
Albright, W. F. (1944) Ur excavations, vol. V: the Ziggurat and its surroundings. American J. Archaeo., 48, 303–305.
Ali, J. R. and Aitchison, J. C. (2005) Greater India. Earth Sci. Rev., 72, 169–188.
Alley, R. B., Meese, D. A., Shuman, C. A. et al
. (1993) Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. Nature, 362, 527–529.
Altabet, M. A., Francois, R., Murray, D. W. and Prell, W. L. (1995) Climate-related variations in denitrification in the Arabian Sea from sediment 15
N ratios. Nature, 373, 506–509.
Altabet, M. A., Higginson, M. J. and Murray, D. W. (2002) The effect of millennial-scale changes in Arabian Sea denitrification on atmospheric CO2
. Nature, 415, 159–162.
Altabet, M. A., Murray, D. W. and Prell, W. L. (1999) Climatically linked oscillations in Arabian Sea denitrification over the past 1 m.y.: implications for the marine N cycle. Paleoceanography, 14, 732–743.
An, C.-B., Feng, Z. and Tang, L. (2004) Environmental change and cultural response between 8000 and 4000 cal. yr BP in the western Loess Plateau, north-west China. J. Quat. Sci., 19, 529–535.
An, C.-B., Tang, L., Barton, L. and Chen, F. H. (2005) Climate change and cultural response around 4000 cal yr B. P. in the western part of Chinese Loess Plateau. Quat. Res., 63, 347–352.
An, Z. (1991) Radiocarbon dating and the prehistoric archaeology of China. World Archaeo., 23, 193–200.
An, Z. S., Porter, S. C., Chappell, J. et al
. (1994) The Luochuan loess sequence over the past 130 ka and records of the Greenland ice cores. Chinese Sci. Bull., 39, 182–184.
An, Z., Kukla, G. J., Porter, S. C. and Xiao, J. (1991) Magnetic susceptibility evidence of monsoon variation on the Loess Plateau of central China during the last 130,000 years. Quat. Res., 36, 29–36.
An, Z., Kutzbach, J. E., Prell, W. L. and Porter, S. C. (2001) Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased uplift of the Himalaya–Tibetan plateau since Late Miocene times. Nature, 411, 62–66.
Anand, P., Elderfield, H. and Conte, M. H. (2003) Calibration of Mg/Ca thermometry in planktonic foraminifera from a sediment trap time series. Paleoceanography, 18, 1050, doi: 10.1029/2002PA000846.
Anderson, D. M. and Prell, W. L. (1993) A 300 kyr record of upwelling off Oman during the late Quaternary; evidence of the Asian south-west monsoon. Paleoceanography, 8, 193–208.
Anderson, D. M., Brock, J. C. and Prell, W. L. (1992) Physical upwelling processes, upper ocean environment and the sediment record of the south-west monsoon. In Upwelling Systems; Evolution Since the Early Miocene, ed. C. P. Summerhayes, W. L. Prell and K. C. Emeis. London: Geol. Soc. Lond., Spec. Publ., vol. 64
, pp. 121–129.
Anderson, D. M., Overpeck, J. T. and Gupta, A. K. (2002) Increase in the Asian south-west monsoon during the past four centuries. Science, 297, 596–599.
Andersson, J. G. (1923) Essays on the Cenozoic of northern China. Mem. Geol. Surv. China, Ser. A, 3, 1–152.
Ashrit, R. G., Kumar, K. R. and Kumar, K. K. (2001) ENSO-monsoon relationships in a greenhouse warming scenario. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1727–1730.
Audley-Charles, M. G. (2004) Ocean trench blocked and obliterated by Banda forearc collision with Australian proximal continental slope. Tectonophysics, 389, 65–79.
Axelrod, D. I. (1980) Estimating altitudes of Tertiary forests. In Proceedings of Symposium on Qinghai-Zizang (Tibet) Plateau, Beijing, China: Academica Sinica, 0–2.
Béchennec, F., Le Métour, J., Platel, J. P. and Roger, J. (1993) Explanatory notes to the geological map of the Sultanate of Oman. Muscat, Oman: Directorate General of Minerals, Oman Ministry of Petroleum and Minerals, p. 93.
Balsam, W., Ellwood, B. and Ji, J. (2005) Direct correlation of the marine oxygen isotope record with the Chinese Loess Plateau iron oxide and magnetic susceptibility records. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 221, 141–152.
Balsam, W., Ji, J. and Chen, J. (2004) Climatic interpretation of the Luochuan and Lingtai loess sections, China, based on changing iron oxide mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 223, 335–348.
Banakar, V. K., Galy, A., Sukumaran, N. P., Parthiban, G. and Volvaiker, A. Y. (2003) Himalayan sedimentary pulses recorded by silicate detritus within a ferromanganese crust from the central Indian Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 205, 337–348.
Barber, D. C., Dyke, A., Hillaire, M. C. et al
. (1999) Forcing of the cold event of 8,200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide lakes. Nature, 400, 344–348.
Bard, E., Hamelin, B., Arnold, M. et al
. (1996) Deglacial sea-level record from Tahiti corals and the timing of global meltwater discharge. Nature, 382, 241–244.
Bassinot, F. C., Labeyrie, L. D., Vincent, E. et al
. (1994) The astronomical theory of climate and the age of the Brunhes–Matuyama magnetic reversal. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 126, 91–108.
Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R. A., Nguyen, M. H. and Medvedev, S. (2004) Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical models with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan–Tibetan orogen. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B06406, doi: 10.1029/2003JB002809.
Bettinger, R. L., Barton, L., Richerson, P. J. et al
. (2007) The transition to agriculture in North-western China. In Late Quaternary Climate Change and Human Adaptation in Arid China, ed. D. B. Madsen, F. Chen and X. Gao, Amsterdam: Elsevier, Develop. Quat. Sci., vol. 9
, pp. 83–101.
Bhattacharya, A. (1989) Vegetation and climate during the last 30,000 years in Ladakh. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoeco., 73, 25–38.
Bird, M. I. and Cali, J. A. (1998) A million-year record of fire in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature, 394, 767–769.
Bird, P. (1978) Initiation of intracontinental subduction in the Himalaya. J. Geophys. Res., 83, 4975–4987.
Biscaye, P. E. (1965) Mineralogy and sedimentation of Recent deep-sea clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 76, 803–831.
Blisniuk, P. M., Hacker, B. R., Glodny, J. et al
. (2001) Normal faulting in central Tibet since at least 13.5 Myr ago. Nature, 412, 628–632.
Bohren, C. F. and Albrecht, B. A. (1998) Atmospheric Thermodynamics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 404.
Bond, G. C., Heinrich, H., Broecker, W. S. et al
. (1992) Evidence for massive discharges of icebergs into the North Atlantic ocean during the last glacial period. Nature, 360, 245–249.
Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J. et al
. (2001) Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic Climate during the Holocene. Science, 294, 2130–2136.
Bond, G., Showers, W., Cheseby, M. et al
. (1997) A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates. Science, 278, 1257–1266.
Bookhagen, B. and Burbank, D. W. (2006) Topography, relief and TRMM-derived rainfall variations along the Himalaya. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08405, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026037.
Bookhagen, B., Thiede, R. C. and Strecker, M. R. (2005a) Late Quaternary intensified monsoon phases control landscape evolution in the north-west Himalaya. Geology, 33, 149–152.
Bookhagen, B., Thiede, R. C. and Strecker, M. R. (2005b) Abnormal monsoon years and their control on erosion and sediment flux in the high, arid north-west Himalaya. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 231, 131–146.
Brass, G. W. and Raman, C. V. (1991) Clay mineralogy of sediments from the Bengal Fan. Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog
., Sci. Res
., ed. J. R. Cochran, D. A. V. Stow et al
., 116, College Station, TX: Ocean Drilling Program, pp. 35–42.
Bray, H. E. and Stokes, S. (2004) Temporal patterns of arid-humid transitions in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula based on optical dating. Geomorph., 59, 271–280.
Broecker, W. S. (1994) Massive iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change. Nature, 372, 421–424.
Brookfield, M. E. (1998) The evolution of the great river systems of southern Asia during the Cenozoic India–Asia collision; rivers draining southwards. Geomorph., 22, 285–312.
Bryson, R. A. and Swain, A. M. (1981) Holocene variations of monsoon rainfall in Rajasthan. Quat. Res., 16, 135–145.
Bull, J. M. and Scrutton, R. A. (1990) Fault reactivation in the central Indian Ocean and the rheology of oceanic lithosphere. Nature, 344, 855–858.
Bull, J. M. and Scrutton, R. A. (1992) Seismic reflection images of intraplate deformation, central Indian Ocean and their tectonic significance. J. Geol. Soc., 149, 955–966.
Burbank, D. W., Blythe, A. E., Putkonen, J. et al
. (2003) Decoupling of erosion and precipitation in the Himalayas. Nature, 426, 652–655.
Burbank, D. W., Derry, L. A. and France-Lanord, C. (1993) Reduced Himalayan sediment production 8 Myr ago despite an intensified monsoon. Nature, 364, 48–50.
Burchfiel, B. C., Chen, Z., Hodges, K. V. et al
. (1992) The South Tibetan Detachment System, Himalayan Orogen: Extension Contemporaneous With and Parallel to Shortening in a Collisional Mountain Belt. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper, 269
, p. 41.
Burg, J. P., Proust, F., Tapponnier, P. and Chen, G. M. (1983) Deformation phases and tectonic evolution of the Lhasa Block (southern Tibet, China). Eclog. Geol. Helv., 76, 643–665.
Burns, S. J. and Matter, A. (1995) Geochemistry of carbonate cements in surficial alluvial conglomerates and their paleoclimatic implications, Sultanate of Oman. J. Sed. Res., 65, 170–177.
Burns, S. J., Fleitmann, D., Matter, A., Kramers, J. and Al-Subbary, A. A. (2003) Indian Ocean climate and an absolute chronology over Dansgaard/Oeschger events 9 to 13. Science, 301, 1365–1367.
Burns, S. J., Fleitmann, D., Mudelsee, M. et al
. (2002) 780-year annually resolved record of Indian Ocean monsoon precipitation from a speleothem from South Oman. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 20, 4434.
Burns, S. J., Matter, A., Frank, N. and Mangini, A. (1998) Speleothem-based paleoclimate record from northern Oman. Geology, 26, 499–502.
Bush, A. B. G. (2004) Modeling of late Quaternary climate over Asia: a synthesis. Boreas, 33, 155–163.
Calvache-Archila, J. and Love, C. (2001) Structural provinces in the northern Sohar Basin, offshore Oman. Abstr. Int. Conf. Geol. Oman, Muscat, Oman: Oman Ministry of Commerce, p. 27.
Camoin, G. F., Montaggioni, L. F. and Braithwaite, C. J. R. (2004) Late glacial to post glacial sea levels in the western Indian Ocean. Mar. Geol., 206, 119–146.
Cane, M. A. (1998) A role for the tropical Pacific. Science, 282, 60–61.
Cane, M. A. and Molnar, P. (2001) Closing of the Indonesian seaway as a precursor to East African aridification around 3–4 million years ago. Nature, 411, 157–162.
Cerling, T. E., Harris, J. M., MacFadden, B. J. et al
. (1997) Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature, 38, 153–158.
Cerling, T. E., Wang, Y. and Quade, J. (1993) Expansion of C4 ecosystems as an indicator of global ecological change in the late Miocene. Nature, 361 (6410), 344–345.
Chakraborty, A., Nanjundiah, R. S. and Srinivasan, J. (2002) Role of Asian and African orography in Indian summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015522.
Chakraborty, S. and Ramesh, R. (1993) Monsoon-induced sea surface temperature changes recorded in Indian corals. Terra Nova, 5, 545–551.
Charles, C. D., Hunter, D. E. and Fairbanks, R. G. (1997) Interaction between the ENSO and the Asian monsoon in a coral record of tropical climate. Science, 277, 925–928.
Chen, J., An, Z. S. and Head, J. (1999) Variation of Rb/Sr ratios in the loess-paleosol sequences of central China during the last 130,000 years and their implications for monsoon paleoclimatology. Quat. Res., 51, 215–219.
Chen, J., Farrell, J. W., Murray, D. W. and Prell, W. L. (1995) Timescale and paleoceanographic implications of a 3.6 Ma oxygen isotope record from the north-east Indian Ocean (Ocean Drilling Program Site 758). Paleoceanography, 10, 21–48.
Chen, J., Zheng, L., Wiesner, M. G. et al
. (1998) Estimations of primary production and export production in the South China Sea based on sediment trap experiments. China Sci. Bull., 43, 583–586.
Chen, K. T. and Hiebert, F. T. (1995) The late prehistory of Xinjiang in relation to its neighbors. J. World Prehist., 9, 243–300.
Chen, L. X. (1991) East Asia Monsoon. Beijing: Meteorology Press of China, pp. 1–262 (In Chinese).
Chen, M., Wang, R., Yang, L., Han, J. and Lu, J. (2003) Development of East Asian summer monsoon environments in the late Miocene; radiolarian evidence from Site 1143 of ODP Leg 184. Mar. Geol., 201, 169–177.
Chen, M.-T. and Huang, C. Y. (1998) Ice-volume forcing of winter monsoon climate in the South China Sea. Paleoceanography, 13, 622–633.
Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Wang, Y. et al
. (2006) A penultimate glacial monsoon record from Hulu Cave and two-phase glacial terminations. Geology, 34, 217–220.
Chou, C. and Neelin, J. D. (2001) Mechanisms limiting the southward extent of the South American summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2433–2436.
Chou, C., Neelin, J. D. and Su, H. (2001) Ocean-atmosphere-land feedbacks in an idealized monsoon. Quart. J. R. Meteor. Soc., 127, 1869–1891.
Chu, P. C. and Li, R. (2000) South China Sea isopycnal-surface circulation. J. Phys. Ocean., 30, 2419–2438.
Chung, S. L., Lo, C. H., Lee, T. Y. et al
. (1998) Diachronous uplift of the Tibet Plateau starting 40 Myr ago. Nature, 394, 769–773.
Clark, C. O., Cole, J. E. and Webster, P. J. (2000) Indian Ocean SST and Indian summer rainfall: predictive relationships and their decadal variability. J. Clim., 13, 2503–2519.
Clark, M. K. and Royden, L. H. (2000) Topographic ooze; building the eastern margin of Tibet by lower crustal flow. Geology, 28, 703–706.
Clark, M. K., House, M. A., Royden, L. H. et al
. (2005) Late Cenozoic uplift of south-eastern Tibet. Geology, 33, 525–528.
Clark, M. K., Schoenbohm, L. M., Royden, L. H. et al
. (2004) Surface uplift, tectonics, and erosion of Eastern Tibet from large-scale drainage patterns. Tectonics, 23, TC1006, doi: 10.1029/2002TC001402.
Clemens, S. C. and Prell, W. L. (1990) Late Pleistocene variability of Arabian Sea summer monsoon winds and continental aridity; Eolian records from the lithogenic component of deep-sea sediments. Paleoceanography, 5, 109–145.
Clemens, S. C. and Prell, W. L. (2003) Data report: preliminary oxygen and carbon isotopes from site 1146, northern South China Sea. Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog., Sci. Res., 184, 1–8 (online).
Clemens, S. C. and Prell, W. L. (2007) The timing of orbital-scale Indian monsoon changes. Quat. Sci. Rev., 26, 275–278.
Clemens, S. C., Murray, D. W. and Prell, W. L. (1996) Nonstationary phase of the Plio-Pleistocene Asian monsoon. Science, 274, 943–948.
Clemens, S. C., Prell, W., Murray, D., Shimmield, G. and Weedon, G. (1991) Forcing mechanisms of the Indian Ocean monsoon. Nature, 353, 720–725.
Clift, P. D. (2006) Controls on the erosion of Cenozoic Asia and the flux of clastic sediment to the ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 241, 571–580.
Clift, P. D. and Blusztajn, J. (2005) Re-organization of the western Himalayan river system after five million years ago. Nature, 438, 1001–1003.
Clift, P. D. and Gaedicke, C. (2002) Accelerated mass flux to the Arabian Sea during the Middle-Late Miocene. Geology, 30, 207–210.
Clift, P. D., Blusztajn, J. and Nguyen, D. A. (2006a) Large-scale drainage capture and surface uplift in Eastern Tibet before 24 Ma. Geophys. Res. Lett, 33, L19403, doi: 10.1029/2006GL027772.
Clift, P. D., Carter, A., Campbell, I. H. et al
. (2006b) Thermochronology of mineral grains in the Song Hong and Mekong Rivers, Vietnam. Geophys., Geochem., Geosyst., 7, Q10005, doi: 10.1029/2006GC001336.
Clift, P. D., Gaedicke, C., Edwards, R. et al
. (2002b) The stratigraphic evolution of the Indus Fan and the history of sedimentation in the Arabian Sea. Mar. Geophys. Res., 23, 223–245.
Clift, P. D., Giosan, L., Blusztajn, J. et al
. (2008) Holocene erosion of the Lesser Himalaya triggered by intensified summer monsoon. Geology, 36, 79–82.
Clift, P. D., Layne, G. D. and Blusztajn, J. (2004) The erosional record of Tibetan uplift in the East Asian marginal seas. In Continent-Ocean Interactions in the East Asian Marginal Seas
, ed. P. D. Clift, P. Wang, D. Hayes, W. Kuhnt. Amer. Geophys
. Union, monogr
., 149, 255–282.
Clift, P. D., Lee, J. I., Blusztajn, J. and Clark, M. K. (2002a) Erosional response of South China to arc rifting and monsoonal strengthening recorded in the South China Sea. Mar. Geol., 184, 207–226.
Clift, P. D., Lee, J. I., Hildebrand, P. et al
. (2002c) Nd and Pb isotope variability in the Indus River system: implications for sediment provenance and crustal heterogeneity in the Western Himalaya. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 200, 91–106.
Cline, J. D. and Kaplan, I. R. (1975) Isotopic fractionation of dissolved nitrate during denitrification in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean. Mar. Chem., 3, 271–299.
Cochran, J. R. (1990) Himalayan uplift, sea level, and the record of Bengal Fan sedimentation at the ODP leg 116 sites. Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog., Sci. Res., 116, 397–414.
Coleman, M. and Hodges, K. (1995) Evidence for Tibetan plateau uplift before 14 Myr ago from a new minimum age for east-west extension. Nature, 374, 49–52.
Colin, C., Turpin, L., Bertaux, J., Desprairies, A. and Kissel, C. (1999) Erosional history of the Himalayan and Burman ranges during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 171, 647–660.
Conkright, M., Levitus, S., O'Brien, T. et al
. (1998) World Ocean Atlas 1998, CD-ROM data set documentation, tech. rep. 15. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanographic Data Center, p. 16.
Conte, M. H. and Weber, J. C. (2002) Plant biomarkers in aerosols record isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis. Nature, 417, 639–641.
Cook, E. R., D'Arrigo, R. D. and Briffa, K. R. (1998) A reconstruction of the North Atlantic oscillation using tree-ring chronologies from North America and Europe. Holocene, 8, 9–17.
Cook, E. R., Woodhouse, C., Eakin, C. M., Meko, D. M. and Stahle, D. W. (2004) Long-term aridity changes in the western United States. Science, 306, 1015–1018.
Copeland, P., Harrison, T. M., Kidd, W. S. F., Xu R. and Zhang Y. (1987) Rapid Miocene acceleration of uplift in the Gangdese belt, Xizang (southern Tibet), and its bearing on accommodation mechanisms of the India–Asia collision. Earth Planet. Sci. Letts., 86, 240–252.
Cullen, H. M., deMenocal, P. B., Hemming, S. et al
. (2000) Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: evidence from the deep sea. Geology, 28, 379–382.
Curray, J. R. (1994) Sediment volume and mass beneath the Bay of Bengal. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 125, 371–383.
Curray, J. R. and Moore, D. G. (1971) Growth of the Bengal deep-sea fan and denudation in the Himalayas. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 82, 563–572.
Curray, J. R., Emmel, F. J. and Moore, D. G. (2003) The Bengal Fan: morphology, geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes. Mar. Petrol. Geol., 19, 1191–1223.
Currie, B. S., Rowley, D. B. and Tabor, N. J. (2005) Middle Miocene paleoaltimetry of southern Tibet; implications for the role of mantle thickening and delamination in the Himalayan Orogen. Geology, 33, 181–184.
Curry, W. B., Ostermann, D. R., Guptha, M. V. S. and Itekkot, V. (1992) Foraminiferal production and monsoonal upwelling in the Arabian Sea; evidence from sediment traps. In Upwelling Systems; Evolution Since the Early Miocene
, ed. C. P. Summerhayes, W. L. Prell and K. C. Emeis, Geol. Soc. Lond., Spec. Publ
., 64, 93–106.
Dadson, S., Hovius, N. Chen, H. et al
. (2003) Links between erosion, runoff variability and seismicity in the Taiwan orogen. Nature, 426, 648–651.
Dahl, K. A. and Oppo, D. W. (2006) Sea-surface temperature pattern reconstructions in the Arabian Sea. Paleoceanography, 21, PA1014, doi: 10.1029/2005PA001162.
Dannenmann, S., Linsley, B. K., Oppo, D. W., Rosenthal, Y. and Beaufort, L. (2003) East Asian monsoon forcing of suborbital variability in the Sulu Sea during Marine Isotope Stage 3; link to Northern Hemisphere climate. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 4, 1, doi: 10.1029/2002GC000390.
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S. J., Clausen, H. B. et al
. (1993) Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. Nature, 364, 218–220.
Davies, T. A., Kidd, R. B. and Ramsay, A. T. S. (1995) A time-slice approach to the history of Cenozoic sedimentation in the Indian Ocean. Sed. Geol., 96, 157–179, 1995.
Davis, M. E., Thompson, L. G., Yao, T. and Wang, N. (2005) Forcing of the Asian monsoon on the Tibetan Plateau; evidence from high-resolution ice core and tropical coral records. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D4.
DeCelles, P. G., Robinson, D. M., Quade, J. et al
. (2001) Stratigraphy, structure and tectonic evolution of the Himalayan fold–thrust belt in western Nepal. Tectonics 20, 487–509.
deMenocal, P. B. (2001) Cultural responses to climate change during the late Holocene. Science, 292, 667–673.
deMenocal, P. B., Ortiz, J., Guilderson, T. and Sarnthein, M. (2000) Coherent high- and low-latitude climate variability during the Holocene warm period. Science, 288, 2198–2202.
Dercourt, J., Ricou, L. E. and Vrielinck, B. eds., (1993) Atlas Tethys Palaeoenvironmental Maps, Paris: Gauthier-Villars, pp. 1–307.
Derry L. A. and France-Lanord C. (1996) Neogene Himalayan weathering history and river 87
Sr: impact on the marine Sr record. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 142, 59–76.
Derry, L. A. and France-Lanord, C. (1997) Himalayan weathering and erosion fluxes; climate and tectonic controls. In Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change, ed. W. F. Ruddiman, New York: Plenum Press, pp. 289–312.
Dettman, D. L., Fang, X., Garzione, C. N. and Li, J. (2003) Uplift-driven climate change at 12 Ma; a long δ18
O record from the NE margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 214, 267–277.
Dettman, D. L., Kohn, M. J., Quade, J. et al
. (2001) Seasonal stable isotope evidence for a strong Asian monsoon throughout the past 10.7 m.y. Geology, 29, 31–34.
Dickson, R. R. and Brown, J. (1994) The production of North Atlantic Deep Water: sources, rates, and pathways. J. Geophys. Res., 9, 12 319–12 342.
Ding, L., Kapp, P., Zhong, D. and Deng, W. (2003) Cenozoic volcanism in Tibet; evidence for a transition from oceanic to continental subduction. J. Petrol., 44, 1833–1865.
Ding, Z. L., Sun, J. M., Liu, T. S. et al
. (1998) Wind-blown origin of the Pliocene red clay formation in the central Loess Plateau, China. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 161(1–4), 135–143.
Ding, Z. L., Sun, J. M., Yang, S. L. and Liu, T. S. (2001) Geochemistry of the Pliocene red clay formation in the Chinese Loess Plateau and implications for its origin, source provenance and paleoclimate change. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 65, 901–913.
Ding, Z. L., Xiong, S. F., Sun, J. M. et al
. (1999) Pedostratigraphy and paleomagnetism of an approximately 7.0 Ma Eolian loess–red clay sequence at Lingtai, Loess Plateau, north-central China and the implications for paleomonsoon evolution. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 152, 49–66.
Ding, Z., Liu, T., Rutter, N. W. et al
. (1995) Ice-volume forcing of East Asian winter monsoon variations in the past 800,000 years. Quat. Res., 44(2), 149–159.
Dokken, T. M. and Jansen, E. (1999) Rapid changes in the mechanism of ocean convection during the last glacial period. Nature, 401, 458–461.
Doose-Rolinski, H., Rogalla, U., Scheeder, G., Lückge, A. and von Rad, U. (2001) High-resolution temperature and evaporation changes during the late Holocene in the north-eastern Arabian Sea. Paleoceanography, 16(4), 358–367.
Duplessy, J. C. (1982) Glacial to interglacial contrasts in the northern Indian Ocean. Nature, 295, 494–498.
Edwards, R. L., Chen, J. H. and Wasserburg, G. J. (1987) 238
Th systematics and the precise measurement of time over the past 500,000 years. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 81, 175–192.
Elston, R. G., Xu, C., Madsen, D. B. et al
. (1997) New dates for the North China Mesolithic. Antiquity, 71, 985–993.
Emanuel, K. A. (1986) An air–sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part I: steady state maintenance. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 585–604.
Emanuel, K. A. (2000) A statistical analysis of hurricane intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1139–1152.
England, P. C. and Houseman, G. (1989) Extension during continental convergence with application to the Tibetan Plateau. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 17561–17579.
England, P. C. and Searle, M. P. (1986) The Cretaceous–Tertiary deformation of the Lhasa Block and its implications for crustal thickening in Tibet. Tectonics, 5, 1–14.
Enzel, Y., Ely, L. L., Mishra, S. et al
. (1999) High-resolution Holocene environmental changes in the Thar Desert, north-western India. Science, 284, 125–128.
Esper, J., Cook, E. R. and Schweingruber, F. H. (2002) Low-frequency signals in long chronologies for reconstructing past temperature variability. Science, 295, 2250–2253.
Esper, J., Frank, D. C., Wilson, R. J. S., Büntgen, U. and Treydte, K. (2007) Uniform growth trends among central Asian low and high elevation juniper tree sites. Trees, 21, 141–150.
Fairbanks, R. G. (1989) A 17 000-year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation. Nature, 342, 637–642.
Fang, J. Q. (1991) Lake evolution during the past 30,000 years in China, and its implications for environmental change. Quat. Res., 36, 37–60.
Fang, X., Garzione, C., Van der Voo, R., Li, J. and Fan, M. (2003) Flexural subsidence by 29 Ma on the NE edge of Tibet from the magnetostratigraphy of Linxia Basin, China. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 210, 545–560.
Fang, X., Ono, Y., Fukusawa, H. et al
. (1999) Asian summer monsoon instability during the past 60,000 years; magnetic susceptibility and pedogenic evidence from the western Chinese Loess Plateau. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 168, 219–232.
Farley, K. A. (2000) Helium diffusion from apatite; general behavior as illustrated by Durango fluorapatite. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 2903–2914.
Fasullo, J. and Webster, P. J. (2003) A hydrological definition of the Indian summer monsoon onset and withdrawal. J. Clim., 16, 3200–3211.
Feng, X., Cui, H., Tang, K. and Conkey, L. E. (1999) Tree-ring δD as an indicator of Asian monsoon intensity. Quat. Res., 51, 262–266.
Feng, Z.-D., An, C. B., Tang, L. Y. and Jull, A. J. T. (2004) Stratigraphic evidence of a Megahumid climate between 10,000 and 4000 years BP in the western part of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Global Planet. Change, 43, 145–155.
Fielding, E. J. (1996) Tibet uplift and erosion. Tectonophysics, 260, 55–84.
Findlater, J. (1969) Interhemispheric transport of air in the lower troposphere over the western Indian Ocean. Quart. J. R. Meteor. Soc., 95, 400–403.
Fine, R. A., Lukas, R., Bingham, F. M., Warner, M. J. and Gammon, R. H. (1994) The Western Equatorial Pacific: a water mass crossroads. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 25 063–25 080.
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S. J., Neff, U. et al
. (2003) Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from southern Oman. Science, 300, 1737–1739.
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S. J., Neff, U. et al
. (2004) Palaeoclimatic interpretation of high-resolution oxygen isotope profiles derived from annually laminated speleothems from southern Oman. Quat. Sci. Rev., 23, 935–945.
Fluteau, F. (2003) Earth dynamics and climate changes. Comp. Rend., Acad. Sci., Geosci., 335, 157–174.
Fluteau, F., Ramstein, G. and Besse, J. (1999) Simulating the evolution of the Asian and African monsoons during the past 30 Myr using an atmospheric general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11 995–12 018.
France-Lanord, C., Derry, L. and Michard, A. (1993) Evolution of the Himalaya since Miocene time: isotopic and sedimentological evidence from the Bengal Fan. In Himalayan Tectonics
, ed. P. J. Treloar and M. P. Searle. Geol. Soc., Lond., Spec. Publ
Frumkin, A. (1991) The Holocene climatic record of the salt caves of Mount Sedom, Israel. The Holocene, 1, 191–200.
Galy, A. and France-Lanord, C. (2001) Higher erosion rates in the Himalaya; geochemical constraints on riverine fluxes. Geology, 29, 23–26.
Garzione, C. N., Dettman, D. L. and Horton, B. K. (2004) Carbonate oxygen isotope paleoaltimetry; evaluating the effect of diagenesis on paleoelevation estimates for the Tibetan Plateau. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 212, 119–140.
Garzione, C. N., Ikari, M. J. and Basu, A. R. (2005) Source of Oligocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks in the Linxia basin in north-eastern Tibet from Nd isotopes: implications for tectonic forcing of climate. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 117, 1156–1166.
Garzione, C. N., Quade, J., DeCelles, P. G. and English, N. B. (2000) Predicting paleoelevation of Tibet and the Himalaya from δ18
O vs. altitude gradients in meteoric water across the Nepal Himalaya. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 183, 215–229.
Gasse, F., Arnold, M., Fontes, J. C. et al
. (1991) A 13 000-year climate record from western Tibet. Nature, 353, 742–745.
George, A. D., Marshallsea, S. J., Wyrwoll, K. H., Jie, C. and Yanchou, A. (2001) Miocene cooling in the northern Qilian Shan, north-eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, revealed by apatite fission-track and vitrinite-reflectance analysis. Geology, 29, 939–942.
Ghose, B., Kar, A. and Husain, Z. (1979) The lost courses of the Saraswati River in the Great Indian Desert; new evidence from Landsat imagery. Geograph. J., 145, 446–451.
Giosan, L., Clift, P. D., Blusztajn, J. et al
. (2006) On the control of climate- and human-modulated fluvial sediment delivery on river delta development: the Indus. Eos Trans., 87(52), OS14A–04.
Giosan, L., Flood, R. D., Grutzner, J. and Mudie, P. (2002) Paleoceanographic significance of sediment color on western North Atlantic Drifts: II. Late Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentation. Mar. Geol., 189, 43–61.
Glennie, K. W., Singhvi, A. K., Lancaster, N. and Teller, J. T. (2002) Quaternary climatic changes over southern Arabia and the Thar Desert, India. In: The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea region
, ed. P. D. Clift, D. Kroon, C. Gaedicke and J. Craig. Geol. Soc., Lond., Spec. Publ
Godfrey, J. S. (1996) The effect of the Indonesian throughflow on ocean circulation and heat exchange with the atmosphere: a review. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12 217–12 238.
Godfrey, J. S. and Golding, T. J. (1981) The Sverdrup relation in the Indian Ocean, and the effect of Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow on Indian Ocean circulation and on the East Australian Current. J. Phys. Ocean., 11, 771–779.
Godfrey, J. S., Alexiou, A., Ilahude, A. G. et al
. (1995) The Role of the Indian Ocean in the Global Climate System: Recommendations Regarding the Global Ocean Observing System. Report of the Ocean Observing System Development Panel, College Station, TX, USA: Texas A & M University, p. 89.
Godin, L., Grujic, D., Law, R. D. and Searle, M. P. (2006) Channel flow, ductile extrusion and exhumation in continental collision zones: an introduction. In Channel Flow, Ductile Extrusion and Exhumation in Continental Collision Zones
, ed. Law, R. D., Searle, M. P. and Godin, L. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ.
Gong, Z., Chen, H., Wang, Z., Cai, F. and Luo, G. (1987) The epigenetic geochemical types of loess in China. In Aspects of Loess Research, ed. T. Liu, Beijing: China Ocean Press, pp. 135–150.
Goodbred, S. L. (2003) Response of the Ganges dispersal system to climate change; a source-to-sink view since the last interstade. Sed. Geol., 162, 83–104.
Goodbred, S. L. and Kuehl, S. A. (1999) Holocene and modern sediment budgets for the Ganges–Brahmaputra river system; evidence for highstand dispersal to flood-plain, shelf, and deep-sea depocenters. Geology, 27, 559–562.
Goodbred, S. L. and Kuehl, S. A. (2000) Enormous Ganges–Brahmaputra sediment discharge during strengthened early Holocene monsoon. Geology, 28, 1083–1086.
Gordon, A. L. (2001) Interocean Exchange. In Ocean Circulation and Climate, ed. G. Siedler, J. Church and J. Gould, London: Academic Press, pp. 303–314.
Gordon, A. L. and Fine, R. A. (1996) Pathways of water between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Indonesian seas. Nature, 379, 146–149.
Gordon, A. L., Susanto, R. D. and Vranes, K. (2003) Cool Indonesian throughflow as a consequence of restricted surface layer flow. Nature, 425, 824–828.
Green, P. F., Duddy, I. R., Laslett, G. M. et al
. (1989) Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite: four quantitative modeling techniques and extension to geological timescales. Chem. Geol., 79, 155–182.
Greenland Ice Sheet Project (1997) The Greenland Summit ice cores
. (CD-ROM) Boulder, Colorado, University of Colorado, National Snow and Ice Data Center, and Boulder, Colorado, National Geophysical Data Center, World Data Center–A for Paleoclimatology, www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/icecore/greenland/summit/index.html
Grootes, P. M. and Stuiver, M. (1997) 18
O variability in Greenland snow and ice with 103
yr time resolution. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26 455–26 470.
Guillot, S., Hodges, K., Le Fort, P. and Pecher, A. (1994) New constraints on the age of the Manaslu leucogranite: evidence for episodic tectonic denudation in the central Himalayas. Geology, 22, 559–562.
Guo, Z. T., Ruddiman, W. F., Hao, Q. Z. et al
. (2002) Onset of Asian desertification by 22 Myr ago inferred from loess deposits in China. Nature, 416, 159–165.
Gupta A. K., Das, M. and Anderson, D. M. (2005) Solar influence on the Indian summer monsoon during the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17703, doi: 10.1029/2005GL022685.
Gupta, A. K. (2004) Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration. Current Sci., 87, 54–59.
Gupta, A. K. and Thomas, E. (2003) Initiation of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation and strengthening of the North-east Indian monsoon; Ocean Drilling Program Site 758, eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Geology, 31, 47–50.
Gupta, A. K., Anderson, D. M. and Overpeck, J. T. (2003) Abrupt changes in the Asian south-west monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 421, 354–356.
Gupta, A. K., Singh, R. K., Joseph, S. and Thomas, E. (2004) Indian ocean high-productivity event (10–8 Ma): linked to global cooling or to the initiation of the Indian monsoons? Geology, 32, 753–756.
Gupta, S. M. (1999) Radiolarian monsoonal index Pylonüd group responds to astronomical forcing in the last 500,000 years: evidence from the central Indian Ocean. Man Environ., 24, 99–107.
Gupta, S. P. (1995) The Lost Sarasvati and the Indus Civilization. Jodhpur, India: Kusumanjali Prakashan, p. 314.
Hahn, D. G. and Manabe, S. (1975) The role of mountains in the south Asian monsoon circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1515–1541.
Hall, R. (2002) Cenozoic geological and plate tectonic evolution of SE Asia and the SW Pacific; computer-based reconstructions, model and animations. J. Asian Earth Sci., 20, 353–431.
Haq, B. U., Hardenbol, J. and Vail, P. R. (1987) Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science, 235, 1156–1167.
Harada, N., Ahagon, N., Sakamoto, T. et al
. (2006) Rapid fluctuation of alkenone temperature in the south-western Okhotsk Sea during the past 120 kyr. Global Planet. Change, 53, 29–46.
Harris, N. B. W. (2006) The elevation of the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on the monsoon, Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 241, 4–15.
Harrison, T. M., Copeland, P., Hall, S. A. et al
. (1993) Isotopic preservation of Himalayan/Tibetan uplift, denudation and climatic histories in two molasse deposits. J. Geology, 100, 157–173.
Harrison, T. M., Copeland, P., Kidd, W. S. F. and Yin, A. (1992) Raising Tibet. Science, 255, 1663–1670.
Harrison, T. M., Mahon, K. I., Guillot, S. et al
. (1995) New constraints on the age of the Manaslu leucogranite; evidence for episodic tectonic denudation in the central Himalaya; discussion and reply. Geology, 23, 476–480.
Harzallah, A. and Sadourny, R. (1997) Observed lead – lag relationships between Indian summer monsoon and some meteorological variables. Clim. Dyn., 13, 635–648.
Hassan, F. A. (1997) Nile floods and political disorder in early Egypt. In Third Millennium BCE Climate Change and Old World Collapse, ed. H. N. Dalfes, G. Kukla, and H. Weiss. New York: Springer, NATO ASI Series 1
(49), pp. 1–24.
Haug, G. H. and Tiedemann, R. (1998) Effect of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama on Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. Nature, 393, 673–676.
Hayden, B. (1981) Research and development in the Stone Age: technological transitions among hunter-gatherers. Current Anthrop., 22, 519–548.
Hays, J. D., Imbrie, J. and Shackleton, N. J. (1976) Variations in the Earth's orbit; pacemaker of the ice ages. Science, 194, 1121–1132.
Held, I. M. and Hou, A. Y. (1980) Nonlinear axially symmetric circulations in a nearly inviscid atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 515–533.
Heller, F. and Liu, T. S. (1982) Magnetostratigraphic dating of loess deposits in China. Nature, 300, 431–433.
Hendon, H. H. and Liebmann, B. (1990) A composite study of onset of the Australian summer monsoon, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 2227–2240.
Herren, E. (1987) Zanskar shear zone; north-east-south-west extension within the Higher Himalayas (Ladakh, India). Geology, 15, 409–413.
Herzschuh, U. (2006) Palaeo-moisture evolution at the margins of the Asian monsoon during the last 50 ka. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25, 163–178.
Herzschuh, U. Tarasov, P., Wünnemann, B. and Hartmann, K. (2004) Holocene vegetation and climate of the Alashan Plateau, NW China, reconstructed from pollen data. Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 211, 1–17.
Herzschuh, U., Zhang, C., Mischke, S. (2005) A Late Quaternary lake record from the Qilian Mountains (NW China): evolution of the primary production and the water depth reconstructed from macrofossil, pollen, biomarker and isotope data. Global Planet. Change, 46, 361–379.
Hess, S. and Kuhnt, W. (2005) Neogene and Quaternary paleoceanographic changes in the southern South China Sea (Site 1143); the benthic foraminiferal record. Mar. Micropaleo., 54, 63–87.
Heusser, L. and Morley, J. (1997) Monsoon Fluctuations over the past 350 kyr: high-resolution evidence from north-east Asia / north-west Pacific climate proxies (marine pollen and radiolarians). Quat. Sci. Rev., 16, 565–581.
Higginson, M. J., Maxwell, J. R. and Altabet, M. A. (2003) Nitrogen isotope and chlorin paleoproductivity records from the northern South China Sea; remote vs. local forcing of millennial- and orbital-scale variability. Mar. Geol., 201, 223–250.
Higham, C. (1996) The Bronze Age of South-east Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 381.
Hodges, K. V. and Silverberg, D. S. (1988) Thermal evolution of the Greater Himalaya, Garhwal, India. Tectonics, 7, 583–600.
Hodges, K. V., Parrish, R. R. and Searle, M. P. (1996) Tectonic evolution of the central Annapurna Range, Nepalese Himalayas. Tectonics, 15, 1264–1291.
Hodges, K. V., Wobus, C., Ruhl, K., Schildgen, T. and Whipple, K. (2004) Quaternary deformation, river steepening, and heavy precipitation at the front of the Higher Himalayan ranges. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 220, 379–389.
Holbourn, A. E., Kuhnt, W., Simo, J. A. and Li, Q. (2004) Middle Miocene isotope stratigraphy and paleoceanographic evolution of the north-west and south-west Australian margins (Wombat Plateau and Great Australian Bight). Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 208, 1–22.
Holton, J. R. (2004) An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 3rd edn. San Diego: Academic Press, p. 535.
Hong, Y. T., Hong, B., Lin, Q. H. et al
. (2003) Correlation between Indian Ocean summer monsoon and North Atlantic climate during the Holocene. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 211, 371–380.
Hong, Y. T., Hong, B., Lin, Q. H. et al
. (2005) Inverse phase oscillations between the East Asian and Indian Ocean summer monsoons during the last 12 000 years and paleo-El Niño. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 231, 337–346.
Hong, Y. T., Wang, Z. G., Jiang, H. B. et al
. (2001) A 6000-year record of changes in drought and precipitation in north-eastern China based on a delta 13
C time series from peat cellulose. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 185, 111–119.
Hoskins, B. J. and Rodwell, M. J. (1995) A model of the Asian summer monsoon. Part I: the global scale. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1329–1340.
Hostetler, S. W., Clark, P. U., Bartlein, P. J., Mix, A. C. and Pisias, N. J. (1999) Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 3947–3952.
Houseman, G. A. and England, P. C. (1993) Crustal thickening versus lateral expulsion in the Indian–Asian continental collision. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 12 233–12 249.
Houseman, G. A., McKenzie, D. P. and Molnar, P. (1981) Convective instability of a thickened boundary layer and its relevance for the thermal evolution of continental convergent belts. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 6115–6132.
Hovan, S. A., Rea, D. K. and Pisias, N. G. (1991) Late Pleistocene continental climate and oceanic variability recorded in North-west Pacific sediments. Paleoceanography, 6, 349–370.
Hovan, S. A., Rea, D. K., Pisias, N. G. and Shackleton, N. J. (1989) A direct link between the China loess and marine δ18
O records; aeolian flux to the North Pacific. Nature, 340, 296–298.
Hu, Z.-Z., Latif, M., Roeckner, E. and Bengtsson, L. (2000) Intensified Asian summer monsoon and its variability in a coupled model forced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2681–2684.
Huang, C. C., Pang, J., Han, Y. P. and Hou, C. H. (2000) A regional aridity phase and its possible cultural impact during the Holocene Megathermal in the Guanzhong Basin, China. The Holocene, 10, 135–142.
Huang, C. C., Zhao, S., Pang, J. et al
. (2003) Climatic aridity and the relocations of the Zhou culture in the southern loess plateau of China. Clim. Change, 61, 361–378.
Huang, Q., Cai, B. and Ru, C. (1980) Radiocarbon dating of samples from several salt lakes on the Tibet Plateau and their sedimentary cycles. Kexue Tongbao, 25, 990–995.
Huang, Y., Street-Perrott, F. A., Metcalfe, S. E. et al
. (2001) Climate change as the dominant control on glacial–interglacial variations in C3 and C4 plant abundance. Science, 293, 1647–1651.
Hughes, M. K., Wu, X., Shao, X. and Garfin, G. M. (1994) A preliminary reconstruction of rainfall in North-Central China since A. D. 1600 from tree-ring density and width. Quat. Res., 42, 88–99.
Huntington, K. W., Blythe, A. E. and Hodges, K. V. (2006) Climate change and Late Pliocene acceleration of erosion in the Himalaya. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 252, 107–118.
Indermühle, A., Monnin, E., Stauffer, B., Stocker, T. F. and Wahlen, M. (2000) Atmospheric CO2
concentration from 60 to 20 kyr B. P. from the Taylor Dome ice core, Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 735–738.
Ingall, E. and Jahnke, R. (1994) Evidence for enhanced phosphorus regeneration from marine sediments overlain by oxygen depleted waters. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 2571–2575.
IPCC (2001) Synthesis Report. A Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
, ed. T. R. Watson and Core Writing Team, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 398.
Irino, T. and Tada, R. (2000) Quantification of aeolian dust (Kosa) contribution to the Japan Sea sediments and its variation during the last 200 ky. Geochem. J., 34, 59–93.
Irino, T. and Tada, R. (2002) High-resolution reconstruction of variation in aeolian dust (Kosa) deposition at ODP Site 797, the Japan Sea, during the last 200 ka. Global Planet. Change, 35, 143–156.
Janecek, T. R. and Rea, D. K. (1985) Quaternary fluctuations in northern hemispheric tradewinds and westerlies. Quat. Res., 24, 150–163.
Jarrige, J. F. (1993) Excavations at Mehrgarh: their significance for understanding the background of the Harappan Civilization. In Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective, ed. G. Possehl, Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 125–135.
Ji, J., Chen, J., Balsam, W. et al
. (2004) High resolution hematite/goethite records from Chinese loess sequences for the last glacial–interglacial cycle; rapid climatic response of the east Asian monsoon to the tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, 3.
Jia, G., Peng, P., Zhao, Q. and Jian, Z. (2003) Changes in terrestrial ecosystem since 30 Ma in East Asia: stable isotope evidence from black carbon in the South China Sea. Geology, 31, 1093–1096.
Jin, L. and Su, B. (2000) Natives or immigrants: modern human origin in East Asia. Nature Rev. Genet., 1, 126–133.
Johnsen, S. J., Clausen, H. B., Dansgaard, W. et al
. (1992) Irregular glacial interstadials recorded in a new Greenland ice core. Nature, 359, 311–313.
Jones, C. E., Halliday, A. N., Rea, D. K. and Owen, R. M. (1994) Neodymium isotopic variations in North Pacific modern silicate sediment and the insignificance of detrital REE contributions to seawater. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 127, 55–66.
Jung, S. J. A., Davies, G. R., Ganssen, G. and Kroon, D. (2002) Decadal-centennial scale monsoon variations in the Arabian Sea during the early Holocene. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 3 (10), 1060, doi: 10.1029/2002GC000348.
Jung, S. J. A., Davies, G. R., Ganssen, G. M. and Kroon, D. (2004) Stepwise Holocene aridification in NE Africa deduced from dust-borne radiogenic isotope records. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 221 (1–4), 27–37.
Kapsner, W. R., Alley, R. B., Shuman, C. A., Anandakrishnan, S. and Grootes, P. M. (1995) Dominant influence of atmospheric circulation in Greenland over the past 18 000 years. Nature, 373, 52–54.
Kar, A. (1984) The Drishadvati River system of India; an assessment and new findings. Geograph. J., 150 (2), 221–229.
Karim, A. and Veizer, J. (2002) Water balance of the Indus River Basin and moisture source in the Karakoram and western Himalayas: implications from hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in river water. J. Geophys. Res., 107 (D18), 4362, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000253.
Kirch, A. (1997) Zur Paläoozeanographie westlich von Luzon (Philippinen). M.Sc. thesis, Kiel, Germany: Kiel University, p. 28.
Kitoh, A. (1997) Mountain uplift and surface temperature changes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 185–188.
Kitoh, A. (2004) Effect of mountain uplift on East Asian summer climate investigated by a coupled atmosphere–ocean GCM. J. Clim., 17, 783–802.
Klinck, J. M. and Smith, D. A. (1993) Effect of wind changes during the last glacial maximum on the circulation of the Southern Ocean. Paleoceanography, 8, 427–433.
Koons, P. O., Zeitler, P. K., Chamberlain, C. P., Craw, D. and Meltzer, A. S. (2002) Mechanical links between erosion and metamorphism in Nanga Parbat, Pakistan Himalaya. Amer. J. Sci., 302, 749–773.
Krishna, K. S., Bull, J. M. and Scrutton, R. A. (2001) Evidence for multiphase folding of the central Indian Ocean lithosphere. Geology, 29, 715–718.
Krissek, L. A. and Clemens, S. C. (1991) Mineralogic variations in a Pleistocene high-resolution Eolian record from the Owen Ridge, western Arabian Sea (Site 722); implications for sediment source conditions and monsoon history. Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog., Sci. Res., 117, 197–213.
Kroon, D., Steens, T. and Troelstra, S. R. (1991) Onset of Monsoonal related upwelling in the western Arabian Sea as revealed by planktonic foraminifers. Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog., Sci. Res., 117, 257–263.
Kudrass, H. R., Hofmann, A., Doose, H., Emeis, K. and Erlenkeuser, H. (2001) Modulation and amplification of climatic changes in the Northern Hemisphere by the Indian summer monsoon during the past 80 k.y. Geology, 29, 63–66.
Kuhlemann J. (2001) Post-collisional sediment budget of circum-Alpine basins (Central Europe). Sci. Mem. Geol., Padova, 52, 1–91.
Kuhlemann, J., Frisch, W., Dunkl, I. and Szekely, B. (2001) Quantifying tectonic versus erosive denudation by the sediment budget: the Miocene core complexes of the Alps. Tectonophysics 330, 1–23.
Kuhnt, W., Holbourn, A., Hall, E., Zuvela, M. and Käse, R. (2004) Neogene history of the Indonesian Throughflow. In Continent–Ocean Interactions Within East Asian Marginal Seas, ed. P. D. Clift, W. Kuhnt, P. Wang and D. E. Hayes, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 149
, Washington DC: American Geophysical Union, pp. 299–320.
Kukla, G., An, Z. S., Melice, J. L., Gavin, J. and Xiao, J. L. (1990) Magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese loess. Trans. R. Soc. Edin. Earth Sci., 81, 263–288.
Kutzbach, J. E., Guetter, P. J., Ruddiman, W. F. and Prell, W. L. (1989) Sensitivity of climate to late Cenozoic uplift in southern Asia and the American West; numerical experiments. J. Geophys. Res., 94 (15), 18 393–18 407.
Kutzbach, J. E., Prell, W. L. and Ruddiman, W. F. (1993) Sensitivity of Eurasian climate to surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. J. Geology, 101, 177–190.
Kuwae, M., Yoshikawa, S., Tsugeki, N. and Inouchi, Y. (2004) Reconstruction of a climate record for the past 140 kyr based on diatom valve flux data from Lake Biwa, Japan. J. Paleolim., 32, 19–39.
Lal, B. B. (1997) The Earliest Civilization of South Asia. Delhi: Aryan Books International, p. 308.
Li, B., Jian, Z., Li, Q., Tian, J. and Wang, P. (2005) Paleoceanography of the South China Sea since the middle Miocene; evidence from planktonic foraminifera. Mar. Micropaleo., 54, 49–62.
Li, C., Chen, Q., Zhang, J., Yang, S. and Fan, D. (2000) Stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the Yangtze delta during late Pleistocene. J. Asian Earth Sci., 18, 453–469.
Li, S., Zheng, B. and Jiao, K. (1989) Preliminary research on lacustrine deposits and lake evolution on the southern slope of the west Kunlun Mountains. Bull. Glacier Res., 7, 169–176.
Li, X. H., Wei, G., Shao, L. et al
. (2003) Geochemical and Nd isotopic variations in sediments of the South China Sea: a response to Cenozoic tectonism in SE Asia. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 211, 207–220.
Lindzen, R. S. and Hou, A. Y. (1988) Hadley circulations for zonally averaged heating centered off the equator. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2416–2427.
Liu L. (1996) Settlement patterns, chiefdom variability, and the development of early states in North China. J. Anthrop. Archaeo., 15, 237–288.
Liu, K.-B., Shen, C. and Louie, K.-B. (2001) A 1000-year history of typhoon landfalls in Guangdong, Southern China, reconstructed from Chinese historical documentary records. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geograph., 91 (3), 453–464.
Liu, L., Chen, J., Ji, J. and Chen, Y. (2004a) Comparison of paleoclimatic change from Zr/Rb ratios in Chinese loess with marine isotope records over the 2.6–1.2 Ma B. P. interval. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L15204, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019693.
Liu, T. S. (1985) Loess and the Environment. Beijing: China Ocean Press, p. 251.
Liu, T., Ding, Z. and Rutter, N. (1999) Comparison of Milankovitch periods between continental loess and deep sea records over the last 2.5 Ma. Quat. Sci. Rev., 18, 1205–1212.
Liu, W., Feng, X., Liu, Y., Zhang, Q. and An, Z. (2004b) δ18
O values of tree rings as a proxy of monsoon precipitation in arid north-west China. Chem. Geol., 206, 73–80.
Liu, W., Huang, Y., An, Z. et al
. (2005) Summer monsoon intensity controls C4/C3 plant abundance during the last 35 ka in the Chinese Loess Plateau; carbon isotope evidence from bulk organic matter and individual leaf waxes. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 220, 243–254.
Liu, X. and Yin, Z.-Y. (2002) Sensitivity of East Asian monsoon climate to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Palaeogeog, Palaeoclimat, Palaeocol., 183, 223–245.
Liu, X. M., Liu, T. S., Xu, T. C., Liu, C. and Chen, M. Y. (1988) The Chinese Loess in Xifeng: I: the primary study on magnetostratigraphy of a loess profile in Xifeng area, Gansu Province. Geophys. J., 93, 345–348.
Liu, Z. C., Sun, S. Y., Yang, F. and Zhou, Z. H. (1990) Quaternary stratigraphical and chronological studies of Sanhu Region, Qaidam basin (in Chinese). Sci. China (Ser. B), 11, 1202–1212.
Liu, Z., Colin, C., Trentesaux, A. et al
. (2004c) Erosional history of the eastern Tibetan Plateau since 190 kyr ago; clay mineralogical and geochemical investigations from the south-western South China Sea. Mar. Geol., 209, 1–18.
Liu, Z., Henderson, A. C. G. and Huang, Y. S. (2006) Alkenone-based reconstruction of late Holocene surface temperature and salinity changes in Lake Qinghai, China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L09707.
Liu, Z., Trentesaux, A., Clemens, S. C. (2003) Clay mineral assemblages in the northern South China Sea; implications for East Asian monsoon evolution over the past two million years. Mar. Geol., 201, 133–146.
Loewe, M. and Shaughness, E. L. (1999) The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BCE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 1180.
Loope, D. B., Rowe, C. M. and Joeckel, R. M. (2001) Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes. Nature, 412 (6842), 64–66.
Loschnigg, J. and Webster, P. J. (2000) A coupled ocean–atmosphere system of SST regulation for the Indian Ocean. J. Clim., 13, 3342–3360.
Louie, K. S. and Liu, K.-B. (2003) Earliest historical records of typhoons in China. J. Hist. Geog., 29 (3), 299–316.
Lu, H., Zhang, F. and Liu, X. (2003) Patterns and frequencies of the East Asian winter monsoon variations during the past million years revealed by wavelet and spectral analyses. Global Planet. Change, 35, 67–74.
Métivier, F., Gaudemer, Y., Tapponnier, P. and Klein, M. (1999) Mass accumulation rates in Asia during the Cenozoic. Geophys. J. Int., 137, 280–318.
Ma, Y., Fang, X., Li, J., Wu, F. and Zhang, J. (2004) Vegetational and environmental changes during late Tertiary–early Quaternary in Jiuxi Basin. Sci. China, Ser. D, Earth Sci., 34, 107–116.
Ma, Y., Li, J. and Fan, X. (1998) Pollen-based vegetational and climatic records during 30.6 to 5.0 My from Linxia area, Gansu. Chinese Sci. Bull., 43, 301–304 (in Chinese).
Madden, R. A. and Julian, P. R. (1972) Description of Global-scale circulation cells in the Tropics with a 40–50 Day Period. J. Atmos. Sci., 29 (6), 1109–1123.
Madden, R. A. and Julian, P. R. (1994) Observations of the 40–50-day Tropical Oscillation – a review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 814–837.
Madsen, D. B., Li, J., Elston, R. G. et al
. (1998) The loess/paleosol record and the nature of the Younger Dryas climate in central China. Geoarchaeo.: Int. J., 13 (8), 847–869.
Maher, B. A. (1986) Characterization of soils by mineral magnetic measurements. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 42, 76–92.
Maizels, J. K. and McBean, C. (1990) Cenozoic alluvial fan systems of interior Oman: palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on discrimination of palaeochannels using remotely sensed data. In The Geology and Tectonics of the Oman Region
, ed. A. H. F. Robertson, M. P. Searle and A. C. Ries. Geol. Soc., Lond., Spec. Publ.
Mann, M. E., Bradley, R. S. and Hughes, M. K. (1999) Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 759–762.
Marshall, J. and Plumb, R. A. (2008) Atmosphere Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text. International Geophysics Series, v. 93, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA. 319 pp.
Martinson, D. G., Pisias, N. G., Hays, J. D. et al
. (1987) Age dating and the orbital theory of the ice ages; development of a high-resolution 0 to 300,000-year chronostratigraphy. Quat. Res., 27, 1–29.
Maslin, M. A., Seidov, D. and Lowe, J. (2001) Synthesis and nature and causes of rapid climate transitions during the Quaternary (a review). In The Oceans and Rapid Climate Change
, ed. D. Seidov, B. J. Haupt, E. J. Barron and M. Maslin, Amer. Geophys. U. Geophys. Monogr.
Mattinson, J. M. (1978) Age, origin, and thermal histories of some plutonic rocks from Salinian Block of California. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 67, 233–245.
Mayewski, P. A., Meeker, L. D., Whitlow, S. et al
. (1994) Changes in atmospheric circulation and ocean ice cover over the North Atlantic during the last 41 000 years. Science, 263, 1747–1751.
McCreary, J. P., Kundu, P. K. and Molinari, R. L. (1993) A numerical investigation of dynamics, thermodynamics, and mixed layer processes in the Indian Ocean. Prog. Ocean., 31, 181–244.
McDonald, W. F. (1938) Atlas of climate charts of the oceans, Charts 59–62, Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, p. 247.
McIntyre, A. and Molfino, B. (1996) Forcing Atlantic equatorial and subpolar millennial cycles by precession. Science, 274, 1867–1870.
Meehl, G. A. (1994) Coupled ocean–atmosphere–land processes and south Asian monsoon variability. Science, 265, 263–267.
Meehl, G. A. (1997) The south Asian monsoon and the tropospheric biennial oscillation. J. Clim., 10, 1921–1943.
Mercier, J. L., Armijo, R., Tapponnier, P., Carey, G. E. and Han, T. L. (1987) Change from late Tertiary compression to Quaternary extension in southern Tibet during the India–Asia collision. Tectonics, 6, 275–304.
Miller, K. G., Wright, J. M. and Fairbanks, R. G. (1991) Unlocking the Ice House: Oligocene–Miocene oxygen isotopes, eustasy, and margin erosion. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 6829–6848.
Milliman, J. D. and Syvitski, J. P. M. (1992) Geomorphic/tectonic control of sediment discharge to the ocean; the importance of small mountainous rivers. J. Geology, 100, 525–544.
Mischke, S., Herzschuh, U., Zhang, C., Bloemendal, J. and Riedel, F. (2005) Late Quaternary lake record from the Qilian Mountains (NW China): lake level and salinity changes inferred from sediment properties and ostracod assemblages. Global Planet. Change, 46, 337–359.
Moberg, A., Sonechkin, D. M., Holmgren, K., Datsenko, N. M. and Karlen, W. (2005) Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low and high-resolution proxy data. Nature, 433, 613–617.
Molnar, P. (2004) Late Cenozoic increase in accumulation rates of terrestrial sediment: how might climate change have affected erosion rates? Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 32, 67–89.
Molnar, P. and Emanuel, K. A. (1999) Temperature profiles in radiative-convective equilibrium above surfaces at different heights. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 24 265–24 484.
Molnar, P. and England, P. C. (1990) Late Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change; chicken or egg? Nature, 346, 29–34.
Molnar, P., England, P. and Martinod, J. (1993) Mantle dynamics, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Indian monsoon. Rev. Geophys., 31, 357–396.
Morgan, M. E., Kingston, J. D. and Marino, B. D. (1994) Carbon isotopic evidence for the emergence of C4 plants in the Neogene from Pakistan and Kenya. Nature, 367, 162–165.
Mountain, G. S. and Prell, W. L. (1990) A multiphase plate tectonic history of the south-east continental margin of Oman. In The Geology and Tectonics of the Oman Region
, ed. A. H. F. Robertson, M. P. Searle and A. C. Ries. Geol. Soc., Lond., Spec. Publ.
, pp. 725–743.
Murphy, M. A., Yin, A., Harrison, T. M. et al
. (1997) Did the Indo–Asian collision alone create the Tibetan Plateau? Geology, 25, 719–722.
Murthy, S. R. N. (1980) The Vedic River Saraswati, a myth or fact; a geological approach. Indian J. Hist. Sci., 15 (2), 189–192.
Naidu, P. D. and Malmgren, B. A. (1995) A 2 200 years periodicity in the Asian monsoon system. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2361–2364.
Nair, R. R., Ittekkot, V., Manganini, S. J. et al
. (1989) Increased particle flux to the deep ocean related to monsoons. Nature, 338, 749–751.
Najman, Y. (2006) The detrital record of orogenesis: a review of approaches and techniques used in the Himalayan sedimentary basins. Earth-Sci. Rev., 74, 1–72.
Najman, Y., Pringle, M., Godin, L. and Oliver, G. (2001) Dating of the oldest continental sediments from the Himalayan foreland basin. Nature, 410, 194–197.
Naqvi, W. A. and Fairbanks, R. G. (1996) A 27 000 year record of Red Sea outflow; implication for timing of post-glacial monsoon intensification. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1501–1504.
Nathan, S. A. and Leckie, R. M. (2004) Gateway closures and ocean circulation during the late Miocene (approximately 13–5 Ma). Abstr. Prog., Geol. Soc. Amer., 36, 197.
Nathan, S. A., Leckie, R. M., Olson, B. and Deconto, R. M. (2003) The Western Pacific Warm Pool; a probe of global sea level change and Indonesian Seaway closure during the middle to late Miocene. Ann. Meet. Abstr., Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 12, 126.
Neelin, J. D. (2007) Moist dynamics of tropical convection zones in monsoons, teleconnections and global warming. In The Global Circulation of the Atmosphere, ed. T. Schneider and A. Sobel, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 267–301.
Neff, U., Burns, S. J., Mangini, A. et al
. (2001) Strong coherence between solar variability and the monsoon in Oman between 9 and 6 kyr ago. Nature, 411, 290–293.
Nelson, K. D., Zhao, W., Brown, L. D. et al
. (1996) Partially molten middle crust beneath southern Tibet: synthesis of Project INDEPTH results. Science, 274, 1684–1688.
Nesbitt, G. M. and Young, H. W. (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature, 299, 715–717.
Nicholls, N. (1983) Air–sea interaction and the quasi-biennial oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 1505–1508.
Nitsuma, N., Oba, T. and Okada, M. (1991) Oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy at site 723, Oman Margin. Proc. Ocean Drilling Prog., Sci. Res., 117, College Station, TX: Ocean Drilling Program, 321–341.
Oldham, R. D. (1893) The Saraswati and the Lost River of the Indian Desert. J. R. Asiatic Soc., 1893, 49–76.
Oppo, D. W. and Lehman, S. J. (1995) Suborbital timescale variability of North Atlantic Deep Water during the past 200,000 years. Paleoceanography, 10, 901–910.
Oppo, D. W., Linsley, B. K., Rosenthal, Y., Dannenmann, S. and Beaufort, L. (2003) Orbital and suborbital climate variability in the Sulu Sea, western tropical Pacific. Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst., 1003, doi: 10.1029/2001GC000260.
Overpeck, J. and Cole, J. E. (2007) Climate change: lessons from a distant monsoon. Nature, 445, 270–271.
Overpeck, J., Anderson, D., Trumbore, S. and Prell, W. (1996a) The south-west Indian Monsoon over the last 18 000 years. Clim. Dynam., 12, 213–225.
Overpeck, J., Rind, D., Lacis, A. and Healy, R. (1996b) Possible role of dust-induced regional warming in abrupt climate change during the last glacial period. Nature, 384, 447–449.
Pairault, A. A., Hall, R. and Elders, C. F. (2003) Structural styles and tectonic evolution of the Seram Trough, Indonesia. Mar. Petrol. Geol., 20, 1141–1160.
Palmer, M. R. and Edmond, J. M. (1989) The strontium isotope budget of the modern ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 92(1), 11–26.
Pan, Y. and Kidd, W. S. F. (1992) Nyainqentanglha shear zone; a late Miocene extensional detachment in the southern Tibetan Plateau. Geology, 20, 775–778.
Pang, K. D. (1987) Extraordinary floods in early Chinese history and their absolute dates. J. Hydrol., 96, 139–155.
Pearson, P. N. and Palmer, M. R. (2000) Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature, 406, 695–699.
Pechenkina, E. A, Benfer, R. A. and Wang, Z. (2001) Diet and health changes at the end of the Chinese neolithic: the Yangshao/Longshan transition in Shaanxi province. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 117, 15–36.
Pelejero, C. and Grimalt, J. O. (1997) The correlation between the UK37 index and sea-surface temperature in the warm boundary: the South China Sea. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 61, 4789–4797.
Peltier, W. R. (1994) Ice age paleotopography. Science, 265, 195–201.
Peregrine, P. (1991) Some political aspects of craft specialization. World Archaeo., 23, 1–11.
Peterson, L. C., Murray, D. W., Ehrmann, W. U. and Hempel, P. (1992) Cenozoic carbonate accumulation and compensation depth changes in the Indian Ocean. In: Synthesis of Results From Scentific Drilling in the Indian Ocean
, ed. R. A. Duncan, D. K. Rea, R. B. Kidd, U. von Rad and J. K. Weissel, American Geophysical Union Monog. 70
Petit, J. R., Jouzel, J., Raynaud, D. et al
. (1999) Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature, 399, 429–436.
Petit, J. R., Jouzel, J., Raynaud, D. et al
. (2001) Vostok Ice Core Data for 420,000 Years
, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series #2001-076. Boulder CO, USA: NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program.
Pettke, T., Halliday, A. N., Hall, C. M. and Rea, D. K. (2000) Dust production and deposition in Asia and the North Pacific Ocean over the past 12 Myr. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 178, 397–413.
Porter, S. C. and An, Z. S. (1995) Correlation between climate events in the North Atlantic and China during the last glaciation. Nature, 375, 305–308.
Possehl, G. (1990) Revolution in the urban revolution: the emergence of Indus urbanization. Ann. Rev. Anthrop., 19, 261–282.
Possehl, G. (1993) Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective. Delhi: Oxford University Press, p. 595.
Possehl, G. (1997) Climate and the eclipse of the ancient cities of the Indus. In Third Millennium BCE Climate Change and Old World Collapse, ed. H. N. Dalfes, G. Kukla and H. Weiss, NATO ASI Ser. 1
, New York: Springer, pp. 193–244.
Potts, D. T. (1999) The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 488.
Powell, C. M. (1986) Curvature of the Himalayan Arc related to Miocene normal faults in southern Tibet. Geology, 14, 358–359.
Prabhu, C. N., Shankar, R., Anupama, K. et al
. (2004) A 200-ka pollen and oxygen-isotopic record from two sediment cores from the eastern Arabian Sea. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 214, 309–321.
Prawdin, M. (2006) The Mongol Empire: Its Rise and Legacy. New York: Transaction Publishers, p. 581.
Prell, W. L, Murray, D. W., Clemens, S. C. and Anderson, D. M. (1992) Evolution and variability of the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon: evidence from the western Arabian Sea drilling program. In Synthesis of Results from Scientific Drilling in the Indian Ocean, ed. R. A. Duncan, D. K. Rea, R. B. Kidd, U. von Rad and J. K. Weissel. Amer. Geophys. U. Monogr
., 70, 447–469.
Prell, W. L. and Curry, W. B. (1981) Faunal and isotopic indices of monsoonal upwelling: western Arabian Sea. Ocean. Acta, 4, 91–98.
Prell, W. L. and Kutzbach, J. E. (1987) Monsoon variability over the past 150,000 years. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. Sci., 92 (D7), 8411–8425.
Prell, W. L. and Kutzbach, J. E. (1992) Sensitivity of the Indian monsoon to forcing parameters and implications for its evolution. Nature, 360, 647–652.
Prins, M. A. and Postma, G. (2000) Effects of climate, sea level, and tectonics unraveled for last deglaciation turbidite records of the Arabian Sea. Geology, 28, 375–378.
Privé, N. C. and Plumb, R. A. (2007a) Monsoon dynamics with interactive forcing. Part I: axisymmetric studies. J. Atmos. Sci
Privé, N. C. and Plumb, R. A. (2007b) Monsoon dynamics with interactive forcing. Part II: impact of eddies and asymmetric geometries. J. Atmos. Sci
Prospero, J. M., Uematsi, M. and Savoie, D. L. (1989) Mineral aerosol transport to the Pacific Ocean. In Chemical Oceanography, vol. 10, ed. J. P. Riley, R. Chester and R. A. Duce, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 187–218.
Purdy, J. and Jäger, E. (1976) K-Ar ages on rock-forming minerals from the Central Alps. Mem. 1st Geol. Min. Congr., Univ
, p. 32.
Puri, V. M. K. (2001) Origin and course of Vedic Saraswati River in Himalaya; its secular desiccation episodes as deciphered from palaeo-glaciation and geomorphological signatures. In Proceedings; Symposium on Snow, Ice and Glaciers; a Himalayan Perspective, ed. S. K. Acharyya. Geol. Surv. India, Spec. Publ. Ser
Pye, K. and Zhou, L. (1989) Late Pleistocene and Holocene aeolian dust deposition in north China and the North-west Pacific Ocean. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 73, 11–23.
Qiao, Q. M. and Zhang, Y. G. (1994) Climatology of Tibet Plateau. Beijing: Meteorology Press of China, pp. 1–250.
Quade, J. (1993) Major shifts in the 87
Sr ratios of large paleorivers draining the Himalayas of central Nepal over the past 10 Ma. Geol. Soc. America, Abstr. Prog., 25 (6), 175.
Quade, J., Cerling, T. E. and Browman, J. R. (1989) Dramatic ecologic shift in the late Miocene of northern Pakistan, and its significance to the development of the Asian monsoon. Nature, 342, 163–166.
Rögl, F. and Steininger, F. F. (1984) Neogene Paratethys, Mediterranean and Indo-pacific seaways. In Fossils and Climate, ed. P. J. Brenchley, New York: John Wiley and Sons., pp. 171–200.
Ramage, C. (1971) Monsoon Meteorology. New York: Academic Press, International Geophysics Series
, vol. 15
, p. 296.
Ramstein, G., Fluteau, F., Besse, J. and Joussaume, S. (1997) Effect of orogeny, plate motion and land–sea distribution on Eurasian climate change over the past 30 million years. Nature, 386, 788–795.
Rao, Y. P. (1976) South-west Monsoon. New Delhi: India Meteorological Department, p. 367.
Raval, A. and Ramanathan, V. (1989) Observational determination of the greenhouse effect. Nature, 342, 758–762.
Raymo, M. E. and Ruddiman, W. F. (1992) Tectonic forcing of the late Cenozoic climate. Nature, 359, 117–122.
Raymo, M. E., Ruddiman, W. F. and Froelich, P. (1988) Influence of late Cenozoic mountain building on ocean geochemical cycles. Geology, 16, 649–653.
Rea, D. K. (1992) Delivery of Himalayan sediment to northern Indian Ocean and its relation to global climate, sea level, uplift and seawater strontium. In Synthesis of Results from Scientific Drilling in the Indian Ocean, ed. R. A. Duncan, D. K. Rea, R. B. Kidd, U. von Rad and J. K. Weissel. Amer. Geophys. U. monogr
Rea, D. K. (1994) The paleoclimatic record provided by Eolian deposition in the deep sea; the geologic history of wind. Rev. Geophys., 32, 159–195.
Rea, D. K., Basov, I. A., Janecek, T. R. et al
. (1993) Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog. Init. Rpts, 145
, College Station, TX: Ocean Drilling Program, p. 1040.
Rea, D. K., Snoeckx, H and Joseph, L. H. (1998) Late Cenozoic Eolian deposition in the North Pacific: Asian drying, Tibetan uplift, and cooling of the northern hemisphere. Paleoceanography, 13, 215–224.
Reade, J. (2001) Assyrian king-lists, the royal tombs of Ur, and Indus origins. J. Near East. Stud., 60, 1–29.
Redfield, C. C., Ketchum, B. H. and Richards, F. A. (1963) The influence of organisms on the composition of sea-water. In The Sea, ed. M. N. Hill, New York: Wiley-Interscience, pp. 26–77.
Reichart, G. J., den Dulk, M., Visser, H. J., van der Weijden, C. H. and Zachariasse, W. J. (1997) A 225 kyr record of dust supply, paleoproductivity and the oxygen minimum zone from the Murray Ridge (northern Arabian Sea). Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim. Palaeoeco., 134, 149–169.
Reiners, P. W., Ehlers, T. A., Mitchell, S. G. and Montgomery, D. R. (2003) Coupled spatial variations in precipitation and long-term erosion rates across the Washington Cascades. Nature, 426, 645–647.
Ren, S. N. (2000) The origin and development of settlement and society during the Neolithic Age in China. Archaeology, 7, 48–59 (in Chinese).
Richards, J. F. (1990) The seventeenth-century crisis in South Asia. Mod. Asian Stud., 24, 625–638.
Richards, J. F. (1996) The Mughal Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 337.
Richerson, P. J., Boyd, R. and Bettinger, R. L. (2001) Was agriculture impossible during the Pleistocene but mandatory during the Holocene? A climate change hypothesis. Amer. Antiq., 66 (3), 387–412.
Rodgers, D. W. and Gunatilaka, A. (2002) Bajada formation by monsoonal erosion of a subaerial forebulge, Sultanate of Oman. Sed. Geol., 154, 127–146.
Rodwell, M. J. and Hoskins, B. J. (1995) A model of the Asian summer monsoon. Part II: cross-equatorial flow and PV behavior. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1341–1356.
Rodwell, M. J. and Hoskins, B. J. (2001) Subtropical anticyclones and summer monsoons. J. Clim., 14, 3192–3211.
Rogalla, U. and Andruleit, H. (2005) Precessional forcing of coccolithophore assemblages in the northern Arabian Sea; implications for monsoonal dynamics during the last 200,000 years. Mar. Geol., 217, 31–48.
Rossignol-Strick, M., Paterne, M., Bassinot, F. C., Emeis, K. C. and de Lange, G. J. (1998) An unusual mid-Pleistocene monsoon period over Africa and Asia. Nature, 392, 269–272.
Roth, J. M., Droxler, A. W. and Kameo, K. (2000) The Caribbean carbonate crash at the middle to late Miocene transition: linkage to the establishment of the modern global ocean conveyor. Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog., Sci. Res., 165, College Station, TX: Ocean Drilling Program, pp. 249–273.
Rowley, D. B. (1996) Age of initiation of collision between India and Asia; a review of stratigraphic data, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 145, 1–13.
Rowley, D. B. and Currie, B. S. (2006) Palaeo-altimetry of the late Eocene to Miocene Lunpola basin, central Tibet. Nature, 439, 677–681.
Rowley, D. B., Pierrehumbert, R. T. and Currie, B. S. (2001) A new approach to stable isotope-based paleoaltimetry: implications for paleoaltimetry and paleohypsometry of the High Himalaya since the Late Miocene. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 188, 253–268.
Ruddiman, W. F. and Kutzbach, J. E. (1989) Forcing of late Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere climate by plateau uplift in southern Asia and the American West. J. Geophys. Res., 94 (15), 18 409–18 427.
Ruddiman, W. F. and Kutzbach, J. E. (1990) Late Cenozoic uplift and climate change. Trans. R. Soc. Edin. Earth Sci., 81, 301–314.
Rutherford, E., Burke, K. and Lytwyn, J. (2001) Tectonic history of Sumba Island, Indonesia, since the Late Cretaceous and its rapid escape into the forearc in the Miocene. J. Asian Earth Sci., 19, 453–479.
Saito, Y. (1998) Sea levels of the last glacial in the East China Sea continental shelf. Quat. Res., 37, 235–242 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Saji, N. H., Goswami, B. N., Vinayachandran, P. N. and Yamagata, T. (1999) A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401, 360–363.
Sanders, F. (1984) Quasi-geostrophic diagnosis of the Monsoon Depression of 5–8 July, 1979. J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 538–552.
Savidge, G., Elliott, A. E. and Hubbard, L. (1992) The monsoon induced upwelling system of the southern coast of Oman. Mar. Geol., 104, 290–291.
Schmitz, W. J. and McCartney, M. S. (1993) On the North Atlantic circulation. Rev Geophys., 31, 29–50.
Schoenbohm, L. M., Burchfiel, B. C., Chen, L. and Yin, J. (2006) Miocene to present activity along the Red River fault, China, in the context of continental extrusion, upper-crustal rotation, and lower-crustal flow. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 118, 672–688.
Schulz, H., von Rad, U. and Ittekkot, V. (2002) Planktic foraminifera, particle flux and oceanic productivity off Pakistan, NE Arabian Sea; modern analogues and application to the palaeoclimatic record. In: The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region, ed. P. D. Clift, D. Kroon, C. Gaedicke and J. Craig. Geol. Soc., Lond., Spec. Publ., 195, 499–516.
Schwenk, T., Spiess, V., Hübscher, C. and Breitzke, M. (2003) Frequent channel avulsions within the active channel–levee system of the middle Bengal Fan – an exceptional channel–levee development derived from Parasound and Hydrosweep data. Deep-Sea Res. II, 50, 1023–1045.
Searle, M. P. and Godin, L. (2003) The South Tibetan detachment and the Manaslu Leucogranite; a structural reinterpretation and restoration of the Annapurna–Manaslu Himalaya, Nepal. J. Geology, 111, 505–523.
Shackleton, N. J. and Opdyke, N. D. (1977) Oxygen isotope and palaeomagnetic evidence for early Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Nature, 270, 216–219.
Shackleton, N. J., Berger, A. and Peltier, W. A. (1990) An alternative astronomical calibration of the lower Pleistocene timescale based on ODP Site 677. Trans. R. Soc. Edin. Earth Sci., 81, 251–261.
Shackleton, N. J., Hall, M. A. and Pate, D. (1995) Pliocene stable isotope stratigraphy of ODP Site 846. In: Proc. Ocean Drill Prog., Sci. Rpt, ed. N. G. Pisias et al
Shaffer, J. G. (1992) The Indus Valley, Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic through Bronze Age. In Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, ed. R. W. Ehrich, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 425–446.
Sharma, S., Joachimski, M., Sharma, M. et al
. (2004) Late glacial and Holocene environmental changes in Ganga plain, northern India. Quat. Sci. Rev., 23, 145–159.
Sheppard, P. R., Tarasov, P. E., Graumlich, L. J. et al
. (2004) Annual precipitation since 515 BCE reconstructed from living and fossil juniper growth of north-eastern Qinghai Province, China. Clim. Dynam., 23, 869–881.
Shui T. (2001) Papers on the Bronze Age Archaeology of North-west. Beijing: China Science Press, p. 25 (in Chinese).
Shukla, J. and Paolina, D. A. (1983) The Southern Oscillation and long range forecasting of the summer monsoon rainfall over India. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 1830–1837.
Siddall, M., Rohling, E. J., Almogi-Labin, A. et al
. (2003) Sea-level fluctuations during the last glacial cycle. Nature, 423, 583–588.
Sikka, D. R. and Gadgil, S. (1980) On the Maximum Cloud Zone and the ITCZ over Indian longitudes during the South-west Monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1840–1853.
Sinha, A., Cannariato, K. G., Stott, L. D. et al
. (2005) Variability of South-west Indian summer monsoon precipitation during the Bølling-Allerød. Geology, 33, 813–816.
Sirocko, F. (1995) Abrupt change in monsoonal climate: evidence from the geochemical composition of Arabian Sea sediments. Habilitation Thesis, University of Kiel, p. 216.
Sirocko, F., Garbe-Schönberg, D., Mclntyre, A. and Molfino, B. (1996) Teleconnections between the subtropical monsoons and high-latitude climates during the last deglaciation. Science, 272, 526–529.
Sirocko, F., Garbe-Schoenberg, D. and Devey, C. (2000) Processes controlling trace element geochemistry of Arabian Sea sediments during the last 25 000 years. Global Planet. Change, 26 (1–3), 217–303.
Sirocko, F., Sarnthein, M., Erlenkeuser, H. et al
. (1993) Century-scale events in monsoonal climate over the last 24 000 years. Nature, 364, 322–324.
Sontakke, N. A., Pant, G. B. and Singh, N. (1993) Construction of all-India summer monsoon rainfall series for the period 1844–1991. J. Climat., 6, 1807–1811.
Spicer, R. A., Harris, N. B. W., Widdowson, M. et al
. (2003) Constant elevation of southern Tibet over the past 15 million years. Nature, 421, 622–624.
Staubwasser, M., Sirocko, F., Grootes, P. M. and Segl, M. (2003) Climate change at the 4.2 ka BP termination of the Indus valley civilization and Holocene south Asian monsoon variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (8), 1425, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016822.
Stevens, T., Armitage, S. J., Lu, H. and Thomas, D. S. G. (2006) Sedimentation and diagenesis of Chinese loess: implications for the preservation of continuous, high-resolution climate records. Geology, 34, 849–852.
Stott, L., Poulsen, C., Lund, S. and Thunell, R. (2002) Super ENSO and global climate oscillations at millennial timescales. Science, 297, 222–226.
Stuiver, M. and Braziunas, T. F. (1993) Sun, ocean, climate and atmospheric 14
; an evaluation of causal and spectral relationships. The Holocene, 3, 289–305.
Stuiver, M. and Grootes, P. M. (2000) GISP2 oxygen isotope ratios. Quat. Res., 53, 277–284.
Sun, D. (2004) Monsoon and westerly circulation changes recorded in the late Cenozoic aeolian sequences of northern China. Global Planet. Change, 41, 63–80.
Sun, D. H., Liu, T. S., Chen, M. Y. and An, Z. S. (1997) Magnetostratigraphy and climate implications of the Red–Clay sequences in the Loess Plateau in China. Sci. in China, 27, 265–270.
Sun, D. H., Shaw, J., An, Z. S., Chen, M. Y. and Yue, L. P. (1998) Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimatic interpretation of continuous 7.2 Ma late Cenozoic Eolian sediments from the Chinese Loess Plateau. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 85–88.
Sun, X. and Li, X. (1999) Pollen records of the last 37 ka in deep-sea core 17940 from the northern slope of the South China Sea. Mar. Geol., 156, 227–244.
Sun, X. and Wang, P. (2005) How old is the Asian monsoon system? Palaeobotanical records from China. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 222, 181–222.
Sun, Y. and An, Z. (2004) An improved comparison of Chinese loess with deep-sea δ18
O record over the interval 1.6–2.6 Ma. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, 13.
Suzuki, H. (1978) Ideas of the Forest and Ideas of the Desert. Tokyo: NHK Books, p. 222.
Swain, A. M., Kutzbach, J. E. and Hastenrath, S. (1983) Estimates of Holocene precipitation for Rajasthan, India, based on pollen and lake-level data. Quat. Res., 19, 1–17.
Tada, R., Irino, T. and Koizumi, I. (1999) Land–ocean linkages over orbital and millennial timescales recorded in late Quaternary sediments of the Japan Sea. Paleoceanography, 14, 236–247.
Tamburini, F., Adatte, T., Foellmi, K., Bernasconi, S. M. and Steinmann, P. (2003) Investigating the history of East Asian monsoon and climate during the last glacial–interglacial period (0–140,000 years); mineralogy and geochemistry of ODP Sites 1143 and 1144, South China Sea. Mar. Geol., 201, 147–168.
Tapponnier, P., Xu Z., Roger, F. et al
. (2001) Oblique stepwise rise and growth of the Tibet Plateau. Science, 294, 1671–1677.
Thamban, M., Rao, V. P., Schneider, R. R. and Grootes, P. M. (2001) Glacial to Holocene fluctuations in hydrography and productivity along the south-western continental margin of India. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 165, 113–127.
Thiede, R. C., Bookhagen, B., Arrowsmith, J. R., Sobela, E. R. and Strecker, M. R. (2004) Climatic control on rapid exhumation along the Southern Himalayan Front. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 222, 791–806.
Thiry, M. (2000) Palaeoclimatic interpretation of clay minerals in marine deposits: an outlook from the continental origin. Earth Sci. Rev., 49, 201–221.
Thompson, L. G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Davis, M. et al
. (1993) “Recent warming”; ice core evidence from tropical ice cores with emphasis on Central Asia. Global Planet. Change, 7, 145–156.
Thompson, L. G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Davis, M. E. et al
. (1989) 100,000 year climate record from Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau ice cores. Science, 246, 474–477.
Thompson, L. G., Yao, T., Mosley-Thompson, E. et al
(2000) A high-resolution millennial record of the South Asian Monsoon from Himalayan ice cores. Science, 289, 1916–1919.
Thompson, L. G., Yao, Y., Davis, M. E. et al
. (1997) Tropical climate instability: the last glacial cycle from a Qinghai–Tibetan ice core. Science, 276, 1821–1825.
Tian, J., Wang, P., Cheng, X. and Li, Q. (2002) Astronomically tuned Plio-Pleistocene benthic δ18
O record from South China Sea and Atlantic-Pacific comparison. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 203, 1015–1029.
Tomczak, M. and Godfrey. J. S. (1994) Regional Oceanography: An Introduction. Oxford: Pergamon Press, p. 422.
Torrence, C. and Webster, P. J. (1999) Interdecadal changes in the ENSO–Monsoon System. J. Clim., 12, 2679–2690.
Tosi, M. (1975) The dialectics of state formation in Mesopotamia, Iran, and central Asia. Dialect. Anthrop., 1, 173–180.
Treloar, P. J., Rex, D. C., Guise, P. G. et al
. (1989) K-Ar and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Himalayan collision in NW Pakistan: constraints on the timing of suturing, deformation, metamorphism and uplift. Tectonics, 8, 881–909.
Treydte, K. S., Schleser, G. H., Helle, G. et al
. (2006) The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium. Nature, 440, 1179–1182.
Tudhope, A. W., Lea, D. W., Shimmield, G. B., Chilcott, C. P. and Head, S. (1996) Monsoon climate and Arabian Sea coastal upwelling recorded in massive corals from southern Oman. Palaios, 11, 347–361.
Turner, S., Hawkesworth, C., Liu, J. et al
. (1993) Timing of Tibetan uplift constrained by analysis of volcanic rocks. Nature, 364, 50–54.
Underhill, A. P. (1991) Pottery production in chiefdoms: the Longshan period in northern China. World Archaeo., 23, 12–27.
Underhill, P. A., Passarino, G., Lin, A. A. et al
(2001) The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations. Ann. Human Genet., 65, 43–62.
Vail, P. R., Mitchum, R. M. and Thompson, S. (1977) Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level; Part 4; global cycles of relative changes of sea level. In Seismic Stratigraphy; Applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration
, ed. C. E. Payton. Mem., Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol
Van Campo, E. (1986) Monsoon fluctuations in two 20,000-yr B. P. oxygen-isotope/pollen records off southwest India. Quat. Res., 26, 376–388.
Van Campo, E. (1991) Pollen transport into Arabian Sea sediments. Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog., Sci. Res
, College Station, TX: Ocean Drilling Program, 277–281.
Van Campo, E., Duplessy, J. C. and Rossignol-Strick, M. (1982) Climatic conditions deduced from 150,000 yr oxygen isotope–pollen record from the Arabian sea. Nature, 296, 56–59.
Vannay, J. C., Sharp, Z. D. and Grasemann, B. (1999) Himalayan inverted metamorphism constrained by oxygen isotope thermometry. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 137, 90–101.
Von Rad, U., Schulz, H., Riech, V. et al
. (1999) Multiple monsoon-controlled breakdown of oxygen-minimum conditions during the past 30,000 years documented in laminated sediments off Pakistan. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 152, 129–161.
Walker, C. B., Searle, M. P. and Waters, D. J. (2001) An integrated tectonothermal model for the evolution of the High Himalaya in western Zanskar with constraints from thermobarometry and metamorphic modeling. Tectonics, 20, 810–833.
Wang, B., Clemens, S. and Liu, P. (2003a) Contrasting the Indian and East Asian monsoons: implications on geologic timescale. Mar. Geol., 201, 5–21.
Wang, J., Wang, Y., Liu, Z., Li, J. and Xi, P. (1999c) Cenozoic environmental evolution of the Qaidam Basin and its implications for the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the drying of Central Asia. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 152, 37–47.
Wang, L., Sarnthein, M., Erlenkeuser, H. et al
. (1999a) East Asian monsoon climate during the late Pleistocene: high-resolution sediment records from the South China Sea. Mar. Geol., 156, 245–284.
Wang, L., Sarnthein, M., Erlenkeuser, H. et al
. (1999b) Holocene variations in Asian monsoon moisture; a bidecadal sediment record from the South China Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2889–2892.
Wang, P. (2004) Cenozoic deformation and the history of sea–land interactions in Asia. In Continent–Ocean Interactions Within East Asian Marginal Seas, ed. P. D. Clift, W. Kuhnt, P. Wang and D. E. Hayes, Washington D. C.: American Geophysical Union, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 149
, pp. 1–22.
Wang, P., Prell, W., Blum, P., et al
. (2001b) Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 184
, College Station, TX: Ocean Drilling Program.
Wang, P., Tian J., Cheng X., Liu C. and Xu J. (2003c) Carbon reservoir changes preceded major ice-sheet expansion at the mid-Brunhes event. Geology, 31, 239–242.
Wang, P., Zhao, Q., Jian, Z. et al
. (2003b). Thirty million year deep-sea records in the South China Sea. Chinese Sci. Bull., 48, 2524–2535.
Wang, R. and Abelmann, A. (2002) Radiolarian responses to paleoceanographic events of the southern South China Sea during the Pleistocene. Mar. Micropaleo., 46, 25–44.
Wang, R. L., Scarpitta, S. C., Zhang, S. C. and Zheng, M. P. (2002) Later Pleistocene/Holocene climate conditions of Qinghai–Xizhang Plateau (Tibet) based on carbon and oxygen stable isotopes of Zabuye Lake sediments. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 203, 461–477.
Wang, Y. J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L. et al
. (2001a) A high-resolution absolute-dated late Pleistocene Monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science, 294, 2345–2348.
Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L. et al
. (2005) The Holocene Asian monsoon; links to solar changes and North Atlantic climate. Science, 308, 854–857.
Wang, Y., Deng, T. and Biasatti, D. (2006) Ancient diets indicate significant uplift of southern Tibet after ca. 7 Ma. Geology, 34, 309–312.
Weber, M. E., Wiedicke, M. H., Kudrass, H. R., Huebscher, C. and Erlenkeuser, H. (1997) Active growth of the Bengal Fan during sea-level rise and highstand. Geology, 25, 315–318.
Webster, P. J. (1987) The elementary monsoon. In Monsoons, ed. J. S. Fein and P. L. Stephens, New York: John Wiley, pp. 3–32.
Webster, P. J. and Chou, L. C. (1980) Seasonal structure of a simple monsoon system. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 354–367.
Webster, P. J., Clark, C., Cherikova, G. et al
. (2002) The Monsoon as a self-regulating coupled ocean-atmosphere system. In Meteorology at the Millennium, ed. R. P. Pearce San Diego: Academic Press, International Geophysical Series
, vol. 83
Webster, P. J., Holland, G. J., Curry, J. A. and Chang, H.-R. (2005) Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment. Science, 309 (5742), 1844–1846.
Webster, P. J., Magana, V. O., Palmer, T. N. et al
. (1998) Monsoons: processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction, in the TOGA decade. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14 451–14 510.
Weiss H, Courty M. A. and Wetterstrom W. (1993) The genesis and collapse of third millennium north Mesopotamian civilization. Science, 261, 995–1004.
Whipple, K. X., Kirby, E. and Brocklehurst, S. H. (1999) Geomorphic limits to climate-induced increases in topographic relief. Nature, 401, 39–43.
White, N. M., Pringle, M., Garzanti, E. et al
. (2002) Constraints on the exhumation and erosion of the High Himalayan Slab, NW India, from foreland basin deposits. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 195, 29–44.
Williams, H. M., Turner, S. P., Pearce, J. A., Kelley, S. P. and Harris, N. B. W. (2004) Nature of the source regions for post-collisional, potassic magmatism in Southern and Northern Tibet from geochemical variations and inverse trace element modeling. J. Petrol., 45, 555–607.
Williams, H., Turner, S., Kelley, S. and Harris, N. (2001) Age and compositin of dikes in southern Tibet: new constraints on the timing of east–west extension and its relations to postcollisional volcanism. Geology, 29, 339–342.
Wilson, R. J. S., Luckman, B. H. and Esper, J. A. (2005) 500-year dendroclimatic reconstruction of spring/summer precipitation from the lower Bavarian forest region, Germany. Int. J. Climat., 25, 611–630.
Wobus, C., Heimsath, A., Whipple, A. and Hodges, K. (2005) Active out-of-sequence thrust faulting in the central Nepalese Himalaya. Nature, 434, 1008–1011.
Wolfe, J. A., Forest, C. E. and Molnar, P. (1998) Paleobotanical evidence of Eocene and Oligocene paleoaltitudes in midlatitude western North America. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 110, 664–678.
Woodruff, F. and Savin, S. (1989) Miocene deepwater oceanography. Paleoceanography, 4, 87–140.
Woodruff, F. and Savin, S. M. (1991) Mid-Miocene isotope stratigraphy in the deep-sea: high resolution correlations, paleoclimatic cycles, and sediment preservation. Paleoceanography, 6, 755–806.
Woodruff, F., Savin, S. M. and Abel, L. (1990) Miocene benthic foraminifer oxygen and carbon isotopes, Site 709, Indian Ocean. Proc. Ocean Drill. Prog., Sci. Res.,
115, College Station, TX: Ocean Drilling Program, pp. 519–528.
Wu, G., Pan, B., Guan, Q. and Xia, D. (2005) Terminations and their correlation with insolation in the Northern Hemisphere; a record from a loess section in north-west China. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 216, 267–277.
Xiao, J. L. and An, Z. S. (1999) Three large shifts in East Asian monsoon circulation indicated by loess–Paleosol sequences in China and late Cenozoic deposits in Japan. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 154, 179–189.
Xiao, J. L., An, Z. S., Liu, T. S. et al
. (1999) East Asian monsoon variation during the last 130,000 years; evidence from the Loess Plateau of central China and Lake Biwa of Japan. Quat. Sci. Rev., 18, 147–157.
Xiao, J. L., Inouchi, Y., Kumai, H. et al
. (1997) Eolian quartz flux to Lake Biwa, central Japan over the past 145 000 years. Quat. Res., 48, 48–57.
Xie, P. and Arkin, P. A. (1997) Global precipitation: a 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteo. Soc., 78, 2539–2558.
Xie, S.-P., Xu, H., Saji, N. H., Wang, Y. and Liu, W. T. (2006) Role of narrow mountains in large-scale organization of Asian monsoon convection. J. Clim., 19, 3420–3429.
Xu, R. (1979) Discovery of Glossopteris
flora in southern Tibet and its significance to geology and paleogeography. In A Report of the Scientific Expedition in the Mount Everest Region; 1975
, Beijing, China: Sci. Press, pp. 77–88.
Yan, F., Ye, Y. and Mai, X. (1983) The sporo-pollen assemblage in the Luo4 drilling of Lop Lake in Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang and its significance. Seismo. Geo., 5, 75–80 (in Chinese).
Yancheva, G., Nowaczyk, N. R., Mingram, J. et al
. (2007) Influence of the intertropical convergence zone on the East Asian monsoon. Nature, 445, 74–77.
Yang, F., Ma, Z. Q., Xu, T. C. and Ye, S. T. (1992) A Tertiary paleomagnetic stratigraphic profile in Qaidam basin (in Chinese). Acta Pet. Sin., 13 (2), 97–101.
Yang, J., Chen, J., An, Z. et al
. (2000) Variations in 87
Sr ratios of calcites in Chinese loess; a proxy for chemical weathering associated with the East Asian summer monsoon. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim., Palaeoeco., 157, 151–159.
Yasuda, Y. (2004) Monsoons and religions. In Monsoon and Civilization, ed. Y. Yasuda and V. Shinde, New Delhi: Lustre Press, pp. 319–338.
Yasunari, T. (1980) A quasi-stationary appearance of 30 to 40 day period in the cloudiness fluctuations during the summer monsoon over India. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 58, 225–229.
Yasunari, T. (1981) Structure of an Indian Summer monsoon system with around 40-day period. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 59, 336–354.
Yin, A., Kapp, P. A., Murphy, M. A. et al
. (1999) Significant late Neogene east–west extension in northern Tibet. Geology, 27, 787–790.
Yoshikawa, S. and Inouchi, Y. (1991) Tephrostratigraphy of the Takashima-oki boring core samples from Lake Biwa, central Japan. Earth Sci. (Chikyu Kagaku), 45, 81–100.
Yoshikawa, S. and Inouchi, Y. (1993) Middle Pleistocene to Holocene explosive volcanism revealed by ashes of the Takashima-oki core samples from Lake Biwa, central Japan. Earth Sci. (Chikyu Kagaku), 47, 97–109.
Young, T. C. (1995) The Uruk World System: the dynamics of expansion of Early Mesopotamian civilization. Bull. Amer. Sch. Orient. Res., 297, 84–85.
Yuan, D., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L. et al
. (2004) Timing, duration, and transitions of the last interglacial Asian monsoon. Science, 304, 575–578.
Zachos, J. Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. and Billups, K. (2001) Trends, rhythms and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to Present. Science, 292, 686–693.
Zahn, R. (2003) Monsoon linkages. Nature, 421, 324–325.
Zeitler, P. K., Koons, P. O., Bishop, M. P. et al
. (2001) Crustal reworking at Nanga Parbat, Pakistan; metamorphic consequences of thermal-mechanical coupling facilitated by erosion. Tectonics, 20, 712–728.
Zhang, P., Molnar, P. and Downs, W. R. (2001) Increased sedimentation rates and grain sizes 2–4 Myr ago due to the influence of climate change on erosion rates. Nature, 410, 891–897.
Zhao, J., Wang, Y., Collerson, K. D. and Gagan, M. K. (2003) Speleothem U-series dating of semi-synchronous climate oscillations during the last deglaciation. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 216, 155–161.
Zhao, Q., Wang, J., Cheng, X. et al
. (2001b) Neogene oxygen isotopic stratigraphy, ODP Site 1148, northern South China Sea. Sci. China, Ser. D, 44, 934–942.
Zhao, Q., Wang, P., Cheng, X. et al
. (2001a) A record of Miocene carbon excursion in the South China Sea. Sci. China, Ser. D, 44, 943–951.
Zhao, W. L. and Morgan, W. J. P. (1987) Injection of Indian crust into Tibetan lower crust; a two-dimensional finite element model study. Tectonics, 6, 489–504.
Zheng, H., Powell, C. M., An, Z., Zhou, J. and Dong, G. (2000) Pliocene uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Geology, 28, 715–718.
Zheng, H., Powell, C. M., Rea, D. K., Wang, J. and Wang, P. (2004) Late Miocene and mid-Pliocene enhancement of the east Asian monsoon as viewed from the land and sea. Global Planet. Change, 41, 147–155.
Zickfeld, K., Knopf, B., Petoukhov, V. and Schellnhuber, H. J. (2005) Is the Indian summer monsoon stable against global change? Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15707, doi: 10.1029/2005GL022771.
Zielinski, G. A., Mayewski, P. A., Meeker, L. D. et al
. (1996) Potential atmospheric impact of the Toba mega-eruption approximately 71 000 years ago. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23 (8), 837–840.