Law, Marriage, and Society in the Later Middle Ages

Arguments about Marriage in Five Courts

Law, Marriage, and Society in the Later Middle Ages

This is a study of marriage litigation in the archiepiscopal court of York (1300–1500) and the episcopal courts of Ely (1374–1381), Paris (1384–1387), Cambrai (1438–1453), and Brussels (1448–1459). All these courts were, for the most part, correctly applying the late medieval canon law of marriage, but statistical analysis of the cases and results confirms that there were substantial differences both in the types of cases the courts heard and the results they reached. Extensive additional material--over 300 pages--can be found on the Cambridge University Press website ( in the Resources and Solutions section under the heading "Text and Commentary". This additional material includes Latin quotations from cases, discussions of alternative interpretations, references to primary sources that support the argument and references to the literature on the cases.


"Donahue's monumental study is an astonishingly successful exercise in quantitative social history; it is also full of human interest because he takes us to the people behind the figures; finally, it marks a great empirical breakthrough in research on family structure in England and France."
-David d’Avray, University College, London

"This splendid book is the crowning achievement of a long and distinguished scholarly career. Donahue's magisterial analysis of the ways in which medieval ecclesiastical courts in England, northern France, and present day Belgium actually applied the rules of canon law to the marital problems that came before them opens new windows into the way that the medieval church's marriage rules touched the intimate personal lives of everyday persons. The book is filled with wonderful, but often pathetic, stories of the matrimonial tangles that ordinary people and their families managed to create and the contortions that they went through when they tried to undo them. Donahue's work rests on a formidable mass of evidence, yet he manages to make it comprehensible. His comparison of the styles of the five principal courts that he surveyed is a major contribution to our understanding of the judicial functioning of the medieval church."
-James A. Brundage, Ahmanson-Murphy Distinguished Professor Emeritus, University of Kansas

"In this excellent study Charles Donahue unveils for us the mysteries of marriage as it actually was lived in the Middle Ages: not from the stale words of law books but from the real and, at times, raw proceedings of cases–hundreds of them–in church courts. And his vision goes beyond what the courts say and do, as he, with intelligence and enviable common sense, describes what must have been happening in peoples lives: the tragic, the mundane and, even, the comic. The study of marriage in the Middle Ages will never be the same, nor should it be. This is truly a remarkable achievement."
-F. Donald Logan, Emeritus Professor of History, Emmanuel College, Boston

"Readers of Boccaccio and Chaucer would do well to keep this book handy. Gender relations, the phenomenology of seduction, the negotiations of couples, their families, and their communities are here documented and meticulously analyzed in hundreds of real-life cases. Charles Donahue shares the results of his scrupulous research and inspired analysis in language that is both clear and accessible, at time almost affectionate, and sparkling with wit. Historical sources of extraordinary richness - fourteenth- and fifteenth-century matrimonial trials from five French and English archives - clearly fascinated Donahue, and through him they captivate the reader."
-Silvana Seidel Menchi, Department of History, University of Pisa

“Expanding on her path-breaking studies of the antebellum Appalachian South, this newest book by Wilma A. Dunaway examines the varying work and family patterns of the region' poor whites, Native American, and black women. Based on extensive research in numerous primary and secondary sources, her analysis of the factors leading to these patterns of behavior provides considerable new and important information about the people in a location which has not previously been studied in such detail, but also makes for quite interesting comparisons with those in other areas of the South.” -Stanley L. Engerman, University of Rochester

"...comprehensive and well-documented study..." -Laurent Mayali, H-France Review

"...a tour de force in comparative history." -Barbara A. Hanawalt, Speculum

" impressive contribution to the knowledge on medieval societies, legal systems, and the different kinds of marriage institutions." -Kirsi Salonen, Histoire sociale/Social History

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Judith M. Bennett , Women in the Medieval English Countryside: Gender and Household in Brigstock Before the Plague (New York 1987)
Juliette Turlan , “Recherches sur le mariage dans la pratique coutumière (Ⅻe–XVIe s.),” Revue historique de droit français et étranger, 35 (1957) 477–528
Julius Kirshner , “Maritus lucretur dotem uxoris sue premortue in Late Medieval Florence,” Zeitschrift für Rechtsgeschichte (Kanonistische Abteilung), 108 (77) (1991) 111–55
K. F. Burns, The Administrative System of the Ecclesiastical Courts in the Diocese and Province of York: Part I, The Medieval Courts (1962) (unpublished typescript on file at the Borthwick Institute)
Kanonistische Ergänzungen zur Italia Pontificia, ed. Walther Holtzmann , Quellen und Forschungen, 37 (1957) 55–102, 38 (1958) 67–175, and separately (Tübingen 1959)
Klaus Lindner , Courtship and the Courts: Marriage and Law in Southern Germany, 1350–1550, D. Theol. diss., Harvard University Divinity School (1988)
Konrad Eubel , Hierarchia catholica medii aevi, 3 vols. (Münster 1898–1910)
Léon Pommeray , L'officialité archidiaconale de Paris aux xve–xvie siècles, thèse pour le doctorat en droit, Université de Paris (Paris 1933)
L'ancienne procédure ecclésiastique dans le nord de la France, ed. Édouard Fournier , Société d'études de la province de Cambrai, Recueil, 33 (Lille 1931)
L. R. Poos , “The Heavy-Handed Marriage Counsellor: Regulating Marriage in Some Later-Medieval English Local Ecclesiastical-Court Jurisdictions,” American Journal of Legal History, 39 (1995) 291–309
Lawrence Stone , The Family, Sex and Marriage in England, 1500–1800 (New York 1977)
Les actes de la province écclésiastique de Reims, ed. Th. Gousset, 4 vols. (Rheims 1842–4)
Les statuts synodaux français du xiiie siècle. I: Les statuts de Paris et le synodal de l'Ouest (xiiie siècle), ed. Odette Pontal , Collection de documents inédits sur l'histoire de France, sér. in 8°, 9 (Paris 1971); II: Les statuts de 1230 à 1260, ed. id., id., 15 (id. 1983); III: Les statuts synodaux de la seconde moitié du xiiie siècle, ed. Joseph Avril , id., 19 (id. 1988); IV: Les statuts synodaux de l'ancienne province de Reims (Cambrai, Arras, Noyon, Soissons et Tournai), ed. id., id., 23 (id. 1988); V: Les statuts synodaux des anciennes provinces de Bordeaux, Auch, Sens et Rouen (fin XIIIe siècle), ed. id., id., 28bis (id. 2001)
Liber senteciarum van de Officialiteit van Brussel, 1448–1459, ed. Cyriel Vleeschouwers and Monique van Melkebeek , Verzameling van de oude rechtspraak in België, 7th ser., 2 vols. (Brussels 1982–3)
Literae Cantuarienses, ed. J. B. Sheppard , Rolls Series, 85, vol. 1 (London 1887)
Lloyd Bonfield , “Marriage Settlements and the ‘Rise of the Great Estates’,” Economic History Review, 32 (1979) 483–93
Louis de Naurois , “Matrimonium gaudet favore iuris,” Revue de droit canonique, 29 (1979) 54–73
Lower Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in Late-Medieval England: The Courts of the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, 1336–1349, and the Deanery of Wisbech, 1458–1484, ed. L. R. Poos , Records of Social and Economic History, n.s. 32 (London 2001)
M. E. Bruguière, “Canon Law and Royal Weddings, Theory and Practice: The French Example,” in Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law, Stanley Chodorow , ed., Monumenta Iuris Canonici, C:9 (Vatican City 1992), 473–96
M. J. Stentz , A Calendar and Study of a Consistory Court Record from the Diocese of Ely, Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto (Ottawa 1991)
M2(1)b, M2(1)c; see below under “York”
Margaret Aston , Thomas Arundel: A Study of Church Life in the Reign of Richard II (Oxford 1967)
Marriage in Italy, 1300–1650, Trevor Dean and K. J. P. Lowe , eds. (Cambridge 1997)
Martin Luther, Sämmtliche Werke, ed. Ernst Ludwig Enders and Johann Conrad Irmischer , 2d ed., 67 vols. (Frankfurt am Main 1832–81)
Mia Korpiola , Between Betrothal and Bedding: The Making of Marriage in Sweden, ca. 1200–1610, Ph.D. thesis, University of Helsinki (Saarijävi 2004)
Michael M. Sheehan “Marriage Theory and Practice in the Conciliar Legislation and Diocesan Statutes of Medieval England,” Mediaeval Studies, 40 (1978) 408–60; in id., Marriage, Family, and Law, 118–76
Michael M. Sheehan “The Formation and Stability of Marriage in Fourteenth-Century England: Evidence of an Ely Register”, Mediaeval Studies, 33 (1971) 228–63, in id., Marriage, Family, and Law, 38–76 (page references are to the latter)
Michael M. Sheehan , “Choice of Marriage Partner in the Middle Ages: The Development and Mode of Application of a Theory of Marriage,” Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History, n.s. 1 (1978) 3–33; in id., Marriage, Family, and Law, 87–117.
Michael M. Sheehan“Marriage and Family in English Conciliar and Synodal Legislation,” in Essays in Honour of Anton Charles Pegis, J. Reginald O'Donnell , ed. (Toronto 1974), 205–14; in Sheehan, Marriage, Family, and Law, 77–86
Michael M. SheehanMarriage, Family, and Law in Medieval Europe: Collected Studies, James K. Farge , ed. (Toronto 1996)
Michiel Decaluwe , “De zelfschieding in de zuidelijke Nederlanden in de vijftiende eeuw,” Pro Memorie: Bijdragen tot de rechtsgeschiedenis der Nederlanden, 3 (2001) 32–48
Monique Vleeschouwers-van Melkebeek “Aspects du lien matrimonial dans le Liber sentenciarum de Bruxelles,” Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis, 53 (1985) 43–97
Monique Vleeschouwers-van Melkebeek “Eendrachtelic commen ende vriendelic vereffent: Boedelverdelingen voor de schepenen van de Keure van Gent tussen echtparen gescheiden van tafel en bed 1439–1450,” Handelingen van de Koninklijke Commissie voor de uitgave der Oude Wetten en Verordeningen van België, 47 (forthcoming)
Monique Vleeschouwers-van Melkebeek “Marital Breakdown Before the Consistory Courts of Brussels, Cambrai and Tournai: Judicial Separation a mensa et thoro ,” Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis, 72 (2004) 81–9
Monique Vleeschouwers-van Melkebeek “Self-Divorce in Fifteenth-Century Flanders: The Consistory Court Accounts of the Diocese of Tournai, Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis, 68 (2000) 83–98
Monique Vleeschouwers-van Melkebeek“Incestuous Marriages: Formal Rules and Social Practice in the Southern Burgundian Netherlands,” in Love, Marriage, and Family Ties in the Later Middle Ages, Isabel Davis , Miriam Müller , and Sarah Rees Jones , eds., International Medieval Research, 11 (Turnhout 2003), 77–95
Monique Vleeschouwers-van Melkebeek, “Aperçu typologique des principales sortes de registres produits par l'officialité de Tournai au moyen âge, avec notes sur le registre de sentences de Bruxelles (1448–1459),” in Bronnen voor de Geschiedenis van de Instellingen in België: Handelingen van het colloquium te Brussel, 15.–18.IV.1975, Hugo de Schepper , ed. (Brussels 1977), 423–42
Myriam Greilsammer “Rapts de séduction et rapts violents en Flandre et en Brabant à la fin du moyen-âge,” Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis, 56 (1988) 49–84
Myriam Greilsammer , L'envers du tableau: mariage et maternité en Flandre médiévale (Paris 1990)
OED = The Oxford English Dictionary, ed. J. Simpson and E. Weiner , 2d ed., 20 vols. (Oxford 1989)
Olin H. Moore , The Legend of Romeo and Juliet, Ohio State University Contributions in Languages and Literature, 13 (Columbus 1950)
P. H. Reaney , A Dictionary of British Surnames, 2d ed. (London 1976)
P. J. P. Goldberg , “Marriage, Migration, Servanthood and Life-Cycle in Yorkshire Towns of the Later Middle Ages: Some York Cause Paper Evidence,” Continuity and Change, 1 (1986) 141–69
P. J. P. Goldberg Women, Work, and Life Cycle in a Medieval Economy: Women in York and Yorkshire c. 1300–1520 (Oxford 1992)
Panormitanus (Niccolò de' Tudeschi) , Commentaria in (primum [etc.]) decretalium librum (Lyon: Senetonii Fratres, 1547)
Paul A. Brand , Paul R. Hyams , Rosamond Faith , and Eleanor M. Searle , “Debate: Seigneurial Control of Women's Marriage,” Past and Present, 99 (1983) 123–60.
Paul Ourliac and Jehan de Malafosse , Histoire du droit privé, 3 vols. (Paris 1961–8)
Peter Abelard (Petrus Abelardus) , Epitome theologiae christianae, title, c. 31: De coniugii sacramento et quod non confert aliquod donum , sicut coetera faciunt, in PL 178:1745
Peter Landau , “Hadrians Dekretale ‘Dignum est’ und die Eheschliessung Unfreier in der Diskussion von Kanonisten und Theologen des 12. und 13. Jahrhunderts,” Studia Gratiana, 12 (= Collectanca Stephan Kuttner, 2) (1967), 513–53
Peter Spufford , Handbook of Medieval Exchange (London 1986)
Peter Spufford , Money and Its Use in Europe (Cambridge 1988)
Peter the Chanter = Petrus Cantor, Summa de sacramentis et animae consiliis, ed. Jean Albert Dugauquier , 3 vols. in 5, Analecta mediaevalia namurcensia, 4, 7, 11, 16, 21 (Louvain 1954–)
Petrus de Ancharano , In quinque libros decretalium commentaria (Bologna: Societas typographiae Bononie, 1580)
Philippe Ariès , L'enfant et la vie familiale sous l'Ancien Regime (nouv. éd.; Paris 1973)
Philippe Godding , Le droit privé dans les Pays-Bas méridionaux du 12e au 18e siècle, Mémoires de l'Académie royale de Belgique, Classe de lettres, sér. 2 in 4°, vol. 14, fasc. 1 (Brussels 1987)
PL = Patrologia latina, ed. Jacques-Paul Migne , 221 vols. (Paris 1844–64)
Quinque Compilationes Antiquae, ed. Emil Friedberg (Leipzig 1882)
Répertoire des statuts synodaux des diocèses de l'ancienne France, ed. André Artonne , Louis Guizard , and Odette Pontal , Documents, Études et Répertoires publiés par l'Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, 8 (Paris 1963)
R. B. Outhwaite , Clandestine Marriage in England, 1500–1850 (London 1995)
R. H. Helmholz , The Canon Law and Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction from 597 to the 1640's, The Oxford History of the Laws of England, 1 (Oxford 2004)
R. H. Helmholz Canon Law and the Law of England (London 1987).
R. H. Helmholz Marriage Litigation in Medieval England, Cambridge Studies in English Legal History (Cambridge 1974, repr. Holmes Beach 1986)
Ralph Houlbrooke , Church Courts and the People During the English Reformation, 1520–1570 (Oxford 1979)
Ralph Houlbrooke The English Family, 1450–1700 (London 1984)
Raymond of Peñafort (Raimundus de Pennaforte), Summa de poenitentia et matrimonio cum glossis Johannis de Friburgo (Rome: Ioannes Tallini, 1603; repr. Farnborough 1967) (used in preference to the ed. Xaverius Ochoa and Aloisius Diez in Universa Bibliotheca iuris 1 C [Rome 1978])
Recueil des grandes ordonnances, édits, et déclarations des rois de France … depuis 1536 jusques 1681 inclusivement, ed. Jean A. H. M. B. Pichon (Toulouse 1786)
Reg Melton 2 = The Register of William Melton, archbishop of York 1317–1340, ed. David Robinson , vol. 2, Canterbury and York Society, 72 (Torquay 1978)
Register of the Freemen of the City of York. 1:1272–1558, ed. Francis Collins , Surtees Society, 96 (Durham 1897)
Registre de l'Officialité épiscopale de Troyes 1389–1396, ed. Jean Breban , Thèse de Doctorat d'État en droit (typescript) (Paris 1954)
Registre des causes civiles de l'Officialité épiscopale de Paris, 1384–1387, ed. Joseph Petit , Collection de documents inédits sur l'histoire de France (Paris 1919)
Registres de Sentences de l'Officialité de Cambrai (1438–1453), ed. Cyriel Vleeschouwers and Monique van Melkebeek , Recueil de l'ancienne jurisprudence de la Belgique, 7th ser., 2 vols. (Brussels 1998)
Registrum Roberti Winchelsey, ed. Rose Graham , vol. 2, Canterbury and York Society, 52 (Oxford 1956)
René Metz , La femme et l'enfant dans le droit canonique médiéval, Variorum Reprints, CS222 (London 1985)
René Pillorget , La tige et le rameau: familles françaises et anglaises, XVIe-XVIIIe siècle (Paris 1979)
Repertorium poenitentiariae Germanicum, ed. Ludwig Schmugge , et al., 7 vols. to date (Tübingen 1998–)
Richard M. Smith “Some Issues Concerning Families and Their Property in Rural England 1250–1800,” in Land, Kinship and Life-Cycle, id., ed., Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time, 1 (Cambridge 1984), 1–86
Richard M. Smith“Marriage Processes in the English Past,” in The World We Have Gained: Histories of Population and Social Structure, Lloyd Bonfield , Richard M. Smith , and Keith Wrightson , eds. (Oxford 1986), 43–99
Richard M. Smith, “Geographical Diversity in the Resort to Marriage in Late Medieval Europe: Work, Reputation, and Unmarried Females in the Household Formation Systems of Northern and Southern Europe,” in Woman Is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Society c 1200–1500, P. J. P. Goldberg , ed. (Wolfeboro Falls, NH 1992), repr. as Women in Medieval English Society (Stroud, Gloucs. 1997), 16–59
Richard M. Wunderli , London Church Courts and Society on the Eve of the Reformation, Speculum Anniversary Monographs, 7 (Cambridge, MA 1981)
Richard Saller , “European Family History and Roman Law,” Continuity and Change, 6 (1991) 335–46
Richard Vaughan , Philip the Good, 2d ed. (Woodbridge 2002).
Richard Whitford , A Werke for Householders (London: Robert Redman, 1537) (STC [2d ed.] 25425)
Robertus Maranta , Speculum aureum (Venice: Haeredes Bonelli, 1574)
Roland Mousnier , La famille, l'enfant et l'éducation en France et en Grande-Bretagne du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle, Les cours de Sorbonne, 2d fasc. (Paris [1975])
Rudolf Köstler , Die Väterliche Ehebewilligung, Kirchenrechtliche Abhandlungen, 51 (Stuttgart 1908)
Rudolf Weigand “Die Rechtsprechung des Regensburger Gerichts in Ehesachen unter besonderer Berücksichtung der bedingten Eheschliessung nach Gerichtsbüchern aus dem Ende des 15. Jahrhunderts,” Archiv für katholisches Kirchenrecht, 107 (1968) 403–63, in id., Liebe und Ehe, 245∗–305∗
Rudolf Weigand “Zur mittelalterlichen kirchlichen Ehegerichtsbarkeit,” Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte (Kanonistische Abteilung), 98 (66) (1981) 213–47, in id., Liebe und Ehe, 307∗–341∗
Rudolf Weigand , Die bedingte Eheschliessung im kanonischen Recht, 2 vols., Münchener theologische Studien, Kanonistische Abteilung, 16, 39 (Munich 1969, 1980)
Rudolf Weigand Glossen zum Dekret Gratians: Studien zu den frühen Glossen und Glossenkompositionen, Studia Gratiana, 25–6 (Roma 1991)
Rudolf Weigand Liebe und Ehe im Mittelalter, Bibliotheca eruditorum, 7 (Goldbach 1993)
S. F. C. Milsom , Historical Foundations of the Common Law, 2d ed. (London 1981)
Sara M. Butler , The Language of Abuse: Marital Violence in Later Medieval England, Ph.D. diss., University of Dalhousie (2001)
Select Cases from the Ecclesiastical Courts of the Province of Canterbury, c. 1200–1301, ed. Norma Adams and Charles Donahue , Publications of the Selden Society, 95 (London 1981)
Select Cases on Defamation to 1600, ed. R. H. Helmholz , Publications of the Selden Society, 101 (London 1985)
Silvana Seidel Menchi and Diego Quaglioni , eds., Coniugi nemici: La separazione in Italia dal Ⅻ al XVIII secolo, I processi matrimoniali degli archivi ecclesiastici italiani, 1; Annali dell'Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento, Quaderni, 53 (Bologna 2000)
Silvana Seidel Menchi and Diego Quaglioni I tribunali del matrimonio (secoli XV–XVIII), id., 4; id., 68 (Bologna 2006)
Silvana Seidel Menchi and Diego Quaglioni Matrimoni in Dubbio: Unioni controverse e nozze clandestine in Italia dal XIV al XVIII, id., 2; id., 57 (Bologna 2001)
Silvana Seidel Menchi and Diego Quaglioni Trasgressioni: seduzione, concubinato, adulterio, bigamia (XIV–XVIII secolo), id., 3; id., 64 (Bologna 2004)
Statuta antiquissima Dioecesis Cameracensis, ed. Edmond H. J. Reusens , Analectes pour servir à l'histoire écclesiastique de la Belgique, 2d section, fasc. 6 (Leuven 1903)
Stephan Kuttner , “Ecclesia de occultis non iudicat,” in Acta Congressus Iuridici Internationalis Romae 1934 (Rome 1935), 3:225–46
Stephen White , Custom, Kinship, and Gifts to Saints: The Laudatio Parentum in Western France, 1050–1150 (Chapel Hill, NC 1988)
Steven Ozment , When Fathers Ruled: Family Life in Reformation Europe (Cambridge, MA 1983)
Sue Sheridan Walker , “Feudal Constraint and Free Consent in the Making of Marriages in Medieval England: Widows in the King's Gift,” in Canadian Historical Association, Historical Papers 1979 (Ottawa 1979), 97–110
Summa ‘Elegantius in iure divino’ seu Coloniensis, ed. Gérard Fransen and Stephan Kuttner , Monumenta iuris canonici. Series A, Corpus glossatorum, v. 1, t. 1–4 (New York, Vatican City 1969–90)
Sybil Wolfram , In-laws and Outlaws: Kinship and Marriage in England (New York 1987)
Symposium , “Legal Systems and Family Systems: Jack Goody Revisited,” Continuity and Change, 6 (1991) 293–374
Tancred of Bologna (Tancredus bononiensis), Ordo iudiciarius Summa de matrimonio, ed. Agathon Wunderlich (Göttingen 1841)
Tancred of Bologna (Tancredus bononiensis), Ordo iudiciarius, ed. Friedrich C. Bergmann , in Pilii, Tancredi, Gratie, Libri de iudiciorum ordine (Göttingen 1842, repr. Aalen 1965), 87–316
Testamenta Eboracensia, ed. James Raine, [Sr] , James Raine, Jr and John W. Clay , 6 vols., Surtees Society, 4, 30, 45, 53, 79, 106 (Durham 1836, 1855, 1865, 1869, 1884, 1902)
The Paston Letters a.d. 1422–1509, ed. James Gairdiner , 6 vols. (Westminster 1904, repr. New York 1965)
The Place-names of Cheshire, ed. J. McN. Dodgson , 5 vols., English Place-Name Society, 44–8, 54, 74 (Cambridge 1970–97)
The Place-names of the North Riding of Yorkshire, ed. A. H. Smith , English Place-Name Society, 5 (Cambridge 1928)
The Place-names of the West Riding of Yorkshire, ed. A. H. Smith , 8 vols., English Place-Name Society, 30–7 (Cambridge 1961–3)
The Statutes of the Realm, 11 vols. in 12 (London 1810–28; repr. Buffalo 1993)
Thomas A. Green , Verdict According to Conscience: Perspectives on the English Criminal Trial Jury, 1200–1800 (Chicago 1985)
Thomas Aquinas , The “Summa Theologica” of St. Thomas Aquinas, 22 vols. (London 1920–5)
Tomás Sánchez , Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento tomi tres (Antwerp: apud haeredes Martini Nuti & Ioannem Meursium, 1626)
Trevor Dean, “Fathers and Daughters: Marriage Laws and Marriage Disputes in Bologna and Italy, 1200–1500,” in Marriage in Italy, 85–106
Vacarius, Summa de matrimonio, ed. F. W. Maitland , “Magistri Vacarii Summa de Matrimonio,” Law Quarterly Review, 13 (1897), 133–42, 270–87
VI (followed by book, title, and chapter numbers) = Liber sextus decretalium, in Corpus Iuris Canonici 2
Victor Martin , Le Gallicanism et réforme catholique: Essai historique sur l'introduction en France des décrets du concile de Trente (1563–1615) (Paris 1919, repr. Geneva 1975)
Victor Watts , A Dictionary of County Durham Place-Names, English Place-Name Society Popular Series, 3 (Nottingham 2002)
W. S. Holdsworth , A History of English Law, 17 vols., various eds. (London 1903–77, repr. 1982)
WH (with a number) = Walther Holzmann's list of decretals of the twelfth century accompanied by his still-unpublished notes. The typescript is held at the Institute of Medieval Canon Law in Munich, and portions of it have recently been made available online:
WH (with a number) see Works of Reference
Wife and Widow in Medieval England, Sue Sheridan Walker , ed. (Ann Arbor, MI 1993)
William G. Searle , “List of Deans, Priors and Monks of Christ Church Monastery,” in Christ Church Canterbury, ed. id., Cambridge Antiquarian Society Octavo Series, 34 (Cambridge 1902)
William Lyndwood , Provinciale seu Constitutiones Angliae (Oxford: H. Hall, 1679; repr. Franborough 1968)
X (followed by book, title, and chapter numbers) = Decretales Gregorii Noni, in Corpus Iuris Canonici II.
Year Books of Richard II: 6 Richard II 1382–1383, ed. Samuel E. Thorne , et al., Ames Foundation , Year Books of Richard II, 2 (Cambridge, MA 1996)
York, Borthwick Institute (YBI), Cause Papers (CP), E series (fourteenth century); F series (fifteenth century); G series (sixteenth century). Numbers following a slash are not in use by the archive and have been added simply for convenience.
York, York Minster Archives and Library, M2(1)b and M2(1)c (fragmentary act books of the consistory court from the 1370s)