The Struggle for Constitutional Power

Law, Politics, and Economic Development in Egypt

The Struggle for Constitutional Power

For nearly three decades, scholars and policymakers have placed considerable stock in judicial reform as a panacea for the political and economic turmoil plaguing developing countries. Courts are charged with spurring economic development, safeguarding human rights, and even facilitating transitions to democracy. How realistic are these expectations, and in what political contexts can judicial reforms deliver their expected benefits?

In The Struggle for Constitutional Power, Tamir Moustafa addresses these issues through an examination of the politics of the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court, the most important experiment in constitutionalism in the Arab World.

The Egyptian regime established a surprisingly independent constitutional court to address a series of economic and administrative pathologies that lie at the heart of authoritarian political systems. Although the Court helped the regime to institutionalize state functions, it simultaneously opened new avenues through which rights advocates and opposition parties could challenge the regime. The Struggle for Constitutional Powerexamines the dynamics of legal mobilization in this most unlikely political environment.

Standing at the intersection of political science, economics, and comparative law, The Struggle for Constitutional Powerchallenges conventional wisdom and provides new insights into perennial questions concerning the barriers to institutional development, economic growth, and democracy in the developing world.


 Reviews:

"The revision of a doctoral dissertation accepted by the University of Washington, Professor Tamir Moustafa’s THE STRUGGLE FOR CONSTITUTIONAL POWER: LAW, POLITICS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EGYPT is a model of outstanding scholarly research. This book deals with an important topic, and Moustafa does it justice. Not only does this volume constitute a comprehensive analysis of political and economic change in Egypt during the past 40 years, but it suggests new directions for scholarly research for students of comparative law and legal systems. No specialist in the fields specified can afford to ignore this important study."
-- Antony T. Sullivan, President, Near East Support Services International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Law and Politics Book Review


"This is an important book, to be read by scholars and students of comparative constitutionalism and constitutional democracy. Moustafa (Simon Fraser Univ., Canada) addresses fundamental questions such as whether democracy is a necessary prerequisite for effective judicial power. He challenges the common assumption that courts in authoritarian states are pawns of the regime and obstacles to the realization of minority rights....Highly recommended."
--Choice Magazine Editor's Picks for August 2008, J. B. Grossman, Johns Hopkins University


"Carefully sourced, meticulously organized, and engagingly written, The Struggle for Constitutional Power is as gripping as political science gets."
-- Mona el-Ghobashy, Barnard College, International Journal of Middle East Studies


"Moustafa's first solo book, based on his award-winning doctoral dissertation, provides a ground-breaking approach to the role of judicial institutions within authoritarian polities, focusing on the creation, empowerment, and eventual demise of the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court (ESCC), and its place within the broader context of the Egyptian state...The importance of Moustafa's work for our understanding of judicial institutions cannot be overstated."
Journal of Politics, Raul Sanchez Urribarri, University of South Carolina


 Prizes:

2008 Choice Magazine Outstanding Academic Title
‘Abd al-Bur, Faruq. 1991. Dor Majlis al-Dawla al-Misri fi Hamayit al-Haquq wa al-Hurriyat al-‘Ama. The Role of the State Council in Protecting Public Rights and Freedoms, Vol. 1–3.
‘Abd al-Bur, Faruq. 2005. Mauqef ‘Abd al-Razeq al-Sanhuri min Qadayan al-Huriyya wa al-Dimokratiyya.
‘Abd al-Malek, Anouar. 1968. Egypt: Military Society. New York: Vintage Books.
‘Abdallah, ‘Abd al-Ghani Basiuni. 1990. al-Nizam al-Intikhab fi Misr wa al-‘Alam: Bayn al-Intikhab al-Fardi wa al-Intikhab bil-Qa‘ima. [The System of Elections in Egypt and the World: Between Individual [Candidate] Elections and Elections by List]. Alexandria: Manshat al-Masaraf bil-Iskandariyya.
‘Atiyya, Mamduh. 1979. “Darasa Maqarana Tahlilia hawl Qanun al-Mahkama al-Dusturiyya al-‘Ulia” [A Comparative Analytical Study of the Supreme Constitutional Court]. Lecture delivered at the Egyptian Society for Political Economy, December 23. Reprinted in al-Mahkama al-Dusturiyya al-‘Ulia, Vol. 1, 107–144.
‘Ubayd, Muhammad Kamil. 1991. Istiqlal al-Qada’: Darasa Maqarena. Cairo: Dar al-Nahda al-‘Arabiyya.
Alashhab, Baher. 1995. Clash in Egypt: The Government and the Bar: Report of a Mission. Geneva: Centre for the Independence of Judges and Lawyers.
Alford, William P. 1993. “Double-Edged Swords Cut Both Ways: Law and Legitimacy in the People's Republic of China.” Daedalus 122: 45–70.
Ali, Abdiweli. 2003. “Institutional Differences as Sources of Growth Differences.” Atlantic Economic Journal 31 (4): 348–362.
Aliber, Robert. 1975. “Exchange Risk, Political Risk, and Investor Demands for External Currency Deposits.” Journal of Money, Credit and Banking May: 161–179.
Alston, Lee, Thrainn Eggertsson, and Douglass North. 1996. Empirical Studies in Institutional Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Altman, Israel. 1979. “Islamic Legislation in Egypt in the Early 1970's.” Asian and African Studies 13: 199–219.
American Chamber of Commerce in Egypt. 1994. “Impediments to the Private Sector Development in Egypt.” Presented at the conference, “Private Sector Development in Egypt: Investing in the Future,” Cairo.
Arab Republic of Egypt. 1960–1998. Statistical Yearbook of the Arab Republic of Egypt. Cairo: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics.
Arab Republic of Egypt. 1977. “Progress Report Regarding ‘Open-Door’ Policy Projects in Egypt as at the End of 1976.” National Bank of Egypt Economic Bulletin 152–161.
Arab Republic of Egypt. 1979. Statistical Statement for the 1979 Budget. Cairo: Ministry of Finance.
Arab Republic of Egypt. 1982. Status of the Open Door Economy Investment Guide. Cairo: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics.
Arab Republic of Egypt. 1998. Investing in Egypt, Part III: The Laws of Business.
Arab Republic of Egypt. 1998. Report on the Reform of Judicial Functions. Cairo: Ministry of Justice.
Arab Republic of Egypt. al-Jarida al-Rasmiyya.
Arab Republic of Egypt. al-Mahkama al-Dusturiyya al-‘Ulia, Vols. 1–10.
Arab Republic of Egypt. al-Waqa‘i al-Misriyya.
Arab Republic of Egypt. Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt. http://www.egypt.gov.eg/english/laws/constitution/index.asp
Arab Republic of Egypt. Madabat Majlis al-Sha‘ab.
Arab Republic of Egypt. Majmu‘at al-Mabadi’ al-Qanuniya illati Qarraratha al-Mahkama al-Idariya al-‘Ulya. Cairo: Majlis al-Dawla, Maktab al-Fanni.
Arnold, Thurman. 1935. The Symbols of Government. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Ayubi, Nazih. 1979. Administrative Corruption in Egypt: Phenomenon, Causes and Costs. Cairo: National Center for Social and Criminal Research (in Arabic).
Ayubi, Nazih. 1980. Bureaucracy and Politics in Contemporary Egypt. London: Ithaca Press.
Ayubi, Nazih. 1995. Overstating the Arab State: Politics and Society in the Middle East. New York: I. B. Tauris.
Baglini, Norman. 1976. Risk Management in International Corporations. New York: Risk Studies Foundation.
Baker, Raymond. 1978. Egypt's Uncertain Revolution under Nasir and Sadat. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Baker, Raymond. 1981. “Sadat's Open Door: Opposition from Within.” Social Problems 28: 378–384.
Baker, Raymond. 1990. “Fighting for Freedom and the Rule of Law: The Bar Association.” In Sadat and After: Struggles for Egypt's Political Soul. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Balz, Kilian. 1999. “The Secular Reconstruction of Islamic Law: The Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court and the ‘Battle over the Veil’ in State-Run Schools.” In Legal Pluralism in the Arab World, edited by Badouin Dupres, Maurits Berger, and Laila al-Zwaini, 229–243. The Hague: Kluwer.
Barro, Robert. 1997. Determinants of Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Barros, Robert. 2002. Constitutionalism and Dictatorship: Pinochet, the Junta, and the 1980 Constitution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barros, Robert. 2003. “Dictatorship and the Rule of Law: Rules and Military Power in Pinochet's Chile.” In Democracy and the Rule of Law, edited by Maravalla and Przeworski. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bates, Robert J. 1981. Markets and States in Tropical Africa: The Political Basis of Agricultural Policies. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bates, Robert. 1997. “Social Dilemmas and Rational Individuals: An Assessment of the New Institutionalism.” In John Harriss, Janet Hunter, and Colin Lewis, The New Institutional Economics and Third World Development. New York: Routledge.
Beattie, Kirk. 2000. Egypt during the Sadat Years. New York: Palgrave.
Belge, Ceren. 2006. “Friends of the Court: The Republican Alliance and Selective Activism of the Constitutional Court of Turkey.” Law and Society Review 40 (3): 653–692.
Bentley, John. 1994. Egyptian Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment, 4 vols. US Agency for International Development, Egypt.
Bernard-Maugiron, Nathalie and Baudouin Dupret. 2002. Egypt and Its Laws. London: Kluwer Law International.
Bernard-Maugiron, Nathalie. 2003. Le Politique a l'Epreuve Du Judiciare: La Justice Constitutionnelle En Egypte. Bruxelles: Bruylant.
Bianchi, Robert. 1989. Unruly Corporatism: Associational Life in Twentieth-Century Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bickel, Alexander M. 1962. The Least Dangerous Branch: The Supreme Court at the Bar of Politics. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Borner, Silvio, Aymo Brunetti, and Beatrice Weder. 1995. Political Credibility and Economic Development. London: St. Martin's Press.
Bourchier, David. 1999. “Magic Memos, Collusion and Judges with Attitude: Notes on the Politics of Law in Contemporary Indonesia.” In Law, Capitalism, and Power in Asia: The Rule of Law and Legal Institutions, edited by Kanishka Jayasuriya. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Boyle, Kevin and Adel Omar Sherif, eds. 1996. Human Rights and Democracy: The Role of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt. London: Kluwer Law International.
Brooker, Paul. 2000. Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government, and Politics. New York: Macmillan Press.
Brown, Nathan and Hesham Nasr. 2005. “Egypt's Judges Step Forward: The Judicial Election Boycott and Egyptian Reform.” Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Brown, Nathan. 1997. The Rule of Law in the Arab World: Courts in Egypt and the Gulf. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, Nathan. 2002. Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World: Arab Basic Laws and the Prospects for Accountable Government. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Brunetti, Aymo, Gregory Kisunko, and Beatrice Weder. 1997. “Credibility of Rules and Economic Growth: Evidence from a Worldwide Survey of the Private Sector.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper no. 1760. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Burbank, Stephen and Barry Friedman, eds. 2002. Judicial Independence at the Crossroads. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Business International Corporation. 1976. Egypt: Business Gateway to the Middle East? New York: Business International S.A.
Business International Corporation. 1980. Egypt: Opportunities for Suppliers and Investors. New York: Business International S.A.
Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies. 1998. Setting Civil Society Free: A Draft Law on Civil Associations and Institutions. Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies.
Cappelletti, Mauro. 1989. The Judicial Process in Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cardoso, Fernando and Enzo Faletto, 1979. Dependency and Development in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Carothers, Thomas, ed. 2006. Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Carr, David William. 1979. Foreign Investment and Development in Egypt. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Center for Human Rights Legal Aid. 1995. “al-Qada' al-‘Askiry fi Misr: Qada’ Bighayr Damanat … Qada' Bidoun Hasana Mathamoun Bila Haquq “[The Military Judiciary in Egypt: Courts without Safeguards, Judges without Immunity, and Defendants without Rights]. Cairo: CHRLA.
Center for Human Rights Legal Aid. 1996. “After the Defeat of Law 93/1995: The Current State of Freedom of the Press in Egypt.”
Center for Human Rights Legal Aid. 1996. “All The News That's Fit to Print: A Study of Law no. 93/1995, Legislation Restricting Freedom of the Press in Egypt, and a Draft Law for the Protection of the Freedom of the Press and Journalists.”
Center for Human Rights Legal Aid. 1996. “Egyptian Politics: The Fiction of a Multiparty System.” Unpublished report.
Center for Human Rights Legal Aid. 1996. “Saying What We Think: CHRLA's Report on Freedom of Opinion and Expression in Egypt.”
Center for Human Rights Legal Aid. 1997. “The Highest Authority?”
Center for the Independence of Judges and Lawyers. 1995. Clash in Egypt: The Government and the Bar. Unpublished report.
Chavez, Rebecca Bill. 2004. The Rule of Law in Nascent Democracies: Judicial Politics in Argentina. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Cichowski, Rachel A. 1998. “Integrating the Environment: The European Court and the Construction of Supranational Policy.” Journal of European Public Policy 5: 387–405.
Cichowski, Rachel A. 2004. “Women's Rights, the European Court and Supranational Constitutionalism.” Law & Society Review 38: 489–512.
Cichowski, Rachel A. and Alec Stone Sweet. 2003. “Participation, Representative Democracy and the Courts.” In New Forms of Democracy? Reform and Transformation of Democratic Institutions, edited by R. Dalton, B. Cain, and S. Scarrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clague, Christopher, Philip Keefer, Stephen Knack, and Mancur Olson. 1996. “Property and Contract Right in Autocracies and Democracies.” Journal of Economic Growth 1 (2): 243–276.
Clague, Christopher, Philip Keefer, Stephen Knack, and Mancur Olson. 1997. “Institutions and Economic Performance: Property Rights and Contract Enforcement,” in Institutions and Economic Development. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Conant, Lisa. 2002. Justice Contained: Law and Politics in the European Union. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Cotran, Eugene and Adel Omar Sherif. 1999. Democracy, the Rule of Law, and Islam. London: Kluwer Law International.
Courtner, Richard C. 1968. “Strategies and Tactics of Litigants in Constitutional Cases.” Journal of Public Law 17.
Cust, Richard. 1987. The Forced Loan and English Politics, 1626–1628. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Dahl, Robert. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Davis, Kevin and Michael Trebilcock. 1999. What Role Do Legal Institutions Play in Development? Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation.
De Soto, Hernando. 1990. The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World. New York: Harper & Row.
Dean, Bahaa Ali, al-. 2002. Privatisation and the Creation of a Market-Based Legal System: The Case of Egypt. Lieden: Brill.
Del Carmen, Rolando. 1973. “Constitutionalism and the Supreme Court in a Changing Philippine Polity.” Asian Survey 13: 1050–1061.
Dezalay, Yves and Bryant Garth. 1996. Dealing in Virtue: International Commercial Arbitration and the Construction of a Transnational Legal Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Diamant, Neil, Stanley Lubman, and Kevin O'Brien, eds. 2005. Engaging the Law in China: State, Society, and Possibilities for Justice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Domingo, Pilar. 2000. “Judicial Independence: The Politics of the Supreme Court of Mexico.” Journal of Latin American Studies 32.
Driscoll, Robert E., P. F. Hayek, and Farouk A. Zaki. 1978. Foreign Investment in Egypt: An Analysis of Critical Factors with Emphasis on the Foreign Investment Code. New York: Fund for Multinational Management Education.
Dupret, Baudouin. 2003. “A Liberal Interpretation of a Socialist Constitution: The Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court and Privatization of the Public Sector.” In Politics from Above, Politics from Below, edited by Eberhard Kienle. Cairo: Saqi Books.
Dyzenhaus, David, ed. 1999. Recrafting the Rule of Law: The Limits of Legal Order. Portland: Hart Publishing.
Eckstein, Susan Eva and Timothy Wickham-Crowley, eds. 2002. The Politics of Injustice in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Eggertsson, Thrainn. 1996. “A Note on the Economics of Institutions.” In Empirical Studies in Institutional Change, edited by Lee Alston, Thrainn Eggertsson, and Douglass North. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Egypt-U.S. Business Council. 1976. Report on Foreign Investment in Egypt. Washington DC: Egypt-U.S. Business Council.
Egyptian National Commission for Monitoring the 1995 Parliamentary Elections. 1995. Shihadit lil-Tarikh, Taqrir al-Lejnet al-Watiniyya al-Misriyya li-Lutabe'a al-Intikhabat al-Barlamaniyya 1995. [Testimony to History: Report of the Egyptian National Commission for Monitoring the 1995 Parliamentary Elections.] Cairo: Ibn Khaldoun Center for Development Studies.
Egyptian Organization for Human Rights. 1996. Democracy Jeopardized: Nobody Passed the Elections. Cairo: Egyptian Organization for Human Rights.
Egyptian Organization for Human Rights. 1996. Recurrent Detention: Prisoners Without Trial. Cairo: Egyptian Organization for Human Rights.
Epp, Charles. 1998. The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists, and Supreme Courts in Comparative Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Epstein, Lee, Olga Shvetsova, and Jack Knight. 2001. “The Role of Constitutional Courts in the Establishment and Maintenance of Democratic Systems of Government.” Law and Society Review 35: 117–163.
Evans, Peter, ed. 1997. State-Society Synergy: Government and Social Capital in Development. Berkeley, CA: International and Area Studies, University of California, Berkeley.
Fahmy, Khaled Mahmud. 1988. Legislating Infitah: Investment, Currency, and Foreign Trade Laws. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
Farhang, Michael. 1994. “Terrorism and Military Trials in Egypt: Presidential Decree No. 375 and the Consequences for Judicial Authority.” Harvard International Law Journal 35: 225–237.
Faruq, ‘Abd al-Khaleq. 2000. Azmet al-Nashar wa al-Ta'bir fi Misr: al-Qiyewd al-Thaqafiyya, wa al-Qanooniyya, wa al-Idariyya. [The Publication and Expression Crisis in Egypt: Cultural, Legal, and Administrative Constraints.]
Fawzi, Hisham Muhammad. 1999. Raqaba Dusturiyya al-Qawaniin: Darasa Maqarina bayn Amrika wa Misr. Cairo: Cairo Center for the Study of Human Rights.
Feld, Lars P. and Stefan Voigt. 2003. “Economic Growth and Judicial Independence: Cross-Country Evidence Using a New Set of Indicators.” European Journal of Political Economy 19: 497–527.
Finkel, Jodi. 2001. Judicial Reform in Latin America: Market Economies, Self-Interested Politicians, and Judicial Independence. Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2001.
Finkel, Jodi. 2003. “Supreme Court Decisions on Electoral Rules after Mexico's 1994 Judicial Reform: An Empowered Court.” Journal of Latin American Studies 35: 777–799.
Flint, David, Robert Pritchard, and Thomas Chiu. 1996. “Constitutional and Legislative Safeguards for FDI: A Comparative Review Utilizing Australia and China.” In Economic Development, Foreign Investment, and the Law: Issues of Private Sector Involvement, Foreign Investment and the Rule of Law in a New Era, edited by Robert Pritchard. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Fraenkel, Ernst. 1941. The Dual State. New York: Oxford University Press.
Frank, Andre Gunder. 1967. Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Freedom House. 2006. Freedom in the World, 2006, available at http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/pdf/Charts2006.pdf
French, Howard. 2005. “Riots in Shanghai Suburb as Pollution Protest Heats Up” New York Times, July 19, 2005.
Galanter, Marc. 1966. “The Modernization of Law.” In Modernization: The Dynamics of Growth, edited by M. Weiner. New York: Basic Books.
Galanter, Marc. 1974. “Why the ‘Haves’ Come Out Ahead: Speculations on the Limits of Social Change.” Law and Society Review 9: 95–160.
Galanter, Marc. 1983. “The Radiating Effect of Courts.” In Empirical Theories about Courts, edited by Keith Boyum and Lynn Matter. New York: Longman.
Gamal, Yehia al-. 2000. al-Qada' al-Dusturi fi Misr [Constitutional Adjudication in Egypt]. Cairo: Dar al-Nahda al-‘Arabiyya.
Geddes, Barbara. 1999. “What Do We Know about Democratization after Twenty Years?” Annual Review of Political Science 2: 115–144.
Gerschenkron, Alexander. 1962. Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Essays. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gibson, James, Gregory Caldeira, and Vanessa Baird. 1998. “On the Legitimacy of National High Courts.” American Political Science Review 92: 343–358.
Gilman, Howard. 1994. “On Constructing a Science of Comparative Judicial Politics: Tate and Haynie's ‘Authoritarianism and the Functions of Courts.’” Law and Society Review 28.
Ginsburg, Tom. 2003. Judicial Review in New Democracies: Constitutional Courts in Asian Cases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gloppen, Siri, Roberto Gargarella, and Elin Skaar. 2004. Democratization and the Judiciary: The Accountability Function of Courts in New Democracies. London: Frank Cass Publishers.
Goldberg, Ellis, Resat Kasaba, and Joel Migdal. 1993. Rules and Rights in the Middle East: Democracy, Law, and Society. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Goldberg, Ellis. 2004. Trade, Reputation, and Child Labor in Twentieth-Century Egypt. New York: Palgrave.
Graber, Mark. 1993. “The Nonmajoritarian Difficulty: Legislative Deference to the Judiciary.” Studies in American Political Development 7: 35–73.
Guarnieri, Carlo and Patrizia Pederzoli. 2002. The Power of Judges: A Comparative Study of Courts and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Guarnieri, Carlo and Pedro Magalhaes. 1996. “Democratic Consolidation, Judicial Reform, and the Judicialization of Politics in Southern Europe.” In The Changing Role of the State in Southern Europe, edited by R. Gunther, P. N. Diamandouros and G. Pasquino. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Haggard, Stephan and Robert Kaufman. 1995. The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hall, Peter and Rosemary Taylor. 1996. “Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms.” Political Studies 44: 936–957.
Halliday, Terence and Lucien Karpik. 1997. Lawyers and the Rise of Western Political Liberalism: Europe and North America from the Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Halliday, Terence and Sida Liu. Forthcoming. “Birth of a Liberal Moment? Looking through a One-Way Mirror at Lawyers' Defense of Criminal Defendants in China.” In Struggles for Political Liberalism, edited by Terence Halliday, Malcolm Feeley, and Lucien Karpik. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Hammergren, Linn. 1998. The Politics of Justice and Justice Reform in Latin America: The Peruvian Case in Comparative Perspective. Boulder: Westview Press.
Harriss, John, Janet Hunter, and Colin Lewis, eds. 1997. The New Institutional Economics and Third World Development. London: Routledge.
Hattam, Victoria. 1997. Labor Visions and State Power: The Origins of Business Unionism in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Helmke, Gretchen. 2002. “The Logic of Strategic Defection: Court-Executive Relations in Argentina under Dictatorship and Democracy.” American Political Science Review 96: 291–303.
Helmke, Gretchen. 2005. Courts under Constraints: Judges, Generals, and Presidents in Argentina. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hendley, Kathryn. 1996. Trying to Make Law Matter: Legal Reform and Labor Law in the Soviet Union. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Herb, Michael. 1999. All in the Family: Absolutism, Revolution, and Democracy in the Middle Eastern Monarchies. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Hershbarger, Robert and John Noerager. 1976. “International Risk Management.” Risk Management April: 23–34.
Hilbink, Elisabeth. 2002. “An Exception to Chilean Exceptionalism? The Historical Role of Chile's Judiciary and Prospects for Change.” In The Politics of Injustice in Latin America, edited by Susan Eva Eckstein and Timothy Wickham-Crowley. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hilbink, Lisa. 2007. Judges Beyond Politics in Democracy and Dictatorship: Lessons from Chile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hill, Enid. 1979. Mahkama! Studies in the Egyptian Legal System. London: Ithaca Press.
Hill, Enid. 2000. “The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt on Property.” In Le Prince et son Juge: Droit et Politique en Egypte, edited by Nathalie Bernard-Maugiron and Baudouin Dupret. Cairo: CEDEJ.
Hinnebusch, Raymond A. 1985. Egyptian Politics under Sadat: The Post-Populist Development of an Authoritarian-Modernizing State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hirschl, Ran. 2000. “The Political Origins of Judicial Empowerment through Constitutionalization: Lessons from Four Constitutional Revolutions.” Law and Social Inquiry 25: 91–149.
Hirschl, Ran. 2004. Towards Juristocracy: The Origins and Consequences of the New Constitutionalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hoffman, Philip. 1994. “Early Modern France, 1450–1700.” In Fiscal Crises, Liberty, and Representative Government, 1450–1789, edited by Philip Hoffman and Kathryn Norberg. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Holmes, Stephen. 2003. “Lineages of the Rule of Law.” In Democracy and the Rule of Law, edited by Jose Maria Maravall and Adam Przeworski. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Horowitz, Morton. 1977. The Transformation of American Law, 1780–1860. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hoyle, Mark. 1991. Mixed Courts of Egypt. London: Graham & Trotman.
Huntington, Samuel. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Imam, ‘Abd Allah. 1976. Mathbahat al-Qada’. Cairo: Maktabat Madbuli.
International Monetary Fund. 1993. Private Sector Development in Egypt.
Issawi, Charles. 1963. Egypt in Revolution: An Economic Analysis. London: Oxford University Press.
Jarquin, Edmundo and Fernando Carrillo, eds. 1998. Justice Delayed. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.
Jayasuriya, Kanishka. 1998. Law, Capitalism, and Power in Asia: The Rule of Law and Legal Institutions. New York: Routledge.
Kamil, Amin Hasan. 1953. Mahkamat al-Thawra.
Kassem, Maye. 1999. In the Guise of Democracy: Governance in Contemporary Egypt. Reading: Ithaca Press.
Keck, Margaret and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithica: Cornell University Press.
Kelly, Margaret. 1974. “Evaluating the Risks of Expropriation.” Risk Management January 1: 23–43.
Kienle, Eberhard. 2000. A Grand Delusion: Democracy and Economic Reform in Egypt. London: I. B. Tauris.
Kilani, Farouq al-. 1999. Istaqlal al-Qada'. Cairo: al-Markez al-‘Arabi lil Matbua‘at.
Kirchheimer, O. 1961. Political Justice: The Use of Legal Procedure for Political Ends. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Klug, Heinz. 2000. Constituting Democracy: Law, Globalism and South Africa's Political Reconstruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Knack, Stephen and P. Keefer. 1995. “Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross Country Tests using Alternative Institutional Measures.” Economics and Politics 7: 207–227.
Knack, Stephen and P. Keefer. 1997. “Why Don't Poor Countries Catch Up? A Cross National Test of an Institutional Explanation.” Economic Inquiry 35: 590–602.
Knight, Frank. 1971. Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Knight, Jack and Lee Epstein. 1996. “On the Struggle for Judicial Supremacy.” Law and Society Review 30: 87–120.
Kobrin, Stephen J. 1982. Managing Political Risk Assessment: Strategic Response to Environmental Change. Berkeley: University of California Press.
La Porta, Rafael, et al. 1997. “Legal Determinants of External Finance.” Journal of Finance 52: 1131–1150.
Land Center for Human Rights. 1999. “Land and the Farmer,” unpublished report.
Landes, William and Richard Posner. 1975. “The Independent Judiciary in an Interest-Group Perspective.” Journal of Law and Economics 18: 875–901.
Larkins, Christopher. 1998. “The Judiciary and Delegative Democracy in Argentina.” Comparative Politics 30: 423–442.
Levi, Margaret. 1988. Of Rule and Revenue. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Levine, Ross. 1997. Law, Finance, and Economic Growth. Washington, DC: World Bank Publication.
Li, Quan. 2006. “Democracy, Autocracy, and Tax Incentives to Foreign Direct Investors: A Cross-National Analysis.” Journal of Politics 68 (1): 62–74.
Lichbach, Mark and Alan Zuckerman, eds. 1997. Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Liebesny, Herbert J. 1975. The Law of the Near and Middle East: Readings, Cases, and Materials. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1959. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” American Political Science Review 53: 69–105.
Lombardi, Clark. 1998. “Islamic Law as a Source of Constitutional Law in Egypt: The Constitutionalization of the Sharia in a Modern Arab State.” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37: 81–123.
Lombardi, Clark. 2001. State Law as Islamic Law in Modern Egypt: The Amendment of Article 2 of the Egyptian Constitution and the Article 2 Jurisprudence of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt. Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, New York.
Lovell, George. 2003. Legislative Deferrals: Statutory Ambiguity, Judicial Power, and American Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Loveman, Brian. 1993. The Constitution of Tyranny: Regimes of Exception in Spanish America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Lubman, Stanley. 1999. Bird in a Cage: Legal Reform in China after Mao. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Lust-Okar, Ellen. 2005. Structuring Conflict in the Arab World: Incumbents, Opponents, and Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mabro, Robert and Samir Radwan. 1976. The Industrialization of Egypt. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2003. “Authoritarianism, Democracy, and the Supreme Court: Horizontal Exchange and the Rule of Law in Mexico.” In Democratic Accountability in Latin America, edited by Scott Mainwaring and Christopher Welna. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mahmud, Tayyab. 1993. “Praetorianism and Common Law in Post-Colonial Settings: Judicial Responses to Constitutional Breakdowns in Pakistan.” Utah Law Review 1993: 1225–1305.
Mahmud, Tayyab. 1994. “Jurisprudence of Successful Treason: Coup d'Etat & Common Law.” Cornell International Law Journal 27.
Mallat, Chibli. 1993. Constitutional Law in the Middle East: The Emergence of Judicial Power. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Working Papers.
Mallat, Chibli. 1993. Islam and Public Law. London: Graham & Trotman.
Manion, Melanie. 2004. Corruption by Design: Building Clean Government in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Maravall, Jose Maria and Adam Przeworski, eds. 2003. Democracy and the Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Massadeh, Abdel-Mahdi. 1991. “Disciplinary Actions under the Egyptian Civil Service Legal System.” New York Law School Journal of International and Comparative Law 363–397.
Mattei, Ugo. 1997. “Three Patterns of Law: Taxonomy and Change in the World's Legal Systems.” American Journal of Comparative Law 45: 5–43.
Mayfield, James B. 1996. Local Government In Egypt: Structure, Process, and the Challenges of Reform. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
McCall, Betsy. 1988. “The Effects of Rent Control in Egypt.” Arab Law Quarterly 3.2: 151–166; 3.3 274–286; 3.4: 345–365.
McCann, Michael. 1994. Rights at Work: Pay Equity Reform and the Politics of Legal Mobilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McCann, Michael. 1996. “Causal Versus Constitutive Explanations.” Law and Social Inquiry 21 (2): 457–482.
McCubbins, Matthew and Thomas Schwartz. 1984. “Congressional Oversight Overlooked: Police Patrols versus Fire Alarms.” American Journal of Political Science 28: 165–179.
McCubbins, Matthew et al. 1989. “Structure and Process, Politics and Policy: Administrative Arrangements and the Political Control of Agencies.” Virginia Law Review 75: 431–482.
McKay, Arnold. 1978. “U.S. Investors Fail to Rush into Egypt”; “Program to Stir U.S. Investment in Egypt Generally in Limbo,” Journal of Commerce, March 27, 28, 1978.
Merryman, John Henry. 1985. The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Western Europe and Latin America. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Migdal, Joel, Atul Kohli, and Vivienne Shue, eds. 1994. State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.
Migdal, Joel. 1988. Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Migdal, Joel. 1997. “Studying the State.” In Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure, edited by Mark Lichbach and Alan Zuckerman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Moustafa, Tamir. 2000. “Conflict and Cooperation between the State and Religious Institutions in Contemporary Egypt.” The International Journal of Middle East Studies 32: 3–22.
Moustafa, Tamir. 2002. “The Dilemmas of Decentralization and Community Development in Authoritarian Contexts.” Journal of Public and International Affairs 13: 123–144.
Moustafa, Tamir. 2003. “Law versus the State: The Judicialization of Politics in Egypt.” Law and Social Inquiry 28: 883–930.
Moustafa, Tamir. 2004. “Protests Hint at New Chapter in Egyptian Politics.” Middle East Report Online, April 9, 2004.
Muller, Ingo. 1991. Hitler's Justice: The Courts of the Third Reich. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Murphy, Walter. 1962. Congress and the Court: A Case Study in the American Political Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Murr, ‘Awad al-. 1991. “Human Rights in the Constitutional Systems of Islamic Countries,” In al-Qanun wa al-Iqtisad. Cairo: Cairo University.
Murr, ‘Awad al-. 1993. “The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt and the Protection of Human and Political Rights.” In Islam and Public Law, edited by Chibli Mallat. London: Graham & Trotman.
Murr, ‘Awad al-. 2000. “The Constitution as a Means for Changing Egyptian Society.” Lecture at the American University in Cairo, September 18, 2000.
Nassef, ‘Abd Allah. 1998. Higiyya wa Athar Ahkam al-Mahkama al-Dusturiyya al-‘Ulia Qabl al-t‘adil wa ba'd al-t‘adil. [The Cause and Effect of Supreme Constitutional Court Rulings Before and After the Amendment.] Cairo: Dar al-Nahda al-‘Arabiyya.
Nasser, Mumtaz. 1974. Ma‘araka al-‘Adala fi Misr. Cairo: Dar al-Sharouk.
Nathan Associates, Robert R. 1979. “A Study of the Feasibility of a Private Investment Encouragement Fund for the Egyptian Private Sector.” Submitted to U.S. Agency for International Development.
Nazer, Gamal al-. 1979. “The Legal Framework for Foreign Investment in Egypt.” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 11.
Nehrt, Charles. 1970. The Political Environment for Foreign Investment. New York: Praeger.
Newberg, Paula R. 1995. Judging the State: Courts and Constitutional Politics in Pakistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass C. 1981. Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: W. W. Norton.
North, Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass, and Barry Weingast. 1989. “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England.” The Journal of Economic History 49: 803–832.
North, Douglass. 1996. “Epilogue: Economic Performance through Time.” In Empirical Studies in Institutional Change, edited by Lee Alston, Thrainn Eggertsson, and Douglass North. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass. 2005. Understanding the Process of Economic Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Nosier, ‘Abd al-Rahman. 1992. “The Supreme Constitutional Court and the Protection of Human Rights.” Unpublished manuscript.
O' Kane, J. P. 1972. “Islam in the New Egyptian Constitution.” The Middle East Journal 26: 137–148.
O'Brien, Kevin and Lianjiang Li. 2005. “Suing the Local State: Administrative Litigation in Rural China.” In Engaging the Law in China: State, Society, and Possibilities for Justice, edited by Neil Diamant et al. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
O'Brien, Patrick. 1966. The Revolution in Egypt's Economic System: From Private Enterprise to Socialism, 1952–1966. London: Oxford University Press.
O'Donnell, Guillermo and Philippe C. Schmitter. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ofosu-Amaah, Paatii. 2000. Reforming Business-Related Laws to Promote Private Sector Development: The World Bank Experience in Africa. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Oliva, Maria-Angels, and Luis A. Rivera-Batiz. 2002. “Political Institutions, Capital Flows, and Developing Country Growth: An Empirical Investigation.” Review of Development Economics 6 (2): 248–62.
Olson, Mancur. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.” American Political Science Review 87: 567–576.
Osiel, Mark. 1995. “Dialogue with Dictators: Judicial Resistance in Argentina and Brazil.” Law and Social Inquiry 20.
Palacio, Ana. 2006. “The Way Forward: Human Rights and the World Bank.”
Peerenboom, Randall. 2002. China's Long March toward Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pereira, Anthony. 1998. “‘Persecution and Farce’: The Origins and Transformation of Brazil's Trials, 1964–1979.” Latin American Research Review 33: 43–66.
Pereira, Anthony. 2005. Political (In)Justice: Authoritarianism and the Rule of Law in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Peters, Rudolph. 1988. “Divine Law or Man-Made Law? Egyptian Politics and the Application of the Shari‘a.” Arab Law Quarterly 3: 242.
Pistor, Katharina, and Philip Wellons. 1999. The Role of Law and Legal Institutions in Asian Economic Development 1960–1995. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pradhan, Sanjay. 1997. “Improving the State's Institutional Capability.” Finance and Development 34.
Prillaman, William. 2000. The Judiciary and Democratic Decay in Latin America: Declining Confidence in the Rule of Law. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Pritchard, Robert. 1996. Economic Development, Foreign Investment, and the Law: Issues of Private Sector Involvement, Foreign Investment and the Rule of Law in a New Era. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Puymbroeck, Rudolf, ed. 2001. Comprehensive Legal and Judicial Development: Towards an Agenda for a Just and Equitable Society in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Qatari, Mahmoud. 2005. Tazwir Dawla: Shahadat al-Istibdad wa Tazwir al-Intikhabat [Forging a State: Testimonies of Tyranny and the Rigging of Elections]. Cairo: Markaz al-Mustaqbal al-Misri.
Qian, Yingyi and Barry Weingast. 1997. “Federalism as a Commitment to Preserving Market Incentives.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 11: 83–93.
Ramseyer, Mark. 1994. “The Puzzling (In)Dependence of Courts: A Comparative Approach.” Journal of Legal Studies 23: 721–747.
Reid, Donald. 1981. Lawyers and Politics in the Arab World, 1880–1960. Chicago: Bibliotheca Islamica.
Rifa‘i, Yehia al. 2000. Istaqlal al-Qada’ wa Mehna al-Intikhabat [The Independence of the Judiciary and the Ordeal of Elections]. Cairo: al-Maktab al-Misri al-Hadith.
Robock, Stefan. 1971. “Political Risk: Identification and Assessment.” Columbia Journal of World Business July–August: 6–20.
Rodan, Garry. 2004. Transparency and Authoritarian Rule in Southeast Asia. London: RoutledgeCurson.
Root, Hilton. 1989. “Tying the King's Hands: Credible Commitments and Royal Fiscal Policy during the Old Regime.” Rationality and Society October: 240–258.
Rosberg, James. 1995. Roads to the Rule of Law: The Emergence of an Independent Judiciary in Contemporary Egypt. Ph.D. diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Rosenberg, Gerald N. 1991. The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Rosenfeld, Michel. 2001. “The Rule of Law and the Legitimacy of Constitutional Democracy.” Southern California Law Review 74: 1307–1350.
Rowat, Malcolm, Waleed Malik, and Maria Dakolias, eds. 1985. Judicial Reform in Latin America and the Caribbean, Proceedings of a World Bank Conference. Technical paper 280. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Roy, Delwin. 1978. “Private Industry Sector Development in Egypt: An Analysis of Trends, 1973–1977.” Report to the Special Interagency Task Force Reviewing the U.S. Security Supporting Assistance Program for Egypt. Washington, DC: AID.
Russell, Peter and David O'Brien. 2001. Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Rustow, Dankwart. 1970. “Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model.” Comparative Politics 2: 337–363.
Rutherford, Bruce. 1996. “The Changing Political and Legal Role of the Egyptian Supreme Constitutional Court.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Middle East Studies Association.
Rutherford, Bruce. 1999. The Struggle for Constitutionalism in Egypt: Understanding the Obstacles to Democratic Transition in the Arab World. Ph.D. diss., Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Sadat, Anwar. 1978. In Search of Identity: An Autobiography. New York: Harper & Row.
Salacuse, Jeswald. 1975. “Egypt's New Law on Foreign Investment: The Framework for Economic Openness.” International Lawyer 9.
Santos, Alvaro. 2006. “The World Bank's Uses of the ‘Rule of Law’ Promise in Economic Development” In David Trubek and Alvaro Santos, The New Law and Economic Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Saqqaf, Mustafa al-. 1954. Al-raqaba ‘ala al-naqd al-ajnabi fi misr. Cairo: Egyptian Rennaissance Press, 1954.
Sayed, Salah, el-. 1977. Egypt: Strategies for Investment. Cairo: Academy of International Business.
Schatz, Sara. 1998. “A Neo-Weberian Approach to Constitutional Courts in the Transition from Authoritarian Rule: The Mexican Case (1994–1997).” International Journal of the Sociology of Law 26 (2): 217–244.
Scheingold, Stuart. 1974. The Politics of Rights: Lawyers, Public Policy, and Political Change. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Schmitter, Phillipe. 1974. “Still the Century of Corporatism?” The Review of Politics 36 (January): 85–131.
Schwartz, Herman. 2000. The Struggle for Constitutional Justice in Post-Communist Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Shapiro, Martin and Alec Stone. 1994. “The New Constitutional Politics of Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 26.
Shapiro, Martin. 1980. “Appeal.” Law and Society Review 14: 629–661.
Shapiro, Martin. 1981. Courts: A Comparative and Political Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Shapiro, Martin. 1995. “The United States.” In The Global Expansion of Judicial Power, edited by C. Neal Tate and Torbjorn Vallinder. New York: New York University Press.
Sheng, Yi. 2004. “A Promise Unfulfilled: The Impact of China's 1996 Criminal Procedure Reform on China's Criminal Defense Lawyers' Role at the Pretrial Stage,” Perspectives 5.
Sherif, Adel Omar. 1988. al-Qada' al-Dusturi fi Misr [Constitutional Adjudication in Egypt]. Cairo: Dar al-Sha‘ab.
Sherif, Adel Omar. 1997. “Separation of Powers and Judicial Independence in a Constitutional Democracy: The Egyptian and American Experiences.” Paper presented at the Democracy and the Rule of Law Conference sponsored by the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, December 7–9, 1997.
Sherif, Adel Omar. 2001. “Attacks on the Judiciary: Judicial Independence – Reality or Fallacy?” In Yearbook of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law, vol. 6, 1999–2000, edited by Eugene Cotran. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Sherif, Adel Omar. 2006. “The Primacy of the Law and the Constitution – The Egyptian Experience.” In Yearbook of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law, vol. 10, 2003–2004, edited by Eugene Cotran and Martin Lau. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Shihata, Ibrahim. 1993. Legal Treatment of Foreign Investment: The World Bank Guidelines. London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Shihata, Ibrahim. 1999. Wasiti li-Baladi. Cairo: Dar al-Sharouk.
Skidmore, Thomas E. 1988. The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964–85. New York: Oxford University Press.
Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2004. A New World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Smarzynska, Beata. 1999. “Composition of Foreign Direct Investment and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Transition Economies.” Transition Economics, Discussion paper 2228, Centre for Economic Policy Research.
Smith, Adam. 1976. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, edited by Edwin Cannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Solomon, Peter. 1996. Soviet Criminal Justice under Stalin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sornarajah, M. 2000. The Settlement of Foreign Investment Disputes. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Stone, Alec and Thomas Brunell. 1998. “Constructing a Supranational Constitution: Dispute Resolution and Governance in the European Community.” American Political Science Review 92: 63–81.
Stone, Alec, 1992. The Birth of Judicial Politics in France. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stone, Alec. 1999. “Judicialization and the Construction of Governance.” Comparative Political Studies 32: 147–184.
Stone, Alec. 2000. Governing with Judges: Constitutional Politics in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stotzky, Irwin. 1993. Transition to Democracy in Latin America: The Role of the Judiciary. Boulder: Westview Press.
Tate, C. Neal and Stacia Haynie. 1993. “Authoritarianism and the Functions of Courts: A Time Series Analysis of the Philippine Supreme Court, 1961–1987.” Law and Society Review 27.
Tate, C. Neal and Torbjorn Vallinder, eds. 1995. The Global Expansion of Judicial Power. New York: New York University Press.
Tate, C. Neal. 1993. “Courts and Crisis Regimes: A Theory Sketch with Asian Case Studies.” Political Research Quarterly 46.
Tate, C. Neal. 1995. “Why the Expansion of Judicial Power.” In The Global Expansion of Judicial Power, edited by C. Neal Tate and Torbjorn Vallinder. New York: New York University Press.
Terterov, Marat, ed. 2001. Doing Business with Egypt. London: Kogan Page.
Thelen, Kathleen. 1999. “Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 369–404.
Thomson, E. P. 1975. Whigs and Hunters: The Origins of the Black Act. New York: Pantheon Books.
Tigar, Michael E. and Madeleine Levi. 1977. Law and the Rise of Capitalism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Toharia, Jose. 1975. “Judicial Independence in an Authoritarian Regime: The Case of Contemporary Spain.” Law and Society Review 9: 475–496.
Trubek, David and Alvaro Santos. 2006. The New Law and Economic Development: A Critical Appraisal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Trubek, David and Marc Galanter. 1974. “Scholars in Self-Estrangement: Some Reflections on the Crisis in Law and Development Studies.” Wisconsin Law Review, 1062–1101.
Trubek, David. 1972. “Max Weber on Law and the Rise of Capitalism.” Wisconsin Law Review 720–753.
Trubek, David. 2006. “The Rule of Law in Development Assistance.” In The New Law and Economic Development, edited by David Trubek and Alvaro Santos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Truitt, Frederick J. 1974. Expropriation of Private Foreign Investment. Bloomington: Graduate School of Business, Indiana University.
Tschofen, Franziska and Antonio Parra, eds. 1995. The World Bank in a Changing World, Selected Essays. London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
United States Agency for International Development, Egypt. 1994. “Governance and Democracy Briefing Book.” Unpublished manuscript.
United States Department of Commerce. 1981. “Investing in Egypt.” Overseas Business Reports, OBR 81–08.
Vallinder, Torbjorn. 1994. “The Judicialization of Politics – A World-Wide Phenomenon.” International Political Science Review 15.
Van Agtmael, Antoine. 1976. “How Business Has Dealt with Political Risk.” Financial Executive January: 26–30.
Verner, Joel G. 1984. “The Independence of Supreme Courts in Latin America: A Review of the Literature.” Journal of Latin American Studies 16: 463–506.
Volcansek, Mary. 1994. “Political Power and Judicial Review in Italy.” Comparative Political Studies 26.
Volcansek, Mary. 2000. Constitutional Politics in Italy: The Constitutional Court. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Wagner, Helmut. 1999. “Central Bank Independence and the Lessons for Transition Economies from Developed and Developing Countries.” Comparative Economic Studies 41.
Wahba, Mourad Magdi. 1994. The Role of the State in the Egyptian Economy 1945–1981. London: Ithaca Press.
Waterbury, John. 1983. The Egypt of Nasser and Sadat: The Political Economy of Two Regimes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Waterbury, John. 1993. Exposed to Innumerable Delusions: Public Enterprise and State Power in Egypt, India, Mexico, and Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weber, Max. 1954. Law in Economy and Society, edited by Max Rheinstein. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Weingast, Barry. 1993. “Constitutions as Governance Structures: The Political Foundations of Secure Markets.” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 149: 286–311.
Weingast, Barry. 1997. “The Political Foundations of Democracy and the Rule of Law.” American Political Science Review 91: 245–263.
Weiss, Dieter and Ulrich Wurzel. 1998. The Economics and Politics of Transition to an Open Market Economy: Egypt. Organization for Economic Development.
Westin, Alan. 1953. “The Supreme Court, the Populist Movement, and the Campaign of 1896.” Journal of Politics 15 (1): 3–41.
Whittington, Keith. 2005. “‘Interpose Your Friendly Hand’: Political Support for the Exercise of Judicial Review by the United States Supreme Court.” American Political Science Review 99(4): 583–596.
Widner, Jennifer. 2001. Building the Rule of Law. New York: W. W. Norton.
Woods, Patricia. 2001. Courting the Court: Social Visions, State Authority, and the Religious Law Conflict in Israel. Ph.D. diss., University of Washington.
World Bank. 2002. Legal and Judicial Reform: Observations, Experiences, and Approach of the Legal Vice-Presidency.
World Bank. 2003. Annual Report.
World Bank. 2003. Legal and Judicial Reform: Strategic Directions.
Zaki, Moheb. 1994. Civil Society and Democratization in Egypt: 1981–1994. Cairo: Ibn Khaldoun Center for Development Studies.
Zaki, Moheb. 1999. Egyptian Business Elites: Their Visions and Investment Behavior. Cairo: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Arab Center for Development & Future Research.
Zaverucha, Jorge. 1999. “Military Justice in the State of Pernambuco after the Brazilian Military Regime: An Authoritarian Legacy.” Latin American Research Review 34: 43–73.
Zemans, Frances. 1983. “Legal Mobilization: The Neglected Role of the Law in the Political System.” American Political Science Review 77: 690–703.
Zhao, Suisheng. 1996. Power by Design: Constitution-Making in Nationalist China. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Ziadeh, Farhat J. 1968. Lawyers, the Rule of Law and Liberalism in Modern Egypt. Stanford: Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford University.
Zink, Dolph Warren. 1973. The Political Risks for Multinational Enterprise in Developing Countries. New York: Praeger.