This book gives an in-depth philosophical analysis of moral problems to which information technology gives rise, for example, problems related to privacy, intellectual property, responsibility, friendship, and trust, with contributions from many of the best-known philosophers writing in the area.
"This collection of 18 essay is rich in ideas on the implications of information technology and morality. Variety is the collection's strong point, though there are certainly some common themes, including the nature of identity and agency...This work will appeal to scholars in several disciples, including communication, political science, computer science, and philosophy. Summing up: Recommended." -S.E. Forschler, Choice
Bynum, T. W. 1993. Computer ethics in the computer science curriculum, in T. W. Bynum, W. Maner, and J. L. Fodor (Eds.), Teaching computer ethics. New Haven, CT: Research Center on Computing and Society (also at http://www.computerethics.org).
Bynum, T. W. 2007. The Copernican revolution in ethics, in G. Dodig Crnkovic and S. Stuart (Eds), Computation, information, cognition: the nexus and the liminal. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007.
Floridi, L., and Sanders, J. W. 2004. The foundationalist debate in computer ethics, in R. A. Spinello and H. T. Tavani (Eds.), Readings in cyberethics (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, pp. 81–95.
Gorniak-Kocikowska, K. 1996. The computer revolution and the problem of global ethics, in T. W. Bynum and S. Rogerson (Eds.), Global information ethics, a special issue of Science and Engineering Ethics, 2, 2, 177–190.
Moor, J. H. and Weckert, J. 2004. Nanoethics: Assessing the Nanoscale from an Ethical Point of View, in D. Baird, A. Nordmann, and J. Schummer (Eds.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp. 301–310.
Floridi, L. 1999a. Information ethics: On the theoretical foundations of computer ethics, Ethics and Information Technology, 1, 1, 37–56. Reprinted in 2004, with some modifications, in Ethicomp Journal, 1, 1.
Floridi, L. 2002. Information ethics: An environmental approach to the digital divide, Philosophy in the Contemporary World, 9, 1, 39–45. Text of the keynote speech delivered at the UNESCO World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST), First Meeting of the Sub-Commission on the Ethics of the Information Society (UNESCO, Paris, June 18–19, 2001).
Floridi, L. 2005a. An interpretation of informational privacy and of its moral value, in Proceedings of CEPE 2005–6th Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiries conference, Ethics of New Information Technologies. The Netherlands: University of Twente, Enschede.
Floridi, L., and Sanders, J. W. 2004a. The method of abstraction, in M. Negrotti (Ed.), Yearbook of the Artificial. Nature, Culture, and Technology. Models in Contemporary Sciences. Bern: Peter Lang, pp. 177–220.
Floridi, L., and Sanders, J. W. 2004c. Levellism and the method of abstraction. The final draft of this paper is available as IEG – Research Report 22.11.04. Retrieved 28 May 2006 from http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/latmoa.pdf.
Herold, K. 2005. A Buddhist model for the informational person, in Proceedings of the Second Asia Pacific Computing and Philosophy Conference, January 7–9, Bangkok, Thailand. Retrieved 28 May 2006 from http://library1.hamilton.edu/eresrs/AP-CAP2005-Herold.pdf.
Sicart, M. 2005. On the foundations of evil in computer game cheating, in Proceedings of the Digital Games Research Association's 2nd International Conference – Changing Views: Worlds in Play, June 16–20, Vancouver, British Columbia.
van den Hoven, J. 1995. Equal access and social justice: Information as a primary good, in ETHICOMP95: An international conference on the ethical issues of using information technology. Leicester, UK: De Montfort University.
Bohman, J. 2004. Expanding dialogue: The public sphere, the Internet, and transnational democracy, in J. Roberts and N. Crossley (Eds.), After Habermas: Perspectives on the public sphere. London: Blackwell, pp. 131–155.
Cohen, J., and Sabel, C. 2003. Sovereignty and solidarity: EU and US, in J. Zeitlin and D. Trubek (Eds.), Governing work and welfare in the new economy: European and American experiments. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, J., and Smythe, E. 2001. Globalization, citizenship and technology: The Multilateral Agreement on Investment meets the Internet, in F. Webster (Ed.), Culture and politics in the age of information. London: Routledge.
Tidwell, L. C., and Walther, J. B. 2002. Computer-mediated communication effects on disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317–348.
Miller, D. T., and Prentice, D. A. 1996. The construction of social norms and standards, in E. T. Higgins and A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 799–829.
Aguilar, J. R. 2000. Over the rainbow: European and American consumer protection policy and remedy conflicts on the Internet and a possible solution. International Journal of Communications of Law and Policy, 4, 1–57.
Anderson, I.-E., and Jæger, B. 1997. Involving citizens in assessment and the public debate on information technology, in A. Feenberg, T. H. Nielsen, and L. Winner (Eds.), Technology and Democracy: Technology in the Public Sphere – Proceedings from Workshop 1, Center for Technology and Culture, Oslo, pp. 149–172.
Barney, D. 2004. The vanishing table, or community in a world that is no world, in A. Feenberg and D. Barney (Eds.), Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bizer, J. 2003. Grundrechte im Netz: Von der freien Meinungsäußerung bis zum Recht auf Eigentum [Basic rights on the net: from the free expression of opinion to property right], in C. Schulzki-Haddouti (Ed.), Bürgerrechte im Netz [Civil rights online], Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, pp. 21–29. Available at http://www.bpb.de/publikationen/UZX6DW,0,B%fcrgerrechte_im_Netz.html.
Burkhardt, J., Thompson, P. B., and Peterson, T. R. 2002. The first European Congress on Agricultural and Food Ethics and follow-up Workshop on Ethics and Food Biotechnology: A US perspective, Agriculture and Human Values, 17, 4, 327–332.
Chan, J. 2003. Confucian attitudes towards ethical pluralism, in R. Madsen and T. B. Strong (Eds.), The many and the one: Religious and secular perspectives on ethical pluralism in the modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 129–153.
Elberfeld, R. 2002. Resonanz als Grundmotiv ostasiatischer Ethik [Resonance as a fundamental motif of East Asian ethics], in R. Elberfeld and G. Wohlfart (Eds.), Komparative Ethik: Das gute Leben zwischen den Kulturen. München: Chora, pp. 131–141.
Ess, C. 1996. The political computer: democracy, CMC and Habermas, in C. Ess (Ed.), Philosophical perspectives on computer-mediated communication. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 197–230.
Ess, C. 2002a. Cultures in collision: Philosophical lessons from computer-mediated communication, in J. H. Moor and T. W. Bynum (Eds.), CyberPhilosophy: The intersection of philosophy and computing. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 219–242.
Ess, C. 2002b. Liberation in cyberspace … or computer-mediated colonization? / Liberation en cyberspace, ou colonisation assistee par ordinateur? Electronic Journal of Communication/La Revue Electronique de Communication, 12, 3 & 4. Available at: http://www.cios.org/www/ejc/v12n34.htm.
Ess, C. 2003. The cathedral or the bazaar? The AoIR document on Internet research ethics as an exercise in open source ethics, in M. Consolvo (Ed.), Internet Research Annual Volume 1: Selected papers from the Association of Internet Researchers Conferences 2000–2002. New York: Peter Lang.
Ess, C. 2004a. Beyond Contemptus Mundi and Cartesian dualism: Western resurrection of the bodysubject and (re)new(ed) coherencies with Eastern approaches to life/death, in G. Wohlfart and H. Georg-Moeller (Eds), Philosophie des Todes: death philosophy east and west, Munich: Chora, pp. 15–36.
Ess, C., and Sudweeks, F. 2003. Introduction and special issue on liberatory potentials and practices of CMC in the Middle East. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 8, 2. Available at: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol8/issue2/essandsudweeks.html.
Ess, C., and Sudweeks, F. 2005. Culture and computer-mediated communication: Toward new understandings. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11, 1. Available at: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol11/issue1/ess.html.
European Parliament 1995. Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and on the Free Movement of Such Data. Retrieved 16 May 2006 from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31995L0046&model=guichett.
Fixdal, J. 1997. Consensus conferences as extended peer groups, in A. Feenberg, T. H. Nielsen, and L. Winner (Eds), Technology and Democracy: Technology in the Public Sphere – Proceedings from Workshop 1. Oslo: Center for Technology and Culture, pp. 75–94.
Floridi, L., and Sanders, J. W. 2004. Internet ethics: The constructionist values of homo poeticus, in R. Cavalier (Ed.), The Internet and our moral lives. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Habermas, J. 1981. Theorie des Kommuikativen Handelns. 2 vols. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt. Translated by T. McCarthy as The theory of communicative action. Boston: Beacon Press, 1984 (Vol. 1) and 1987 (Vol. 2).
Habermas, J. 1983. Diskursethik: Notizen zu einem Begründungsprogram, in Moralbewusstsein und kommunikatives Handeln. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. Translated by C. Lenhardt and S. W. Nicholsen, as Discourse ethics: Notes on philosophical justification, in Moral consciousness and communicative action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990, pp. 43–115.
Habermas, J. 1989. Justice and solidarity: On the discussion concerning stage 6, in T. Wren (Ed.), The moral domain: Essays in the ongoing discussion between philosophy and the social sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 224–251.
Herring, S. 1999. Posting in a different voice: Gender and ethics in computer-mediated communication, in P. A. Mayer (Ed.), Computer media and communication: A reader, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 241–265.
Hjarvard, S. 2002. Mediated encounters: An essay on the role of communication media in the creation of trust in the global metropolis, in G. Stald and T. Tufte (Eds.), Global encounters: Media and cultural transformation. Luton: University of Luton Press, pp. 69–84.
Moon, J. D. 2003. Pluralisms compared, in R. Madsen and T. B. Strong (Eds.), The many and the one: Religious and secular perspectives on ethical pluralism in the modern world. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 343–359.
Nara, Y., and Iseda, T. 2004. An empirical study on the structure of Internet information ethics behaviors: Comparative research between Japan, US and Singapore, in A. Feenberg and D. Barney (Eds.), Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 161–179.
National Committee for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences and the Humanities (Den nasjonale forskningsetiske komité for samfunnsvitenskap og humaniora [NESH], Norway) 2001. Guidelines for research ethics in the social sciences, law and the humanities. Retrieved 15 May 2006 from http://www.etikkom.no/Engelsk/NESH/Publications/NESHguide.
National Committee for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences and the Humanities (Den nasjonale forskningsetiske komité for samfunnsvitenskap og humaniora [NESH], Norway) 2003. Research ethics guidelines for Internet research. Translated by L. G. Lundh and C. Ess. Retrieved 15 May 2006 from http://www.etikkom.no/Engelsk/Publications/Internet03/.
National Institutes of Health, Office of Human Subjects Research. 2005. Code of Federal Regulations Title 45, Department of Health and Human Services, Part 46, Protection of Human Subjects. Retrieved 15 May 2006 from http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/45cfr46.html.
Persondataloven [Personal Data Law, Denmark]. Lov. nr. 429 af 31. maj 2000 som ændret ved lov. nr. 280 af 25. april 2001. Retrieved 2 December 2003 from http://18.104.22.168/_GETDOC_/ACCN/A20000042930-REGL; English version: http://www.datatilsynet.dk/eng/index.html.
Pohl, K.-H. 2002. Chinese and Western values: Reflections on a cross-cultural dialogue on a universal ethics, in R. Elberfeld and G. Wohlfart (Eds.), Komparative Ethik: Das gute Leben zwischen den Kulturen. München: Chora, pp. 213–232.
Rosemont, H. 2001. Rationality and religious experience: The continuing relevance of the World's spiritual traditions (The First Master Hsüan Memorial Lecture), with a commentary by Huston Smith. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Silverstone, R. 2002. Finding a voice: Minorities, media and the global commons, in G. Stald and T. Tufte (Eds.), Global encounters: Media and cultural transformation. Luton: Luton University Press, pp. 107–122.
Taylor, C. 2002. Democracy, inclusive and exclusive, in R. Madsen, W. M. Sullivan, A. Swiderl, and S. M. Tipton (Eds.), Meaning and modernity: Religion, polity and self. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Torgersen, H., and Seifert, F. 1997. How to keep out what we don't want: On the assessment of ‘Sozialvergträglichkeit’ under the Austrian Genetic Engineering Act, in A. Feenberg, T. H. Nielsen, and L. Winner (Eds.), Technology and democracy: technology in the public sphere – Proceedings from Workshop 1, Center for Technology and Culture, Oslo, pp. 115–148.
Tu, W.-M. 1999. Humanity as embodied love: Exploring filial piety as a global ethical perspective, in M. Zlomislic and D. Goicoechea (Eds.), Jen Agape Tao with Tu Wei-Ming. Binghamton, NY: Institute of Global Cultural Studies, pp. 28–37.
Tufte, T. 2002. Ethnic minority Danes between diaspora and locality – Social uses of mobile phones and Internet, in G. Stald and T. Tufte (Eds), Global encounters: Media and cultural transformation. Luton: Luton University Press, pp. 235–261.
Wilson, M. 2002. Communication, organizations and diverse populations, in F. Sudweeks and C. Ess (Eds), Proceedings: Cultural Attitudes Towards Communication and Technology 2002, Université de Montréal, School of Information Technology, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, pp. 69–88. Available online: http://www.it.murdoch.edu.au/~sudweeks/catac.
Yu, J. Y., and Bunnin, N. 2001. Saving the phenomena: An Aristotelian method in comparative philosophy, in M. Bo (Ed.), Two roads to wisdom? – Chinese philosophy and analytical philosophy. LaSalle, IL: Open Court, pp. 293–312.
Bentley, R., Appelt, W., Busbach, U., Hinrichs, E., Kerr, D., Sikkel, K., Trevor, J., and Woetzel, G. 1997. Basic Support for Cooperative Work on the World Wide Web. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 46, 6, 827–846.
Ladd, J. 1988. Computers and moral responsibility: A framework for an ethical analysis, in C. Gould (Ed.), The Information web: Ethical and social implications of computer networking. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Cummings, M. L., and Guerlain, S. 2003. The tactical tomahawk conundrum: Designing decision support systems for revolutionary domains. IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society conference, Washington DC, October 2003.
Cheung, S. N. S. 1986. Property rights and invention, in J. Palmer and R. O. Zerbe (Eds.), Research in law and economics: The economics of patents and copyrights (Vol. 8), Greenwich NJ: JAI Press, pp. 5–18.
Palmer, T. G. 2002. Are patents and copyrights morally justified? The philosophy of property rights and ideal objects, in A. Thierer and W. Crews (Eds.), Copy fights: The future of intellectual property in the information age. Washington DC: Cato Institute, pp. 43–93.
Quinn, W. S. 1992. Actions, intention, and consequences: the doctrine of double effect, in J. M. Fischer, and M. Ravizza, Ethics: Problems and principles. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, p. 179ff.
European Parliament. 1995. Directive 95/46/EC on The protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data, adopted October 24 1195, Official Journal, 281, pp. 31–50, Brussels.
Gavison, R. 1980. Privacy and the limits of law. Yale Law Journal, 89, 421–471. Reprinted in Schoeman, F. (Ed.). 1984. Philosophical Dimensions of Privacy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 346–402.
Monteiro, N. P. 2004. No privacy, no poetry, no progress. Department of Political Science, University of Chicago, Political Theory Workshop, 18 October 2004. Available at www.pwt.uchicago.edu/monteiro002.pdf.
van den Hoven, J., and Cushman, R. 1996. Privacy, Health Care Data and Information Technology, Conference Report. Journal of Information, Law, and Technology (JILT), 3. Available at http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/1996_3/hoven/
Wiegel, V., van den Hoven, M. J., and Lokhorst, G. J. C. 2005. Privacy, deontic epistemic action logic and software agents: An executable approach to modeling moral constraints in complex informational relationships. Ethics and Information Technology, 7, 4, 251–264.
Agre, P. E. 1997b. Toward a critical technical practice: Lessons learned in trying to reform AI, in G. Bowker et al. (Eds.), Bridging the great divide: Social science, technical systems, and cooperative work. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
B⊘dker, S., and Gr⊘nbæk, K. 1991. Design in action: From prototyping by demonstration to cooperative prototyping, in J. Greenbaum and M. Kyng (Eds.), Design at work: Cooperative design of computer systems. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 197–218.
Borning, A. Friedman, B., and Kahn, P. 2004. Designing for human values in an urban simulation system: Value sensitive design and participatory design. Proceedings of Eighth Biennial Participatory Design Conference, Toronto. Toronto: ACM Press, pp. 64–67.
Freeman-Benson, B., and Borning, A. 2003. YP and urban simulation: Applying an agile programming methodology in a politically tempestuous domain. Proceedings of the Agile Development Conference (ADC 03), p. 2.
Friedman, B., Howe, D. C., and Felten, E. 2002. Informed consent in the Mozilla browser: Implementing value-sensitive design. Proceedings of 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society, 8, p. 247.
Haller, S., and Fossum, T. 1998. Retaining women in CS with accessible role models. Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education. Atlanta, GA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education. Also published in ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 30, 1, 73–76.
Hornof, A. J., and Halverson, T. 2003. Cognitive strategies and eye movements for searching hierarchical computer displays. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Fort Lauderdale, FL, April 5–10, pp. 249–256.
Inkpen, K., Booth, K. S., Klawe, M., and Upitis, R. 1995. Playing together beats playing apart, especially for girls. Proceedings of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 177–181.
Kafai, Y. B. 1998. Video game designs by girls and boys: Variability and consistency of gender differences, in J. Cassel and H. Jenkins (Eds.), From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and computer games. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 90–114.
Mubireek, K. A. 2003. Gender-oriented vs. gender-neutral computer games in education. PhD dissertation, Educational Policy and Leadership, Ohio State University. Available at http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/view.cgi?osu1056139090.
Pinch, T. J., and Bijker, W. E. 1987. The social construction of facts and artifacts, or, How the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other, in W. E. Bijker, T. J. Pinch, and T. P. Hughes (Eds.), The social construction of technological systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 17–50.
Taylor, T. L., and Jakobsson, M. 2003. The Sopranos Meets EverQuest: Socialization processes in massively multiuser games. Paper presented at the 5th International Digital Arts and Culture Conference, Melbourne, May 19–23. Available at http://hypertext.rmit.edu.au/dac/papers/Jakobsson.pdf.
Brock, D. W. 1998. Cloning human beings: An assessment of the ethical issues pro and con, in M. C. Nussbaum and C. R. Sunstein (Eds.), Clones and clones: Facts and fantasies about human cloning. New York: Norton, pp. 141–164.
European Parliament. 1995. Directive 95/46/EC on The protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data, adopted October 24 1195, Official Journal, 281, pp. 31–50, Brussels.
Raatikainen, P. 2006. The scope and limits of value-freedom in science, in H. Koskinen, S. Pihlström, and R. Vilkko (Eds.), Science – A Challenge to Philosophy? (Scandinavian University Studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 27). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Bates, B. 1988. Information as an economic good: Sources of individual and social value, in V. Mosco and J. Wasco (Eds.), The political economy of information. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 76–94.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). 2006. The Digital divide: ICT diffusion index 2005. United Nations, New York. Retrieved 3 August 2006 from http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/iteipc20065_en.pdf.
van den Hoven, M. J. 1995. Equal access and social justice, in Information technology and moral philosophy. PhD thesis, Erasmus University, Rotterdam. (See also http://www.ccsr.cse.dmu.ac.uk/conferences/ethicomp/ethicomp95/abstracts.vandenHoven.html.)
Bohman, J. 2004. Expanding dialogue: The public sphere, the Internet and transnational democracy, in J. Roberts and N. Crossley (Eds.), After Habermas: Perspectives on the public sphere. London: Blackwell, pp. 131–155.
Ess, C. 2002a. Cultures in collision: Philosophical lessons from computer-mediated communication, in J. H. Moor and T. W. Bynum (Eds), CyberPhilosophy: The intersection of philosophy and computing. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 219–242.
Friedman, B., Kahn, P. H., Jr., and Borning, A. 2006. Value sensitive design and information systems, in P. Zhang, and D. Galletta (Eds.), Human-computer interaction in management information systems: Foundations. New York: M. E. Sharpe.
Habermas, J. 1981. Theorie des Kommuikativen Handelns. 2 vols. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt. Translated by T. McCarthy as The theory of communicative action and published by Beacon Press, Boston, 1984 (Vol. 1) and 1987 (Vol. 2).
Moor, J. H., and Weckert, J. 2004. Nanoethics: Assessing the nanoscale from an ethical point of view, in D. Baird, A. Nordmann, and J. Schummer (Eds.), Discovering the nanoscale. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp. 301–310.
Pohl, K.-H. 2002. Chinese and Western values: Reflections on a cross-cultural dialogue on a universal ethics, in R. Elberfeld and G. Wohlfart (Eds.), Komparative Ethik: das gute Leben zwischen den Kulturen. München: Chora, pp. 213–232.