The Unfinished Peace after World War I

America, Britain and the Stabilisation of Europe, 1919–1932

The Unfinished Peace after World War I

This is a highly original and revisionist analysis of British and American efforts to forge a stable Euro-Atlantic peace order between 1919 and the rise of Hitler. Patrick Cohrs argues that this order was not founded at Versailles but rather through the first 'real' peace settlements after World War I - the London reparations settlement of 1924 and the Locarno security pact of 1925. Crucially, both fostered Germany's integration into a fledgling transatlantic peace system, thus laying the only realistic foundations for European stability. What proved decisive was that key decision-makers drew lessons from the 'Great War' and Versailles' shortcomings. Yet Cohrs also re-appraises why they could not sustain the new order, master its gravest crisis - the Great Depression - and prevent Nazism's onslaught. Despite this ultimate failure, he concludes that the 'unfinished peace' of the 1920s prefigured the terms on which a more durable peace could be founded after 1945.


"Patrick Cohrs' The Unfinished Peace after World War I brilliantly renews the genre of classic international history. Based on massive archival scholarship and elegantly written, his study focuses on American and British roles and asks why a stable European security system could not be consolidated between the Versailles Treaty and the advent of Hitler. Ultimately, he argues, it fell to London and Washington to help Paris and Berlin overcome distrust, nationalism, and impatience with the slow pace of mutual concessions. High stakes, alas, could not guarantee success, but failure was not foreordained. There are important lessons here for the Middle East and other regional conflicts. In the end there are no outsiders."
-Charles S. Maier, Leverett Saltonstall Professor of History, Harvard University

"Historians have usually seen 1924-29 as no more than a temporary lull between the two storm periods of imposed "peace" settlements and bitter conflicts in 1919-23 and the Great Depression, destruction of Versailles, and rise of Hitler in 1929-33. Patrick Cohrs argues in this massively-researched, detailed study that the Dawes Plan, London Conference, and Locarno treaties of 1924-25 constituted instead a new Euro-Atlantic peace settlement and international system and established a new European concert. Under combined British-American aegis, both France and Germany adopted the spirit and politics of productive mutual compromise. What stunted and finally undermined the system was above all the failure of both hegemons, especially America, actively to support and develop it. Everyone who wants to understand this era, as well as the origins of World War II and the workings of modern international politics, must come to terms with this highly controversial but often illuminating and persuasive interpretation."
-Paul W. Schroeder, Emeritus Professor of History and Political Science, University of Illinois

"This is an ambitious book with a challenging thesis. It re-examines British and American policy towards Europe in the 1920s sympathetically, arguing that policy makers in both countries made a serious effort to promote peaceful solutions which reflected their values as well as national interests. The conclusions, which are well-documented, offer an important new interpretation of the period."
-Jonathan Wright, Christ Church, University of Oxford

"Cohrs takes a refreshing and well-balanced perspective, striking a reasonable compromise between a variety of historical approaches... his study not only reveals a wide range of primary sources that bring to light a convincing revisionist interpretation of the early inter war period, but it also makes an important statement about the climate of international relations at the time... it is a masterpiece of research and one that should significantly change the way we see the inter war period."
-Journal of British Studies

"Cohrs marshals an impressive amount of evidence for his assertion by mining archival resources in both public and private collections in the US, Britain, France, Germany, and the League of Nations. The primary research is backed up with a command of the voluminous secondary literature on this period."
-Frederic Krome, American Jewish Archives/Hebrew Union College

"This is a highly original and thought-provoking book. Patrick Cohrs, adopting a systemic approach to his subject, argues that the Anglo-American agreements of 1923-5 laid the foundations for a stable peace in Europe and inaugurated an American-dominated Euro-Atlantic system that lasted until it was disrupted by the unprecedented world depression. ... Cohrs' challenging thesis forces one to reconsider the process of European stabilisation in the 1920s, and to reassess the nature of the American contribution to its limited success."
-The English Historical Review

"In this opus magnum the author has re-examined extensive archival holdings and private papers and … with an assured grasp of his subject provided an original interpretation…"
-Historische Zeitschrift

" well as making a significant contribution to the scholarly debate about the 1920s, Cohrs' book also serves as a useful reminder of the difficulties that attend peacemaking, and the long-term commitment that is required to make it succeed."
-Times Literary Supplement

"Patrick O. Cohrs offers a major reinterpretation of post–World War I international history… Much of the best scholarship on [this period] focuses on either European or transatlantic relations. To his credit, Cohrs combines both in his study of the Euro-Atlantic order. He places Locarno diplomacy of 1925–1929—the new European concert—within a transatlantic framework."
-American Historical Review

"Cohrs convincingly argues that we are wrong to view the 1920s as a decade of false dawns simply preordaining a decade when much worse was to follow. The book is especially important because a study that includes the American dimension to what many scholars have tended to view exclusively from a European perspective is long overdue."

"…Patrick O. Cohrs has contributed a mammoth study… In this fine revisionist work, Cohrs argues that European and American policy-makers… were able to create a viable transatlantic international order in the 1920s, which constituted an important accomplishment in the history of international relations and was not inexorably doomed to fail."
-Peace and Change

"...there is no doubt that specialists of twentieth-century history, diplomatic history, and international politics, as well as scholars interested in research on the two world wars will find in it a lot to stimulate their reflection. All university libraries should naturally have a copy." -Antoine Capet, H-Diplo

"...a provocative thesis....a book well worth reading..."
--Carole Fink, Ohio State University, Journal of Modern History

Akten der Reichskanzlei. Weimarer Republik: Die Kabinette Brüning I und II, 2 vols., ed. T. Koops (Boppard, 1982).
Akten der Reichskanzlei. Weimarer Republik: Die Kabinette Luther I und II, 2 vols., ed. K.-H. Minuth (Boppard, 1977).
Akten der Reichskanzlei. Weimarer Republik: Die Kabinette Müller I, ed. M. Vogt (Boppard, 1971).
Akten der Reichskanzlei. Weimarer Republik: Die Kabinette Müller II, ed. M. Vogt (Boppard, 1970).
Akten der Reichskanzlei. Weimarer Republik: Die Kabinette Marx I und II, 2 vols., ed. G. Abramowski (Boppard, 1973).
Akten der Reichskanzlei. Weimarer Republik: Die Kabinette Marx III und IV, 2 vols., ed. G. Abramowski (Boppard, 1988).
Akten der Reichskanzlei. Weimarer Republik: Die Kabinette Stresemann I und II, 2 vols., ed. K.D. Erdmann and M. Vogt (Boppard, 1978).
Akten der Reichskanzlei. Weimarer Republik: Die Kabinette Wirth I und II, 2 vols., ed. I. Schulze-Bidlingmaier (Boppard, 1973).
Akten zur deutschen auswärtigen Politik 1918–1945. Aus dem Archiv des Auswärtigen Amts: Serie A: 1918–1925, vols. I–XIV (Göttingen, 1982ff).
Akten zur deutschen auswärtigen Politik 1918–1945. Aus dem Archiv des Auswärtigen Amts: Serie B: 1925–1933, vols. I–XIII (Göttingen, 1966ff).
British Documents on Foreign Affairs. Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print, general ed. M. Dockrill 2/1, The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 (Frederick, MD, 1989).
Bulletin of the International Labour and Socialist Conference (Berne), 7 February 1919.
Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919–1939, Series I, Volumes I–XXVII (HMSO, 1946–86).
Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919–1939, Series IA, Volumes I–VII (HMSO, 1966–75).
Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919–1939, Series II, Volumes I–III (HMSO, 1946ff).
Hansard, Parliamentary Debates: House of Commons, Parliamentary Debates: House of Commons, 5th series.
Journal Officiel de la République Française. Débats Parlementaires (Chambre des Députés), 1923–9.
Journal Officiel de la République Française. Documents Parlementaires (Sénat), 1923–9.
Labour Party Annual Conference Reports, 1922–9 (1923–30) (London).
Literary Digest (1919–32).
Locarno-Konferenz, 1925. Eine Dokumentensammlung, Ministerium für Auswärtige Angelegenheiten der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (Berlin, 1962).
Manchester Guardian (1923–9).
New York Times (1923–9).
Official Bulletin of the International Labour and Socialist Conference (Berne), 7 February 1919.
Papers relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1919–1933, US Department of State (Washington, DC, 1934ff).
Papers relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1919 (Washington, DC, 1932ff), The Paris Peace Conference.
Report of the Agent General for Reparations Payments. 10 June 1927 (1927), (Berlin).
Senate Committee on Finance: Hearings on the Sale of Foreign Bonds, etc. (Washington, DC, 1932).
Survey of American Foreign Relations, 1929 (New Haven, CT, 1929).
Times, 1924–9.
Union for Democratic Control Policy Statement (1919) (London).
Ursachen und Folgen. Vom deutschen Zusammenbruch 1918 und 1945 bis zur staatlichen Neuordnung Deutschlands in der Gegenwart. Eine Urkunden- und Dokumentensammlung zur Zeitgeschichte, IV–VIII: Die Weimarer Republik (Berlin, 1959ff).
Verhandlungen der verfassunggebenden Deutschen Nationalversammlung. Stenographische Berichte und Anlagen, vols. 325–30 (Berlin, 1920).
Verhandlungen des Reichstags. Stenographische Berichte und Anlagen, vols. 344– (Berlin, 1921ff).
Adamthwaite, A. (1995), Grandeur and Misery. France's Bid for Power in Europe, 1914–1940 (London).
Adler, S. (1957), The Isolationist Impulse (New York).
Agulhon, M. (1993), The French Republic 1879–1991 (London).
Ahmann, R., Birke, A.M., and Howard, M. (eds.) (1993), The Quest fot Stability. Problems of West European Security, 1918–1957 (London).
Aldcroft, D.H. (1970), The Inter-War Economy. Britain 1919–1939 (London).
Amalvi, C. (1995–6), Catalogue de la Troisième République, 3 vols. (Paris).
Ambrosius, L. (1987), Woodrow Wilson and the American Diplomatic Tradition. The Treaty Fight in Perspective (Cambridge).
Angell, N. (1913), The Great Illusion. A Study of the Relations of Military Power to National Advantage (London).
Artaud, D. (1978), La question des dettes interalliées et la reconstruction de l'Europe, 1917–1929 (Lille and Paris).
Artaud, D.(1979), ‘Die Hintergründe der Ruhrbesetzung 1923. Das Problem der interallierten Schulden’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 27, pp. 241–59.
Aster, S. (1991), British Foreign Policy, 1918–1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials, 2nd edn (Wilmington, DE).
Bátonyi, G. (1999), Britain and Central Europe 1918–1932 (Oxford).
Baechler, C. (1996), Gustave Stresemann (1878–1929). De l'impérialisme à la sécurité collective (Strasbourg).
Bailey, T.A. (1947), Woodrow Wilson and the Peacemakers (New York).
Baker, R.S., and Dodd, W.E. (eds.) (1925–7), The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson, 6 vols. (New York).
Baldwin, Stanley (1937), On England (London).
Ball, S. (ed.) (1993), Parliament and Politics in the Age of Baldwin and MacDonald: The Headlam Diaries, 1923–1935 (London).
Bariéty, J. (1975), ‘Stresemann et la France’, Francia 3, pp. 554–83.
Bariéty, J. (1977), Les relations franco-allemandes après la première guerre mondiale, 10 Novembre 1918–10 Janvier 1925, de l'exécution à la négotiation (Paris).
Bariéty, J. (1980), ‘Finances et relations internationales à propos du “plan de de Thoriy” (septembre 1926)’, Relations Internationales 21 (Spring), pp. 423–31.
Bariéty, J. (1985), ‘Die französische Politik in der Ruhrkrise’, in Schwabe (1985c), pp. 11–27.
Bariéty, J. (2000), ‘Aristide Briand et la sécurité de la France en Europe, 1919–1932’, in Schuker (2000), pp. 117–34.
Barnes, J., and Nicolson, D. (eds.) (1980), The Leo Amery Diaries, I: 1896–1929 (London).
Barnett, C.J. (1972), The Collapse of British Power (London).
Bartlett, C.J. (1989), British Foreign Policy in the Twentieth Century (Basingstoke and London).
Baumgart, C. (1996), Stresemann und England (Cologne, Weimar and Vienna).
Baumgart, W. (1999), Europäisches Konzert und nationale Bewegung: internationale Beziehungen, 1830–1878 (Paderborn).
Baumont, M. (1966), Arisitide Briand. Diplomat und Idealist (Göttingen).
Beasly, W.G. (1987), Japanese Imperialism, 1894–1945(Oxford).
Becker, J., and Hildebrand K. (eds.) (1980), Internationale Beziehungen in der Weltwirtschaftskrise 1929–1933 (Munich).
Becker, J., and Hillgruber, A. (eds.) (1983), Die deutsche Frage im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Munich).
Becker, J.-J. (1986), The Great War and the French People (London).
Becker, J.-J., and Berstein, S. (1990), Victoire et frustrations 1914–1929 (Paris).
Bell, P.M.H. (1986), The Origins of the Second World War in Europe (London and New York).
Beloff, M. (1989), Dream of Commonwealth, 1921–42 (London).
Benner, E. (2001), ‘Is There a Core National Doctrine?’, Nations and Nationalism 7/2 (April), pp. 155–74.
Bennett, G.H. (1989), British Foreign Policy during the Curzon Period, 1919–24 (London).
Berg, M. (1990), Gustav Stresemann und die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Weltwirtschaftliche Verflechtung und Revisionspolitik 1907–1929 (Baden-Baden).
Berg, P. (1963), Deutschland und Amerika, 1918–1929: Über das deutsche Amerikabild der zwanziger Jahre (Lübeck and Hamburg).
Berghahn, V.R. (1993), Germany and the Approach of War in 1914, 2nd edn (London).
Berghahn, V.R., and Kitchen, M. (eds.) (1981), Germany in the Age of Total War (London).
Bergmann, C. (1926), Der Weg der Reparationen. Von Versailles über den Dawes-Plan zum Ziel (Frankfurt am Main).
Bertram-Libal, G. (1972), Aspekte der britischen Deutschlandpolitik 1919–1922 (Göppingen).
Bessel, R. (1993), Germany after the First World War (Oxford).
Birn, D.S. (1985), The League of Nations Union, 1918–1945 (Oxford).
Blake, R., and Louis, R.W. (eds.) (1994), Churchill. A Major New Assessment (Oxford and New York).
Boadle, D.G. (1979), Winston Churchill and the German Question in British Foreign Policy, 1918–1922 (The Hague).
Boemeke, M., Feldman, G.D., and Glaser, E. (eds.) (1998), The Treaty of Versailles. A Reassessment After 75 Years (Cambridge).
Bond, B. (1980), British Military Policy between the Two World Wars (Oxford).
Bonin, H. (1988), Histoire économique de la France depuis 1880 (Paris).
Borchardt, K. (1980), ‘Wirtschaftliche Ursachen des Scheiterns der Weimarer Republik’, in Erdmann and Schulze (1980), pp. 211–49.
Borchardt, K. (1982), Wachstum, Krisen, Handlungsspielräume der Wirtschaftspolitik (Göttingen).
Bordo, M., and Goldin, W. (eds.) (1998), The Defining Moment. The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century (Chicago).
Borne, D., and Dubief, H. (1988), La crise des années trente (1929–1938) (Paris).
Boyce, R.W.D. (1987), British Capitalism at the Crossroads, 1919–1932 (Cambridge).
Boyden, R.W. (1924), ‘The Dawes-Report’, FA 2, pp. 583–97.
Boyle, A. (1967), Montagu Norman. A Biography (London).
Bracher, K.D. (1978), Die Auflösung der Weimarer Republik (Düsseldorf).
Brandes, J. (1962), Herbert Hoover and Economic Diplomacy (Pittsburgh).
Braudel, F., and Labrousse, E. (1980), Histoire économique et sociale de la France, t. 4, 2e vol., 1914–années 1950 (Paris).
Brinkley, D. (1995), The End of Reform. New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War (New York).
Brockdorff-Rantzau, U. v. (1920), Dokumente (Berlin).
Buchheit, E. (1998), Der Briand-Kellogg-Pakt von 1928 – Machtpolitik oder Friedensstreben? (Münster).
Bunselmeyer, R.E. (1975), The Cost of War, 1914–1919. British Economic War Aims and the Origins of Reparations (Hamden, CT).
Burk, K. (1981), ‘Economic Diplomacy between the Wars’, Historical Journal 24.
Burk, K. (1985), Britain, America and the Sinews of War, 1914–1918 (London).
Burk, K. (1989), Morgan Grenfell 1838–1988. The Biography of a Merchant Bank (Oxford).
Burk, K. (1991), ‘The House of Morgan in Financial Diplomacy, 1920–1930’, in McKercher (1991a), pp. 125–57.
Burk, K. (1992), ‘The Lineaments of Foreign Policy: The United States and a “New World Order” 1919–1939’, Journal of American Studies 26.
Burks, D.D. (1959), ‘The United States and the Geneva Protocol of 1924: “A New Holy Alliance”?’, American Historical Review 64, pp. 891–905.
Burner, D. (1979), Herbert Hoover. A Public Life (New York).
Burnett, P.M. (ed.) (1940), Reparation at the Paris Peace Conference, 2 vols. (New York).
Burnett, P.M. (ed.) (1940), Reparation at the Paris Peace Conference, 2 vols. (New York).
Bussière, E. (1992), La France, la Belgique et l'organisation économique de l'Europe (Paris).
Cain, P.J., and Hopkins, A.G. (2001), British Imperialism 1688–2000, 2nd edn (London).
Cairns, J.C. (1974), ‘A Nation of Shopkeepers in Search of a Suitable France, 1919–1940’, American Historical Review 79, pp. 710–43.
Calier, C.,and Soutou, G.-H. (eds.) (2001), 1918–1925: Comment faire la paix? (Paris).
Carlton, D. (1968), ‘Great Britain and the League Council Crisis of 1926’, Historical Journal 11, pp. 354–64.
Carlton, D. (1968/9), ‘The Anglo-French Compromise on Arms Limitation, 1928’, Journal of British Studies 8, pp. 141–62.
Carlton, D. (1970), MacDonald versus Henderson. The Foreign Policy of the Second Labour Government (London).
Carr, E.H. (1939), The Twenty Years' Crisis 1919–1939. An Introduction to the Study of International Relations (London).
Carr, E.H. (1947), International Relations between the Two World Wars, 1919–1939 (London).
Carsten, F.L. (1966), The Reichswehr and Politics, 1918–33 (Oxford).
Carsten, F.L. (1984), Britain and the Weimar Republic (London).
Case, J.Y., and Case, E.N. (1982), Owen D. Young and American Enterprise (Boston).
Cassels, A. (1980), ‘Repairing the Entente Cordiale and the New Diplomacy’, Historical Journal 23, pp. 133–53.
Catterall, P., and Morris, C.J. (eds.) (1993), Britain and the Threat to Stability in Europe, 1918–1945 (London and New York).
Ceadel, M. (1980), Pacifism in Britain, 1914–1945. The Defining of a Faith (Oxford).
Cecil, Viscount (1941), A Great Experiment: An Autobiography (London).
Chamberlain, A. (1928), Peace in Our Time: Addresses on Europe and the Empire (London).
Chamberlain, A. (1930), ‘Great Britain as a European Power’, Journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs 9.
Chamberlain, A. (1931), ‘The Permanent Bases of British Foreign Policy’, Foreign Affairs 9, pp. 535–46.
Chamberlain, A. (1935), Down the Years (London).
Chamberlain, A. (1936), Politics from the Inside: An Epistolary Chronicle, 1906–1914 (London).
Chandler, L.V. (1958), Benjamin Strong, Central Banker (Washington).
Chang, H.J. (2002), Kicking Away the Ladder. Development Strategy in Historical Perspective (London).
Chernow, R. (1991), The House of Morgan. An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance (New York).
Child, R.W. (1925), A Diplomat Looks at Europe (New York).
Churchill, W.S. (1929), The World Crisis, IV: The Aftermath, 1918–1928 (London).
Cienciala, M., and Kormanicki, T. (1984), From Versailles to Locarno, Keys to Polish Foreign Policy, 1919–1925 (Kansas City).
Clark, I. (1997), Globalization and Fragmentation. International Relations in the Twentieth Century (Oxford).
Clarke, P. (1994), ‘Churchill's Economic Ideas, 1919–1930’, in Blake and Louis (1994), pp. 77–94.
Clarke, S.V.O. (1967), Central Bank Co-operation (New York).
Claude, I.L. (1964), Swords into Plowshares. The Problems and Progress of International Organizations, 3rd edn (New York).
Clavin, P. (1996), The Failure of Economic Diplomacy. Britain, Germany, France and the United States, 1931–36 (Basingstoke).
Clavin, P. (2000), The Great Depression in Europe, 1929–1939 (New York).
Clay, H. (1957), Lord Norman (London).
Clayton, A.J. (1986), The British Empire as a Superpower, 1919–1939 (London).
Clemenceau, G. (1930), Grandeurs et misères d'une victoire (Paris).
Clemens, G. (ed.) (2001), Nation und Europa (Stuttgart).
Cmd 1737: The Balfour note, 1 August 1922.
Cmd 1943: Papers relating to British Policy during the Ruhr Conflict (1923).
Cmd 2191: Cabinet Files relating to the London Reparations Conference (1924).
Cmd 2289: League of Nations Fifth Assembly, Report of the British Delegates relating to the Protocol for the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes.
Cmd 2368: Papers relating to the Protocol for the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes, 1925.
Cmd 2435: Papers respecting the Proposals for a Pact of Security, made by the German Government, 9 February 1925.
Cmd 2525: Final Protocol of the Locarno Conference, 1925.
Cmd 2692: Agreement of the Settlement of the War Debt of France to Great Britain, with additional materials, 1926.
Cohen, W.I. (1987), Empire without Tears (New York).
Cohrs, P.O. (2003), ‘The First “Real” Peace Settlements after the First World War. Britain, the United States and the Accords of London and Locarno, 1923–1925’, Contemporary European History 12/1, pp. 1–31.
Cohrs, P.O. (2004), ‘The Quest for a New Concert of Europe. British Pursuits of German Rehabilitation and European Stability in the 1920s’, in Johnson (2004b), pp. 33–58.
Commission des Réparations, Report of the First Committee of Experts (Paris, 1924).
Congressional Record, 65th and 69th Congress, 1919, 1925.
Conze, W. (1961), ‘Deutschlands weltpolitische Sonderstellung in den zwanziger Jahren’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 9, pp. 33–76.
Cook, C. (1975), The Age of Alignment. Electoral Politics in Britain, 1922–1929 (London).
Costigliola, F.C. (1972), ‘The Other Side of Isolationism. The Establishment of the First World Bank, 1929–1930’, Journal of American History 59 (December), pp. 602–20.
Costigliola, F.C. (1973), ‘The Politics of Financial Stabilisation: American Reconstruction Policy in Europe, 1924–30’, Ph.D. Diss., Cornell University, NY.
Costigliola, F.C. (1976), ‘The United States and the Reconstruction of Germany in the 1920s’, Business History Review 50, pp. 477–522.
Costigliola, F.C. (1977), ‘Anglo-American Financial Rivalry in the 1920s’, Journal of Economic History 37, pp. 911–34.
Costigliola, F.C. (1979), ‘American Foreign Policy in the “Nutcracker”: The United States and Poland in the 1920s’, Pacific Historical Review 48, pp. 85–105.
Costigliola, F.C. (1984), Awkward Dominion. American Political, Economic, and Cultural Relations with Europe, 1919–1933 (Ithaca and London).
Cowling, M. (1971), The Impact of Labour, 1920–1924. The Beginning of Modern British Politics (Cambridge).
Craig, G.A. (1980), ‘Die Regierung Hoover und die Abrüstungskonferenz’, in Becker and Hildebrand (1980), pp. 106–17.
Craig, G.A. (1994), ‘The British Foreign Office from Grey to Austen Chamberlain’, in G.A. Craig and F. Gilbert (eds.) The Diplomats 1919–1939 (Princeton), pp. 15–48.
Crowe, S.E. (1972), ‘Sir Eyre Crowe and the Locarno Pact’, English Historical Review 87, pp. 49–74.
Crowe, S.E., and Corp, E. (1993), Our Ablest Public Servant (Braunton).
Dülffer, J., Kröger, M., and Wippich, R.-H. (eds.) (1997), Vermiedene Kriege: Deeskalation von Konflikten der Großmächte zwischen Krimkrieg und Erstem Weltkrieg (1865–1914) (Munich).
D'Abernon, E.V. (1929/30), An Ambassador of Peace, ed. M.A. Gerothwol, I: The Years of Recovery, January 1924–October 1926 (London).
D'Abernon, E.V.(1930), Foreign Policy (London).
Dallek, R. (1995), Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945 (New York and Oxford).
Danelski, D.J., and Tulchin, J.S. (eds.) (1973), The Autobiographical Notes of Charles Evans Hughes (Cambridge, MA).
Darwin, J. (1980), ‘Imperialism in Decline? Tendencies in British Imperial Policy between the Wars’, Historical Journal 23, 3, pp. 657–79.
Dawes, C.G. (1939), A Journal of Reparations (New York and London).
Dawes, R.C. (1926), Wie der Dawes-Plan zustande kam (Stuttgart).
Dayer, R.A. (1991), ‘Anglo-American Monetary Policy and Rivalry in Europe and the Far East, 1919–1931’, in McKercher (1991a), pp. 158–86.
DeConde, A. (1978), A History of American Foreign Policy, II: Global Power (1900 to the Present), 3rd edn (New York).
Dilks, D. (ed.) (1981), Retreat from Power. Studies in Britain's Foreign Policy in the 20th Century, I: 1906–1939 (Basingstoke and London).
Doß, K. (1984), Das deutsche Auswärtige Amt im Übergang vom Kaiserreich zur Weimarer Republik. Die Schülersche Reform (Düsseldorf).
Dockrill, M., and Fischer, J. (eds.) (2001), The Paris Peace Conference 1919: Peace without Victory? (Basingstoke).
Dockrill, M., and Goold, J.D. (1981), Peace without Promise. Britain and the Peace Conferences, 1919–1923 (London).
Dockrill, M.L., and McKercher, B.J.C. (1996), Diplomacy and World Power. Studies in British Foreign Policy, 1890–1951 (Cambridge).
Dohrmann, B. (1980), Die englische Europapolitik in der Weltwirtschaftskrise 1921–1923 (Munich and Vienna).
Doise, J., and Vaïsse, M. (1987), Diplomatie et Outil militaire. Politique étrangère de la France, 1871–1969 (Paris).
Drummond, I. (1972), British Economic Policy and the Empire, 1919–1939 (London).
Dunbabin, J.P. (1993), ‘The League of Nations' Place in the International System’, History 78/254, pp. 421–42.
Dupeux, L. (ed.) (1992), La révolution conservatrice allemande sous la république de Weimar (Paris).
Duroselle, J.-B. (1985), La décadence 1932–1939. Politique étrangère de la France, 3rd edn (Paris).
Duroselle, J.-B. (1988), Clemenceau (Paris).
Duroselle, J.-B. (1994), La Grande Guerre des Français, 1914–1918. L'incompréhensible (Paris).
Dutton, D. (1985), Austen Chamberlain. Gentleman in Politics (Bolton).
Ebersold, B. (1992), Machtverfall und Machtbewußtsein. Britische Friedens- und Konfliktlösungsstrategien 1918–1956 (Munich).
Edwards, M.L. (1963), Stresemann and the Greater Germany 1914–1918 (New York).
Edwards, W.H. (1928), This Pact Business (London).
Egerton, G.W. (1978), Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations (Chapel Hill, NC).
Egerton, G.W. (1979), Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations. Strategy, Politics and International Organization, 1914–1919 (London).
Eichengreen, B. (1992), Golden Fetters. The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919–1939 (Oxford).
Eichengreen, B. (2004), ‘The British Economy between the Wars’, in Floud and Johnson (2004), pp. 314–43.
Einzig, P. (1931), The World Economic Crisis, 1929–1931 (London).
Ellis, L.E. (1967), Frank B. Kellogg and American Foreign Relations, 1925–1929 (New Brunswick).
Enssle, M.J. (1980), Stresemann's Territorial Revisionism. Germany, Belgium, and the Eupen-Malmédy Question 1919–1929 (Wiesbaden).
Erdmann, K.D. (1955), ‘Das Problem der Ost- oder Westorientierung in der Außenpolitik Stresemanns’, Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 6, pp. 133–62.
Erdmann, K.D. (1966), Adenauer in der Rheinlandpolitik nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg (Stuttgart).
Erdmann, K.D. (1980), Gustav Stresemann: The Revision of Versailles and the Weimar Parliamentary System (London).
Erdmann, K.D., and Schulze, H. (eds.) (1980), Weimar. Selbstpreisgabe einer Demokratie (Düsseldorf).
Evans, R.J. (2003), The Coming of the Third Reich (London and New York).
Fausold, M.L., and Mazuzan, G.T. (eds.) (1974), The Hoover Presidency. A Reappraisal (New York).
Feis, H. (1950), The Diplomacy of the Dollar, First Era 1919–32 (New York).
Feldman, G.D. (1993), The Great Disorder. Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation, 1914–1924 (Oxford).
Feldman, G.D. (ed.) (1985), Die Nachwirkungen der Inflation auf die deutsche Geschichte, 1924–1933 (Munich).
Ferguson, N. (1992), ‘Germany and the Origins of the First World War: New Perspectives’, Historical Journal 35.
Ferguson, N. (1997), ‘The German Inter-War Economy: Political Choice vs. Economic Determinism’, in Fulbrook (1997), pp. 258–78.
Ferguson, N. (1998a), ‘The Balance of Payments Question: Versailles and After’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 401–40.
Ferguson, N. (1998b), The Pity of War (London).
Ferguson, N. (2003), ‘Hegemony or Empire?’, Foreign Affairs 82 (September/October).
Ferrell, R.H. (1952), Peace in their Time. The Origins of the Kellogg–Briand Pact (New York).
Ferrell, R.H. (1957), American Diplomacy in the Great Depression. Hoover–Stimson Foreign Policy (New Haven, CT).
Ferrell, R.H. (1963), Frank B. Kellogg and Henry L. Stimson (New York).
Ferris, J.R. (1989), The Evolution of British Strategic Policy, 1919–1926 (London).
Ferris, J.R. (1991), ‘“The Greatest Power on Earth”: Great Britain in the 1920s’, International History Review 13, pp. 726–50.
Feucht, S. (1998), Die Haltung Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands zur Auβenpolitik während der Weimarer Republik (1918–1933) (Frankfurt am Main).
Fink, C. (1979), ‘Stresemann's Minority Policies, 1924–1929’, Journal of Contemporary History 14, pp. 403–22.
Fink, C. (1984), The Genoa Conference. European Diplomacy, 1921–1922 (Chapel Hill and London).
Fink, C., et al. (eds.) (1985), German Nationalism and the European Response, 1890–1945 (London).
Fink, C., Frohn, A., and Heideking, J. (eds.) (1991), Genoa, Rapallo and European Reconstruction in 1922 (Cambridge and New York).
Fischer, C. (2003), The Ruhr Crisis, 1923–1924 (Oxford).
Fischer, F. (1967), Germany's War Aims in the First World War (London).
Fleury, A. (1998), ‘The League of Nations: Toward a New Appreciation of its History’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 507–22.
Floud, R., and Johnson, P. (eds.) (2004), The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, II (Cambridge).
Fox, J.P. (1969), ‘Britain and the Inter-Allied Military Commission of Control, 1925–26’, Journal of Contemporary History 4, pp. 143–64.
Franz, O. (ed.) (1981), Am Wendepunkt der europäischen Geschichte (Göttingen and Zurich).
Friedman, M., and Schwartz, A.J. (1963), A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960 (Princeton).
Fry, M.G. (1998), ‘British Revisionism’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 565–602.
Fulbrook, M. (ed.) (1997), German History since 1800 (London).
Gaddis, J.L. (1972), The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947 (New York).
Gaddis, J.L. (1997), We Now Know. Rethinking Cold War History (Oxford).
Galbraith, J.K. (1992), The Great Crash 1929, 2nd edn (London).
Gardner, L. (1984), The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 1913–1923 (Oxford).
Gasiorowski, Z.J. (1958a), ‘Stresemann and Poland before Locarno’, Journal of Central European Affairs 18, 1, pp. 25–47.
Gasiorowski, Z.J. (1958b), ‘Stresemann and Poland after Locarno’, Journal of Central European Affairs 18, 3, pp. 292–317.
Gatzke, H. (1954), Stresemann and the Rearmament of Germany (Baltimore).
Gelfand, L.E. (1998), ‘The American Mission to Negotiate Peace: An Historian Looks Back’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 189–203.
Geouffre de Lapradelle, A. (ed.) (1929–36), La Paix de Versailles. La conférence de paix et la Société des Nations (la documentation internationale), 12 vols. (Paris).
Gescher, D.B. (1956), Die Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika und die Reparationen, 1920–1924 (Bonn).
Geyer, M. (1980), Aufrüstung oder Sicherheit. Die Reichswehr in der Krise der Machtpolitik 1924–1936 (Wiesbaden).
Gilbert, M. (1966), The Roots of Appeasement (London).
Gilbert, M. (1976), Winston S. Churchill, V: 1922–1939 (London).
Gilbert, M. (ed.) (1979), Winston S. Churchill, V: Companion Part I: The Exchequer Years, 1922–1929 (London).
Gilbert, M. (ed.)(1981), Winston S. Churchill, V: Companion Part II: The Wilderness Years, 1929–1935 (London).
Gilbert, S.P. (1925–6), ‘The Meaning of the “Dawes Plan”. An Address before the Council on Foreign Relations, New York, January 12, 1926’, Foreign Affairs 4.
Gilbert, S.P.(1925–30), Deutschland unter dem Dawes-Plan. Die Berichte des Generalagenten für Reparationszahlungen, 10 Halbjahresbände (Berlin).
Girault, R., and Frank, R. (1988), Turbulente Europe et nouveaux mondes. Histoire des relations internationales contemporaines 1914–1941 (Paris).
Glasgow, G. (1925), From Dawes to Locarno: Being a Critical Record of an Important Achievement in European Diplomacy, 1924–1925 (London).
Goldstein, E. (1991), Winning the Peace. British Diplomatic Strategy, Peace Planning, and the Paris Peace Conference, 1916–1920 (Oxford).
Goldstein, E. (1996), ‘The Evolution of British Diplomatic Strategy for the Locarno Pact, 1924–1925’, in Dockrill and McKercher (1996), pp. 115–35.
Goldstein, E. (1998), ‘Great Britain: The Home Front’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 275–312.
Gordon, M.R. (1969), Conflict and Consensus in Labour's Foreign Policy 1914–1965 (Stanford).
Gorodetsky, G. (1977), The Precarious Truce. Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1924–27 (Cambridge).
Gorodetsky, G. (1994a), ‘The Formulation of Soviet Foreign Policy – Ideology and Realpolitik’ in Gorodetsky (1994b), pp. 30–44.
Gorodetsky, G. (ed.) (1994b), Soviet Foreign Policy 1917–1991: A Retrospective(London).
Gottwald, R. (1965), Die deutsch-amerikanischen Beziehungen in der Ära Stresemann (Berlin).
Grathwol, R.P. (1980), Stresemann and the DNVP. Reconciliation and Revenge in German Foreign Policy (Kansas City).
Grayson, R. (1997), Austen Chamberlain and the Commitment to Europe. British Foreign Policy, 1924–29 (London).
Grey, Lord (1925), Twenty-five Years (London).
Grigg, P.J. (1948), Prejudice and Judgement (London).
Grupp, P. (1988), Deutsche Außenpolitik im Schatten von Versailles 1918–1920 (Paderborn).
Guinn, P. (1988), ‘On Throwing Ballast in Foreign Policy: Poincaré, the Entente and the Ruhr Occupation’, European History Quarterly 18, pp. 427–37.
Höltje, C. (1958), Die Weimarer Republik und das Ostlocarno-Problem. Revision oder Garantie der deutschen Ostgrenze von 1919 (Würzburg).
Hagspiel, H. (1987), Verständigung zwischen Deutschland und Frankreich? Die deutsch-französische Außenpolitik der zwanziger Jahre im innenpolitischen Kräftefeld beider Länder (Bonn).
Hall, C. (1987), Britain, America and Arms Control 1921–1937 (London).
Hart, A.B. (ed.) (1918), Selected Addresses and Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson (New York).
Hawley, E.W. (1974), ‘Herbert Hoover and American Corporatism, 1929–1933’, in Fausold and Mazuzan (1974), pp. 101–19.
Hawley, E.W. (1979), The Great War and the Search for a Modern Order (New York).
Hawley, E.W. (ed.) (1981), Herbert Hoover as Secretary of Commerce (Iowa City).
Headlam-Morley, J. (1972), A Memoir of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, ed. A. Headlam-Morley et al. (London).
Headlam-Morley, J.W. (1930), Studies in Diplmatic History (London).
Heinemann, U. (1983), Die verdrängte Niederlage. Politische Öffentlichkeit und Kriegsschuldfrage in der Weimarer Republik (Göttingen).
Henderson, H.D. (1955), The Inter-War Years and Other Papers (Oxford).
Herriot, E. (1924), ‘The Program of Liberal France’, Foreign Affairs 1.
Herriot, E. (1948), Jadis, 2 vols. (Paris).
Heyde, P. (1998), Das Ende der Reparationen. Deutschland, Frankreich und der Youngplan 1929–1932 (Paderborn).
Hiden, J. (1987), The Baltic States and German Ostpolitik (Cambridge).
Hildebrand, K. (1980), ‘Das Deutsche Reich und die Sowjetunion im internationalen System 1918–1932: Legitimität oder Revolution?’, in Stürmer (1980), pp. 38 –61.
Hildebrand, K. (1989), ‘Europäisches Zentrum, überseeische Peripherie und neue Welt. Über den Wandel des Staatensystems zwischen dem Berliner Kongreß (1878) und dem Pariser Frieden (1919/1920)’, Historische Zeitschrift 249, pp. 53–94.
Hildebrand, K. (1995), Das vergangene Reich. Deutsche Außenpolitik von Bismarck bis Hitler (Stuttgart).
Hillgruber, A. (1967), Deutschlands Rolle in der Vorgeschichte der beiden Weltkriege. Die deutsche Frage in der Welt (Göttingen).
Hillgruber, A. (1969), Kontinuität und Diskontinuität in der deutschen Außenpolitik von Bismarck bis Hitler (Düsseldorf).
Hillgruber, A. (1980), ‘Unter dem Schatten von Versailles – die außenpolitische Belastung der Weimarer Republik: Realität und Perzeption bei den Deutschen’, in Erdmann and Schulze (1980), pp. 51–67.
Hillgruber, A. (1983), ‘Revisionismus – Kontinuität und Wandel in der Außenpolitik der Weimarer Republik’, Historische Zeitschrift 237, pp. 597–621.
Hinsley, F. (ed.) (1977), British Foreign Policy under Sir Edward Grey (1977).
Hobsbawm, E.J. (1969), Industry and Empire (Harmondsworth).
Hobsbawm, E.J. (1987), The Age of Empire, 1875–1914 (London).
Hobsbawm, E.J. (1992), Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality, 2nd edn (Cambridge).
Hobsbawm, E.J. (1994), Age of Extremes. The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991 (London).
Hofstadter, R. (1955), The Age of Reform. From Bryan to F.D.R. (New York).
Hofstadter, R. (1962), The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It (London).
Hogan, M.J. (1987), The Marshall Plan. America, Britain and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947–1952 (Cambridge).
Hogan, M.J. (1990), ‘Corporatism’, Journal of American History 6, pp. 153–60.
Hogan, M.J. (1991), Informal Entente. The Private Structure of Cooperation in Anglo-American Economic Diplomacy, 1918–1928, 2nd edn (New York).
Holtferich, C.-L. (1984), ‘Zu hohe Löhne in der Weimarer Republik?’, Geschichte und Gesellschaft 10, pp. 122–41.
Holz, K.A. (1977), Die Diskussion um den Dawes- und Young-Plan in der deutschen Presse, 2 vols. (Frankfurt am Main).
Hoover, H. (1919), ‘We Cannot Fiddle While Rome Burns’, address, Palo Alto, 2 October 1919 (New York).
Hoover, H. (1922), The European Situation and American Business: An Address (Washington, DC).
Hoover, H. (1924), ‘Government Ownership’, an address by Herbert Hoover, delivered in Washington, DC, 29 September 1924 (Washington, DC).
Hoover, H. (1926), ‘The Future of our Foreign Trade’, an address given in New York, 16 March 1926 (Washington, DC).
Hoover, H. (1929), ‘Address of President Hoover at the Ceremonies on the Eleventh Anniversary of Armistice Day under the Auspices of the American Legion’, Washington, DC, 11 November 1929 (Washington, DC).
Hoover, H. (1930), ‘Address of President Hoover at the Twelfth Annual Convention of the American Legion’, Boston, MA, 6 October 1930 (Washington, DC).
Hoover, H. (1934), The State Papers and other Public Writings, ed. W. Starr Myers, I (New York).
Hoover, H. (1952a), Memoirs, II: The Cabinet and the Presidency, 1920–1933 (London).
Hoover, H. (1952b), Memoirs, III: The Great Depression, 1929–1941 (London).
Hoover, H. (1961), The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson (New York).
Howard, M. (1972), The Continental Commitment. The Dilemma of British Defence Policy in the Era of the Two World Wars (London).
Howard, M. (2001), The Invention of Peace. Reflections on War and International Order (London).
Hughes, C.E. (1923), ‘Recent Questions and Negotiations’, Foreign Affairs 2.
Hughes, C.E. (1925), The Pathway of Peace. Representative Addresses Delivered during his term as Secretary of State, 1921–1925 (New York).
Hughes, C.E.(1922), ‘Deal Only with Upright States’, The Nation's Business 10, pp. 10–11.
Huntington, S.P. (1989), ‘American Ideals versus American Institutions’, in Ikenberry (1989), pp. 223–58.
Huthmacher, J., and Susman, W. (eds.) (1973), Herbert Hoover and the Crisis of American Capitalism (Cambridge, MA).
Ikenberry, G.J. (2001), After Victory. Institutions, Strategic Restraint and the Rebuilding of World Order after Major Wars (Princeton).
Ikenberry, G.J. (2004), ‘Illusions of Empire: Defining the New American Order’, Foreign Affairs 83 (March/April).
Ikenberry, G.J. (ed.) (1989), American Foreign Policy (Boston and London).
Iriye, A. (1977), From Nationalism to Internationalism. US Foreign Policy to 1914 (London).
Iriye, A. (1993), The Globalizing of America, 1913–1945 (Cambridge and New York).
Iriye, A. (2002), Global Community. The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World (Berkeley, CA).
Jacobson, J. (1972a), ‘The Conduct of Locarno Diplomacy’, Review of Politics 34, pp. 67–81.
Jacobson, J. (1972b), Locarno Diplomacy: Germany and the West, 1925–29 (Princeton).
Jacobson, J. (1983a), ‘Is There a New History of the 1920s?’, American Historical Review 88, pp. 617–45.
Jacobson, J. (1983b), ‘Strategies of French Foreign Policy after World War I’, Journal of Modern History 55, pp. 78–95.
Jacobson, J. (1994), When the Soviet Union Entered World Politics (Berkeley, CA).
Jacobson, J. (1998), ‘The Soviet Union and Versailles’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 451–68.
Jacobson, J. (2004), ‘Locarno, Britain and the Security of Europe’, in Johnson (2004b), pp. 11–32.
Jacobson, J., Walker, J.T. (1975), ‘The Impulse for a Franco-German Entente: The Origins of the Thoiry Conference, 1926’, Journal of Contemporary History 10, pp. 157–81.
Jaffe, L. (1985), The Decision to Disarm Germany (New York).
James, H. (1985), The Reichsbank and Public Finance in Germany, 1924–1933. A Study of the Politics and Economics during the Great Depression (Frankfurt am Main).
James, H. (1986), The German Slump. Politics and Economics, 1924–1936 (Oxford and New York).
James, H. (2001), The End of Globalisation. Lessons from the Great Depression (Cambridge, MA).
James, H. (ed.) (2002), The Interwar Depression in an International Context (Munich).
Jeannesson, F. (1998), Poincaré, la France et la Ruhr, 1922–1924 (Strasbourg).
Jenkins, F.A. (1960), Defence by Committee. The British Committee of Imperial Defence, 1880–1959 (Oxford).
Jenkins, R. (1987), Baldwin (Basingstoke and London).
Jervis, R. (1976), Perception and Misperception in International Politics (Princeton, NJ).
Johnson, D. (1961), ‘Austen Chamberlain and the Locarno Agreements’, University of Birmingham Historical Journal 8, pp. 62–81.
Johnson, G. (2000), ‘ “Das Kind” Revisited. Lord D'Abernon and German Security Policy’, Contemporary European History 9, 2, pp. 209–24.
Johnson, G. (2002), The Berlin Embassy of Lord D'Abernon, 1920–1926 (Basingstoke and New York).
Johnson, G. (2004a), ‘Austen Chamberlain and the Negotiation of the Kellogg–Briand Pact, 1928’, in Johnson (2004b), pp. 59–79.
Johnson, G. (ed.) (2004b), Locarno Revisited. European Diplomacy 1920–1929 (London).
Joll, J. (1992), The Origins of the First World War, 2nd edn (Harlow).
Jones, K.P. (ed.) (1981), U.S. Diplomats in Europe, 1919–1941 (Santa Barbara, CA).
Junker, D. (1975), Der unteilbare Weltmarkt. Das ökonomische Interesse in der Außenpolitik der USA 1933–1941 (Stuttgart).
Junker, D. (1981), ‘Die Außenpolitik der USA 1920–1940’, in Franz (1981), pp. 200–17.
Köhler, H. (ed.) (1984), Deutschland und der Westen (Berlin).
Kaiser, A. (1989), Lord D'Abernon und die englische Deutschlandpolitik 1920–1926 (Frankfurt am Main).
Keegan, J. (2000), The First World War (London).
Keeton, E.D. (1985), ‘Economics and Politics in Briand's German Policy, 1925–1931’, in Fink et al. (1985).
Keeton, E.D. (1987), Briand's Locarno Policy. French Economics, Politics and Diplomacy, 1925–1929 (New York).
Keiger, J.P.W(2004), ‘Poincaré, Briand and Locarno: Continuity in French Diplomacy in the 1920s’, in Johnson (2004b), pp. 95–108.
Keiger, J.P.W. (1983), France and the Origins of the First World War (London).
Keiger, J.P.W. (1997), Raymond Poincaré (Cambridge).
Kellogg, F.B. (1926), ‘Some Foreign Policies of the United States’, Foreign Affairs 4.
Kellogg, F.B. (1928a), Foreign Relations (Washington, DC).
Kellogg, F.B. (1928b), ‘The War Prevention Policy of the United States’, Foreign Affairs 6.
Kennan, G.F. (1951), American Diplomacy 1900–1950 (Chicago).
Kennedy, D.M. (1980), Over Here. The First World War and American Society (Oxford and New York).
Kennedy, D.M. (1999), Freedom from Fear. The American People in Depression and War (Oxford and NewYork).
Kennedy, P.M. (1975), ‘Idealists and Realists. British Views of Germany 1864–1939’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 25, pp. 137–56.
Kennedy, P.M. (1981), The Realities behind Diplomacy. Background Influences on British External Policy 1865–1980 (London).
Kennedy, P.M. (1983), ‘The Tradition of Appeasement in British Foreign Policy, 1865–1939’, in P.M. Kennedy, Strategy and Diplomacy 1870–1945. Eight Studies (London).
Kennedy, P.M. (1988), The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Economic Challenge and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (London).
Kennedy, P.M. (ed.) (1991), Grand Strategies in War and Peace (New Haven and London).
Kennedy, P.M., and Hitchcock, W.I. (eds.) (2000), From War to Peace: Altered Strategic Landscapes in the Twentieth Century (New Haven, CT).
Kent, B. (1989), The Spoils of War. The Politics, Economics and Diplomacy of Reparations 1918–1932 (Oxford).
Kershaw, I. (1998), Hitler, 1889–1936, Hubris (London).
Kessler, H. Graf (1996), Tagebücher 1918–1937, ed. W. Pfeiffer-Belli (Frankfurt am Main).
Keynes, J.M. (1919), The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London).
Keynes, J.M. (1921), A Revision of the Treaty (London).
Keynes, J.M. (1971), The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, 29 vols. (London).
Kimmich, C.M. (1976), Germany and the League of Nations (Chicago).
Kindleberger, C.P. (1973), The World in Depression, 1929–39 (Berkeley).
Kissinger, H.A. (1994), Diplomacy (New York).
Kitching, C.J. (1999), Britain and the Problem of International Disarmament (London).
Kitching, C.J. (2004), ‘Locarno and the Irrelevance of Disarmament’, in Johnson (2004b), pp. 161–77.
Klümpen, H. (1992), Deutsche Außenpolitik zwischen Versailles und Rapallo. Revisionismus oder Neuorientierung? (Münster and Hamburg).
Knapp, M., and Link, W. et al. (1978), Die USA und Deutschland 1918–1975. Deutsch-amerikanische Beziehungen zwischen Rivalität und Partnerschaft (Munich).
Knipping, F. (1987), Deutschland, Frankreich und das Ende der Locarno-Ära, 1928–1931 (Munich).
Knock, T.J. (1992), To End All Wars. Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order (Princeton).
Knock, T.J. (1998), ‘Wilsonian Concepts and International Realities at the End of the War’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glauser (1998), pp. 111–30.
Kolb, E. (1988), Die Weimarer Republik, 3rd edn (Munich and Vienna).
Koszyk, K. (1972), Deutsche Presse 1914–1945 (Berlin).
Krüger, P. (1973), Deutschland und die Reparationen 1918/19. Die Genesis des Reparationsproblems in Deutschland zwischen Waffebstillstand und Versailler Friedensschluß (Stuttgart).
Krüger, P. (1974), ‘Friedenssicherung und deutsche Revisionspolitik. Die deutsche Außenpolitik und die Verhandlungen über den Kellogg-Pakt’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 22, pp. 227–57.
Krüger, P. (1980), ‘Der deutsch-polnische Schiedsvertrag von 1925 im Rahmen der Locarno-Verträge’, Historische Zeitschrift 230, pp. 577–612.
Krüger, P. (1981), ‘Das Reparationsproblem der Weimarer Republik in fragwürdiger Sicht. Kritische Überlegungen zur neuesten Forschung’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 29, pp. 21–47.
Krüger, P. (1984), ‘Die “Westpolitik” in der Weimarer Republik’, in Köhler (1984), pp. 105–30.
Krüger, P. (1985a), Die Außenpolitik der Republik von Weimar (Darmstadt).
Krüger, P. (1985b), ‘Struktur, Organisation und außenpolitische Wirkungsmöglichkeiten der leitenden Beamten des Auswärtige Dienstes 1921–1933’, in Schwabe (1985a), pp. 101–69.
Krüger, P. (1993), ‘German Disappointment and Anti-Western Resentment, 1918–1919’, in Schröder (1993), pp. 323–36.
Krüger, P. (ed.) (1991), Kontinuität und Wandel in der Staatenordnung der Neuzeit. Beiträge zur Geschichte des internationalen Systems (Marburg).
Krüger, P., and Schroeder, P.W. (eds.) (2001), The Transformation of European Politics, 1763–1848: Episode or Model in Modern History? (New York).
Krasner, S. (1976), ‘State Power and the Structure of International Trade’, World Politics 28, pp. 317–43.
Krasner, S. (ed.) (1983), International Regimes (Ithaca, NY).
Krieger, W. (1978), Labour Party und Weimarer Republik. Ein Beitrag zur Außenpolitik der britischen Arbeiterbewegung zwischen Programmatik und Parteitaktik, 1918–1924 (Bonn).
Kriegk, O. (1925), Locarno, ein Erfolg? Eine kritische Studie der Verträge von Locarno und ihrer Vorgeschichte (Berlin).
Kruedener, J. v. (ed.) (1990), Economic Crisis and Political Collapse. The Weimar Republic 1924–1933 (New York and Oxford).
Kupchan, C.A. (2003), The End of the American Era. U.S. Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the Twenty-First Century (New York).
Lévy-Leboyer, A. (ed.) (1977), La position internationale de la France. Aspects économiques et financières (XIXe–XXe siècles) (Paris).
LaFeber, W. (1989), The American Age. United States Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad since 1750 (New York).
Lake, D. (1988), Power, Protection, and International Trade: The International Sources of American Commercial Strategy, 1887–1939 (Ithaca, NY).
Lamont, T.W. (1930), ‘The Final Reparations Settlement’, Foreign Affairs 8.
Langer, W.L. (1962), European Alliances and Alignments 1871–1890, 2nd edn (New York).
Langer, W.L. (1968), The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890–1902, 2nd edn (New York).
Laroche, J. (1957), Au Quai d'Orsay avec Briand et Poincaré: 1913–1926 (Paris).
Laubach, E. (1968), Die Politik der Kabinette Wirth 1921/22 (Lübeck and Hamburg).
Lee, M.M. (1982), ‘Gustav Stresemann und die deutsche Völkerbundspolitik 1925 bis 1930’, in Michalka and Lee (1982), pp. 350–74.
Lee, M.M., and Michalka, W. (1982), German Foreign Policy 1917–1933. Continuity or Break? (Leamington Spa).
Leffler, M.P. (1977), ‘American Policy-Making and European Stability 1921–1933’, Pacific Historical Review 46, pp. 207–28.
Leffler, M.P. (1979), The Elusive Quest. America's Pursuit of European Stability and French Security (Chapel Hill, NC).
Leffler, M.P. (1981), ‘Herbert Hoover, the “New Era” and American Foreign Policy’, in Hawley (1981), pp. 148–79.
Leffler, M.P. (1999), ‘The Cold War: What Do “We Now Know”?’, American Historical Review 104, (April), pp. 501–24.
Lentin, A. (1985), Guilt at Versailles. Lloyd George and the Pre-History of Appeasement (London).
Levy, C., and Roseman, M. (eds.) (2002), Three Post-War Eras in Comparison: Western Europe 1918–1945–1989 (Basingstoke and New York).
Link, A.S. (1979), Woodrow Wilson. Revolution, War, and Peace (Arlington Heights, IL).
Link, A.S. (ed.) (1977), The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, 69 vols. (Princeton).
Link, A.S., and Catton, W.B. (1973), The Progressive Era and the First World War, 1900–1920, 4th edn (New York).
Link, A.S., and McCormick, R.L. (1983), Progressivism (Arlington Heights, IL).
Link, W. (1969), ‘Die Ruhrbesetzung und die wirtschaftspolitischen Interessen der USA’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 17, pp. 373–82.
Link, W. (1970), Die amerikanische Stabilisierungspolitik in Deutschland, 1921–1932 (Düsseldorf).
Link, W. (1974), ‘Der amerikanische Einfluß auf die Weimarer Republik in der Dawesplan-phase (Elemente eines “penetrierten Systems”)’, in Mommsen, Petzina and Weisbrod (1974), pp. 485–98.
Link, W. (1978), ‘Die Beziehungen zwischen der Weimarer Republik und den USA’, in Knapp and Link et al. (1978), pp. 62–106.
Lippelt, H. (1971), ‘“Politische Sanierung” – Zur deutschen Politik gegenüber Polen 1925/26’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 19, pp. 323–73.
Lippmann, W. (1922), Public Opinion (New York).
Lippmann, W. (1923), ‘The Outlawry of War’, Atlantic Monthly (August).
Lippmann, W. (1925), The Phantom Public (New York).
Lippmann, W. (1943), U.S. Foreign Policy: Shield of the Republic (New York).
Lippmann, W. (1944), U.S. War Aims (New York).
Lloyd George, D. (1932), The Truth about Reparations and War Debts (New York).
Lloyd George, D. (1938), The Truth about the Peace Treaties, 2 vols. (London).
Lloyd, T.O. (1993), Empire, Welfare State, Europe. English History 1906–1992, 4th edn (Oxford).
Luckau, E. (ed.) (1941), The German Delegation at the Paris Peace Conference (New York).
Luther, H. (1960), Politiker ohne Partei (Stuttgart).
Möller, H. (1998), Europa zwischen den Weltkriegen (Munich).
MacDonald, R. (1914), ‘From Green Benches’, Leicester Pioneer 20 (March).
MacDonald, R. (1918), National Defence. A Study in Militarism (London).
MacDonald, R. (1919), ‘Outlook’, Socialist Review (July).
MacDonald, R. (1923a), The Foreign Policy of the Labour Party (London).
MacDonald, R. (1923b), ‘Outlook’, Socialist Review (February).
MacDonald, R. (1925), Protocol or Pact (London).
MacKenzie, N. (ed.) (1978), The Letters of Sidney and Beatrice Webb, III: Pilgrimage, 1912–1947 (Cambridge).
Macmillan, M. (2001), Peacemakers: The Paris Conference of 1919 and its Attempt to End War (London).
Maddox, R.J. (1970), William E. Borah and American Foreign Policy (Baton Rouge, LA).
Magee, F. (1995), ‘“Limited Liability”? Britain and the Treaty of Locarno’, Twentieth Century British History 6, pp. 1–22.
Maier, C.S. (1979), ‘The Truth about the Treaties’, Journal of Modern History 51, pp. 56–67.
Maier, C.S.(1981), ‘The Two Postwar Eras and the Conditions for Stability in 20th-Century Western Europe’, American Historical Review 86, pp. 327–52.
Maier, C.S.(1987), In Search of Stability. Explorations in Historical Political Economy (Cambridge and New York).
Maier, C.S.(1988), Recasting Bourgeois Europe. Stabilization in France, Germany and Italy in the Decade after World War I, 2nd edn (Princeton).
Maier, C.S.(2002), ‘An American Empire? The Problems of Frontiers and Peace in Twenty-First-Century World Politics’, Harvard Magazine (November–December).
Maisel, E. (1996), The Foreign Office and Foreign Policy, 1919–1926 (Brighton).
Mannock, J.W. (1962), ‘Anglo-American Relations, 1921–38’, Ph.D. Diss., Princeton University.
Mantoux, P. (1992), The Deliberations of the Council of Four (March 24 – June 28, 1919), trans. and ed. A.S. Link and M. Boemeke, 2 vols. (Princeton).
Marks, S. (1976), The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918–1933 (London).
Marks, S.(2002), The Ebbing of European Ascendancy. An International History of the World, 1914–1945 (London).
Marquand, D. (1977), Ramsay MacDonald (London).
Maxelon, M.O. (1972), Stresemann und Frankreich 1914–1929. Deutsche Politik der Ost-West-Balance (Düsseldorf).
May, E.R. (1961), Imperial Democracy. The Emergence of America as a Great Power (New York).
May, E.R.(1973), ‘Lessons’ of the Past: The Use and Misuse of History in American Foreign Policy (New York).
Mayer, A.J. (1967), Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking. Containment and Counterrevolution at Versailles, 1918–1919 (New York).
Mayeur, J.-M. (1984), La vie politique sous la Troisième République (1870–1940) (Paris).
McDougall, W.A. (1978), France's Rhineland Diplomacy, 1914–24: The Last Bid for a Balance of Power in Europe (Princeton).
McDougall, W.A.(1979), ‘Political Economy versus National Sovereignty: French Structures for German Economic Integration after Versailles’, Journal of Modern History 51, pp. 4–23.
McDougall, W.A., Trachtenberg, M., and Maier, C.S. (1979), Special Issue on Versailles, Journal of Modern History 51.
McKenna, M.C. (1961), Borah (Ann Arbor, MI).
McKercher, B.J.C(1991b), ‘ “The Deep and Latent Mistrust”: The British Official Mind and the United States, 1919–1929’, in McKercher (1991a), pp. 209–38.
McKercher, B.J.C. (1984), The Second Baldwin Government and the United States, 1924–1929. Attitudes and Diplomacy (Cambridge).
McKercher, B.J.C. (ed.) (1991a), Anglo-American Relations in the 1920s. The Struggle for Supremacy (Basingstoke and London).
McKercher, B.J.C.(1989), Esme Howard. A Diplomatic Biography (Cambridge).
McKercher, B.J.C.(1991c), ‘Reaching for the Brass Ring: The Recent Historiography of Interwar American Relations’, Diplomatic History 15, 4.
McKercher, B.J.C.(1999), Transition of Power. Britain's Loss of Global Pre-eminence to the United States, 1930–1945 (Cambridge).
McNeil, W.C. (1986), American Money and the Weimar Republic: Economics and Politics in the Era of the Great Depression (New York).
Mearsheimer, J. (2001), The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (New York).
Medlicott, W.N. (1968), British Foreign Policy since Versailles, 1919–1963 (London).
Meier, C. (2002), Caesar, 5th edn (Munich).
Michalka, W. (1992), ‘Die Außenpolitik von Weimar (I). Zwischen Revisionismus und Neuansatz 1918–1922’, Neue Politische Literatur 37, pp. 384–403.
Michalka, W. (ed.) (1994), Der Erste Weltkrieg: Wirkung, Wahrnehmung, Analyse (Munich).
Michalka, W., and Lee, M.M. (eds.) (1982), Gustav Stresemann (Darmstadt).
Middlemas, R.K., and Barnes, J. (1969), Stanley Baldwin (London, 1969).
Miller, D.H. (1928), The Drafting of the Covenant, 2 vols. (New York and London).
Miller, D.H. (1928), The Drafting of the Covenant, 2 vols. (New York and London).
Miller, K. (1967), Socialism and Foreign Policy. Theory and Practice in Britain to 1931 (The Hague).
Miller, K.(1999), Populist Nationalism: Republican Insurgency and American Foreign Policy Making, 1918–1925 (Westport, CT).
Milward, A.S. (1984), The Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1945–1951 (London).
Miquel, P. (1961), Poincaré (Paris).
Miquel, P.(1972), La Paix de Versailles et l'opinion publique française (Paris).
Miquel, P.(1977), La Paix de Versailles et l'opinion publique française (Paris).
Miquel, P.(1983), La Grande Guerre (Paris).
Moggridge, D.E. (1972), British Monetary Policy, 1924–31: The Norman Conquest of $4.86 (Cambridge).
Mollier, J.-Y., and George, J. (1994), La plus longue des républiques 1870–1940 (Paris).
Mommsen, H. (1989), Die verspielte Freiheit. Der Weg der Republik von Weimar in den Untergang, 1918–1933 (Berlin).
Mommsen, H., Petzina, D., and Weisbrod, B. (eds.) (1974), Industrielles System und politische Entwicklung in der Weimarer Republik (Düsseldorf).
Monroe, E. (1981), Britain's Moment in the Middle East (London).
Moreau, E. (1954), Souvenirs d'un gouverneur de la Banque de France: Histoire de la stabilisation du franc, 1926–1928 (Paris).
Morgan, K.O. (1979), Consensus and Disunity. The Lloyd George Coalition Government, 1918–1922 (Oxford).
Morgenthau, H.J. (1952), In Defense of the National Interest. A Critical Examination of American Foreign Policy (New York).
Mouré, K. (2003), The Gold Standard Illusion. France, the Bank of France and the International Gold Standard, 1914–1939 (Oxford).
Néré, J. (1985), Le problème de mur d'argent. Les crises du franc (1924–1926) (Paris).
Newton, D. (1998), British Policy and the Weimar Republic 1918–1919 (Oxford).
Newton, S. (1996), Profits of Peace. The Political Economy of Anglo-German Appeasement (Oxford).
Nicholls, A.J. (1991), Weimar and the Rise of Hitler, 3rd edn (London).
Nicholls, A.J.(1994), Freedom with Responsibility. The Social Market Economy in Germany, 1918–1963 (Oxford).
Nicolson, H. (1931), Peacemaking in 1919 (London).
Nicolson, H. (1937), Curzon: The Last Phase, 1919–1925. A Study in Post-War Diplomacy (London).
Nicolson, H. (1952), King George the Fifth. His Life and Reign (London).
Nicolson, N. (ed.) (1966), Harold Nicolson: Diaries and Letters, 1930–39 (London).
Niedhart, G. (1978), ‘Appeasement. Die britische Antwort auf die Krise des Weltreichs und das internationale System der Zwischenkriegszeit’, Historische Zeitschrift 226, pp. 52–76.
Niedhart, G.(1980), ‘Multipolares Gleichgewicht und weltwirtschaftliche Verflechtung. Deutschland in der britischen Appeasement-Politik 1919–1933’, in Stürmer (1980), pp. 113–30.
Niedhart, G.(1999), Die Außenpolitik der Weimarer Republik (Munich).
Ninkovich, F. (1999), The Wilsonian Century (New Haven, CT).
Nipperdey, T. (1993), Deutsche Geschichte 1866–1918, II: Machtstaat vor der Demokratie (Munich).
Noel Baker, P.J. (1925), The Geneva Protocol for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes (London).
Northedge, F.S. (1996), The Troubled Giant. Britain among the Great Powers 1916–1939 (London).
Nye, J.S., Jr (1993), Understanding International Conflicts. An Introduction to Theory and History (New York).
O'Riordan, E.Y. (2001), Britain and the Ruhr Crisis (London).
Offner, A.A. (1975), The Origins of the Second World War. American Foreign Policy and World Politics, 1917–1941 (New York).
Orde, A. (1978), Great Britain and International Security, 1920–1926 (London).
Orde, A.(1990), British Policy and European Reconstruction after the First World War (Cambridge).
Otte, T.G. (1998), Harold Nicolson and Diplomatic Theory. Between Old Diplomacy and New (Leicester).
Oudin, B. (1987), Arisitide Briand: la paix, une idée neuve en Europe (Paris).
Paillat, C. (ed.) (1979–84), Dossiers secrets de la France contemporaine, 5 vols (Paris).
Parrini, C.P. (1969), Heir to Empire. United States Economic Diplomacy, 1916–1923 (Pittsburgh).
Pease, N. (1986), Poland, the United States and the Stabilisation of Europe, 1919–1933 (New York).
Perkins, D. (1956), Charles Evans Hughes and American Democratic Statesmanship (Boston).
Petricioli, M. (ed.) (1995), A Missed Opportunity? 1922: The Reconstruction of Europe (Bern and New York).
Petrie, C. (1939/40), The Life and Letters of the Rt. Hon. Sir Austen Chamberlain, 2 vols. (London).
Pitts, V.J. (1987), France and the German Problem. Politics and Economics in the Locarno Period, 1924–29 (New York).
Pogge von Strandmann, H. (1981), ‘Rapallo – Strategy in Preventive Diplomacy. New Sources and New Interpretations’, in Berghahn and Kitchen (1981), pp. 123–46.
Pogge von Strandmann, H. (ed.) (1985), Walther Rathenau. Industrialist, Banker, and Politician. Notes and Diaries, 1907–1922 (Oxford).
Pohl, K.-H. (1979), Weimars Wirtschaft und die Außenpolitik der Republik 1924–1926. Vom Dawes-Plan zum Internationalen Eisenpakt (Düsseldorf).
Poincaré, R. (1928), L'Œuvre financière et économique du Gouvernement. Discours prononcé à la Chambre des Députés par Monsieur Raymond Poincaré 2 et 3 février 1928 (Paris).
Poincaré, R. (1930), ‘La Ruhr et ke Plan Dawes’, Revue de Paris 1 (January).
Poincaré, R. (1933), Au service de la France. Neuf années de souvenirs, X: Victoire et Armistice, 1918 (Paris).
Poincaré, R. (1977), A la recherche de la paix, 1919, ed. J. Bariéty and P. Miquel (Paris).
Pollard, S. (1992), The Development of the British Economy, 1914–1990, 4th edn (London and New York).
Pusey, M.J. (1951), Charles Evans Hughes, 2 vols. (New York).
Rémond, R. (1997), Notre siècle. 1918–1995 (Paris).
Rödder, A. (1993), ‘Der Mythos von der frühen Westbindung. Konrad Adenauer und Stesemanns Außenpolitik’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 41, pp. 543–73.
Rödder, A. (1996), Stresemanns Erbe. Julius Curtius und die deutsche Außenpolitik 1929–1931 (Paderborn).
Rathenau, W. (1929), Politische Briefe (Dresden).
Rendel, G. (1957), The Sword and the Olive: Recollections of Diplomacy and the Foreign Service, 1913–1954 (London).
Reynolds, D. (1991), Britannia Overruled. British Policy and World Power in the 20th Century (London).
Rhodes, B.D. (1991), ‘The Image of Britain in the United States, 1919–1929: A Contentious Relative and Rival’, in McKercher (1991a), pp. 187–208.
Richardson, D. (1989), The Evolution of British Disarmament Policy in the 1920s (London).
Richardson, D.(2004), United States Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, 1918–1941: The Golden Age of American Diplomatic and Military Complacency (Westport, CT).
Rieckhoff, H.V. (1971), German–Polish Relations 1918–1933 (Baltimore).
Riesenberg, K.E. (1982), ‘Die SPD in der “Locarno Krise” Oktober/November 1925’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 30, pp. 130–61.
Robinson, P.R., and Gallagher, J. (1953), ‘The Imperialism of Free Trade’, Economic History Review, 2nd series, 6, 1, pp. 1–15.
Roskill, S. (1972), Hankey, Man of Secrets (London).
Rothwell, V.H. (1972), British War Aims and Peace Diplomacy, 1914–1918 (Oxford).
Rowland, B. (ed.) (1975), Balance of Power or Hegemony: The Interwar Monetary System (London).
Rupieper, H.-J. (1979), The Cuno Government and Reparations, 1922–23 (The Hague).
Saint-Aulaire, Comte de (1953), Confession d'un vieux diplomate (Paris).
Salewski, M. (1966), Entwaffnung und Militärkontrolle in Deutschland 1919–1927 (Munich).
Salewski, M.(1980), ‘Das Weimarer “Revisionssyndrom”’, Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 2/80 (January), pp. 14–25.
Salzmann, S. (2003), Great Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union. Rapallo and after, 1922–1934 (London).
Saueressig, P. (1996), Chancen und Grenzen informeller Diplomatie. Charles Evans Hughes und amerikanische Außenpolitik 1921–1925 (Munich).
Schöllgen, G. (2000), Das Zeitalter des Imperialismus, 4th edn (Munich).
Schacht, H. (1931), Das Ende der Reparationen (Oldenburg).
Schacht, H. (1953), 76 Jahre meines Lebens (Bad Wörishofen).
Schattkowsky, R. (1994a), Deutschland und Polen von 1918/19 bis 1925: deutsch-polnische Beziehungen zwischen Versailles und Locarno (Frankfurt am Main and New York).
Schattkowsky, R. (ed.) (1994c), Locarno und Osteuropa (Marburg).
Schattkowsky, R.(1994b), ‘Deutschland und Polen vor Locarno. Probleme ihrer Beziehungen 1923 bis 1925’, in Schattkowsky (1994c), pp. 107–14.
Schlesinger, A.M., Jr (1956), The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston).
Schlesinger, A.M., Jr.(1999), The Cycles of American History (New York).
Schmidt, G. (ed.) (1983), Konstellationen internationaler Politik 1924–1932 (Bochum).
Schröder, H.-J. (ed.) (1993), Confrontation and Cooperation. Germany and the United States in the Era of World War I, 1900–1924 (Oxford).
Schroeder, P.W. (1976), ‘Munich and the British Tradition’, Historical Journal 19, 1, pp. 223–43.
Schroeder, P.W.(1987), ‘The Nineteenth Century System: Balance of Power or Political Equilibrium?’, Review of International Studies 15, pp. 135–53.
Schroeder, P.W.(1993), ‘Economic Integration and the European International System in the Era of World War I’, American Historical Review 98, pp. 1130–37.
Schroeder, P.W.(1994), The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (Oxford).
Schroeder, P.W.(2004a), ‘Alliances, 1815–1945: Weapons of Power and Tools of Management’, in Schroeder (2004d), pp. 195–222.
Schroeder, P.W.(2004b), ‘Embedded Counterfactuals and World War I as an Unavoidable War’, in Schroeder (2004d), pp. 157–92.
Schroeder, P.W.(2004c), ‘The Mirage of Empire versus the Promise of Hegemony’, in Schroeder (2004d), pp. 297–306.
Schroeder, P.W.(2004d), Systems, Stability, and Statecraft. Essays on the International History of Modern Europe, ed. and with an introduction by D. Wetzel, R. Jervis and J.S. Levy (New York).
Schroeder, P.W.(2004e),‘World War I as Galloping Gertie: A Reply to Joachim Remak’, in Schroeder (2004d), pp. 137–56.
Schuker, S.A. (1972), ‘Republican Policy and the Pax Americana, 1921–1932’, in Williams (1972a), pp. 254–92.
Schuker, S.A. (1976), The End of French Predominance in Europe. The Financial Crisis of 1924 and the Adoption of the Dawes Plan (Chapel Hill, NC).
Schuker, S.A. (1983), ‘American Foreign Policy and the Young Plan, 1929’, in Schmidt (1983), pp. 122–30.
Schuker, S.A. (1987), American ‘Reparations’ to Germany (Princeton).
Schuker, S.A. (1998), ‘The Rhineland Question: West European Security at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 275–312.
Schuker, S.A. (ed.) (2000), Deutschland und Frankreich. Vom Konflikt zur Aussöhnung (Munich).
Schulze, H. (1982), Weimar. Deutschland 1917–1933 (Berlin).
Schulze, H. (1996), States, Nations and Nationalism: From the Middle Ages to the Present (Oxford).
Schulzinger, R. (1990), American Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century (Oxford).
Schwabe, K. (1971), Deutsche Revolution und Wilson-Frieden. Die amerikanische und deutsche Friedensstrategie zwischen Ideologie und Machtpolitik 1918/1919 (Düsseldorf).
Schwabe, K. (ed.) (1985a), Das Diplomatische Korps 1871–1945 (Boppard).
Schwabe, K. (ed.) (1985c), Die Ruhrkrise 1923. Wendepunkt der internationalen Beziehungen nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg (Paderborn).
Schwabe, K.(1985b), ‘Großbritannien und die Ruhrkrise’, in Schwabe (1985c), pp. 53–87.
Schwabe, K.(1985d), Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, and Peacemaking, 1918–1919 (Chapel Hill, NC).
Schwabe, K.(1986), ‘Die Vereinigten Staaten und die Weimarer Republik. Das Scheitern einer “besonderen Beziehung” ’, in Trommler (1986), pp. 367–78.
Schwabe, K.(1998), ‘Germany's Peace Aims and the Domestic and International Constraints’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 37–68.
Self, R.C. (ed.) (1995), The Austen Chamberlain Diaries and Letters: The Correspondence of Sir Austen Chamberlain with his Sisters, Hilda and Ida, 1916–1937 (Cambridge).
Service, R. (2000), Lenin. A Biography (Cambridge, MA).
Service, R.(2005), Stalin. A Biography (Cambridge, MA).
Seymour. C. (ed.) (1926–8), The Intimate Papers of Colonel House, 4 vols. (Boston and New York).
Sharp, A. (1984), Lloyd George's Foreign Policy (London).
Sharp, A.(1991), The Versailles Settlement: Peacemaking in Paris, 1919 (London).
Shaw, A. (ed.) (1924), The Messages and Papers of Woodrow Wilson, 2 vols. (Washington).
Short, F. (2000), Raymond Poincaré. Un homme d'Etat républicain (Paris).
Siebert, F. (1973), Aristide Briand, 1862–1932. Ein Staatsmann zwischen Frankreich und Europa (Stuttgart).
Silverman, D.P. (1982), Reconstructing Europe after the Great War (Cambridge, MA).
Skidelsky, R. (1983), John Maynard Keynes, I: Hopes Betrayed, 1883–1920 (London).
Skidelsky, R.(1996), John Maynard Keynes (Oxford).
Smith, T. (1994), America's Mission. The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy in the Twentieth Century (Princeton, NJ).
Smuts, J.C. (1918), The League of Nations: A Practical Suggestion (London).
Snidal, D. (1985), ‘The Limits of Hegemonic Stability Theory’, International Organization 39 pp. 579–614.
Snowden, Viscount (1934), An Autobiography, II: 1919–34 (London).
Snyder, G.H., and Diesing, P. (1977), Conflict Among Nations (Princeton).
Soutou, G.-H (1998), G.-H. (1998), ‘The French Peacemakers and their Home Front’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 167–88.
Soutou, G.-H. (1989), L'Or et le Sang. Les buts de guerre économique de la Première Guerre Mondiale (Paris).
Soutou, G.-H. (2001), ‘La France et la problématique de la sécurité collective à partir de Locarno: dialectique juridique et impasse géostratégique’, in Clemens (2001).
Spenz, J. (1966), Die diplomatische Vorgeschichte des Beitritts Deutschlands zum Völkerbund 1924–1926 (Göttingen).
Stürmer, M. (1967), Koalition und Opposition in der Weimarer Republik, 1924–1928 (Düsseldorf).
Stürmer, M. (ed.) (1980), Die Weimarer Republik. Belagerte Civitas (Königstein).
Stamm, C. (1977), Lloyd George zwischen Innen- und Außenpolitik. Die britische Deutschlandpolitik 1921/22 (Cologne).
Stannard Baker, R. (ed.) (1927–39), Woodrow Wilson: Life and Lettes, 8 vols. (Garden City, NY).
Steed, W. (1925), ‘Locarno and British Interests’, Journal of the British Institute of International Affairs 4, pp. 286–99.
Steiner, Z.S. (1993), ‘The League of Nations and the Quest for Security’, in Ahmann, Birke and Howard (1993), pp. 35–70.
Steiner, Z.S., and Neilson, K. (2003), Britain and the Origins of the First World War, 2nd edn (Basingstoke).
Stern-Rubarth, E. (1939), Three Men Tried: Austen Chamberlain, Stresemann, Briand and their Fight for a New Europe (London).
Stevenson, D(1998), ‘French War Aims and Peace Planning’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 87–109.
Stevenson, D. (1982), French War Aims against Germany, 1914–1919 (Oxford).
Stimson, H.L. (1932), The Pact of Paris. Three Years of Development (Washington, DC).
Stimson, H.L. (1934), Democracy and Nationalism in Europe (Princeton).
Stimson, H.L. (1936), The Far Eastern Crisis (New York).
Stimson, H.L., and Bundy, McG. (1948), On Active Service in Peace and War (London and New York).
Stone, R. (1970), The Irreconcilables. The Fight against the League of Nations (Lexington, KT).
Strachhan, H. (2001), The First World War, I: To Arms (Oxford).
Stresemann, G. (1919), Von der Revolution bis zum Frieden von Versailles (Berlin).
Stresemann, G. (1926), Reden und Schriften. Politik-Geschichte-Literatur, 1897–1926, 2 vols. (Dresden).
Stresemann, G. (1929), ‘Speech at the General Assembly, League of Nations, 9 September 1929’, League of Nations Official Journal, Special Supplement no. 75 (Geneva).
Stresemann, G. (1932), Vermächtnis. Der Nachlaβ in drei Bänden, ed. H. Bernhard, 3 vols. (Berlin).
Stresemann, G. (1976), Schriften, ed. A. Hartung (Berlin).
Suarez, G. (1932), Herriot, 1924–1932 (Paris).
Suarez, G. (ed.) (1928), De Poincaré à Poincaré (Paris).
Suarez, G. (ed.) (1938–41), Briand. Sa vie, son œuvre avec son Journal et de nombreux documents inédits, 5 vols. (Paris).
Tardieu, A. (1921a), La paix (Paris).
Tardieu, A. (1921b), The Truth about the Treaty (Indianapolis).
Tardieu, A. (1931), L'épreuve du pouvoir (Paris).
Taylor, A.J.P. (1954), The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918 (Oxford).
Taylor, A.J.P.(1957), The Trouble Makers. Dissent over Foreign Policy (London).
Taylor, A.J.P.(1964), The Origins of the Second World War (Harmondsworth).
Taylor, A.J.P.(1965), English History, 1914–1945 (Oxford).
Temperley, H. (ed.) (1969), The History of the Peace Conference of Paris, 6 vols. (Oxford).
Thompson, A.S. (1997), ‘Tariff Reform: An Imperial Strategy, 1903–1913’, Historical Journal 49, 4, pp. 1033–55.
Tillmann, S.P. (1961), Anglo-American Relations at the Paris Peace Conference (Princeton).
Tomes, J.H. (1989), ‘Austen Chamberlain and the Kellogg Pact’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies 18, 1, pp. 1–27.
Towle, P. (1993), ‘British Security and Disarmament Policy in Europe in the 1920s’, in Ahmann, Birke and Howard (1993), pp. 127–53.
Toynbee, A.J., and Macartney, P. (eds.) (1924–30), Survey of International Affairs, 1923–29 (Oxford).
Trachtenberg, M. (1979), ‘Reparations at the Paris Peace Conference’, Journal of Modern History 51, pp. 24–55.
Trachtenberg, M.(1980), Reparation in World Politics. France and European Economic Diplomacy, 1916–1923 (New York).
Trachtenberg, M.(1999), A Constructed Peace. The Making of the European Settlement 1945–1963 (Princeton).
Trommler, F. (ed.) (1986), Amerika und die Deutschen. Bestandsaufnahme einer 300–jährigen Geschichte (Opladen).
Turner, A. (1999), Britain and French War Debts in the 1920s (London).
Turner, C.R. (ed.) (1930), Essays and Speeches on Various Subjects by Gustav Stresemann (London).
Turner, H., Jr (1967), ‘Eine Rede Stresemanns über seine Locarnopolitik’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 15, pp. 412–36.
Turner, H.A., Jr (1963), Stresemann and the Politics of the Weimar Republic (Princeton).
Unger, G. (2005), Aristide Briand: le ferme conciliateur (Paris).
Urbanitsch, P. (1968), Großbritannien und die Verträge von Locarno (Vienna).
Vansittart, Lord (1958), The Mist Procession (London).
Vogt, M. (ed.) (1970), Die Entstehung des Young-Plans, dargestellt vom Reichsarchiv 1931–1933 (Boppard).
Walsdorff, M. (1971), Westorientierung und Ostpolitik. Stresemanns Rußlandpolitik in der Locarno-Ära (Bremen).
Walters, F.P. (1952), A History of the League of Nations, 2 vols. (London).
Waltz, K. (1979), Theory of International Politics (Reading, MA).
Walworth, A. (1986), Wilson and his Peacemakers. American Diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference (New York).
Wandel, E. (1971), Die Bedeutung der Vereinigten Staaten für das deutsche Reparationsproblem (1971).
Wandycz, P., Krüger, P., and Soutou, G. (1981), ‘La Pologne entre Paris et Berlin de Locarno à Hitler (1925–1933)’, Revue d'Histoire Diplomatique 95, pp. 236–348.
Wandycz, P.S. (1961), France and her Eastern Allies, 1919–1925. French–Czechoslovak–Polish Relations from the Paris Peace Conference to Locarno (Westport, CT).
Wandycz, P.S.(1980), The United States and Poland (Cambridge, MA).
Wandycz, P.S.(1988), The Twilight of the French Eastern Alliance, 1926–36. French–Czechoslovak–Polish Relations from Locarno to the Remilitarization of the Rhineland (Princeton).
Wandycz, P.S.(1998), ‘The Polish Question’, in Boemeke, Feldman and Glaser (1998), pp. 313–37.
Watt, D.C. (1965), Personalities and Policies. Studies in the Formulation of British Foreign Policy in the Twentieth Century (London).
Watt, D.C.(1984), Succeeding John Bull. America in Britain's Place, 1900–1975 (Cambridge).
Weber, M. (1994), ‘The Profession and Vocation of Politics’, in M. Weber, Political Writings, ed. P. Lassman and R. Speirs (Cambridge), pp. 309–69.
Weidenfeld, W. (1972), Die Englandpolitik Gustav Stresemanns (Mainz).
Wengst, U. (1973), Graf Brockdorff-Rantzau und die auβenpolitischen Anfänge der Weimarer Republik (Frankfurt am Main).
Westphal, A. (1942), The House Committee on Foreign Affairs (New York).
Widenor, W.C. (1980), Henry Cabot Lodge and the Search for an American Foreign Policy (Berkeley, CA).
Willert, A. (1952), The Road to Safety (London).
Williams, L.J. (1971), Britain and the World Economy, 1919–1970 (London).
Williams, W.A. (1972b), The Tragedy of American Diplomacy, 2nd edn (New York).
Williams, W.A. (ed.) (1972a), From Colony to Empire (New York).
Williamson, Ph. (1992), National Crisis and National Government. British Politics, the Economy and Empire 1926–1932 (Cambridge).
Williamson, Ph. (ed.) (1988), The Modernisation of Conservative Politics: The Diaries and Letters of William Bridgeman, 1904–1935 (London).
Williamson, Ph.(1999), Stanley Baldwin. Conservative Leadership and National Values (Cambridge).
Williamson, Ph., and Baldwin, E. (eds.) (2004), Baldwin Papers. A Conservative Statesman, 1908–1947 (Cambridge).
Wilson, T. (ed.) (1970), The Political Diaries of C.P. Scott 1911–1928 (London).
Winkler, H.A. (1985), Der Schein der Normalität. Arbeiter und Arbeiterbewegung in der Weimarer Republik 1924 bis 1930 (Berlin and Bonn, 1985).
Winkler, H.A. (1993), Weimar 1918–1933. Die Geschichte der ersten deutschen Demokratie (Munich).
Winkler, H.R. (1956), ‘The Emergence of a Labour Foreign Policy in Great Britain, 1918–1929’, Journal of Modern History 9, pp. 247–58.
Winkler, H.R. (2000), Der lange Weg nach Westen, 2 vols. (Munich).
Woods, N. (ed.) (1996), Explaining International Relations since 1945 (Oxford).
Wormser, G. (1977), Le septennat de Poincaré (Paris).
Wright, J.R.C. (1995), ‘Stresemann and Locarno’, Contemporary European History 4, 2, pp. 109–31.
Wright, J.R.C.(2002), Gustav Stresemann. Weimar's Greatest Statesman (Oxford).
Wrigley, C. (1990), Arthur Henderson (Cardiff).
Wurm, C.A. (1979), Die französische Sicherheitspolitik in der Phase der Umorientierung 1924–1926 (Frankfurt am Main, 1979).
Wurm, C.A. (1980), ‘Deutschlands Außenpolitik unter Stresemann, die USA und Westeuropa’, Geschichte und Gegenwart 9, pp. 176–87.
Wurm, C.A. (1993), Business, Politics, and International Relations: Steel, Cotton, and International Cartels in British Politics, 1924–1939 (Cambridge).
Wurm, C.A. (ed.) (1989), Internationale Kartelle und Auβenpolitik. Beiträge zur Zwischenkriegszeit (Frankfurt am Main and Wiesbaden).
Wyatt-Walter, A. (1996), ‘The United States and Western Europe: The Theory of Hegemonic Stability’, in Woods (1996), pp. 126–54.
Young, O. D. (1925), ‘Address by Owen D. Young at the Johns Hopkins University’, 23 February 1925 (New York).
Zeidler, M. (1993), Reichswehr und Rote Armee 1920–1933. Wege Stationen einer ungewöhnlichen Zusammenarbeit (Munich).
Zwehl, K.V. (1974), ‘Die Deutschlandpolitik Englands von 1922 bis 1924 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Reparationen’, Ph.D. Diss., Munich.
Zwoch, G. (ed.) (1972), Gustav Stresemann, Reichstagsreden (Bonn).