Taming the Sovereigns

Institutional Change in International Politics

Taming the Sovereigns

Kalevi Holsti inquires as to how we identify "change" in international politics and distinguish between significant and unimportant changes. Do we really live in a new era or simply see more continuity than transformation in international politics? Combining theoretical and empirical arguments, Holsti investigates eight major international institutions, including sovereignty, international law and territoriality, and speculates on their consequences.


 Reviews:

"Holsti steps back from the rush of current events to consider more broadly how scholars think about and chart international change. From his baseline conception of a 'society of states' in which relations are regulated by Westphalian norms and institutions, he finds continuity and creeping complexity more than a sharp transformation toward a de-territorialized, borderless world." Foreign Affairs

"By Combining a lucid theoretical analysis with a wealth of empirical data, Holsti has provided an argument that scholars of international politics as well as students will find thought provoking." Perspectives on Political Science

"Holsti's book is an important addition to both the growing body of literature on the nature of international change and to the ongoing debate about the fate of the sovereign state." - Daniel Nexon, Georgetown University

Reference Title: References

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Adler, Emmanuel, and Beverly Crawford, eds. (1991). Progress in Postwar International Relations. New York: Columbia University Press
Aldecoa, Francisco, and Michael Keating, eds. (1999). Paradiplomacy in Action: The Foreign Relations of Subnational Governments. London: Frank Cass
Alderson, Kai (2000). “Beyond the Linguistic Analogy: Norm and Action in International Politics.” Vancouver: Institute of International Relations, University of British Columbia, Working Paper No. 31
Alderson, Kai (2001). “Making Sense of State Socialization.” Review of International Studies 27, 3: 415–34
Anderson, M. S. (1993). The Rise of Modern Diplomacy, 1450–1919. London: Longman
Anderson, Malcolm (1996). Frontiers: Territory and State Formation in the Modern World. Cambridge: Polity Press
Anderson, Perry (1979). Lineages of the Absolute State. London: Verso
Ansell, Christopher K., and Steven Weber (1999). “Organizing International Politics: Sovereignty and Open Systems.” International Political Science Review 20, 1: 73–94
Ansprenger, Franz (1989). The Dissolution of the Colonial Empires. London: Routledge
Ardant, Gabriel (1975). “Financial Policy and Economic Infrastructure of Modern States and Nations.” In Charles Tilly, ed., The Formation of Nation States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 164–242
Armstrong, David (1993). Revolution and World Order: The Revolutionary State in International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Ashley, Richard, and R. B. J. Walker (1990). “Reading Dissidence/Writing the Discipline: Crisis and the Question of Sovereignty in International Studies.” International Studies Quarterly 34, 3: 367–416
Ayoob, Mohammed (1995). The Third World Security Predicament: State-Making, Regional Conflict and the International System. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner
Badie, Bertrand (1999). Un monde sans sovereaineté: les états entre ruse et responsabilité. Paris: Fayard
Badie, Bertrand, and Marie Claude Smouts (1999). Le retournement du monde: Sociologie de la scène internationale. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques
Bain, William (2001). “The Idea of Trusteeship in International Society: Unity, Progress, and the Perfection of Mankind.” PhD dissertation, University of British Columbia
Barber, Peter (1997). “Maps and Monarchs in Europe 1550–1800.” In Robert Oresko, G. C. Gibbs, and H. M. Scott, eds., Royal and Republican Sovereignty in Early Modern Europe: Essays in Memory of Ragnhild Hatton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 75–124
Barker, J. Craig (2000). International Law and International Relations. London: Continuum
Barnett, Michael (1996). “Sovereignty, Nationalism, and Regional Order in the Arab States System.” In Thomas Biersteker and Cynthia Weber, eds., State Sovereignty as Social Construct. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 148–89
Bartelson, Jens (1995). A Genealogy of Sovereignty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Bassiouni, Cherif (1997). “Organized Crime and New Wars.” In Mary Kaldor and Basker Vashee, eds., Restructuring the Global Military Sector, Vol. I: New Wars. London and Washington, DC: Frances Pinter for the United Nations University, pp. 34–54
Bayley, C. C. (1961). War and Society in Renaissance Florence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press
Bayley, David H. (1975). “The Police and Political Development in Europe.” In Charles Tillly, ed., The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 328–79
Bean, Richard (1973). “War and the Birth of the Nation State.” Journal of Economic History 33 (March): 203–21
Bereciartu, Gurutz J. (1994). Decline of the Nation-State, trans. William A. Douglass. Reno and Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press
Best, Geoffrey (1994). War and Law since 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Betts, Raymond F. (1985). Uncertain Dimensions: Western Overseas Empires in the Twentieth Century. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
Biersteker, Thomas J. (1992). “The ‘Triumph’ of Neoclassical Economics in the Developing World: Policy Convergence and Bases of Governance in the International Economic Order.” In James N. Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, eds., Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 102–31
Bojicic, Vesna, and Mary Kaldor (1997). “The Political Economy of War in Bosnia-Herzegovina.” In Mary Kaldor and Basker Vashee, eds., Restructuring the Global Military Sector, Vol. I: New Wars. London and Washington, DC: Frances Pinter for the United Nations University, pp. 137–76
Braudel, Fernand (1988). The Identity of France, Vol. I: History and Environment, trans. Sian Reynolds. London: Collins
Braun, Rudolf (1975). “Taxation, Sociopolitical Structure, and State-Building: Great Britain and Brandenburg-Prussia.” In Charles Tilly, ed., The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 243–327
Braun, Rudolf (1996). “Staying on Top: Socio-cultural Reproduction of European Power Elites.” In Wolfgang Reinhard, ed., Power Elites and State Building. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 235–59
Brawley, Mark R. (1993). Liberal Leadership: Great Powers and their Challengers in Peace and War. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press
Brewin, Christopher (1982). “Sovereignty.” In James Mayall, ed., The Community of States. London: George Allen & Unwin, pp. 34–48
Brown, J. Scott (1934). Vitoria and his Law of Nations. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Brownlie, Ian (1984). “The Expansion of International Society: The Consequences of the Law of Nations.” In Hedley Bull and Adam Watson, eds., The Expansion of International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 357–69
Bruce, Ian (2002). “Guns for hiring and firing.” The Herald (United Kingdom), February 19
Bull, Hedley (1977). The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. London: Macmillan
Bull, Hedley (1980). “The Great Irresponsibles? The United States, the Soviet Union, and World Order.” International Journal 35: 437–47
Bull, Hedley (1984). “European States and African Political Communities.” In Hedley Bull and Adam Watson, eds., The Expansion of International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 99–114
Busch, Marc (2000). “Democracy, Consultation, and the Paneling of Disputes under GATT.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 44, 4: 425–46
Butler, Peter F. (1978). “Legitimacy in a States-System: Vattel's Law of Nations.” In Michael Donelan, ed., The Reason of States: A Study in International Political Theory. London: George Allen & Unwin, pp. 45–63
Buzan, Barry (1993). States and Fear: The National Security Problem in International Relations. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press
Buzan, Barry, and Eric Herring (1998). The Arms Dynamic in World Politics. London: Lynne Rienner
Buzan, Barry, and R. J. Barry Jones, eds. (1981). Change and the Study of International Relations: The Evaded Dimension. London: Frances Pinter
Byers, Michael (1999). Custom, Power and the Power of Rules: International Relations and Customary International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cameron, Maxwell (1998). “Democratization of Foreign Policy: The Ottawa Process as a Model.” Canadian Foreign Policy 5, 3: 147–65
Carr, E. H. (1946). The Twenty Years Crisis, 1919–1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations, 2nd edn. London: Macmillan
Chaliand, Gerard (1994). The Art of War in World History. Berkeley: University of California Press
Chayes, Abram, and Antonia Chayes (1993). “On Compliance.” International Organization 47, 2: 175–205
Cheater, A. P. (1998). “Transcending the State? Gender and Borderline Construction of Citizenship in Zimbabwe.” In Thomas M. Wilson and Hastings Donnan, eds., Border Identities: Nation and State at International Frontiers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 191–214
Checkel, Jeffrey T. (1997). “International Norms and Domestic Politics: Bridging the Rationalist–Constructivist Divide.” European Journal of International Relations 3, 4: 473–95
Claessen, Henri J. M. and Peter Skalnik, eds. (1978). The Early State. The Hague: Mouton
Clapham, Christopher (1996). Africa and the International System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Clapham, Christopher (1998). “Degrees of Statehood.” Review of International Studies 24, 2: 143–58
Clapham, Christopher (1999). “Sovereignty and the Third World State.” In Robert Jackson, ed., Sovereignty at the Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 100–115
Clark, Ann Marie, Elisabeth J. Friedman, and Kathryn Hochstetler (1998). “The Sovereign Limits of Global Civil Society: A Comparison of NGO Participation in UN World Conferences on the Environment, Human Rights, and Women.” World Politics 51, 1: 1–35
Clark, George Norman (1947). The Seventeenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Clark, Ian (1997). Globalization and Fragmentation: International Relations in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Cohen, Raymond (1987). Theatre of Power: The Art of Diplomatic Signalling. London and New York: Longman
Cohen, Raymond (1997). Negotiating across Cultures: International Communication in an Interdependent World, rev. edn. Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace Press
Cohen, Raymond, and Raymond Westbrook, eds. (2000). Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Cook, Tanya (2002). “Dogs of War or Tomorrow's Peacekeepers?: The Role of Mercenaries in the Future Management of Conflict.” The Culture Mandala: Bulletin of the Centre for East–West Cultural and Economic Studies 5, 1: 1–12
Crawford, Neta C. (2002). Argument and Change in World Politics: Ethics, Decolonization, and Humanitarian Intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Crouch, Colin, and Wolfgang Streeck, eds. (1997). Political Economy of Modern Capitalism: Mapping Convergences and Diversity. London: Sage Publications
Crutwell, C. R. M. F. (1937). A History of Peaceful Change in the Modern World. London: Oxford University Press
Cutler, A. Clair (1999). “Private Authority in International Trade Relations: The Case of Maritime Transport.” In A. Clair Cutler, Virginia Haufler, and Tony Porter, eds., Private Authority and International Affairs. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 283–332
Danish Institute of International Affairs (1999). Humanitarian Intervention: Legal and Political Aspects. Copenhagen: Danish Institute of International Affairs
David, Charles-Philippe (2000). La guerre et la paix: Approches contemporaines de la sécurité et de la stratégie. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques
Deibert, Ronald J. (1997). “Exorcismus Theoriae: Pragmatism, Metaphors and the Return of the Medieval in IR Theory.” European Journal of International Relations 3, 2: 167–92
Deibert, Ronald J. (1999). “Harold Innis and the Empire of Speed.” Review of International Studies 25, 2: 273–90
Der Derian, James (1997). “Post-Theory: The Eternal Return of Ethics in International Relations.” In Michael Doyle and John Ikenberry, eds., New Thinking in International Relations Theory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 54–76
Deutsch, Karl W. (1954). Political Community at the International Level: Problems of Definition and Measurement. Garden City, NY: Doubleday
De Waal, Alex (1997). “Contemporary War in Africa.” In Mary Kaldor and Basker Vashee, eds., Restructuring the Global Military Sector, Vol. I: New Wars. London and Washington, DC: Frances Pinter for the United Nations University, pp. 286–332
Donelan, Michael (1984). “Spain and the Indies.” In Hedley Bull and Adam Watson, eds., The Expansion of International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 75–85
Doyle, Michael (1986). Empires. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Driessen, Henk (1998). “The ‘New Immigration’ and the Transformation of the European-African Frontier.” In Thomas M. Wilson and Hastings Donnan, eds, Border Identities: Nation and State at International Frontiers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 96–116
Duffy, Christopher (1987). The Military Experience in the Age of Reason. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
Dunne, Tim (1998). Inventing International Society: A History of the English School. London: Macmillan
Durand, Jean-Louis (2000). “Peace and the New World Order: A Study of Norms, Identity, Community and Intersubjectivity.” PhD dissertation, Department of Government, University of Queensland, Brisbane
Duyvesteyn, Isabelle (2000). “Contemporary War: Ethnic Conflict, Resource Conflict, or Something Else?” Paper presented at the 41st Annual Meetings of the International Studies Association, Los Angeles, March 14–18
Eckstein, Harry (1988). “A Culturalist Theory of Political Change.” American Political Science Review 82: 789–804
The Economist (2001). The World in 2002. London: The Economist Newspaper
The Economist (2002). The World in 2003. London: The Economist Newspaper
Ellingsen, Tanja (2000). “The New World Order: Global Village or Civilization?” Paper presented at the 41st Annual Meetings of the International Studies Association, Los Angeles, March 14–18
Ellis, Geoffrey (1991). The Napoleonic Empire. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education
Ertman, Thomas (1997). Birth of the Leviathan: Building States and Regimes in Mediaeval and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Evans, Peter (1997). “The Eclipse of the State?” World Politics 50 (October): 62–87
Fabry, Mikulas (1998). “Is World Politics Returning to the Middle Ages? The New Medievalism and the Problem of Authority and Change in International Relations Theory.” MA thesis, University of British Columbia
Fabry, Mikulas (2002). “The Idea of National Self-Determination and the Recognition of New States at the Congress of Berlin (1878).” Paper presented at the 43rd Annual Meetings of the International Studies Association, New Orleans, March 24–27
Fabry, Mikulas (forthcoming). “International Society and the Establishment of New States: The Practice of State Recognition in the Era of National Self-Determination.” PhD dissertation, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia
Falk, Richard (1993). “Sovereignty.” In Joel Krieger, ed., The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 851–54
Falk, Richard (1997). “The United Nations, the Rule of Law and Humanitarian Intervention.” In Mary Kaldor and Basker Vashee, eds., Restructuring the Global Military Sector, Vol. I: New Wars. London and Washington, DC: Pinter for the United Nations University, pp. 108–33
Fenwick, Charles G. (1965). International Law. 4th edn. New York: Meredith Publishing
Ferguson, Yale H. and Richard W. Mansbach (1996). Polities: Authority, Identities, and Change. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press
Ferguson, Yale H. and Richard W. Mansbach (1999). “Global Politics at the Turn of the Millennium: Changing Bases of ‘Us’ and ‘Them.’” International Studies Review 1, 2: 77–108
Finer, Samuel E. (1975). “State- and Nation-Building in Europe: The Role of the Military.” In Charles Tilly, ed., The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 84–163
Finlayson, Jock A., and Mark W. Zacher (1982). “The GATT and the Regulation of Trade Barriers: Regime Dynamics and Functions.” In Stephen D. Krasner, ed., International Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 273–314
Finlayson, Jock A., and Mark W. Zacher (1988). Managing International Markets: Developing Countries and the Commodity Price Regime. New York: Columbia University Press
Finnemore, Martha (1996). National Interests in International Society. Ithaca: Cornell Univeresity Press
Finnemore, Martha, and Katherine Sikkink (1998). “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization 52, 4: 887–917
Ford, Jane (2002). “A Social Theory of Trade Regime Change: GATT to WHO.” International Studies Review 4, 3: 115–38
Fowler, Michael Ross, and Julie Marie Bunck (1995). Law, Power, and the Sovereign State: The Evolution and Application of the Concept of Sovereignty. University Park, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press
Freedman, Lawrence (1998–9). “The Changing Forms of Military Conflict.” Survival 20, 4: 39–56
Frey, Linda S., and Marsha L. Frey (1999). The History of Diplomatic Immunity. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press
Friedman, Thomas L. (2000). The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization. rev. edn. New York: Anchor Books
Fukuyama, Francis (1989). “The End of History?” National Interest (summer): 3–18
Galtung, Johan (1971) “A Structural Theory of Imperialism.” Journal of Peace Research 8: 387–417
Gann, L. H., and Peter Duignan (1967). Burden of Empire: An Appraisal of Western Colonialism in Africa South of the Sahara. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press
Gelb, Leslie (1994). “Quelling Teacup Wars.” Foreign Affairs 73, 6: 2–6
George, Jim (1995). Discourses of Global Politics: A Critical (Re)Introduction to International Relations. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner
Giddens, Anthony (1987). The Nation-State and Violence. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press
Gilboa, Eytan (2000). “Mass Communication and Diplomacy: A Theoretical Framework.” Communication Theory 10, 3: 275–309
Gilliard, David (1984). “British and Russian Relations with Asian Governments in the Nineteenth Century.” In Hedley Bull and Adam Watson, eds., The Expansion of International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 87–97
Gilpin, Robert (1981). War and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Gilpin, Robert (1987). The Political Economy of International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Gilpin, Robert (2001). Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Glamann, Kristof (1977). “European Trade 1500–1750.” In Carlo M. Cipolla, ed., The Fontana Economic History of Europe, vol. II: The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Sussex: Harvester Press, pp. 427–526
Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2002). The Future of Armed Conflict. Ramat Gan, Israel: The Begin–Sadat Center for Strategic Studies
Goff, Patricia (2000). “Invisible Borders: Economic Liberalization and National Identity.” International Studies Quarterly 44, 4: 53–62
Goldgeier, James, and Michael McFaul (1992). “A Tale of Two Worlds: Core and Periphery in the Post-Cold War Era.” International Organization 46, 1: 467–92
Gong, Gerrit W. (1984). The Standard of “Civilization” in International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Gros, Jean-Germain (1996). “Towards a Taxonomy of Failed States in the New World Order.” Third World Quarterly 17, 3: 455–71
Guetzkow, Harold (1955). Multiple Loyalties. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Guillen Pierre (1984). L'expansion 1881–1898. Paris: Imprimerie nationale
Haas, Peter (1990). Saving the Mediterranean: The Politics of Environmental Cooperation. New York: Columbia University Press
Hall, John A., ed. (1986). States in History. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Hall, Rodney Bruce (1999). National Collective Identity: Social Constructs and International Systems. New York: Columbia University Press
Halliday, Fred (1999). Revolution and World Politics: The Rise and Fall of the Sixth Great Power. Durham, NC: Duke University Press
Hamilton, Bruce (1963). Political Thought in Sixteenth-Century Spain. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Hamilton, Keith, and Richard Langhorne (1995). The Practice of Diplomacy. London: Routledge
Harbeson, John, Donald Rothchild, and Naomi Chazan eds. (1994). Civil Society and the State in Africa. Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner
Harding, Sandra (1986). The Science Question in Feminism. London: Milton Keynes
Held, David and Anthony McGrew (1998). “The End of the Old Order? Globalization and the Prospects for World Order.” Review of International Studies 24 (Special Issue, December): 219–44
Held, David, Anthony McGrew, David Gordblatt, and Jonathan Perraton (1999). Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Heraclides, Alexis (1990). “Secessionist Minorities and External Involvement.” International Organization 44, 3: 341–78
Heraclides, Alexis (1997). “The Ending of Unending Conflicts.” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 26, 3: 678–707
Hinsley, F. H. (1967). “The Concept of Sovereignty and the Relations between States.” Journal of International Affairs 21, 2: 242–52
Hirst, Paul (1997). “The Global Economy: Myths and Realities.” International Affairs 73, 3: 409–25
Hitler's Tabletalk 1941–1944 (1953). Trans. Norman Cameron and R. H. Stevens. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Hitti, Nassif (1994). “The Internationalization of the State in the Middle East.” In Yoshikazu Sakamoto, ed., Global Transformation: Challenges to the State System. Tokyo: United Nations University Press
Hocking, Brian (1999). “Patrolling the ‘Frontier’: Globalization, Localization and the ‘Actorness’ of Non-Central Governments.” In Francisco Aldecoa and Michael Keating, eds., Paradiplomacy in Action: The Foreign Relations of Subnational Governments. London: Frank Cass, pp. 17–39
Hoffmann, Stanley (1977). “An American Social Science: International Relations.” Daedalus 106, 3: 41–60
Holland, R. F. (1985). European Decolonization: An Introductory Survey. New York: St Martin's Press
Holsti, K. J. (1967). International Politics: A Framework for Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Holsti, K. J. (1991). Peace and War: Armed Conflicts and International Order 1648–1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holsti, K. J. (1992). “Governance without Government: Polyarchy in Nineteenth-Century European International Politics.” In James N. Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, eds., Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 30–57
Holsti, K. J. (1994). “The Post-Cold War ‘Settlement’ in Comparative Perspective.” In Douglas T. Stuart and Stephen F. Szabo, eds., Discord and Collaboration in a New Europe: Essays in Honor of Arnold Wolfers. Washington, DC: The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, pp. 37–70
Holsti, K. J. (1996). The State, War, and the State of War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Holsti, K. J. (1997). “International Relations Theory and War in the Third World: The Limits of Relevance.” In Stephanie Neuman, ed., International Relations Theory and the Third World. New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 103–32
Holsti, K. J. (2000) “The Political Sources of Humanitarian Emergencies.” In Wayne Nafziger, Francis Stewart, and Raimo Väyrynen, eds, War, Hunger, and Displacement: The Origins of Humanitarian Emergencies, Vol. I: Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 239–81
Holsti, K. J. (2001). “The Changing Nature of International Institutions: The Case of Territoriality.” Studia Diplomatica 53, 5: 41–66
Holsti, K. J. (2002). “The Problem of Change in International Relations Theory.” In Yale H. Ferguson and R. J. Barry Jones, eds., Political Space: Frontiers of Change and Governance in a Globalizing World. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 23–44
Holton, R. J. (1998). Globalization and the Nation-State. New York: St. Martin's Press
Howard, Michael (1976). War in European History. London: Oxford University Press
Howard, Michael (1979). “Temperamenta Belli: Can War be Controlled?” In Michael Howard, ed., Restraints on War: Studies in the Limitation of Armed Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–16
Howard, Peter, and Reina Neufeldt (2000). “Canada's Constructivist Foreign Policy: Building Norms for Peace.” Paper presented at the 41st Annual Meetings of the International Studies Association, Los Angeles, March 14–18
Hueglin, Thomas O. (1989). “Better Small and Beautiful than Big and Ugly? Regionalism, Capitalism, and the Postindustrial State.” International Political Science Review 10, 3: 209–21
Hull, Cordell (1948). The Memoirs of Cordell Hull. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan
Huntington, Samuel (1993). “The Coming Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs 72: 22–49
Hurd, Ian (1999). “Legitimacy and Authority in International Politics.” International Organization 53, 2: 379–408
Hurrell, Andrew (1993). “International Society and the Study of Regimes: A Reflective Approach.” In Volker Rittberger, ed., Regime Theory and International Relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 49–72
Hurrell, Andrew (1996). “Vattel: Pluralism and its Limits.” In Ian Clark and Iver B. Neumann, eds., Classical Theories of International Relations. London: Macmillan, pp. 233–54
Ignatieff, Michael (1998). The Warrior's Honour: Ethics, War and the Modern Conscience. Toronto: Viking Press
Inayatullah, Naeem (1996). “Beyond the Sovereignty Dilemma: Quasi-States as Social Constructs.” In Thomas Biersteker and Cynthia Weber, eds., State Sovereignty as Social Construct. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 50–80
Ingebritsen, Christine (2002). “Norm Entrepreneurs: Scandinavia's Role in World Politics.” Cooperation and Conflict 37, 1: 11–23
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) (2001). The Responsibility to Protect. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre
Isaacs, Ann Katherine and Maarten Prak (1996). “Cities, Bourgeoisies, and States.” In Wolfgang Reinhard, ed., Power Elites and State Building. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 207–34
Jackson, Robert H. (1990). Quasi States: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Jackson, Robert H. (1993). “The Weight of Ideas in Decolonization: Normative Change in International Relations.” In Judith Goldstein and Robert O. Keohane, eds., Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and Political Change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 111–41
Jackson, Robert H. (1998).“Surrogate Sovereignty? Great Power Responsibility and ‘Failed States.’” Vancouver: Institute of International Relations, University of British Columbia, Working Paper No. 25
Jackson, Robert H. (2000). The Global Covenant: Human Conduct in a World of States. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Jackson, Robert H. and Alan James, eds. (1993). States in a Changing World: A Contemporary Analysis. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Jackson, Robert H. and Mark W. Zacher (1997). “The Territorial Covenant: International Society and the Stabilization of Boundaries.” Vancouver: Institute of International Relations, University of British Columbia, Working Paper No. 15
Jahn, Beate (1999). “The State of Nature: The Cultural Origins of a Ruling Ideology.” Review of International Studies 25, 3: 411–34
James, Alan (1999). “The Practice of Sovereign Statehood in Contemporary International Society.” In Robert Jackson, ed., Sovereignty at the Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 35–51
Janos, Andrew C. (1986). Politics and Paradigms: Changing Theories of Change in Social Science. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Jones, Dorothy (1990). Code of Peace: Ethics and Security in the World of the Warlord States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Jones, R. J. Barry (1981). “Concepts and Models of Change in International Relations.” In Barry Buzan and R. J. Barry Jones, eds., Change and the Study of International Relations. London: Frances Pinter, pp. 11–29
Kaldor, Mary (1997). “Introduction.” In Mary Kaldor and Basker Vashee, eds., Restructuring the Global Military Sector, Vol. I: New Wars. London and Washington, DC: Frances Pinter for the United Nations University, pp. 3–33
Kaplan, Robert D. (1994). “The Coming Anarchy.” The Atlantic Monthly (February): pp. 44–76
Kapuscinski, Ryszard (1995). Imperium. Toronto: Vintage Canada
Kaufmann, Johan (1996). Conference Diplomacy: An Introductory Analysis. 3rd rev. edn. London: Macmillan
Kearney, Michael (1998). “Transnationalism in California and Mexico at the End of Empire.” In Thomas M. Wilson and Hastings Donnan, eds., Border Identities: Nation and State at International Frontiers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–41
Keating, Michael (1998). The New Regionalism in Western Europe: Territorial Restructuring and Political Change. Northampton: Edward Elgar
Keene, Edward (2002). Beyond the Anarchical Society: Grotius, Colonialism and Order in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Keens-Soper, Maurice (1972). “The French Political Academy, 1712: A School for Ambassadors.” European Studies Review 2, 4: 329–55
Keens-Soper, Maurice (1973). “Francois de Callières and Diplomatic Theory.” The Historical Journal 16, 3: 485–508
Kegley, Charles W., and Gregory A. Raymond (2002). Exorcising the Ghost of Westphalia: Building World Order in the New Millennium. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Keohane, Robert O. (1984), After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Keohane, Robert O. (1998). “International Institutions: Can Interdependence Work?” Foreign Policy 110 (Spring): 82–96
Khalidi, Rashid (1997). Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. New York: Columbia University Press
Kimble, George H. T. (1960). Tropical Africa, Vol. II: Society and Polity. New York: Twentieth Century Fund
Kincaid, John (1999). “The International Competence of US States and their Local Governments.” In Francisco Aldecoa and Michael Keating, eds., Paradiplomacy in Action: The Foreign Relations of Subnational Governments. London: Frank Cass, pp. 111–33
Kindleberger, Charles (1975). “The Rise of Free Trade in Western Europe, 1820–1875.” Journal of Economic History 35 (March): 20–55
Kingsbury, Benedict (1996). “Grotius, Law, and Moral Scepticism: Theory and Practice in the Thought of Hedley Bull.” In Ian Clark and Iver B. Neumann, eds., Classical Theories of International Relations. London: Macmillan, pp. 42–70
Klare, Michael (1997). “An Avalanche of Guns: Light Weapons Trafficking and Armed Conflict in the Post-Cold War Era.” In Mary Kaldor and Basker Vashee, eds., Restructuring the Global Military Sector, Vol. I: New Wars. London and Washington, DC: Frances Pinter for the United Nations University, pp. 55–77
Klein, Robert A. (1974). Sovereign Equality among States: The History of an Idea. Toronto: University of Toronto Press
Klingenstein, Grete (1997). “The Meaning of ‘Austria’ and ‘Austrian’ in the Eighteenth Century.” In Robert Oresco, G. C. Gibbs, and H. M. Scott, eds., Royal and Republican Sovereignty in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 423–78
Knorr, Klaus E. (1944). British Colonial Theories, 1570–1850. Toronto: University of Toronto Press
Knutsen, Torbjørn L. (1997). A History of International Relations Theory. 2nd edn. Manchester: Manchester University Press
Korman, Sharon (1996). The Right of Conquest: The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Koslowski, Rey and Friedrich Kratochwil (1994). “Understanding Change in International Politics: The Soviet Empire's Demise and the International System.” International Organization 48, 2: 215–48
Krasner, Stephen D. (1999). Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Kratochwil, Friedrich (1986). “Of Systems, Boundaries, and Territoriality: An Inquiry into the Formation of the State System.” World Politics 39, 1: 27–52
Kratochwil, Friedrich (1989). Rules, Norms and Decisions: On the Conditions of Practical Reasoning in International and Domestic Affairs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Lauterpacht, Hersch (1946). “The Grotian Tradition in International Law.” The British Year Book of International Law, pp. 1–53
Lebow, Ned (1994). “The Long Peace, the End of the Cold War, and the Failure of Realism.” International Organization 15, 2: 249–77
Legro, Jeffrey W. (1995). Cooperation under Fire: Anglo-German Restraint During World War II. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Levy, Jack (1983). War in the Modern Great Power System, 1495–1975. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press
Li, Dun J. (1965). The Ageless Chinese: A History. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
Licklider, Roy (1998). “Early Returns: Results of the First Wave of Statistical Studies on Civil War.” Civil Wars (Autumn): 121–32
Lipson, Charles (1982). “The Transformation of Trade: The Sources and Effects of Regime Change.” In Stephen D. Krasner, ed., International Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 233–72
Louis, William Roger (1984). “The Era of the Mandates System and the Non-European World.” In Hedley Bull and Adam Watson, eds., The Expansion of International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 201–16
Luard, Evan (1992). The Balance of Power: The System of International Relations, 1648–1815. New York: St Martin's Press
Lynch, Allen (2002). “Woodrow Wilson and the Principle of National Self-Determination: A Reconsideration.” Review of International Studies 28, 2: 419–36
Maland, David (1966). Europe in the Seventeenth Century. London: Macmillan
Malmvig, Helle (2001). “Reproduction of Sovereignties: Between Man and State during Practices of Intervention.” Cooperation and Conflict 36, 3: 251–72
Mandel, Robert (1999). Deadly Transfers and the Global Playground: Transnational Security Threats in a Disorderly World. Westport, CN: Praeger
Mandelbaum, Michael (1998–9). “Is Major War Obsolete?” Survival 204, 4: 20–38
Manning, C. A. W. (1975). The Nature of International Society. London: Macmillan
Marino, John (1992). “Administrative Mapping in the Italian States.” In David Buisseret, ed., Monarchs, Ministers, and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 5–25
Mattingly, Garrett (1955). Renaissance Diplomacy. London: Jonathan Cape
Mayall, James (1999). “Sovereignty, Nationalism, and Self-Determination.” In Robert Jackson, ed., Sovereignty at the Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 52–80
Mearsheimer, John J. (1990). “Back to the Future: Instability in Europe after the Cold War.” International Security 15, 1: 5–56
Migdal, Joel (1988). Strong States and Weak Societies: State–Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Milner, Helen (2002). “International Trade.” In Walter Carlsnaess, Thomas Risse, and Beth A. Simmons, eds., Handbook of International Relations. London: Sage Publications, pp. 448–61
Minc, Alain (1993). Le nouveau moyen age. Paris: Gallimard
Morgenthau, Hans J. (1985). Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 6th rev. edn. Edited by Kenneth Thompson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
Morris, Christopher W. (1998). An Essay on the Modern State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Motyl, Alexander J. (1999). Revolutions, Nations, Empires: Conceptual Limits, Theoretical Possibilities. New York: Columbia University Press
Mueller, John (1989). Retreat from Doomsday: The Obsolescence of Major War. New York: Basic Books
Mueller, John (2001). “Does War Still Exist?” Paper delivered at the conference on “The Waning of Major War,” at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, April 6–8
Murphy, Alexander B. (1996). “The Sovereign State as Political-Territorial Ideal.” In Thomas Biersteker and Cynthia Weber, eds., State Sovereignty as Social Construct. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 81–120
Nadelman, Ethan A. (1990). “Global Prohibition Regimes: The Evolution of Norms in International Society.” International Organization 44, 4: 479–526
Nardin, Terry (1992). “International Ethics and International Law.” Review of International Studies 18, 1: 19–30
Newman, David (2001). “Boundaries, Borders, and Barriers: Changing Geographic Perspectives on Territorial Lines.” In Mathias Albert, David Jacobson, and Yosef Lapid, eds., Identities, Borders, Orders: Rethinking International Relations Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, pp. 137–52
O'Connor, J. J. and E. F. Robertson (1997). “Longitude and the Académie Royale.” http://www.history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/HistTopics/Longitude1.html
Ohmae, Kenichi (1995). The End of the Nation State. New York: The Free Press
Onuf, Nicholas (2002). “Institutions, Intentions and International Relations.” Review of International Studies 38, 2: 211–28
Onuma, Yasuaki (2000). “When was the Law of International Society Born? An Inquiry of the History of International Law from an Intercivilizational Perspective.” Journal of the History of International Law 2: 1–66
Oresco, Robert, G. C. Gibbs, and H. M. Scott (1997). “Introduction.” In Robert Oresco, G. C. Gibbs, and H. M. Scott, eds., Royal and Republican Sovereignty in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–42
Ortega, Martin C. (1996). “Vitoria and the Universalist Conception of International Relations.” In Ian Clark and Iver B. Neumann, eds., Classical Theories of International Relations. London: Macmillan, pp. 99–119
Osiander, Andreas (1994). The States System of Europe, 1640–1990. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Osiander, Andreas (2001). “Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth.” International Organization 55, 2: 251–87
Papademetriou, Demetrios (2000). Presentation at the conference on “Re-thinking the Line: The Canada–United States Border,” Vancouver, Canada, October 25
Parrot, David (1997). “A prince souverein and the French Crown: Charles de Nevers.” In Robert Oresco, G. C. Gibbs, and H. M. Scott, eds., Royal and Republican Sovereignty in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 149–87
Parry, J. H. (1971). Trade and Dominion: The European Overseas Empires in the Eighteenth Century. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Patterson, Thomas E. (1998). “Time and News: The Media's Limitations as an Instrument of Democracy.” International Political Science Review 19, 1: 55–68
Paul, Darel E. (1999). “Sovereignty, Survival and the Westphalian Blind Alley in International Relations.” Review of International Studies 25, 2: 217–31
Pegg, Scott (1998). International Society and De Facto States. Aldershot: Ashgate
Pettigrew, Pierre (2001). “Some Reflections on Globalization.” Notes for an address at the International Congress of Young Lawyers on International Trade Agreements, Montreal, August 20. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada, Statement 2001/28
Philpott, Daniel (1997). “Ideas and the Evolution of Sovereignty.” In Sohail H. Hashmi, ed., State Sovereignty: Change and Persistence in International Relations. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, pp. 15–48
Philpott, Daniel (1999). “Westphalia, Authority, and International Society.” In Robert Jackson, ed., Sovereignty at the Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 144–67
Philpott, Daniel (2001). Revolutions in Sovereignty: How Ideas Shaped Modern International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Poggi, Gianfranco (1978). The Development of the Modern State. Stanford: Stanford University Press
Polanyi, Karl (1944). The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon Press
Power, Thomas F. (1966). Jules Ferry and the Renaissance of French Imperialism. New York: Octagon Books
Puchala, Donald J. (1993). “Western Europe.” In Robert H. Jackson and Alan James, eds., States in a Changing World: A Contemporary Analysis. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 69–92
Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby (2002). “A Parallel Globalization of Terror: 9–11, Security and Globalization.” Cooperation and Conflict 37, 3: 323–49
Raustiala, Kal, and Anne-Marie Slaughter (2002). “International Law, International Relations, and Compliance.” In Walter Carlsnaess, Thomas Risse, and Beth A. Simmons, eds., Handbook of International Relations. London: Sage Publications, pp. 538–58
Reineicke, Wolfgang H. (1998). Global Public Policy: Governing Without Government. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press
Reinhard, Wolfgang, ed. (1996). Power Elites and State Building. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Reus-Smit, Christian (1997). “International Society and the Nature of Fundamental Institutions.” International Organization 51, 4: 555–89
Rice, Condoleezza (2000). “Promoting the National Interest.” Foreign Affairs 79, 1: 45–62
Richardson, James L. (2000). “International Relations and Cognate Disciplines: From Economics to Historical Sociology.” In Robert M. A. Crawford and Darryl S. L. Jarvis, eds., International Relations – Still an American Social Science? Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 277–98
Riordan, Shaun (2003). The New Diplomacy. Cambridge: Polity Press
Robinson, Ronald, and John Gallagher (1965). Africa and the Victorians: The Official Mind of Imperialism. London: Macmillan
Ron, James (2000). “Boundaries and Violence: Repertoires of State Action along the Bosnia/Yugoslavia Divide.” Theory and Society 29: 609–49
Rosenau, James N. (1990). Turbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Rosenau, James N. (1995). “Signals, Signposts, and Symptoms: Interpreting Change and Anomalies in World Politics.” European Journal of International Relations 1 (March): 113–22
Rosenau, James N. (1997). Along the Domestic–Foreign Frontier: Exploring Governance in a Turbulent World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Rosenau, James N. (2003). Distant Proximities: Dynamics Beyond Globalization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Rowen, Herbert, ed. (1968). From Absolutism to Revolution, 1648–1848. New York: Macmillan
Ruggie, John G. (1982). “International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order.” In Stephen D. Krasner, ed., International Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 195–232
Ruggie, John G. (1989). “International Structure and International Transformation: Space, Time, and Method.” In James N. Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, eds., Global Change and Theoretical Challenges. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, pp. 21–35
Ruggie, John G. (1998). Constructing the World Polity: Essays on International Institutionalization. London: Routledge
Ruggie, John G. (1993). “Territoriality and Beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations.” International Organization 47, 4: 139–74
Sahlins, Peter (1998). “State Formation and National Identity in the Catalan Borderlands during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.” In Thomas M. Wilson and Hastings Donnan, eds., Border Identities: Nation and State at International Frontiers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 31–61
Said, Edward ([1978] 1995). Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient. First published London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Penguin edition with new Afterword
Sakamoto, Yoshikazu, ed. (1994a), Global Transformation: Challenges to the State System. Tokyo: United Nations University Press
Sakamoto, Yoshikazu (1994b). “A Perspective on the Changing World Order: A Conceptual Prelude.” In Yoshikazu Sakamoto, ed., Global Transformation: Challenges to the State System. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, pp. 15–56
Salter, Mark B. (2002). Barbarians and Civilization in International Relations. London: Pluto Press
Salter, Mark B. (2003). Papers Please: A Genealogy of the Passport. London: Lynn Rienner
Sarkees Meredith, Frank Wayman, and J. David Singer (2003). “Inter-State, Intra-State, and Extra-State Wars: A Comprehensive Look at their Distribution over Time.” International Studies Quarterly 47, 1: 49–70
Sassen, Saskia (2002). “A New Cross-Border Field for Public and Private Actors.” In Yale H. Ferguson and R. J. Barry Jones, eds., Political Space: Frontiers of Change and Governance in a Globalizing World. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 173–88
Saurin, Julian (1996). “The End of International Relations? The State and International Theory in the Age of Globalization.” In Andrew Linklater and John Macmillan, eds., Boundaries in Question: New Directions in International Relations. London: Pinter Publishers, pp. 244–61
Scholte, Jan (1997). “The Globalization of World Politics.” In John Baylis and Steve Smith, eds., The Globalization of World Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 13–30
Seiler, D. L. (1989). “Peripheral Nationalism between Pluralism and Monism.” International Political Science Review 10, 3: 191–207
Shannon, Vaughn P. (2000). “The Political Psychology of Norm Violation.” International Studies Quarterly 44, 2: 293–316
Sharp, Paul (2001). “Making Sense of Citizen Diplomats: The People of Duluth, Minnesota, as International Actors.” International Studies Perspectives 2, 2: 131–50
Sharpe, L. J. (1989). “Fragementation and Territoriality in the European State System.” International Political Science Review 10, 3: 223–38
Singer, Max, and Aaron Wildavsky (1993). The Real World Order: Zones of Peace/Zones of Turmoil. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers
Smith, Thomas W. (2002). “The New Law of War: Legitimizing Hi-Tech and Infrastructural Violence.” International Studies Quarterly 46, 3: 355–74
Smith, Woodruff D. (1982). European Imperialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Chicago: Nelson-Hall
Snyder, Louis L. (1962). The Imperialism Reader: Documents and Readings on Modern Expansionism. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand
S⊘rensen, Georg (1999). “Sovereignty: Change and Continuity in a Fundamental Institution.” In Robert Jackson, ed., Sovereignty at the Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 168–82
S⊘rensen, Georg (2001). Changes in Statehood: The Transformation of International Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave
Spruyt, Hendrik (1994). The Sovereign State and its Competitors. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Spruyt, Hendrik (2000). “The End of Empire and the Extension of the Westphalian System: The Normative Basis of the Modern State Order.” International Studies Review 2, 2: 65–92
Stankiewicz, W. J., ed. (1969). In Defense of Sovereignty. New York: Oxford University Press
Stivachtis, Yannis A. (1998). The Enlargement of International Society: Culture versus Anarchy and Greece's Entry into International Society. London: Macmillan
Strang, David (1996). “Contested Sovereignty.” In Thomas Biersteker and Cynthia Weber, eds., State Sovereignty as Social Construct. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 22–49
Strange, Susan (1996). The Retreat of the State: The Diffusion of Power in the World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Strayer, Joseph R. (1970). On the Mediaeval Origins of the Modern State. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Stremlau, John, and Greg Mills, eds., (1999). The Privatization of Security in Africa. Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs
Suganami, Hidemi (1990). “Grotius and International Equality.” In Hedley Bull, Robert Kingsbury, and Adam Roberts, eds., Hugo Grotius and International Relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 221–56
Taylor, Peter (1994). “The State as Container: Territoriality in the Modern World-System.” Progress in Human Geography 18, 2: 151–62
Taylor, Peter (1999). “The United Nations in the 1990s: Proactive Cosmopolitanism and the Issue of Sovereignty.” In Robert Jackson, ed., Sovereignty at the Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 116–43
Thakur, Ramesh (2001). “Global Norms and International Humanitarian Law: An Asian Perspective.” International Review of the Red Cross 83, 841: 19–44
Thakur, Ramesh, and William Maley (1999). “The Ottawa Convention on Landmines: A Landmark Humanitarian Treaty in Arms Control?” Global Governance 5, 3: 273–302
Thompson, J. (1993). “Norms in International Relations: A Conceptual Analysis.” International Journal of Group Tensions 23: 67–83
Thomson, Janice E. 1994. Mercenaries, Pirates, and Sovereigns: State-Building and Extraterritorial Violence in Early Modern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Thornton, A. P. (1959). The Imperial Idea and its Enemies. London: Macmillan
Tilly, Charles (1975). “Reflections on the History of European State-Making.” In Charles Tilly, ed., The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 3–83
Tilly, Charles (1990). Coercion, Capital and European States AD 990–1990. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Towle, Philip (2000). Democracy and Peacemaking: Negotiations and Debates, 1815–1973. London and New York: Routledge
Tracy, James D., ed. (1990). The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350–1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Tuck, Richard (1999). The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius to Kant. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Ullman, Walter (1949). “The Development of the Medieval Idea of Sovereignty.” English Historical Review 64, 210: 1–33
Underhill, Geoffrey R. D. (1997). “Transnationalizing the State in Global Financial Markets: Cooperative Regulatory Regimes, Domestic Political Authority, and Conceptual Models of the State.” Paper presented at the joint meetings of the Asociacion Mexicana de Estudios Internacionales and the International Studies Association, Manzanillo, Mexico, December 11–13
Vann, James (1992). “Mapping the Austrian Hapsburgs.” In David Buisseret, ed., Monarchs, Ministers and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, pp. 153–67
Vasquez, John A. (1993). The War Puzzle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Väyrynen, Raimo (1997). Global Transformation: Economics, Politics, and Culture. Helsinki: The Finnish National Fund for Research and Development, Sitra
Väyrynen, Raimo (2000). “Enforcement of International Norms: Why, How, and by Whom?” Paper presented at the 41st Annual Meetings, International Studies Association, Los Angeles, March 15–18
Vincent, John (1974). Non-Intervention and World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Vincent, John (1984). “Racial Equality.” In Hedley Bull and Adam Watson, eds., The Expansion of International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 239–54
Von Glahn, Gerhard (1992). Law Among Nations. 6th edn. New York: Macmillan
Walker, R. B. J. (1993). Inside/Outside: International Relations as Political Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Walker, Richard (1953). The Multi-State System of Ancient China. Hamden, CT: The Shoe String Press
Wallace, William (1999). “The Sharing of Sovereignty: The European Paradox.” In Robert Jackson, ed., Sovereignty at the Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 81–99
Wallensteen, Peter, and Margareta Sollenberg (1997). “Armed Conflicts, Conflict Termination, and Peace Agreements, 1989–1996.” Journal of Peace Research 34: 339–58
Walter, Andrew Wyatt (1996). “Adam Smith and the Liberal Tradition in International Relations.” In Ian Clark and Iver B. Neumann, eds., Classical Theories of International Relations. London: Macmillan, pp. 142–72
Waltz, Kenneth N. (1979). Theory of International Politics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Wan, Marilyn (1992). “Naturalized Seeing/Colonial Vision: Interrogating the Display of Races in Late Nineteenth Century France.” MA thesis, Department of Fine Arts, University of British Columbia
Warner, Carolyn M. (1999). “The Political Economy of ‘Quasi-Statehood’ and the Demise of 19th Century African Polities.” Review of International Studies 25, 2: 233–55
Watson, Adam (1984). “European International Society and its Expansion.” In Hedley Bull and Adam Watson, eds., The Expansion of International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 13–32 1992. The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Historical Analysis. New York: Routledge
Weiss, Herbert (1995). “Zaire: Collapsed Society, Surviving State, Future Policy.” In William Zartman, ed., Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, pp. 157–70
Weiss, Linda (1998). The Myth of the Powerless State: Governing the Economy in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press
Wendt, Alexander (1992). “Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics.” International Organization 46, 2: 391–425
Wendt, Alexander, and Raymond Duvall (1989). “Institutions and International Order.” In James N. Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, eds., Global Changes and Theoretical Challenges. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, pp. 51–73
Wesseling, H. L. (1997). Imperialism and Colonialism: Essays in the History of European Expansion. Leiden: Leiden University Press
Wight, Martin (1978). Power Politics. Leicester: Leicester University Press
Wilson, Charles (1957). Profit and Power: A Study of England and the Dutch Wars. London and New York: Longmans, Green and Co
Wilson, Thomas M. and Hastings Donnan (1998). “Nation, State and Identity at International Borders.” In Thomas M. Wilson and Hastings Donnan, eds., Border Identities: Nation and State at International Frontiers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–30
Wolf, Martin (2001). “Will the Nation-State Survive Globalization?” Foreign Affairs 80 (January–February): 178–90
Wolfe, Robert (1998a). Diplomatic Missions: The Ambassador in Canadian Foreign Policy. Kingston, Ontario: School of Policy Studies
Wolfe, Robert (1998b). “Still Lying Abroad: On the Institution of the Resident Ambassador.” Diplomacy and Statecraft 9, 2: 23–54
Wright, Quincy (1955). The Study of International Relations. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts
Wright, Quincy (1964). A Study of War. abridged edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Wright, Quincy (1965). A Study of War. 2nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Young, Crawford (1994). “In Search of Civil Society.” In John Harbeson, Donald Rothchild, and Naomi Chazan, eds., Civil Society and the State in Africa. Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Reinner, pp. 33–50
Zacher, Mark W. (1993). “The Decaying Pillars of the Westphalian Temple: Implications for International Order and Governance.” In James N. Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, eds., Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 58–101
Zacher, Mark W. (2001). “The Territorial Integrity Norm: International Boundaries and the Use of Force.” International Organization 55, 2: 215–50
Zartman, I. William, ed. (1995). Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority. Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Reinner