The Politics of Crisis Management

Public Leadership Under Pressure

The Politics of Crisis Management

In times of crisis, communities and members of organizations expect their leaders to minimize the impact of the crisis at hand, while critics and bureaucratic competitors try to seize the moment to blame incumbent rulers and their policies. In this extreme environment, policy makers must somehow establish a sense of normality, and foster collective learning from the crisis experience. This uniquely comprehensive analysis examines how leaders deal with the strategic challenges and political risks they face. It is based on over a decade of collaborative, cross-national research.


 Reviews:

"This compact monograph should be required reading for anyone who wishes to engage with the institutional implications of extreme natural or political events in the coming decade." International Public Management Review

"The authors have extensive international experience of researching and teaching crisis management. Their excellent book provides a concise and insightful account of state-of-the-art policy practise and research on crisis management in the post 9/11 period."
Brian Jacobs, Staffordshire University, Public Administration


 Prizes:

Winner, 2007 Herbert A Simon Award, American Society for Public Administration

Reference Type: reference-list

Reference Type: reference-list

Adomeit, H. (1982) Soviet Risk-taking and Crisis Behavior: A theoretical and empirical analysis. Boston: Allen & Unwin.
Aguirre, B. E. (2004) “Homeland security warnings: Lessons learned and unlearned,” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 22: 103–15.
Alink, F. (forthcoming) Crisis als kans? Dissertation. Department of Public Administration, Leiden University.
Alink, F., Boin, R. A., and 't Hart, P. (2001) “Institutional crises and reforms in policy sectors: The case of refugee policy in Europe,” Journal of European Public Policy 8: 286–306.
Allison, G. T. (1971) Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban missile crisis. Boston: Little Brown.
Almond, G. A., Flanagan, S., and Mundt, R. (eds.) (1973) Crisis, Choice and Change: Historical studies of political development. Boston: Little Brown.
Argyris, C. and Schön, D. A. (1978) Organizational Learning: A theory of action perspective. Amsterdam: Addison-Wesley.
Axelrod, R. and Cohen, M. D. (2000) Harnessing Complexity. New York: Basic Books.
Baggot, R. (1998) “The BSE crisis: Public health and the ‘risk society’,” in Gray, P. D. and 't Hart, P. (eds.) Public Policy Disasters in Western Europe. London: Routledge, pp. 61–78.
Bardach, E. (2001) “Development dynamics: Interagency collaboration as an emergent phenomenon,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 2: 149–64.
Barnard, C. (1938) The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Barton, A. H. (1969) Communities in Disaster: A sociological analysis of collective stress situations. New York: Doubleday.
Barton, L. (1993) Crisis in Organizations: Managing and communicating in the heat of chaos. Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Co.
Baumgartner, F. R. and Jones, B. D. (1993) Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Beck, U. (1992) Risk Society: Toward a new modernity. London: Sage Publications.
Bennett, A. (1999) Condemned to Repetition? The rise, fall and reprise of Soviet-Russian military interventionism, 1973–1996. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Bennett, W. L. (1980) “Myth, ritual and political control,” Journal of Communication 30: 166–79.
Bennett, W. L. and Entman, R. M. (eds.) (2001) Mediated Politics: Communication in the future of democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bernardsdottir, A. E. and Svedin, L. (2004) Small-state Crisis Management: The Icelandic way. Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College.
Bernstein, S., Lebow, R. N., Stein, J. G., and Weber, S. (2000) “God gave physics the easy problems: Adapting social science to an unpredictable world”, European Journal of International Relations 6: 43–76.
Binder, L., Coleman, J. S., LaPalombar, J., Pye, L. W., Verba, S., and Weiner, M. (1971) Crisis and Sequences in Political Development. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Birkland, T. (1997) After Disaster: Agenda-setting, public policy, and focusing events. Washington: Georgetown University Press.
Blight, J. G. and Welch, D. A. (1989) On the Brink: Americans and Soviets reexamine the Cuban missile crisis. New York: Hill and Wang.
Blix, H. (2004) Disarming Iraq. New York: Pantheon.
Blumer, J. G. and Gurevitch, M. (1995) The Crisis of Public Communication. London: Routledge.
Boin, R. A. (2005) “From crisis to disaster: Toward an integrative perspective”, in Quarantelli and Perry (eds.) What is a Disaster? New answers to old questions. Philadelphia: Xlibris Press, pp. 153–72.
Boin, R. A. and 't Hart, P. (2000) “Institutional crises in policy sectors: An exploration of characteristics, conditions and consequences,” in Wagenaar, H. (ed.) Government Institutions: Effects, changes and normative foundations. Dordrecht: Kluwer Press, pp. 9–31.
Boin, R. A., Kofman-Bos, C., and Overdijk, W. I. E. (2004) “Crisis simulations: Exploring tomorrow's vulnerabilities and threats,” Simulation and Gaming: An International Journal of Theory, Practice and Research 35: 378–93.
Boin, R. A., Lagadec, P., Kerjan, E. M., and Overdijk, W. I. E. (2003) “Critical infrastructures under threat: Learning from the anthrax scare,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 11: 99–104.
Boin, R. A. and Otten, M. H. P. (1996) “Beyond the crisis window for reform: Some ramifications for implementation,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 4: 149–61.
Boin, R. A. and Rattray, W. A. R. (2004) “Understanding prison riots: Toward a threshold theory”, Punishment & Society 6: 47–65.
Bovens, M. and 't Hart, P. (1996) Understanding Policy Fiascoes. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Bovens, M., 't Hart, P., Dekker, S., and Verheuvel, G. (1999) “The politics of blame avoidance: Defensive tactics in a Dutch crime-fighting fiasco,” in Anheier, H. K. (ed.) When Things Go Wrong: Organizational failures and breakdowns. London: Sage, pp. 123–47.
Bracken, P. (1983) The Command and Control of Nuclear Forces. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Braithwaite, V. and Levi, M. (eds.) (1998) Trust and Governance. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Brändström, A. (2000) Minks or Submarines: The dilemma in the Swedish hunt for submarines. Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College.
Brändström, A., Bynander, F., and 't Hart, P. (2004) “Governing by looking back: Historical analogies in crisis management,” Public Administration 82: 191–210.
Brändström, A. and Kuipers, S. L. (2003) “From ‘normal incidents’ to political crises: Understanding the selective politicization of policy failures,” Government and Opposition 38: 279–305.
Brändström, A. and Malesic, M. (eds.) (2004) Crisis Management in Slovenia: Comparative perspectives. Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College.
Brandt, N. (2003) Chicago Death Trap: The Iroquois theatre fire of 1903. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Brecher, M. (ed.) (1979a) Studies in Crisis Behavior. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.
Brecher, M. (1979b) “‘Vertical’ case studies: A summary of findings,” in Brecher (ed.) Studies in Crisis Behavior, pp. 267–72.
Brecher, M. (1979c) “State behavior in international crisis: A model,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 23: 446–80.
Brecher, M. (1980) Decisions in Crisis: Israel's choices 1967 and 1973. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Brecher, M. (1993) Crises in World Politics: Theory and reality. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Breed, W. (1955) “Social control in the newsroom: A functional analysis,” Social Forces 33: 326–35.
Bruner, J. S. (1957) “On perceptual readiness,” Psychological Review 64: 123–52.
Brunsson, N. and Olsen, J. P. (1993) The Reforming Organization. London: Routledge.
Bryson, B. (2003) A Short History of Nearly Everything. New York: Broadway Books.
Bryson, J. M. and Crosby, B. C. (1992) Leadership for the Common Good: Tackling public problems in a shared-power world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Buchanan, M. (2000) Ubiquity: Why catastrophes happen. New York: Three Rivers Press.
Burke, J. P., Greenstein, F. I., Berman, L., and Immerman, R. H. (1989) How Presidents Test Reality: Decisions on Vietnam, 1954 and 1965. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Busenberg, G. J. (2001) “Learning in organizations and public policy,” Journal of Public Policy 21: 173–89.
Buzan, B., Waever, O., and de Wilde, J. (1998) Security: A new framework for analysis. London: Lynne Rienner.
Bynander, F. (1998) “The 1982 Swedish Hårsfjärden submarine incident: A decision making analysis,” Cooperation and Conflict 33: 367–407.
Bynander, F. (2003) Rise and Fall of the Submarine Threat: Threat politics and submarine intrusions in Sweden 1980–2002. Uppsala: Uppsala University Press.
Caiden, G. E. (1991) Administrative Reform Comes of Age. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Carley, K. M. and Harrald, J. R. (1997) “Organizational learning under fire: Theory and practice,” American Behavioral Scientist 40: 310–32.
Carrel, L. F. (2000) “Training civil servants for crisis management,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 8: 192–6.
Charles, M. T. (2001) “The fall of TWA flight 800,” in Rosenthal, Boin, and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 216–34.
Chisholm, D. (1989) Coordination Without Hierarchy: Informal structures in multiorganizational systems. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Clarke, L. B. (1999) Mission Improbable: Using fantasy documents to tame disasters. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Clarke, R. A. (2004) Against All Enemies: Inside America's war on terror. New York: The Free Press.
Cobb, R. W. and Primo, D. M. (2003) The Plane Truth: Airline crashes, the media and transportation policy. Washington: Brookings Institution.
Columbia Accident Investigation Board (2003) Columbia Accident Investigation Report 1. Burlington: Apogee Books.
Combs, J. E. (1980) Dimensions of Political Drama. Santa Monica: Goodyear.
Committee of Privy Counsellors (2004) Review on Intelligence of Weapons of Mass Destruction. London: The Stationery Office.
Cook, R. F. (2004) The Point of Departure: Diaries from the front bench. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Cortell, A. P. and Peterson, S. (1999) “Altered states: Explaining domestic institutional change,” British Journal of Political Science 29: 177–203.
Crisis Onderzoek Team (1994) Crisismanagement bij Nevcin Polymers: Een reconstructie van de gebeurtenissen na 8 juli 1992. Leiden: COT.
Cuny, F. L. (1983) Disasters and Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cyert R. M., March J. G., and Clarkson, G. P. E. (1963) A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
David, C. P. (1993) Foreign Policy Failure in the White House: Reappraising the fall of the Shah and the Iran-Contra affair. Lanham: University Press of America.
Davidson, A. (1990) In the Wake of the Exxon Valdez: The devastating impact of the oil spill. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.
Dekker, S. (forthcoming) Commissions as Troubleshooters: Crisis and the politics of inquiries. Dissertation. Department of Public Administration, Leiden University.
Dekker, S. and Hansén, D. (2004) “Learning under pressure: The effects of politicization on organizational learning in public bureaucracies,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 14: 211–30.
Deutsch, K. W. (1966) The Nerves of Government: Models for political communication and control. New York: The Free Press.
Devine, P. G., Hamilton, D. L., and Ostrom, T. M. (eds.) (1994) Social Cognition: Impact on social psychology. San Diego: Academic Press.
DiIulio, J. J., Alpert, G. P., Moore, M. H., Cole, G. F., Petersilia, J., Logan, C. H., and Wilson, J. Q. (1993) Performance Measures for the Criminal Justice System. Discussion papers from the BJS-Princeton Project, Princeton University.
Douglas, M. (1992) Risk and Blame: Essays in cultural theory. London: Routledge.
Douglas, M. and Wildavsky, A. (1982) Risk and Culture: An essay on the selection of environmental dangers. Berkeley: California University Press.
Dowty, A. (1984) Middle East Crisis: US decision making in 1958, 1970 and 1973. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Drabek, T. E. (1985) “Managing the emergency response,” Public Administration Review 45: 85–92.
Drabek, T. E. and Quarantelli, E. L. (1967) “Scapegoats, villains, and disasters”, Transaction 4: 12–17.
Dror, Y. (1986) Policymaking Under Adversity. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.
Dryzek, J. S. (1992) “The good society versus the state: Freedom and necessity in political innovation,” Journal of Politics 54: 518–40.
Dunsire, A. (1978) Control in a Bureaucracy. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Dynes, R. R. (1970) Organized Behaviour in Disaster. Lexington: D. C. Heath and Company.
Dyson, S. B. and Preston, T. (2003) Lenses for Leaders: The role of complexity and prior expertise in shaping the use of analogy in foreign policy decision making. Washington: Department of Political Science, Washington State University.
Edelman, M. J. (1964) The Symbolic Uses of Politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Edelman, M. J. (1971) Politics as Symbolic Action: Mass arousal and quiescence. Chicago: Markham.
Edelman, M. J. (1977) Political Language: Words that succeed and policies that fail. New York: Academic Press.
Edelman, M. J. (1988) Constructing the Political Spectacle. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Eichengreen, B. (2002) Financial Crises: And what to do about them. New York: Oxford University Press.
Eisenhower, D. D. (1966) The White House Years: Waging peace, 1956–1961. London: Heinemann.
Ekengren, M. and Sundelius, B. (2004) “National foreign policy co-ordination,” in Sjursen, H., Carlsnaes, W., and White, B. (eds.) Contemporary European Foreign Policy. London: Sage Publications, pp. 110–22.
Elder, C. D. and Cobb, R. W. (1983) The Political Uses of Symbols. New York: Longman.
Entman, R. M. (1993) “Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm,” Journal of Communication 43: 51–8.
Erikson, K. T. (1976) Everything in its Path: Destruction of community in the Buffalo Creek Flood. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Erikson, K. T. (1994) A New Species of Trouble: Explorations in disaster, trauma and community. New York: Norton.
Eriksson, J. (2001) “Introduction”, in Eriksson, J. (ed.) Threat Politics: New perspectives on security, risk and crisis management. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 8–16.
Etheredge, L. S. (1985) Can Governments Learn? American foreign policy and Central American revolutions. New York: Pergamon Press.
Fearn-Banks, K. (1996) Crisis Communications: A casebook approach. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Feldman, M. S. and March, J. G. (1981) “Information in organizations as signal and symbol,” Administrative Science Quarterly 26: 174–86.
Feldman, M. S. and March, J. G. (1988) “Information in organizations as signal and symbol,” in March, J. G. (ed.) Decisions and Organizations. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 409–28.
Fiol, C. M. and Lyles, M. A. (1985) “Organizational learning,” Academy of Management Review 10: 803–13.
Flin, R. (1996) Sitting in the Hot Seat: Leaders and teams for critical incidents. Chichester: Wiley.
Flin, R. (2001) “Decision making in crises: The Piper Alpha disaster”, in Rosenthal, Boin, and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 103–18.
Flin R. and Arbuthnot, K. (eds.) (2002) Incident Command: Tales from the hot seat. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.
Gabriel, R. T. (1985) Military Incompetence: Why the American military doesn't win. New York: Hill and Wang.
George, A. L. (1993) Bridging the Gap: Theory and practice in foreign policy. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press.
George, A. L. and Stern, E. K. (2002) “Harnessing conflict in foreign policy making: From devil's to multiple advocacy,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 32: 484–508.
Glad, B. (1980) Jimmy Carter: In search of the great White House. New York: W. W. Norton.
Gladwell, Malcolm,(2005) Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. New York: Brown & Co.
Goldfinch, S. and 't Hart, P. (2003) “Leadership and institutional reform: Engineering macroeconomic policy change in Australia”, Governance 16: 235–70.
Goldstone, J. A. and Useem, B. (1999) “Prison riots as microrevolutions: An extension of state-centered theories of revolution,” American Journal of Sociology 104: 985–1029.
Goode, E. and Ben-Yehuda, N. (1994) Moral Panics: The social construction of deviance. Oxford: Blackwell.
Gormley, W. T. and Weimer, D. L. (1999) Organizational Report Cards. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Graber, D. A., McQuail, D., and Norris, P. (1998) “Introduction: political communication in a democracy,” in Graber, D. A., McQuail, D., and Norris, P. (eds.) The Politics of News: The news of politics. Washington: CQ Press.
Haas, E. R. (1990) When Knowledge is Power: Three models of change in international organizations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Habermas, J. (1975) Legitimation Crisis. Boston: Beacon Press.
Haldeman, H. R. and Ambrose, S. E. (1994). The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House. New York: Putnam.
Hall, P. A. (1993) “Policy paradigms, social learning and the state: The case of economic policy making in Britain,” Comparative Politics 35: 275–96.
Halper, T. (1971) Foreign Policy Crises: Appearance and reality in decision making. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill.
Hansén, D. and Stern, E. K. (2001) “From crisis to trauma: The Palme assassination case,” in Rosenthal, Boin, and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 177–99.
Hargrove, E. C. (1994) Prisoners of Myth: The leadership of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
't Hart, P. (1993) “Symbols, rituals and power: The lost dimension in crisis management,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 1: 36–50.
't Hart, P. (1994) Groupthink in Government: A study of small groups and policy failure. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
't Hart, P. and Boin, R. A. (2001) “Between crisis and normalcy: The long shadow of post-crisis politics,” in Rosenthal, Boin, and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 28–46.
't Hart, P. and Pijnenburg, B. (1988) Het Heizeldrama: Rampzalig organiseren en kritieke beslissingen. Alphen aan de Rijn: Samsom.
't Hart, P. and Rijpma, J. (eds.) (1997) Crises in het Nieuws: Samenspel en tegenspel tussen overheid en media. Alphen aan den Rijn: Samsom.
't Hart, P., Rosenthal, U., and Kouzmin, A. (1993) “Crisis decision making: The centralization thesis revisited,” Administration and Society 25: 12–45.
't Hart, P., Stern, E. K. and Sundelius, B. (eds.) (1997) Beyond Groupthink: Political group dynamics and foreign policy making. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Hay, C. (2001) “The ‘crisis’ of Keynesianism and the rise of neoliberalism in Britain: An ideational institutionalist approach,” in Campbell, J. L. and Pedersen, O. K. (eds.) The Rise of Neoliberalism and Institutional Analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 193–218.
Heath, R. L. (2004) “Telling a story: A narrative approach to communication during crisis,” in Millar and Heath (eds.) Responding to Crisis, pp. 167–87.
Heclo, H. (1974) Modern Social Politics in Britain and Sweden. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Henry, R. A. (2000) You'd Better Have a Hose if You Want to Put Out the Fire. Windsor: Gollywobbler Productions.
Herek, G. M., Janis, I. L. and Huth, P. (1987) “Decision making during international crisis: Is quality of process related to outcome?,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 31: 203–26.
Hermann, C. F. (1963) “Some consequences of crisis which limit the viability of organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly 8: 61–82.
Hermann, C. F. (ed.) (1972) International Crises: Insights from behavioral research. New York: The Free Press.
Hermann, M. G. (1979) “Indicators of stress in policy makers during foreign policy crises,” Political Psychology 1: 27–46.
Hermann, M. G. and Hagan, J. (1998) “International Decision Making: Leadership Matters” Foreign Policy 110: 124–137.
Hodgkinson, P. E. and Stewart, M. (1991) Coping with Catastrophe: A handbook of disaster management. London: Routledge.
Holsti, O. R. (1972) Crisis, Escalation and War. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.
Holsti, O. R. (1979) “Theories of crisis decisionmaking,” in Lauren, P. G. (ed.) Diplomacy: New approaches in history, theory, and policy. New York: The Free Press, pp. 99–136.
Honig, J. W. (2001) “Avoiding war, inviting defeat: The Srebrenica crisis, July 1995,” in Rosenthal, Boin, and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 61–73.
Honig, J. W. and Both, N. (1997) Srebrenica: Record of a war crime. New York: Penguin.
Hood, C. C. (1976) The Limits of Administration. London: John Wiley.
Hood, C. C. (2002) “The risk game and the blame game,” Government and Opposition 37: 15–37.
Hood, C. C., James, O., Peters, G., and Scott, C. (eds.) (2004) Controlling Modern Government: Oversight, competition, mutuality and randomness in three public policy domains. Cheltenham: Edgar Elgar.
Hoyt, P. D. and Garrison, J. A. (1997) “Political manipulation within the small group of foreign policy advisers in the Carter administration,” in 't Hart, Stern, and Sundelius (eds.) Beyond Groupthink, pp. 249–74.
Iyengar, S. (1996) “Framing responsibility for political issues,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 546: 59–70.
Jacobs, B. D. (1989) “The Brixton riots: London 1981,” in Rosenthal, Charles, and 't Hart (eds.) Coping with Crisis, pp. 340–66.
Jacobs, B. D. and Boin, R. A. (2001) “The Stephen Lawrence case: The London metropolitan police in crisis,” in Rosenthal, Boin, and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 74–88.
Jacobs, B. D. and 't Hart, P. (1992) “Disaster at Hillsborough stadium: A comparative analysis,” in Parker, D. J. and Handmer, J. W. (eds.) Hazard Management and Emergency Planning: Perspectives on Britain. London: James and James, pp. 127–51.
Janis, I. L. (1982) Groupthink. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Janis, I. L. (1989) Crucial Decisions: Leadership in policymaking and crisis management. New York: The Free Press.
Janis, I. L. and Mann, L. (1977) Decision-making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice and commitment. New York: The Free Press.
Jasanoff, S. (ed.) (1994) Learning from Disaster: Risk management after Bhopal. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Jervis, R. (1976) Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Jervis, R. (1992) “Political implications of loss aversion,” Political Psychology 13: 187–204.
Jervis, R. (1997) System Effects: Complexity in political and social life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Kaase, M. and Newton, K. (1995) Beliefs in Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kam, E. (1988) Surprise Attack. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Keeler, J. T. S. (1993) “Opening the window for reform: Mandates, crises and extraordinary policy making,” Comparative Political Studies 25: 433–86.
Kertzer, D. I. (1988) Ritual, Politics and Power. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Kettl, D. F. (2003) “Contingent coordination: Practical and theoretical puzzles for homeland security,” American Review of Public Administration 33: 253–77.
Kettl, D. F. (2004) System Under Stress: Homeland security and American politics. Washington: CQ Press.
Key, V. O. (1961) Public Opinion and American Democracy. New York: Knopf.
Key, V. O. (1966) The Responsible Electorate: Rationality in presidential voting. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Keys, D. (1999) Catastrophe: An investigation into the origins of the modern world. London: Century Keys.
Khong, Y. F. (1992) Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam decisions of 1965. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Kingdon, J. W. (1995) Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. 2nd ed. New York: HarperCollins.
Klein, G. (2001) Sources of Power: How people make decisions. 7th ed. London: The MIT Press.
Kletz, T. A. (1994) Learning From Accidents. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Klinenberg, E. (2002) Heat Wave: A social autopsy of disaster in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kroon, M. B. R., 't Hart, P., and van Kreveld, D. (1991) “Managing group decision making processes: Individual versus collective accountability and groupthink,” International Journal of Conflict Management 2: 91–115.
Kuipers, S. L. (2004) Cast in Concrete? The institutional dynamics of Belgian and Dutch social policy reform. Dissertation. Delft: Eburon.
Kurtz, R. S. and Browne, W. P. (2004) “Crisis management, crisis response: An introduction to the symposium”, Review of Policy Research 21: 141–3.
Lagadec, P. (1990) States of Emergency: Technological failures and social destabilization. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Lagadec, P. (1997) “Learning processes for crisis management in complex organizations,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 5: 24–31.
Lagadec, P. (2004) “Understanding the French 2003 heat wave experience: Beyond the heat, a multi-layered challenge,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 12: 160–9.
Landau, M. (1973) “On the concept of a self-correcting organization,” Public Administration Review 33: 533–42.
Lanzara, G. F. (1998) “Self-destructive processes in institution building and some modest countervailing mechanisms,” European Journal of Political Research 33: 1–39.
LaPorte, T. R. (1996) “High reliability organizations: Unlikely, demanding, and at risk,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 4: 60–71.
LaPorte, T. R. (2003) “Anticipating Rude Surprises: Reflections on ‘crisis management’ without end.” EU/US Crisis Management Conference: Minnowbrook Conference Center, 6–10 August.
Larsson, S., Olsson, E. K., and Ramberg, B. (eds.) (2005) Crisis Decision Making in the European Union. Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College.
Lazarus, R. S. (1966) Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lebow, R. N. (1981) Between Peace and War: The nature of international crisis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lebow, R. N. and Stein, J. G. (1994) We All Lost the Cold War. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Leemans, A. F. (1976) The Management of Change in Government. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Leveson, N. (1995) Safeware: System safety and computers. Reading: Addison Wesley.
Lewis, D. (1997) Hidden Agendas: Politics, law and disorder. London: Hamish Hamilton.
Libertore, A. (1993) “Chernobyl comes to Italy: The reciprocal relationships of radiation experts, government policies, and the media,” in Barker, A. and Peters, G. (eds.) The Politics of Expert Advice: Creating, using and manipulating scientific knowledge for public policy. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, pp. 33–48.
Lindblom, C. E. (1979) “Still muddling, not yet through,” Public Administration Review 39: 517–29.
Lindgren, K. (2003) ‘Vad Styr Ledaren? Om beslutsfattare och policyforandring i sakerhetspolitiska kriser.’ Dissertation, Uppsala University.
Linz, J. J. (1978) “Crisis, breakdown and reequilibration,” in Linz and Stepan (eds.) The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes.
Linz, J. J. and Stepan, A. C. (eds.) (1978) The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lipsky, M. (1980) Street-level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the individual in public service. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Lipsky, M. and Olson, D. J. (1977) Commission Politics: The processing of racial crisis in America. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.
Lloyd, J. (2004) What the Media are Doing to Our Politics. London: Constable.
Lombardi, W. J., Higgins, E. F., and Bargh, J. A. (1987) “The role of consciousness in priming effects on categorization: Assimilation versus contrast as a function of awareness of the priming task,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 13: 411–29.
Longley, J. and Pruitt, D. G. (1980) “Groupthink: A critique of Janis's theory,” Review of Personality and Social Psychology 1: 74–93.
MacGregor Burns, J. (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper and Row.
Maoz, Z. (1990) National Choices and International Processes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marais, K., Dulac, N., and Leveson, N. (2004) “Beyond normal accidents and high reliability organizations: The need for an alternative approach to safety in complex systems.” Paper presented at the Engineering Systems Division Symposium. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
March, J. G. (ed.) (1988) Decisions and Organizations. Oxford: Blackwell.
March, J. G. (1994) A Primer on Decision Making: How decisions happen. New York: The Free Press.
May, E. R. (1972) “Lessons” of the Past. New York: Oxford University Press.
McCauley, C. (1989) “The nature of social influence in groupthink: Compliance and internalization,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 22: 250–60.
McConnell, A. (2003) “Overview: Crisis management, influences, responses and evaluation,” Parliamentary Affairs 56: 363–409.
Meltsner, A. J. (1990) Rules for Rulers: The politics of advice. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Meyer, T. (2002) Media Democracy: How the media colonize politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Meyers, G. C. (1986) When It Hits the Fan: Managing the nine crises of business. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Milburn, T. (1972) “The management of crisis,” in Hermann (ed.) International Crises, pp. 259–80.
Millar, D. P. and Heath, R. L. (ed.) (2004) Responding to Crisis: A rhetorical approach to crisis communication. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Millar, F. E. and Beck, D. B. (2004) “Metaphors of crisis,” in Millar and Heath (eds.) Responding to Crises, pp. 153–66.
Miller, A. (2001) “The Los Angeles Riots: A study in crisis paralysis,” in Rosenthal, Boin and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 49–60.
Mitroff, I. I. and Pauchant, T. C. (1990) We're So Big and Powerful Nothing Bad Can Happen to Us. New York: Carol Publishing Corporation.
Moon, J. (1995) “Innovative leadership and policy change: Lessons from Thatcher,” Governance 8: 1–25.
Murray, C. and Cox, C. B. (1989) Apollo: Race to the moon. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Nacos, B. L. (2002) Terrorism and the Media: From the Iran hostage crisis to the World Trade Center bombing. 3rd ed. New York: Columbia University Press.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks (2004) The 9/11 Commission Report. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Neustadt, R. N. and May, E. R. (1986) Thinking in Time: The uses of history for decision-makers. New York: The Free Press.
Nimmo, D. and Combs, J. E. (1985) Nightly Horrors: Crisis coverage in television network news. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Nimmo, D. and Combs, J. E. (1990) Mediated Political Realities. 2nd ed. New York: Longman.
Nisbett, R. and Ross, L. (1980) Human Inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Nohrstedt, S. (1991) “The information crisis in Sweden after Chernobyl,” Media, Culture and Society 13: 477–97.
Northouse, P. G. (2001) Leadership: Theory and research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Nudell, M. and Antokol, N. (1988) The Handbook for Effective Emergency and Crisis Management. Lexington: Lexington Books.
OECD (2003) Emerging Risks in the 21st Century: An agenda for action. Paris: OECD.
Ohanian, R. (1991) “The impact of celebrity spokespersons' perceived image on consumers' intention to purchase,” Journal of Advertising Research 31: 46–54.
Olsen, J. P. and Peters, B. G. (eds.) (1996) Lessons From Experience: Experiential learning in administrative reforms in eight democracies. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.
Paige, G. D. (1968) The Korean Decision: June 24–30, 1950. New York: The Free Press.
Parker, C. and Stern, E. K. (2002) “Blindsided? September 11 and the origins of strategic surprise,” Political Psychology 23: 601–30.
Patterson, P. (1989) “Reporting Chernobyl: Cutting the government fog to cover the nuclear cloud,” in Walters, Wilkins, and Walters (eds.) Bad Tidings, pp. 131–48.
Pauchant, T. C. and Mitroff, I. I. (1992) Transforming the Crisis-prone Organization: Preventing individual, organizational and environmental tragedies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pearce, T. and Fortune, J. (1995) “Command and control in policing: A systems assessment of the gold, silver and bronze structure,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 3: 181–7.
Perrow, C. (1984) Normal Accidents: Living with high-risk technologies. New York: Basic Books.
Perrow, C. (1994) “The limits of safety: The enhancement of a theory of accidents”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 2: 212–20.
Perrow, C. (1999) Normal Accidents: Living with high-risk technologies. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Perrow, C. and Guillen, M. F. (1990) The AIDS Disaster: The failure of organizations in New York and the nation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Perry, R. W. and Lindell, M. K. (1997) “Principles for managing community relocation as hazard mitigation measure,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 5: 49–59.
Petak, W. J. (ed.) (1985) “Emergency management: A challenge for public administration,” Public Administration Review 45: 3–7.
Peters, B. G. and Pierre, J. (eds.) (2001) Politicians, Bureaucrats, and Administrative Reform. London: Routledge.
Petroski, H. (1992) To Engineer is Human: The role of failure in successful design. New York: Vintage Books.
Pfetsch, B. (1998) “Government news management,” in Graber, D., McQuail, D., and Norris, P. (eds.) The Politics of News: The news of politics. Washington: CQ Press, pp. 70–93.
Pidgeon, N. (1997) “The limits to safety? Culture, politics, learning and man-made disasters,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 5: 1–14.
Pierson, P. (2000) “Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics,” American Political Science Review 94: 251–67.
Platt, A. (ed.) (1971) The Politics of Riot Commissions, 1917–1970: A collection of official reports and critical essays. New York: Macmillan.
Pollitt, C. (1993) Managerialism and the Public Services: Cuts or cultural change in the 1990s? 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
Posner, R. A. (2004) “The 9/11 report: A dissent,” New York Times, 29 August.
Post, J. M. (1991) “The impact of crisis-induced stress on policy makers,” in George, A. (ed.) Avoiding War: Problems of crisis management. Boulder: Westview Press, pp. 471–94.
Preston T. (2001) The President and His Inner Circle: Leadership style and the advisory process in foreign affairs. New York: Columbia University Press.
Preston, T. and 't Hart, P. (1999) “Understanding and evaluating bureaucratic politics: The nexus between political leaders and advisory systems,” Political Psychology 20: 49–98.
Price, M. (1995) Television, the Public Sphere and National Identity. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Quarantelli, E. L. (1954) “The nature and conditions of panic,” American Journal of Sociology 60: 267–75.
Quarantelli, E. L. (1996) “The future is not the past repeated: Projecting disasters in the 21st century from present trends,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 4: 228–40.
Quarantelli, E. L. (ed.) (1998) What is a Disaster? Perspectives on the question. London: Routledge.
Quarantelli, E. L. and Perry, R. W. (eds.) (2005). What is a Disaster? New answers to old questions. Philadelphia: Xlibris Press.
Raphael, B. (1986) When Disaster Strikes: How individuals and communities cope with catastrophe. New York: Basic Books.
Reason, J. (1990) Human Error. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Regester, M. and Larkin, J. (1997) Risk Issues and Crisis Management: A casebook of best practice. London: Kogan Page.
Resodihardjo, S. L. (forthcoming) Institutional Crises and Reform: Constrained opportunities. Dissertation. Department of Public Administration, Leiden University.
Reyntjens, F. (2001) “From ethnicity to genocide in Rwanda,” in Rosenthal, Boin, and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 89–100.
Rijpma, J. A. (1997) “Complexity, tight-coupling and reliability: Connecting normal accidents theory and high reliability theory,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 5: 15–23.
Rijpma, J. A. and van Duin, M. J. (2001) “From accident to disaster: The response to the Hercules crash,” in Rosenthal, Boin, and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 143–54.
Roberts, J. M. (1988) Decisionmaking During International Crises. London: MacMillan.
Roberts, K. (ed.) (1993) New Challenges to Understanding Organizations. New York: MacMillan.
Robertson, A. (2001) “Mediated threats,” in Eriksson, J. (ed.) Threat Politics: New perspectives on security, risk and crisis management. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 61–83.
Rochlin, G. I. (1996) “Reliable organizations: Present research and future directions,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 4: 55–9.
Rose, R. (1993) Lesson-drawing in Public Policy: A guide to learning across time and space. Chatham: Chatham House Publishers.
Rose, R. and Davies, P. L. (1994) Inheritance in Public Policy: Change without choice in Britain. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Rosenthal, U. (1978) Political Order: Rewards, punishments and political stability. Meppel: Krips Repro.
Rosenthal, U. (1998) “Future disasters, future definitions”, in Quarantelli, E. (ed.) What is a Disaster? Perspectives on the question. London: Routledge, pp. 146–60.
Rosenthal, U., Boin, R. A., and Bos, C. J. (2001) “Shifting identities: The reconstructive mode of the Bijlmer plane crash,” in Rosenthal, Boin, and Comfort (eds.) Managing Crises, pp. 200–15.
Rosenthal, U., Boin, R. A., and Comfort, L. K. (eds.) (2001) Managing Crises: Threats, dilemmas, opportunities. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
Rosenthal, U., Charles, M. T., and 't Hart, P. (eds.) (1989) Coping With Crisis: The management of disasters, riots and terrorism. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
Rosenthal, U., Charles, M. T., 't Hart, P., Kouzmin, A. and Jarman, A. (1989) “From case studies to theory and recommendations,” in Rosenthal, Charles and 't Hart (eds.) Coping with Crisis, pp. 466–67.
Rosenthal, U. and 't Hart, P. (1989) “Managing terrorism: The South Moluccan hostage takings,” in Rosenthal, Charles, and 't Hart (eds.) Coping with Crisis, pp. 367–93.
Rosenthal, U., 't Hart, P., and Kouzmin, A. (1991) “The bureau-politics of crisis management,” Public Administration 69: 211–33.
Rosenthal, U., 't Hart, P., van Duin, M. J., Boin, R. A., Kroon, M. B. R., Otten, M. H. P., Overdijk, W. I. E. (1994) Complexity in Urban Crisis Management: Amsterdam's response to the Bijlmer air disaster. London: James & James.
Rutherford, P. (2004) Weapons of Mass Persuasion: Marketing the war against Iraq. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Sabatier, P. A. (ed.) (1999) Theories of the Policy Process. Boulder: Westview Press.
Sabatier, P. A. and Jenkins-Smith, H. (1993) Policy Change and Learning: An advocacy coalition approach. Boulder: Westview Press.
Sagan, S. D. (1993) The Limits of Safety: Organizations, accidents and nuclear weapons. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sarangi, S. (2002) “Crimes of Bhopal and the global campaign for justice,” Social Justice 29: 47–52.
Scanlon, J. (1989) “Toxic chemicals and emergency management: The evacuation of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada,” in Rosenthal, Charles, and 't Hart (eds.) Coping With Crisis, pp. 303–21.
Scanlon, J. (1994) “The role of EOCs in emergency management: A comparison of American and Canadian experience,” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 12: 51–75.
Schneider, S. K. (1993) Flirting With Disaster: Public management in crisis situations. Armonk: Sharpe.
Schön, D. A. (1971) Beyond the Stable State. New York: Random House.
Schön, D. A. and Rein, M. (1994). Frame Reflection: Toward the resolution of intractable policy controversies. New York: Basic Books.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1943) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Allen & Unwin.
Schwartz, P. and Randall, D. (2003) Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and its Implications for United States National Security. Report commissioned by the US Defense Department. Washington: United States Department of Defense.
Schwartz, R. and Sulitzneanu-Kenan, R. (2004) “Managerial values and accountability pressures: Challenges of crisis and disaster,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 14: 79–102.
Seeger, M. W., Sellnow, T. L., and Ulmer, R. R. (2003) Communication and Organizational Crisis. Westport: Praeger.
Selznick, P. (1957) Leadership in Administration: A sociological interpretation. New York: Row-Peterson.
Senate Intelligence Committee (2004) Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq. Washington: US Senate.
Seymour-Ure, C. (2003) Prime Ministers and the Media: Issues of power and control. Malden: Blackwell.
Shepsle, K. A. (2001) “A comment on institutional change,” Journal of Theoretical Politics 13: 321–5.
Shibutani, T. (1966) Improvised News: A sociological study of rumor. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
Shils, E. A. (1968) “Ritual and crisis,” in Cutler, D. R. (ed.) The Religious Situation. Boston: Beacon Press, pp. 730–40.
Shilts, R. (1987) And the Band Played On: Politics, people and the AIDS epidemic. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Shrivastava, P. (1987) Bhopal: Anatomy of a crisis. Cambridge: Ballinger.
Sick, G. G. (1985) All Fall Down: America's tragic encounter with Iran. New York: Random House.
Silverstein, A. M. (1981) Pure Politics and Impure Science: The swine flu affair. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Simon, H. A. (1976) Administrative Behavior: A study of decision making processes in administrative organization. 3rd ed. New York: The Free Press.
Simon, H. A. (1981) The Sciences of the Artificial. 2nd ed. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Sitkin, S. B. (1992) “Learning through failure: The strategy of small losses,” Research in Organizational Behavior 14: 231–66.
Skocpol, T. (1985) “Bringing the state back in: Strategies of analysis in current research,” in Evans, P. B., Rueschemeyer, D., and Skocpol, T. (eds.) Bringing the State Back in. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–37.
Slatter, S. (1984) Corporate Recovery: Successful turnaround strategies and their implementation. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
Smart, C. and Vertinsky, I. (1977) “Designs for crisis decision units,” Administrative Science Quarterly 22: 640–57.
Smelser, N. J. (1962) Theory of Collective Behavior. London: Routledge.
Smith, D. (2005) “Through a glass darkly: A response to Stallings' ‘Disaster, crisis, collective stress, and mass deprivation’ ”, in Quarantelli and Perry (eds.) What is a Disaster?, pp. 292‒307.
Smith, H. (1989) The Power Game: How Washington works. New York: Ballantine Books.
Smith, S. (1985) “Groupthink and the hostage rescue mission,” British Journal of Political Science 15: 117–23.
Snider, L. (2004) “Resisting neo-liberalism: The poisoned water in Walkerton, Ontario,” Social and Legal Studies 13: 265–89.
Sorokin, P. A. (1943) Man and Society in Calamity: The effects of war, revolution, famine, pestilence upon human mind, behavior, social organization and cultural life. 3rd ed. New York: Dutton.
Stallings, R. A. (1995) Promoting Risk: Constructing the earthquake threat. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Staw, B. M. (2003) Psychological Foundations of Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Staw, B. M., Sandelands, L. E., and Dutton J. E. (1981) “Threat rigidity effects in organizational behaviour: A multilevel analysis,” Administrative Science Quarterly 26: 501–24.
Steinberg, T. (2000) Acts of God: The unnatural history of natural disaster in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stephens, M. (1980) Three Mile Island. New York: Random House.
Stern, E. K. (1997a) “Probing the plausibility of newgroup syndrome: Kennedy and the Bay of Pigs,” in 't Hart, Stern, and Sundelius (eds.) Beyond Groupthink: Political group dynamics and foreign policymaking. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 153–89.
Stern, E. K. (1997b) “Crisis and learning: A balance sheet,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 5: 69–86.
Stern, E. K. (1999) Crisis Decisionmaking: A cognitive-institutional approach. Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
Stern, E. K. (2003) “Crisis Studies and Foreign Policy Analysis: Insights, Synergies, and Challenges” International Studies Review 5: 183–202.
Stern, E. K. and Hansén, D. (eds.) (2000) Crisis Management in a Transitional Society: The Latvian experience. Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College.
Stern, E. K. and Nohrstedt, D. (eds.) (1999) Crisis Management in Estonia: Case studies and comparative perspectives. Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College.
Stern, E. K. and Sundelius, B. (1997) “Sweden's twin monetary crises of 1992: Rigidity and learning in crisis decision making,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 5: 32–48.
Stern, E. K. and Sundelius, B. (2002) “Crisis management Europe: An integrated regional research and training program,” International Studies Perspectives 3: 771–88.
Stern, E. K., Sundelius, B., Nohrstedt, D., Hansén, D., Newlove, L., and 't Hart, P. (2002) “Crisis management in transitional democracies: The Baltic experience,” Government and Opposition 37: 524–50.
Suchman, M. C. (1995) “Managing legitimacy: Strategies and institutional approaches,” Academy of Management Review 20: 571–610.
Sundelius, B. and Grönvall, J. (2004) “Strategic dilemmas of biosecurity in the European Union,” Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2: 17–23.
Sylves, R. and Cumming, W. R. (2004) “FEMA's path to homeland security: 1979–2003,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 1: 1–21.
Tarrow, S. G. (1994) Power in Movement: Social movements, collective action and politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Terry, L. (1995) Leadership of Public Bureaucracies: The administrator as conservator. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Thomas, G. (1999) “External shocks, conflict and learning as interactive sources of change in US security policy,” Journal of Public Policy 19: 209–31.
Thomas, W. and Thomas, D. (1928) The Child in America: Behavior problems and programs. New York: A. A. Knopf.
Thompson, J. D. (1967) Organizations in Action: Social science bases of administrative theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tierney K., Lindell, M. K. and Perry, R. W. (2001) Facing the Unexpected: Disaster preparedness and response in the United States. Washington: Joseph Henry Press.
Tilly, C. and Stinchcombe, A. L. (1997) Roads From Past to Future. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Turner, B. A. (1976) “The organizational and interorganizational development of disasters,” Administrative Science Quarterly 21: 378–97.
Turner, B. A. (1978) Man-made Disasters. London: Wykeham.
Turner, B. A. and Pidgeon, N. (1997) Man-made Disasters. 2nd ed. London: Butterworth Heinemann.
Turner, J. C. and Giles, H. (eds.) (1981) Intergroup Behaviour. Oxford: Blackwell.
Useem, B. and Kimball, P. A. (1989) States of Siege: U.S. prison riots, 1971–1986. New York: Oxford University Press.
van Duin, M. J. (1992) Van Rampen Leren: Een vergelijkend onderzoek naar de lessen uit spoorwegongevallen, hotelbranden en industriële ongelukken. Dissertation. Department of Public Administration, Leiden University.
Vandenbroucke, L. S. (1993) Perilous Options: Special operations as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Vasterman, P. L. M. (2004) Mediahype. Amsterdam: Aksant.
Vaughan, D. (1996) The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky technology, culture and deviance at NASA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Verbeek, B. (2003) Decision-making in Great Britain During the Suez Crisis: Small groups and a persistent leader. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Vertzberger, Y. Y. I. (1990) The World in their Minds: Information processing, cognition and perception in foreign policy decisionmaking. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Vizzard, W. J. (1997) In the Crossfire: A political history of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Wachtendorf, T. (2004) Improvising 9/11: Organizational improvisation following the World Trade Center disaster. Dissertation. Delaware: University of Delaware.
Waddington, D. P. (1992) Contemporary Issues in Public Disorder: A comparative and historical approach. London: Routledge.
Walters, L. M., Wilkins, L., and Walters, T. (eds.) (1989) Bad Tidings: Communication and catastrophe. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Waugh, W. L. (1990) Terrorism and Emergency Management: Policy and administration. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Weick, K. E. (1988) “Enacted sense making in crisis situations,” Journal of Management Studies 25: 305–17.
Weick, K. E. (1995) Sense Making in Organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Weick, K. E. and Sutcliffe, K. M. (2002) Managing the Unexpected: Assuring high performance in an age of complexity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Weick, K. E., Sutcliffe, K. M., and Obstfeld, D. (1999) “Organizing for high reliability: Processes of collective mindfulness,” in Sutton, R. S. and Staw, B. M. (eds.) Research in Organizational Behavior 21: 81–123. Stanford: Jai Press.
Wenger, D., Quarantelli, E. L. and Dynes, R. R. (1986) Disaster Analysis: Local emergency management offices and arrangements. Newark: University of Delaware.
White, R. K. (ed.) (1986) Psychology and the Prevention of Nuclear War. New York: New York University Press.
Wildavsky, A. B. (1984) Speaking Truth to Power: The art and craft of policy analysis. New Brunswick: Transaction.
Wildavsky, A. B. (1988) Searching for Safety. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wildavsky, A. B. (1995) But Is It True? A citizen's guide to environmental health and safety issues. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wildavsky, A. B. and Dake, K. (1991) “Theories of risk perception: Who fears what and why?,” Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 119: 41–59.
Wilensky, H. L. (1967) Organizational Intelligence: Knowledge and policy in government and industry. New York: The Free Press.
Wilkins, L. (1989) “Bhopal: The politics of mediated risk,” in Walters, L.M, Wilkins, L., and Walters, T. (eds.) Bad Tidings: Communication and catastrophe. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 21–34.
Wilsford, D. (1994) “Path-dependency, or why history makes it difficult, but not impossible to reform health care services in a big way,” Journal of Public Policy 14: 251–83.
Wilson, D. S. (2002) Darwin's Cathedral. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, J. Q. (1989) Bureaucracy. New York: The Free Press.
Woodward, B. (2004) Plan of Attack. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Woodward, B. and Bernstein, C. (1994) All the President's Men. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Zartman, I. W. (ed.) (1994) International Multilateral Negotiations: Approaches to the management of complexity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Zelikow, P. and Rice, C. (1995) Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study of Statecraft. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.