White Backlash and the Politics of Multiculturalism


White Backlash and the Politics of Multiculturalism

The 1993 murder of Stephen Lawrence, an 18-year-old black student, led to the widest review of institutional racism seen in the UK and revealed that nearby white working-class communities displayed deep hostility to multiculturalist practices. This book examines this phenomena within the context of changes in social class, evolving national political agendas and responses to race inequalities in the UK, the United States and elsewhere from the 1960s to the present.


 Reviews:

"Hewitt provides a nuanced view of how the complexities of racial, class, and multicultural politics play out locally. Hewitt's theoretical apparatus ... provides extraordinary analytic purchase for disentangling the political salience of race and for understanding how competing narratives are generated and connected to various sites of power. This is clearly a must-read for scholars of racism and British politics, but those exploring migration, urban politics, political culture, and contentious politics in general will find much here of exceptional value. Given Hewitt's clear narrative and elegant prose, the book is also surprisingly accesible for advanced undergraduate courses in a manner atypical of many substantive theoretical contributions."
Perspectives on Politics, Jillian Schwedler, University of Maryland

"The book makes a significant contribution to understanding the complexities of cultural diversity in the industrial nations today and should be widely consulted." - Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare

Reference Title: Select bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Reference Type: bibliography

Aarne, Antti and Thompson, Stith, The Types of the Folktale: A Classification and Bibliography, Translated and Enlarged by Stith Thompson, Folklore Fellows Communications (second revision), no. 184, Helsinki, 1961.
Abu-Laban, Yasmeen and Gabriel, Christina, Selling Diversity: Immigration, Multiculturalism, Employment Equity and Globalization, Ontario, Broadview Press, 2002.
Amaker, Norman C., Civil Rights and the Reagan Administration, Washington DC, Urban Institute Press, 1988.
Amaker, Norman C., ‘Reagan and the Civil Rights Legacy’, in Eric J. Schmertz, Natalie Datlof and Alexej Ugninsky (eds.), Ronald Reagan's America, vol. I, Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1997, pp. 163–74.
Ambrose, Stephen, Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician 1962–1972, London, Simon and Schuster, 1989.
Appelbaum, Eileen and Batt, Rosemary, The New American Workplace: Transforming Work Systems in the United States, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1994.
Arnold, Patricia, A History of Britain's Parliamentary Constituencies: The Constituencies of the London Borough of Greenwich, West Malling, Patricia Arnold, 1992.
Bakhtin, M. M., The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, ed. Michael Holq, Austin, Tex., University of Texas Press, 1981.
Bakhtin, M. M., Speech Genres and Other Late Eassays, Austin, Tex., University of Texas Press, 1986.
Ball, Wendy and Solomos, John (eds.), Race and Local Politics, London, Macmillan, 1990.
Bannerji, Himani, The Dark Side of the Nation: Essays in Multiculturalism, Nationalism and Gender, Toronto, Canadian Scholar's Press, 2000.
Barry, Brian, Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2001.
Bauman, Richard, Story, Performance and Event: Contextual Studies of Oral Narrative, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Bazelon, David, Power in America: The Politics of the New Class, New York, New American Library, 1967.
Bell, Daniel, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, New York, Basic Books, 1973.
Bell, Derrick, Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism, New York, Basic Books, 1992.
Benhabib, Seyla, The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Era, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2002.
Ben-Tovim, Gideon, Gabriel, John, Law, Ian and Stredder, Kathleen, The Local Politics of Race, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1986.
Bernstein, Richard, Dictatorship of Virtue: How the Battle over Multiculturalism Is Reshaping our Schools, our Country, and our Lives, New York, Vintage Books, 1994.
Betts, Katherine, The Great Divide: Immigration Politics in Australia, Sydney, Duffy and Snellgrove, 1999.
Betz, Hans-George, Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1994.
Bissoondath, Neil, Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada, Toronto, Penguin Books, 1994.
Bjorklund, Tor, ‘Radical Right-Wing Populism in Scandinavia: From Tax Revolt to Xenophobia’, in P. Hainsworth (ed.), The Politics of the Extreme Right: From Margins to the Mainstream, London, Pinter, 2000, pp.193–223.
Bloom, Alan, The Closing of the American Mind, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1987.
Bloom, Jack, Class, Race and the Civil Rights Movement, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1987.
Bluestone, Barry and Harrison, Bennett, The Deindustrialisation of America: Plant Closings, Community Abandonment and the Dismantling of Basic Industry, New York, Basic Books, 1982.
Brubaker, William Rogers (ed.), Immigration and the Politics of Citizenship in Europe and North America, Lanham, Md., German Marshall Fund and University Press of America, 1989.
Bruce-Biggs, B., The New Class?, New Brunswick, N. J., Transaction Books, 1979.
Burford, Beverley and Watson, Julian (eds.), Aspects of the Arsenal: The Royal Arsenal Woolwich, London, Greenwich Borough Museum, 1997.
Butler, Judith, ‘Endangered/Endangering: Schematic Racism and White Paranoia’, in Robert Gooding-Williams (ed.), Reading Rodney King: Reading Urban Uprising, London, Routledge, 1993.
Butler, Judith, Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative, New York and London, Routledge, 1997.
Butler, Judith, ‘Performativity's Social Magic’, in Richard Shusterman (ed.), Bourdieu: A Critical Reader, Oxford, Blackwell, 1999, pp. 113–28.
Campbell, B., Goliath: Britain's Dangerous Places, London, Methuen, 1993.
Carens, Joseph H., Culture, Citizenship and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000.
Carmines, Edward and Stimson, James, Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1989.
Carter, Dan T., From George Wallace to Newt Gingrich: Race in the Conservative Counter-Revolution, Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1996.
Castells, Manuel, The Rise of the Network Society, Oxford, Blackwell, 2000.
Castles, Stephen, Ethnicity and Globalization, London, Sage, 2000.
Castles, Stephen, ‘The International Politics of Forced Migration’, in Leo Panitch and Colin Leys (eds.), Fighting Identities: Race, Religion and Ethno-Nationalism, The Socialist Register 2002, London, Merlin Press, 2002, pp. 172–9.
Centre for Multicultural Education, Sagaland: Youth Culture, Racism and Education, a Report on Research Carried out in Thamesmead, London, Centre for Multicultural Education, Institute of Education, University of London, 1992.
Cockett, Richard, Thinking the Unthinkable: Think-Tanks and the Economic Counter-Revolution 1931–1983, London, Harper-Collins, 1994.
Cole, Robert and Erikson, Jan, The Middle Americans: Proud and Uncertain, Boston, Little Brown and Co., 1971.
Cortazzi, Martin, Narrative Analysis, London, Washington, Falmer Press, 1993.
Cowie, Jefferson and Heathcott, Joseph (eds.), Beyond the Ruins: The Meaning of Deindustrialisation, Ithaca, ILR Press, Cornell University Press, 2003.
Cowlishaw, Gillian, Blackfellas Whitefellas and the Hidden Injuries of Race, Oxford, Blackwell, 2004.
Crossick, Geoffrey, An Artisan Elite in Victorian Society: Kentish London 1840–1880, London, Croom Helm, 1978.
Curry, George E. (ed.), The Affirmative Action Debates, Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley, 1996.
Daniel, W. W., Whatever Happened to the Workers in Woolwich? A Survey of Redundancy in South East London, London, PEP, 1972.
Davis, Steven J., Haltiwanger, John C. and Schuh, Scott, Job Creation and Destruction, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1997.
Delgado, Richard (ed.), Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1995.
Department of Education and Science, West Indian Children in our Schools, London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1982.
Department of Education and Science, Education For All, London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1985.
Dijk, Teun van, Communicating Racism, Newbury Park, Calif., Sage, 1987.
Dijk, Teun van, Elite Discourse and Racism, London, Sage, 1993.
Dorrien, Gary, The Neoconservative Mind: Politics, Culture and the War of Ideology, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1993.
Douglas, John Aubrey, ‘Anatomy of Conflict: The Making and Unmaking of Affirmative Action at the University of California’, in John David Skrentny (ed.), Color Lines: Affirmative Action, Immigration and Civil Rights Options for America, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2001, pp. 87–117.
Dreyfuss, Joel and Lawrence, Charles, The Bakke Case: The Politics of Inequality, New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979.
D'Souza, Danish, Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus, New York, Free Press, 1991.
Dugger, Ronnie, On Reagan: The Man and his Presidency, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1983.
Edsall, Thomas Byrne and Edsall, Mary D., Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights and Taxes on American Politics, New York, Norton, 1992.
Edwards, John, When Race Counts: The Morality of Racial Preference in Britain and America, London, Routledge, 1995.
Finnegan, William, Cold New World: Growing Up in a Harder Country, New York, Modern Library, 1998.
Flew, Antony, Education, Race and Revolution, London, Centre for Policy Studies, 1984.
Foot, Paul, The Rise of Enoch Powell: An Examination of Enoch Powell's Attitude to Immigration and Race, London, Cornmarket Press, 1969.
Formisano, R., Boston against Busing: Race, Class and Ethnicity in the 1960s and 1970s, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
Foster, J., ‘Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution: Early Industrial Capitalism in Three English Towns’, Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1974.
Freeman, Gary P., ‘Modes of Immigration Politics in Liberal Democratic States’, International Migration Review, 29, 4 (1995), pp. 881–903.
Friedman, Murray, Overcoming Middle Class Rage, Philadelphia, Westminster Press, 1971.
Fryer, Peter, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain, London, Pluto Press, 1984.
Fysh, Peter and Wolfreys, Jim, The Politics of Racism in France, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Gillborn, David, Racism and Antiracism in Real Schools: Theory, Policy, Practice, Buckingham, Open University Press, 1995.
Gillborn, David and Mirza, Heidi Safia, Educational Inequality: Mapping Race, Class and Gender: A Synthesis of Research Evidence, London, Office for Standards in Education, 2000.
Gillborn, David and Youdell, Deborah, Rationing Education: Policy, Practice, Reform and Equity, Buckingham, Open University Press, 2000.
Gilroy, Paul, There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack, London, Hutchinson, 1987.
Gilroy, Paul, ‘The End of Anti-Racism’, in Wendy Ball and John Solomos (eds.), Race and Local Politics, London, Macmillan, 1990, pp. 191–206.
Gitlin, Todd, The Twilight of Common Dreams: Why America Is Wracked by Culture Wars, New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1995.
Glazer, Nathan, We Are All Multiculturalists Now, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1997.
Glazer, Nathan, ‘Multiculturalism and American Exceptionalism’, in Christian Joppke and Steven Lukes (eds.), Multicultural Questions, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 183–98.
Goldberg, David (ed.), Multiculturalism: A Critical Reader, Oxford, Blackwell, 1994.
Gordon, Paul and Rosenberg, David, Daily Racism: The Press and Black People in Britain, London, The Runnymede Trust, 1989.
Grant, Bligh (ed.), Pauline Hanson: One Nation and Australian Politics, Armidale, Australia, University of New England Press, 1997.
Greenberg, Stanley, Middle Class Dreams: The Politics and Power of the New American Majority, New York, Times Books, 1996.
Guglielmo, Thomas A., White on Arrival: Italians, Race, Colour and Power in Chicago 1890–1945, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003.
Gutman, Amy (ed.), Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1994.
Hainsworth, Paul (ed.), The Politics of the Extreme Right: From Margins to Mainstream, London, Pinter, 2000.
Hall, Stuart, ‘New Ethnicities’, in J. Donald and A. Rattansi (eds.), ‘Race’ Culture and Difference, London, Sage Publications/Open University, 1992.
Hamilton, Richard, Class and Politics in the United States, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1972.
Haraway, Donna, ‘Situated Knowledge: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective’, Feminist Studies, 14 (1988) 575–99.
Harrington, Michael, Towards a Democratic Left: A Radical Program for a New Majority, New York, Macmillan, 1968.
Harrison, Trevor, Of Passionate Intensity: Right-Wing Populism and the Reform Party of Canada, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1995.
Heffer, Simon, Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1998.
Hewitt, Roger, White Talk Black Talk: Inter-Racial Friendship and Communication amongst Adolescents, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Hewitt, Roger, ‘Language, Youth and the Destabilization of Ethnicity’, in C. Palmgren, K. Lovegren and G. Bolin (eds.), Ethnicity in Youth Culture, Stockholm, University of Stockholm, USU, 1992.
Hewitt, Roger, Routes of Racism: The Social Basis of Racist Action, Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham Books, 1996.
Higham, John (ed.), Civil Rights and Social Wrongs: Black–White Relations since World War II, University Park, Pennsylvania University Press, 1997.
Hirsch, Arnold, Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940–1960, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Hirsch, E. D. Jr, Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1987.
Holland, K. and Parkin, G., Reversing Racism: Lessons from America, London, Social Affairs Unit, 1984.
Home Office, The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report, London, The Stationery Office, 1999.
Horwitz, Tony, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War, New York, Vintage Books, 1998.
Hughes, Robert, The Culture of Complaint: The Fraying of America, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1993.
Inner London Education Authority, Race, Sex and Class, London, ILEA, 1983.
Jefferson, E. F. E., The Woolwich Story 1890–1965, London, The R. A. Printing Press Ltd, 1970.
Jenkins, R. and Solomos, J., Racism and Equal Opportunity Policies in the 1980s, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Joppke, Christian and Lukes, Steven (eds.), Multicultural Questions, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999.
Katznelson, Ira, Black Men White Cities: Race, Politics and Migration in the United States, 1900–30, and Britain 1948–68, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1976.
Keller, Hansfried and Heubergern, Frank W. (eds.), Hidden Technocrats: The New Class and New Capitalism, New Brunswick, N. J., and London, 1992.
Kelly, Paul (ed.), Multiculturalism Reconsidered, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2002.
King, Martin Luther, Jr, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community?, New York, Harper Row, 1967.
Kinsella, Warren, Web of Hate: Inside Canada's Far Right Network, Toronto, Harper Collins, 1994.
Kirp, David L., Doing Good by Doing Little: Race and Schooling in Britain, Berkeley and London, University of California Press, 1979.
Kirp, David L., Just Schools: The Idea of Racial Equality in American Education, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1982.
Kitschelt, Herbert, The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1995.
Kivisto, Peter, Multiculturalism in a Global Society, Oxford, Blackwell, 2002.
Kristol, Irving, Two Cheers for Capitalism, New York, Basic Books, 1978.
Kumar, Krishan, From Post-Industrial to Post-Modern Society: New Theories of the Contemporary World, Oxford, Blackwell, 1995.
Kymlicka, Will, Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Labov, W. and Waletzky, J., ‘Narrative Analysis: Oral Versions of Personal Experience’, in J. Helm (ed.), Essays on the Verbal and Visual Arts: Proceedings of the 1966 Annual Meeting of the American Ethnological Society, Washington, University Press, 1967, pp. 12–44.
Lansley, Stewart, Goss, Sue and Wolmar, Christian, Councils in Conflict: The Rise and Fall of the Municipal Left, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1989.
Laycock, David, The New Right and Democracy in Canada: Understanding Reform and the Canadian Alliance, Ontario, Oxford University Press, 2003.
Li, Peter (ed.), Race and Ethnic Relations in Canada, Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1999.
Lipset, Seymour Martin and Raab, Earl, The Politics of Unreason: Right-Wing Extremism in America 1790–1977, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1970.
Lopez, Mark, The Origins of Multiculturalism in Australian Politics 1945–1975, Carlton South, Vic., Melbourne University Press, 2000.
Lord, Albert, The Singer of Tales, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1958.
Lukes, Steven, Liberals and Cannibals: The Implications of Diversity, London, Verso, 2003.
Massey, Douglas and Denton, Nancy, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1993.
Matusow, Alan, The Unravelling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s, New York, Harper Row, 1984.
Miles, Robert, Racism, London, Routledge, 1989.
Modood, Tariq, ‘“Difference”, Cultural Racism and Anti-Racism’, in Pnina Werbner and Tariq Modood (eds.), Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multi-Cultural Identities and the Politics of Anti-Racism, London, Zed Books, 1997, pp. 154–72.
Mullard, Chris, Racism in Society and Schools: History, Policy and Practice, Centre for Multicultural Education, Institute of Education University of London, 1980.
Murray, N., ‘Anti-Racists and Other Demons: The Press and Ideology in Thatcher's Britain’, Race and Class, 27, 3 (1986), pp. 1–19.
Nancoo, Stephen (ed.), 21st Century Canadian Diversity, Ontario, Canadian Educators Press, 2000.
Novak, Michael, The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics: Politics and Culture in the Seventies, New York, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc, 1972.
Okin, S. Moller, Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1999.
Orfield, Gary, Must We Bus? Segregated Schools and National Policy, Washington DC, The Brookings Institution, 1978.
Orfield, Gary, ‘Race and the Liberal Agenda: The Loss of the Integrationist Dream, 1965–1974’, in Margaret Weir, Ann Shola Orloff and Theda Skocpol (eds.), The Politics of Social Policy in the United States (Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1988), pp. 313–55.
Orfield, Gary, Eaton, Susan E. and the Harvard Project on School Desegregation, Dismantling Desegregation: The Quiet Reversal of Brown v. Board of Education, New York, The New Press, 1996.
Osofsky, Gilbert, Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto: Negro New York, 1890–1930, 2nd edn, New York, Harper Torchbooks, 1971.
Palmer, Frank (ed.), Anti-racism: An Assault on Education and Value, London, Sherwood Press, 1986.
Palmer, John L. and Sawhill, Isabel V. (eds.), The Reagan Record: An Assessment of America's Changing Domestic Priorities, Cambridge, Mass., Ballinger Publishing Company, 1984.
Phillips, Kevin, The Politics of Rich and Poor: Wealth and the American Electorate in the Reagan Aftermath, New York, Random House, 1990.
Pierce, William, ‘Industrial Relations in the Royal Arsenal’, in Beverley Burford and Julian Watson (eds.), Aspects of the Arsenal: The Royal Arsenal Woolwich, London, Greenwich Borough Museum, 1997, pp. 111–25.
Powell, Enoch, Freedom and Reality, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1969.
Propp, Vladimir, Theory and History of Folklore, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1984.
Ramadin, Ron, The Making of the Black Working Class in Britain, Aldershot, Wildwood House Ltd, 1987.
Reeves, Frank, Race and Borough Politics, Aldershot, Averbury, 1989.
Reich, R., The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for Twenty-First Century Capitalism, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1991.
Rieder, Jonathan, Canarsie: The Jews and Italians of Brooklyn against Liberalism, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1985.
Rieder, Jonathan, ‘The Rise of the “Silent Majority”’, in Steve Fraser and Gary Gerstle (eds.), The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order 1930–1980, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1989, pp. 243–68.
Rifkin, J., The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labour Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era, New York, Putnam and Sons, 1996.
Roediger, David R., The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, London, Verso, 1991.
Rubin, Lillian, Busing and Backlash: White against White in a California School District, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1972.
Satzewich, Vic (ed.), Racism and Social Inequality in Canada: Concepts, Controversies and Strategic Resistance, Toronto, Thompson Educational, 1998.
Stazewich, Vic, (ed.) Deconstructing a Nation: Immigration, Multiculturalism and Racism in 90's Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Fernwood Publishing, 1992.
Schlesinger, Arthur, M., Jr, The Disuniting of America, New York, Norton, 1992.
Sennett, Richard, The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism, New York, Norton and Company, 1998.
Sennet, Richard and Cobb, Jonathan, The Hidden Injuries of Class, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1972.
Shepherd, Robert, Enoch Powell, Hutchinson, London, 1996.
Skillen, Tony, ‘Post-Marxist Modes of Production, or Discourse Fever’, Radical Philosophy, 20 (1978), pp. 3–8.
Sleeper, Jim, The Closest of Strangers: Liberalism and the Politics of Race in New York, New York, W. W. Norton and Co., 1990.
Smith, Susan J., The Politics of Race and Residence, Cambridge, Polity Press, 1989.
Smith, Susan J., ‘Residential Segregation and the Politics of Racialisation’, in Malcolm Cross and Michael Keith (eds.), Racism, the City and the State, London, Routledge, 1993, pp. 128–43.
Solomos, John, ‘The Local Politics of Racial Equality’, in Malcolm Cross and Michael Keith (eds.), Racism, the City and the State, London, Routledge, 1993.
Solomos, John and Back, Les, Racism and Society, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1996.
Sowell, Thomas, Markets and Minorities, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1981.
Sowell, Thomas, Ethnic America, New York, Basic Books, 1981.
Spencer, Ian, British Immigration Policy since 1939: The Making of Multi-racial Britain, London, Routledge, 1997.
Steinberg, Stephen, The Ethnic Myth: Race, Ethnicity and Class in America, Boston, Beacon Books, 1981.
Steinberg, Stephen, Turning Back: The Retreat from Racial Justice in American Thought and Policy, Boston, Beacon Press, 1995.
Stocking, George W., Jr (ed.), The Shaping of American Anthropology 1883–1911: A Franz Boas Reader, New York, Basic Books, 1974.
Stoker, G., The Politics of Local Government, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1988.
Sugrue, Thomas, ‘Crabgrass-Roots Politics: Race, Rights and Reaction against Liberalism in the Urban North, 1940–1964’, Journal of American History, 82 (1995), pp. 551–77.
Sugrue, Thomas, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1996.
Taylor, Charles, ‘The Politics of Recognition’, in Amy Gutman (ed.), Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1994, pp. 25–73.
Tonkin, Elizabeth, Narrating our Pasts: The Social Construction of Oral History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Trilling, Lionel, Beyond Culture, New York, Scribner's, 1955.
Trotter, Joe William, Jr, The Great Migration in Historical Perspective: New Dimensions of Race, Class and Gender, Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1991.
Troyna, Barry, ‘The Career of an Antiracist Education School Policy: Some Observations on the Mismanagement of Change’, in Anthony G. Green and Stephen J. Ball (eds.), Progress and Inequality in Comprehensive Education, London, Routledge, 1992, pp. 158–78.
Troyna, Barry (ed.), Racial Inequality in Education, London, Tavistock, 1987.
Tuttle, William M., Jr, Race Riot: The Red Summer of 1919, New York, Atheneum, 1970.
Tyler, Paul, ‘The Origins of Labour Representation in Woolwich’, Labour History Review, 59, 1 (1994), pp. 26–33.
Werbner, Pnina and Modood, Tariq (eds.), Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multi-Cultural Identities and the Politics of Anti-Racism, London, Zed Books, 1997.
Willett, Cynthia (ed.), Theorizing Multiculturalism: A Guide to the Current Debate, Oxford, Blackwell, 1998.
Williams, Walter, The State against Blacks, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1982.
Young, Iris Marion, Justice and the Politics of Difference, Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1990.