Messengers of Sex

Hormones, Biomedicine and Feminism

Messengers of Sex

Since the early twentieth century, hormones have commonly been understood as 'messengers of sex'. They are seen as essential to the development and functioning of healthy reproductive male and female bodies; millions take them as medications in the treatment of fertility, infertility and ageing. However, in contemporary society, hormones are both disturbed and disturbing; invading our environments and bodies through plastics, food and water, environmental estrogens and other chemicals, threatening irreversible, inter-generational bodily change. Using a wide range of sources, from physiology textbooks to popular parenting books and pharmaceutical advertisements, Celia Roberts analyses the multiple ways in which sex hormones have come to matter to us today. Bringing feminist theories of the body into dialogue with science and technology studies, she develops tools to address one of the most important questions facing feminism today: how is biological sex conceivable?


 Reviews:

"This is an excellent book that rigorously and thoughtfully argues that sex hormones still matter today. Although "gene talk" has currently become an important discourse to conceptualise biological life, Celia Roberts convincingly shows how hormones still function as important scientific, cultural and political resources for answering persistent questions about sex, gender and the body. Bridging two distinct fields of research - feminist theories of the body and science and technology studies - Messengers of Sex provides new, critical tools in order to think through how technoscientific discourses are interwoven into women’s and men’s lives." -Nelly Oudshoorn, Professor of Technology Dynamics and Health Care, University of Twente, The Netherlands

"What is the relationship between hormones and sex, between the biological and the social, and between sex and gender? In this engagingly written book Roberts develops an elegant and complex - yet entirely accessible - argument that deserves to command the attention of theorists working in history, philosophy, science and technology studies, cultural studies, anthropology, sociology and feminist theory. This is one of a handful of truly exceptional recent books to emerge from informed and responsible interdisciplinary research." -Professor Moira Gatens Research Professor, University of Sydney

Adami, Hans-Olav and Persson, Ingemar. 1995. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cancer: A remaining controversy? Journal of the American Medical Association 274(2): 178–9
Akrich, Madeleine. 1992. The De-Scription of Technical Objects. In W. E. Bijker and J. Law (eds.), Shaping Technology, Building Society: Studies in sociotechnical change, pp. 205–44. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Alonso, L. C. and Rosenfield, R. L. 2002. Oestrogens and Puberty. Best Practice in Research in Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 16(1): 13–30
Amsterdamska, Olga. 1990. Surely You Are Joking Monsieur Latour! Science, Technology and Human Values 15(4): 495–504
Anway, Matthew D., Cupp, Andrea S., Uzumcu, Mehmet and Skinner, Michael K. 2005. Epigenetic Transgenerational Actions of Endocrine Disruptors and Male Fertility. Science 3 June: 1466–9
Arnold, Arthur, P. and Breedlove, S. Marc. 1985. Organizational and Activational Effects of Sex Steroids on Brain and Behavior: A reanalysis. Hormones and Behavior 19: 469–98
Atkins, Lucy. 2004. Throw Out the Bath Water? Chemical World Supplement, The Guardian, May 8: 20–3
Avila, D. M., Zoppi, S. and McPhaul, M. J. 2001. The Androgen Receptor (AR) in Syndromes of Androgen Insensitivity and in Prostate Cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 76(1–5): 135–42
Avis, N. E., Crawford, S., Stellato, R. and Longcop, C. 2001. Longitudinal Study of Hormone Levels and Depression among Women Transitioning Through Menopause. Climacteric 4(3): 243–9
Bain, J. 2001. Andropause: Testosterone replacement therapy for aging men. Canadian Family Physician 47: 91–7
Baker, Susan W. 1980. Biological Influences on Human Sex and Gender. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 6(1): 80–96
Balsamo, Anne. 1996. Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading cyborg women. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press
Baron-Cohen, Simon 2004. The Essential Difference. London: Penguin Books
Baron-Cohen, Simon, Lutchmaya, Svetlana and Knickmeyer, Rebecca. 2004. Prenatal Testosterone in Mind: Amniotic fluid studies. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press
BBC News Online. 2002. River Pollution Sparks Fertility Fears. www.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1877162.stm. 17 March. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Beach, Frank A. 1975. Behavioral Endocrinology: An emerging discipline. American Scientist 63, March–April: 178–87
Beauvoir, Simone de. 1988 [1949]. The Second Sex. H. M. Parshley (trans. and ed.). London: Pan Books
Bell, Susan. 1987. Changing Ideas: The medicalization of menopause. Social Science and Medicine 24(6): 535–42
Beral V. and Million Women Study Collaborators. 2003. Breast Cancer and Hormone-Replacement Therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 362: 419–27
Berger, Maurice, Wallis, Brian and Watson, Simon (eds.). 1995. Constructing Masculinity. New York and London: Routledge
Berglund, Hans, Lindström, Per and Savic, Ivanka. 2006. Brain Response to Putative Pheromones in Lesbian Women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(21): 8269–74
Berkson, D. Lindsey. 2000. Hormone Deception: How everyday foods and products are disrupting your hormones – and how to protect yourself and your family. New York: Contemporary Books
Bhavnani, Kum-Kum and Haraway, Donna. 1994. Shifting the Subject: A conversation between Kum-Kum Bhavnani and Donna Haraway, 12 April 1993, Santa Cruz, California. Justine Meyers (transcriber). Feminism and Psychology 4(1):19–39
Biddulph, Steven. 1997. Raising Boys: Why boys are different – and how to help them become happy and well-balanced men. London: Thorsons
Bimonte, Heather A., Fitch, R. Holly and Denenberg, Victor H. 2000. Neonatal Estrogen Blockage Prevents Normal Callosal Responsiveness to Estradiol in Adulthood. Developmental Brain Research 122(2): 149–55
Birke, Lynda I. A. and Sadler, Dawn. 1985. Maternal Behavior in Rats and the Effects of Neonatal Progestins Given to Pups. Developmental Psychobiology 18(6): 467–75
Birke, Lynda. 2000. Sitting on the Fence: Biology, feminism and gender-bending environments. Women's Studies International Forum 23(5): 587–99
Birke, Lynda.1999. Feminism and the Biological Body. Edinburgh University Press
Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and sexual morality 1885–1914. London: Penguin Books
Bleier, Ruth. 1984. Science and Gender. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon
Bordo, Susan. 1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, western culture, and the body. Berkeley, LA and London: University of California Press
Borell, Merriley. 1976. Organotherapy, British Physiology, and the Discovery of the Internal Secretions. Journal of the History of Biology 9(2): 235–68
Borell, Merriley.1985. Organotherapy and the Emergence of Reproductive Endocrinology. Journal of the History of Biology 18(1): 1–30
Borell, Merriley.1987. Biologists and the Promotion of Birth Control Research, 1918–1938. Journal of the History of Biology 20(1): 51–87
Boulet, M. J., Oddens, B. J., Lehert, P., Vemer, H. M. and Visser, A. 1994. Climacteric and Menopause in Seven South-East Asian Countries. Maturitas 19(3): 155–6
Bradshaw, John and Rogers, Lesley J. 1993. The Evolution of Lateral Asymmetries, Language, Tool Use and Intellect. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Braidotti, Rosi. 1989. The Politics of Ontological Difference. In Teresa Brennan (ed.), Between Feminism and Psychoanalysis, pp. 89–105. London: Routledge
Braidotti, Rosi.2002. Metamorphoses: Towards a materialist theory of becoming, Cambridge: Polity
Braidotti, Rosi.2006. Transpositions: On nomadic ethics, Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity
Brennan, Teresa. 2004. The Transmission of Affect. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press
Brinton, L. A. and Schairer, C. 1993. Estrogen Replacement Therapy and Breast Cancer Risk. Epidemiologic Reviews 15(1): 66–79
Bryld, Mette. 1996. Dialogues with Dolphins and Other Extraterrestrials: Displacements in gendered space. In Nina Lykke and Rosi Braidotti (eds.), Between Monsters, Goddesses and Cyborgs: Feminist confrontations with science, medicine and cyberspace, pp. 47–71. London: Zed Books
Bunkle, Phillida. 1997. Calling the Shots? The international politics of depo-provera. In Sandra Harding (ed.), The ‘Racial’ Economy of Science: Toward a democratic future, pp. 287–302. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Burkeman, Oliver. 2002. HRT Study Cancelled over Cancer and Stroke Fears. The Guardian, 10 July. http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/medicalscience/story/0,,752653,00.html Last accessed 25 September 2006
Burr, Chandler. 1993. Homosexuality and Biology. The Atlantic Monthly 271(3): 47–65
Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York and London: Routledge
Butler, Judith.1993. Bodies that Matter: On the discursive limits of ‘sex’. New York and London: Routledge
Butler, Judith.1994. Against Proper Objects. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 6(2–3): 1–26
Butler, Judith.2004. Undoing Gender. New York and London: Routledge
Byne, William, Lasco, Mitchell S., Kemether, Eileen, Shinwari, Akbar, Edgar, Mark A., Morgello, Susan, Jones, Liesl B. and Tobet, Stuart. 2000. The Interstitial Nuclei of the Human Anterior Hypothalamus: An investigation of sexual variation in volume and cell size, number and density. Brain Research 856(1–2): 254–8
Byne, William, Tobet, Stuart, Mattiace, Linda A., Lasco, Mitchell S., Kemether, Eileen, Edgar, Mark A., Morgello, Susan, Buschbaum, Monte S. and Jones, Liesl B. 2001. The Interstitial Nuclei of the Human Anterior Hypothalamus: An investigation of variation with sex, sexual orientation, and HIV status. Hormones and Behavior 40: 86–92
Cadbury, Deborah. 1998. The Feminization of Nature: Our future at risk. London: Penguin Books
Caine, Barbara. 1992. Victorian Feminists. Oxford University Press
Callon, Michel and Rabeharisoa, Vollona. 2004. Gino's Lesson on Humanity: Genetics, mutual entanglements and the sociologist's role. Economy and Society 33(1): 1–27
Callon, Michel. 1986. Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St. Brieuc Bay. In J. Law (ed.), Power, Action and Belief, pp. 196–233. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Canguilhem, Georges. 1988. Ideology and Rationality in the History of the Life Sciences. Arthur Goldhammer (trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Canguilhem, Georges.1994. The Vital Rationalist: Selected writings from Georges Canguilhem. François Delaporte (trans.). New York: Zone Books
Capezuti, Elizabeth, Strumpf, Neville E., Lois, K., Grisso, Jeane Ann and Maislin, Greg. 1998. The Relationship Between Physical Restraint Removal and Falls and Injuries among Nursing Home Residents. Journal of Gerontology 53A(1): 47–52
Carlson, Neil R. 1992. Foundations of Physiological Psychology, 2nd edn. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Carson, Rachel. 1962. Silent Spring. London: Hamish Hamilton
Carter, C. Sue and Getz, Lowell L. 1993. Monogamy and the Prairie Vole. Scientific American June: 70–6
Chase, Cheryl. 1998a. Hermaphrodites with Attitude: Mapping the emergence of intersex political activism. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 4(2): 189–211
Chase, Cheryl.1998b. Surgical Progress Is Not the Answer to Intersexuality. Journal of Clinical Ethics 9(4): 385–92
Chase, Cheryl.1999. Rethinking Treatment for Ambiguous Genitalia. Pediatric Nursing 25: 451–5
Cheah, Pheng. 1996. Mattering. Diacritics 26(1): 108–39
Cilag. 1995. Evorel® advertisement 1. British Journal of Sexual Medicine 22(1): 28
Cilag.1996. Evorel® advertisement 2. British Journal of Sexual Medicine 23(1): 8
Clarke, Adele E. and Fujimura, Joan (eds.). 1992. The Right Tools for the Job: At work in twentieth-century life. Princeton University Press
Clarke, Adele. 1998. Disciplining Reproduction. Berkeley, LA and London: University of California Press
Co-operative Bank and World Wildlife Fund. 2004. Polar Bears Don't Live in Houses Campaign. The Guardian Weekend 15 May: 50
Cobb, Ivo Geike. 1935. The Glands of Destiny (A Study of the Personality), 2nd edn. London: William Heineman (Medical Books)
Cobbs, Elizabeth R. and Ralapati, Anuradha N. 1998. Health of Older Women. Medical Clinics of North America 82(1): 127–44
Colborn, Theo, Dumanoski, Dianne and Peterson, John. 1996. Our Stolen Future: Are we threatening our fertility, intelligence and survivial – A scientific detective story. London: Little, Brown and Company
Coney, Sandra. 1991. The Menopause Industry: A guide to medicine's ‘discovery’ of the midlife woman. Melbourne: Spinifex Press
Connell, R. W. 2000. The Men and the Boys. Sydney: Allen and Unwin
Conrad, Peter and Gabe, Jonathon. 1999. Sociological Perspectives on the New Genetics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
Cowlishaw, Gillian. 1982. Family Planning: A post-contact problem. In Janice Reid (ed.), Health and Healing in Aboriginal Society, pp. 31–48. St Lucia: University of Queensland Press
Crews, David. 1988. The Problem with Gender. Psychobiology 16(4): 321–34
Crews, David.1994. Animal Sexuality. Scientific American 270(1): 96–103
Curtis, Polly. 2004. Finger Points to Good Research Skills. The Guardian, 20 October
Davidson, Nancy. 1995. Hormone-Replacement Therapy: Breast versus heart versus bone. New England Journal of Medicine 332(4): 1638–9
Davis, Kathy. 1995. Reshaping the Female Body: The dilemma of cosmetic surgery. London and New York: Routledge
De Bendern, Paul. 2002. Toxins Put Arctic Polar Bears and Humans at Risk. World Environment News, Reuters, www.planetark.org., 3 October. Last accessed 27 July 2003
Dennerstein, Lorraine. 1993/34. The Controversial Menopause. 21C: The Magazine of the Australian Commission for the Future, Summer: 12–17
Doell, Ruth G. and Longino, Helen E. 1988. Sex Hormones and Human Behaviour: A critique of the linear model. Journal of Homosexuality 15(3/4): 55–78
Donovan, Bernard. 1988. Humors, Hormones and the Mind: An approach to the understanding of behaviour. New York: Stockton Press
Dorey, Catherine N. (2003) Chemical Legacy: Contamination of the child. London: Greenpeace
Doyal, Lesley. 1995. What Makes Women Sick? Gender and the political economy of health. London: Macmillan Press
Duden, Barbara. 1991. The Woman Beneath the Skin: A doctor's patients in eighteenth-century Germany. Thomas Dunlap (trans.). Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press
Duden, Barbara.1993. Disembodying Women: Perspectives on pregnancy and the unborn. Lee Hoinacki (trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Dumit, Joseph. 2002. Drugs for Life. Molecular Interventions 2(3): 124–7
Dumit, Joseph.2004. Picturing Personhood: Brain scans and biomedical identity. Princeton University Press
Dumit, Joseph.2005. The Depsychiatrisation of Mental Illness. Journal of Public Mental Health 4(3): 8–13
Edwards, J., Franklin, S., Hirsch, E., Price and Strathern, M. 1999. Technologies of Procreation: Kinship in the age of assisted conception, 2nd edn (with additional material). London: Routledge
Ehrhardt, Anke A. 1984. Gender Differences: A biosocial perspective. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 33: 37–57
Ehrhardt, Anke, A. and Meyer-Balhburg, Heino F. L. 1981. Effects of Prenatal Sex Hormones on Gender-Related Behavior. Science 211: 1312–18
Ellerington, M. C., Whitcroft, S. I. T. and Whitehead, M. I. 1992. HRT Developments in Therapy. British Medical Bulletin 48(2): 401–25
Elwyn, Glynn, Edwards, Adrian, Gwyn, Richard and Grol, Richard. 1999. Towards a Feasible Model for Shared Decision-making: Focus group study with general practitioners. British Medical Journal 319: 753–6
Ettinger, Bruce. 1998. Overview of Estrogen Replacement Therapy: A historical perspective. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 217(1): 2–5
European Environmental Bureau, EPHA Environmental Network, Friends of the Earth Europe, Greenpeace International, WWF and Women in Europe for a Common Future. 2005. NGOs' Five Key Demands to Improve REACH. www.foeeurope.org/safer_chemicals/five_key_demands.pdf. Last accessed 25 September 2006
European HRT-Network Foundation and Contraception Study Group. 2001. Practical HRT. www.hrtnet.org/prachrt/toc.htm. Last accessed 10 October 2003
Farrell, Elizabeth. 2003. Medical Choices Available for Management of Menopause. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 17(1): 1–6
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. 1992. Myths of Gender: Biological theories about women and men. Revised edn. New York: Basic Books
Fausto-Sterling, Anne.1993. The Five Sexes: Why male and female are not enough. The Sciences March/April: 20–5
Fausto-Sterling, Anne.1995. How to Build a Man. In Maurice Berger, Brian Wallis and Simon Watson (eds.), Constructing Masculinity, pp. 127–34. New York and London: Routledge
Fausto-Sterling, Anne.2000. Sexing the Body: Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. New York: Basic Books
Ferguson, Sherry A. 2002. Effects on Brain and Behavior Caused by Developmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors with Estrogenic Effects. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 24: 1–3
Fernald, Russell, D. 1993. Cichlids in Love: What a fish's social caste tells the fish's brain about sex. The Sciences July/August: 27–31
Finkler, Kaja. 2000. Experiencing the New Genetics: Family and kinship on the medical frontier. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
Finnegan, Judy. 2002. HRT is a Change for the Better. Daily Express, Saturday, 1 May: 15
Fitch, R. H. and Denenberg, V. H. 1998. A Role for Ovarian Hormones in Sexual Differentiation of the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(3): 311–35
Fitch, R. H., Cowell, P. E. and Denenberg, V. H. 1998. The Female Phenotype: Nature's default? Developmental Neuropsychology 14(2/3): 213–31
Fletcher, Suzanne W. and Colditz, Graham A. 2002. Failure of Estrogen Plus Progestin Therapy for Prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association 288(3): 1–6
Foucault, Michel. 1987. The History of Sexuality: An introduction. Robert Hurley (trans.). London: Penguin Books
Foucault, Michel.1988. Madness and Civilization: A history of insanity in the Age of Reason. New York: Vintage
Foucault, Michel.1994. The Birth of the Clinic: An archeology of medical perception. Reprint edn. New York: Vintage
Foucault, Michel.1995. Discipline and Punish: The birth of the prison. Reprint edn. New York: Vintage
Fox, Helen E., Stephanie A. White, Kao, Mimi H. and Fernald, D. 1997. Stress and Dominance in a Social Fish. Journal of Neuroscience 17(16): 6463–9
Francis, Richard C., Soma, Kiran and Fernald, Russell D. 1993. Social Regulation of the Brain-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 90 (August): 7794–8
Franklin, Sarah and McKinnon, Susan (eds.). 2003. Relative Values: Reconfiguring kinship studies. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press
Franklin, Sarah and Roberts, Celia. 2006. Born and Made: An ethnography of preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Princeton University Press
Franklin, Sarah. 2001. Culturing Biology: Cell lines for the second millennium. Health 5(3): 321–40
Franklin, Sarah.2003. Ethical Biocapital: New strategies of stem cell culture. In Sarah Franklin and Margaret Lock (eds.), Remaking Life and Death: Toward an anthropology of the biosciences, pp. 97–127. Sante Fe and Oxford: School of American Research Press
Fraser, Mariam, Kember, Sarah and Lury, Celia. 2005. Inventive Life: Approaches to the new vitalism. Theory, Culture and Society 22(1): 1–14
Fraser, Suzanne. 2003. Cosmetic Surgery, Gender and Culture. London: Palgrave.
Friends of the Earth. 2001a. Chemicals in the Home: A parent's guide. London: Friends of the Earth with support from the National Childbirth Trust.
Friends of the Earth.2001b. Fact Sheet: Chemicals and Breastmilk. www.foe.co.uk/resource/factsheets/chemicals_breastmilk.pdf. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Friends of the Earth.2001c. Press Briefing: Chemicals and health. www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/chemicals_and_health.pdf. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Friends of the Earth.2001d. Chemicals and Your Health: Briefing. www.foe.co.uk/campaigns/safer_chemicals. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Frith, Maxine. 2003. Revealed: HRT causes breast cancer in 2,000 women in a year. The Independent 8 August: 1
Fujimura, Joan H. 1996. Crafting Science: A sociohistory of the quest for the genetics of cancer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Fujimura, Joan H.2006. ‘Sex Genes’: A critical sociomaterial approach to the politics and molecular genetics of sex determination. Signs: A journal of women in society and culture 32(1)
Fuss, Diana. 1994. Reading like a Feminist. In Naomi Schor and Elizabeth Weed (eds.), The Essential Difference, pp. 98–115. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Gallagher, Catherine and Laqueur, Thomas (eds.). 1987. The Making of the Modern Body: Sexuality and society in the nineteenth century. Berkeley, LA and London: University of California Press
Gatens, Moira. 1983. A Critique of the Sex/Gender Distinction. In Judith Allen and Paul Patton (eds.), Beyond Marxism: Interventions after Marx, pp. 143–60. Sydney: Intervention Press
Gatens, Moira.1996. Imaginary Bodies: Ethics, embodiment and corporeality. New York and London: Routledge
Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Damaged Men: Thoughts on Kafka's body. In Maurice Berger, Brian Wallis and Simon Watson (eds.), Constructing Masculinity, pp. 176–89. New York and London: Routledge
Gilman, Sander L.1991. The Jew's Body. New York: Routledge
Gilman, Sander L.1993. Freud, Race and Gender. Princeton University Press
Gilman, Sander L.1995. Picturing Health and Illness: Images of identity and difference. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Gorman, Christine. 1992. Sizing Up the Sexes. Time Australia, 20 January (3): 30–7
Gould, Stephen Jay. 1993. American Polygeny and Craniometry Before Darwin: Blacks and Indians as separate, inferior species. In Sandra Harding (ed.), The ‘Racial’ Economy of Science: Toward a democratic future, pp. 84–115. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Greenpeace. 2003. Human Impacts of Man-Made Chemicals. Greenpeace: London, October
Greenpeace.2005. Poisoning the Unborn, 8 September. www.greenpeace.org/international/news/poisoning-the-unborn111. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Greer, Germaine. 1991. The Change: Women, aging and the menopause. London: Hamish Hamilton
Gregory, Jennie. 1935. ABC of the Endocrines. Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Company
Griffiths, Frances. 1999. Women's Control and Choice Regarding HRT. Social Science and Medicine 49: 469–81
Grosz, Elizabeth. 1989. Sexual Subversions: Three French feminists. Sydney: Allen and Unwin
Grosz, Elizabeth.1990. A Note on Essentialism and Difference. In Sneja Gunew (ed.), Feminist Knowledge: Critique and construct, pp. 332–44. New York: Routledge
Grosz, Elizabeth.1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a corporeal feminism. Sydney: Allen and Unwin
Grosz, Elizabeth.1999. Darwin and Feminism: Preliminary investigations for a possible alliance. Australian Feminist Studies 14(29): 31–45
Grosz, Elizabeth.2005. Time Travels: Feminism, nature, power. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press
Guillemin, Marilys. 2000a. Blood, Bone, Women and HRT: Co-construction in the menopause clinic. Australian Feminist Studies 15(32): 191–203
Guillemin, Marilys.2000b. Working Practices of the Menopause Clinic. Science, Technology and Human Values 25(4): 448–70
Gullette, Margaret Morganroth. 1994. All Together Now: The new sexual politics of midlife bodies. In Laurence Goldstein (ed.), The Male Body, pp. 221–47. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press
Gullette, Margaret Morganroth.1997. Menopause as a Magic Marker: Discursive consolidation in the United States and strategies for cultural combat. In P. Komesaroff, P. Rothfield and J. Daly (eds.), Reinterpreting Menopause: Cultural and philosophical issues, pp. 176–99. New York and London: Routledge
Gullette, Margaret Morganroth.2004. Aged by Culture. University of Chicago Press
Gunew, Sneja and Yeatman, Anna. 1995. Feminism and the Politics of Difference. Sydney: Allen and Unwin
Haeberle, Erwin J. 1981. Swastika, Pink Triangle and Yellow Star: The destruction of sexology and the persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany. Journal of Sex Research 17(3): 270–87
Hall, Diana Long. 1976a. Biology, Sex Hormones and Sexism in the 1920s. In M. Wartofsky and C. Could (eds.), Women and Philosophy: Toward a theory of liberation, pp. 81–96. New York: G. P. Putnam's Press
Hall, Diana Long.1976b. The Critic and the Advocate: Contrasting British views on the state of endocrinology in the early 1920s. Journal of the History of Biology 9(2): 269–85
Hamilton, David. 1986. The Monkey Gland Affair. London: Chatto and Windus
Hammonds, Evelynn. 1994. Black (W)holes and the Geometry of Black Feminist Sexuality. Differences: A journal of feminist cultural studies 6(2–3): 126–45
Haraway, Donna J. 1978. Animal Sociology and a Natural Economy of the Body Politic, Part I: A politic physiology of dominance; and Part II: The Past is the Contested Zone: Human nature and theories of production and reproduction in primate behavior. Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society 4(1): 21–36 and 37–60
Haraway, Donna J.1989. Primate Visions: Gender, race and nature in the world of modern science. New York and London: Routledge
Haraway, Donna J.1991. Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The reinvention of nature. New York: Routledge
Haraway, Donna J.1992a. The Promises of Monsters: A regenerative politics for inappropriate/d others. In Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson and Paula Treichler (eds.), Cultural Studies, pp. 295–337. New York: Routledge
Haraway, Donna J.1992b. When Man™ Is on the Menu. In Jonathon Crary and Sanford Kwinter (eds.), Incorporations, pp. 38–43. New York: Zone Books
Haraway, Donna J.1997. Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium. FemaleMan©_Meets_OncoMouse: Feminism and technoscience. New York and London: Routledge
Haraway, Donna J.2003. The Companion Species Manifesto: Dogs, people and significant otherness. Chicago: Prickly Pear Press
Harding, Jennifer. 1997. Bodies at Risk: Sex, surveillance and hormone replacement therapy. In Alan Peterson and Robin Bunton (eds.), Foucault, Health and Medicine, pp. 134–50. London and New York: Routledge
Harding, Sandra (ed.) 1993a. The ‘Racial’ Economy of Science: Toward a democratic future. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Harding, Sandra, 1986. The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press
Harding, Sandra,1991. Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking from women's lives. Ithaca and New York: Cornell University Press
Harding, Sandra. 1993b. Rethinking Standpoint Epistemology: What is ‘strong objectivity’? In Linda Alcoff and Elizabeth Potter (eds.), Feminist Epistomologies, pp. 48–82. New York and London: Routledge
Hardon, Anita Petra. 1992. The Needs of Women Versus the Interests of Family Planning Personnel, Policy-makers and Researchers: Conflicting views on safety and acceptability of contraceptives. Social Science and Medicine 35(6): 735–66
Harris, Tess J., Cook, Derek, Wicks, Paul D. and Cappuccio, Francesco P. 1999. Ethnic Differences in Use of Hormone Replacement Therapy: Community based survey. British Medical Journal 319: 610–11
Hartouni, Valerie. 1997. Cultural Conceptions: On reproductive technologies and the remaking of life. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press
Hassler, Marianne. 1992. Creative Musical Behaviour and Sex Hormones: Musical talent and spatial ability in the two sexes. Psychoneuroendocrinology 17(1): 55–70
Hausman, Bernice. 1995. Changing Sex: Transsexualism, technology and the idea of gender. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press
Hayles, N. Katherine. 1999. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual bodies in cybernetics, literature and informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Health Promotion England. 2000. The Menopause: The facts about the menopause, HRT and osteoporosis. London: Health Promotion England
Helén, Ilpo. 2004. Technics Over Life: Risk, ethics and the existential condition in high-tech antenatal care. Economy and Society 33(1): 28–51
Henwood, Flis, Wyatt, Sally, Hart, Angie and Smith, Julie. 2003. ‘Ignorance is Bliss Sometimes’: Constraints on the emergence of the ‘informed patient’ in the changing landscapes of health information. Sociology of Health and Illness 25(6): 589–607
Hersh, Adam L., Stefanick, Marcia L., Stafford, Randall S. 2004. National Use of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy: Annual trends and response to recent evidence. Journal of the American Medical Association 291: 47–53
Hess, Rex A., Bunick, David and Bahr, Janice. 2001. Oestrogen, its Receptors and Function in the Male Reproductive Tract: A review. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 178(1–2): 29–38
Hill, Amelia. 2002. Damning Study on HRT Leaves Women in Limbo. The Observer 14 July. www.guardian.co.uk/medicine/story/0,,754950,00.html. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Hillard, T. 1997. Evaluation and Management of the Hormone Replacement (HRT) Candidate [review]. International Journal of Fertility and Women's Medicine 42 (Suppl. 2): 347–64
Hines, Melissa. 1998. Abnormal Sexual Development and Psychosexual Issues. Ballière's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 12(1): 173–89
Hinshaw, Kim. 1996. May Depend on Whether the Menopause is Regarded as Physiological or Pathological [letter]. British Medical Journal 313: 686
Hird, Myra J. 2004. Sex, Gender and Science. Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan
Hirschbein, Laura. 2000. The Glandular Solution: Sex, masculinity and aging in the 1920s. Journal of the History of Sexuality 9(3): 277–304
Hirschfeld, Magnus. 1936. Homosexuality. In Victor Robinson (ed.), Encyclopaedia Sexualis: A comprehensive encyclopaedia of the sexual sciences, pp. 321–34. New York: Dingwall-Rock
Hoberman, John M. and Yesalis, Charles E. 1995. The History of Synthetic Testosterone. Scientific American February: 60–5
Hodann, Max. 1937. History of Modern Morals. Stella Browne (trans.). London: William Heineman (Medical Books)
Hoffman, Mikael, Lindh-Åstran, Lotta, Ahlner, Johan, Hammar, Mats and Kjellgren, Karin I. 2005. Hormone Replacement Therapy in the Menopause: Structure and content of risk talk. Maturitas 50(1): 8–15
Hogle, Linda. 2005. Enhancement Technologies and the Body. Annual Review of Anthropology 34: 695–716
Holmes, Morgan. 2000. Queer Cut Bodies. In Joseph A. Boone et al. (eds.), Queer Frontiers: Millennial geographies, genders and generations, pp. 84–110. Madison, WI and London: University of Wisconsin Press
hooks, bell. 1990. Yearning: Race, gender and cultural politics. Boston: South End Press.
Hope, Jenny. 2002. Taking Soy as HRT Substitute ‘A Waste’. Daily Mail Wednesday 7 July. 39
Hunter, Myra S., O'Dea, Irene and Britten, Nicky. 1997. Decision-making and Hormone Replacement Therapy: A qualitative analysis. Social Science and Medicine 45(10): 1541–8
Irigaray, Luce. 1985. This Sex Which Is Not One. Catherine Porter and Carolyn Burke (trans.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Irigaray, Luce.1993a. Je, Tu, Nous: Toward a culture of sexual difference. Alison Martin (trans.). New York and London: Routledge
Irigaray, Luce.1993b. An Ethics of Sexual Difference. Carolyn Burke and Gillian C. Gill (trans.). Ithaca and New York: Cornell University Press
Irvine, Janice M. 1990. Disorders of Desire: Sex and gender in modern American sexology. Philadelphia: Temple University Press
Kaiser, Fran. E. 1991. Sexuality and Impotence in the Aging Man. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 7(1): 63–75
Katz, Stephen and Marshall, Barbara. 2003. New Sex for Old: Lifestyle, consumerism, and the ethics of aging well. Journal of Aging Studies 17: 3–16
Kaufert, Patricia. 1982. Myth and the Menopause. Sociology of Health and Illness 4(2): 141–66
Kaufman, Jean Marc and Vermeulen, Alex. 1997. Declining Gonadal Function in Elderly Men. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 11(20): 289–309
Kay, Lily. 2000. Who Wrote the Book of Life? A history of the genetic code. Stanford University Press
Keller, Evelyn Fox. 1995. Reflections on Gender and Science (Tenth Anniversary edn). New Haven and London: Yale University Press
Keller, Evelyn Fox.2001. The Century of the Gene. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Kenen, Stephanie H. 1997. Who Counts When You're Counting Homosexuals? Hormones and homosexuality in mid-twentieth century America. In Vernon A. Rosario (ed.), Science and Homosexualities, pp. 197–218. New York: Routledge
Kessler, Suzanne J. 1990. The Medical Construction of Gender: Case management of intersexed infants. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 16(1): 3–26
Kessler, Suzanne J. and McKenna, Wendy. 1978. Gender: An ethnomethodological approach. University of Chicago Press
Klein, Renate and Dumble, Lynette J. 1994. Disempowering Midlife Women: The science and politics of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Women's Studies International Forum 17(4): 327–43
Konrad, Monica. 2005. Narrating the New Genetics: Ethics, ethnography and science. Cambridge University Press
Krieger, Nancy and Fee, Elizabeth. 1996. Man-made Medicine and Women's Health: The biopolitics of sex/gender and race/ethnicity. In Kary L. Moss (ed.), Man-Made Medicine: Women's health, public policy and reform, pp. 15–35. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press
Krimsky, Sheldon. 2000. Hormonal Chaos: The scientific and social origins of the environmental endocrine hypothesis. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Kristeva, Julia. 1982. Powers of Horror: An essay on abjection. Leon S. Roudiez (trans.). New York: Columbia University Press
Kwok, Wei Leng. 1997. Menopause and the Great Divide: Biomedicine, feminism and cyborg politics. In Paul Komesaroff, Phillipa Rothfield and Jeanne Daly (eds.), Reinterpreting Menopause: Cultural and philosophical issues, pp. 255–72. New York and London: Routledge
LaCheen, Cary. 1986. Population Control and the Pharmaceutical Industry. In Kathleen McDonnell (ed.), Adverse Effects: Women and the pharmaceutical industry, pp. 89–136. Penang, Malaysia: International Organization of Consumers Unions Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Lam, P. M., Chung, T. K., and Haines, C. 2005. Where Are We With Postmenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy in 2005? Gynecological Endocrinology 21(5): 248–56
Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Making Sex: Body and gender from the Greeks to Freud. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Latour, Bruno and Woolgar, Steve. 1979. Laboratory Life: The social construction of scientific facts. Beverley Hills and London: Sage
Latour, Bruno. 1983. Give Me a Laboratory and I Will Raise the World. In Karin D. Knorr-Cetina and Michael Mulkay (eds.), Science Observed: Perspectives on the social study of science, pp. 141–70. London: Sage
Latour, Bruno.1988. The Pasteurization of France. Alan Sheridan and John Law (trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Latour, Bruno.1990. Postmodern? No, simply amodern! Steps toward an anthropology of science. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 21(1): 145–51
Latour, Bruno.1993. We Have Never Been Modern. Catherine Porter (trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Laurance, Jeremy. 2003. HRT ‘The New Thalidomide’, Says Health Chief. The Independent 4 October: 1
Lauretis, Teresa de. 1994. The Essence of the Triangle or, Taking the Risk of Essentialism Seriously: Feminist theory in Italy, the U.S, and Britain. In Naomi Schor and Elizabeth Weed (eds.), The Essential Difference, pp. 1–39. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Lawrence, Felicity. 2004. Food Chained. Chemical World Supplement, The Guardian 15 May: 4–7
LeDoeuff, Michèle. 1989. The Philosophical Imaginary. Colin Gordon (trans.). London: The Athlone Press
Legros, J. J. 2000. Towards a Consensus Regarding Androgen Substitution Therapy for Andropause. Review Medicine Liege 55(5): 449–53
LeVay, Simon. 1991. Evidence for Anatomical Difference in the Brains of Homosexual Men. Science 253: 1034–7
LeVay, Simon.1993. The Sexual Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Leysen, Bettina. 1996. Medicalization of the Menopause: From ‘Feminine Forever’ to ‘Healthy Forever’. In Nina Lykke and Rosi Braidotti (eds.), Between Monsters, Goddesses and Cyborgs: Feminist confrontations with science, medicine and cyberspace, pp. 173–91. London: Zed Books
Lock, Margaret. 1993. Encounters with Aging: Mythologies of menopause in Japan and North America. Berkeley, LA and London: University of California Press
Lombardi, G., Zarrilli, S., Colao, A., Oaesano, L., Di Somma, C., Rossi, F. and De Rosa, M. 2001. Estrogens and Health in Males. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 178(1–2): 51–5
Longino, Helen and Doell, Ruth. 1983. Body, Bias and Behavior: A comparative analysis of reasoning in two areas of biological science. Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society 9(2): 206–27
Luckas, Murray J. M, Gleeve, Toni, Biljan, Marinnko M., Buckett, William M., Aird, Ian A., Drakeley, Andrew and Kingland, Charles R. 1998. The Effects of Progestagens on the Carotid Artery Pulsatility Index in Postmenopausal Women on Oestrogen Replacement Therapy. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 76: 221–4
Lund, B. C., Bever-Stille, K. A. and Perry, P. J. 1999. Testosterone and Andropause: The feasibility of testosterone replacement therapy in elderly men. Pharmacotherapy 19(8): 951–6
Lupton, Deborah. 1996. Constructing the Menopausal Body: The discourses on hormone replacement therapy. Body and Society 2(1): 91–7
Lykke, Nina. 1996. Between Monsters, Goddesses and Cyborgs: Feminist confrontations with science. In Nina Lykke and Rosi Braidotti (eds.), Between Monsters, Goddesses and Cyborgs: Feminist confrontations with science, medicine and cyberspace, pp. 13–29. London: Zed Books
Lynn, Richard. 1990. Testosterone and Gonadotropin Levels and r/K Reproductive Strategies. Psychological Reports 67: 1203–6
Lyons, Antonia C. and Griffin, Christine. 2003. Managing Menopause: A qualitative analysis of self-help literature for women at midlife. Social Science and Medicine 56: 1629–42
M'charek, Amade. 2005. The Human Genome Diversity Project: An ethnography of scientific practice. Cambridge University Press
Mackenzie, Adrian. 2006. Cutting Code: Software and sociality. New York: Peter Lang
Maclennan, A. H., Taylor, A. W. and Watson, D. H. 1995. Changes in the Use of Hormone Replacement Therapy in South Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 162(8): 420–2
Madden, Richard. 1994. Women's Health. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Maddley, Richard and Finnegan, Judy. 2002. HRT is a Change for the Better. Daily Express 11 May: 15
Mamo, L. and Fishman, J. 2001. Potency in All the Right Places: Viagra as a gendered technology of the body. Body and Society 7 (4): 13–35
Markowitz, Sally. 2001. Pelvic Politics: Sexual dimorphism and racial difference. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 26(2): 389–414
Marsh, Beezy. 2002. Why the HRT Generation Has a Fun-filled Life. Daily Mail 8 May: 30
Marshall, Barbara L. 2002. ‘Hard Science’: Gendered constructions of sexual dysfunction in the ‘Viagra Age’. Sexualities 5: 131–58
Marshall, Barbara L. and Katz, Stephen. 2002. Forever Functional: Sexual fitness and the ageing male body. Body and Society 8(4): 43–70
Martin, Biddy. 1996. Femininity Played Straight: The significance of being lesbian. New York and London: Routledge
Martin, Emily. 1987. The Woman in the Body: A cultural analysis of reproduction. Boston: Beacon Press
Martin, Emily.1995. Flexible Bodies: The role of immunity in American culture from the days of polio to the age of AIDS. Boston: Beacon Press
Martin, Emily.1997. The Woman in the Menopausal Body. In Paul Komesaroff, Phillipa Rothfield and Jeanne Daly (eds.), Reinterpreting Menopause: Cultural and philosophical issues, pp. 239–54. New York and London: Routledge
Martin, Emily.2000b. Flexibility and Health. In Simon Willams, Jonathon Gave and Michal Calnan (eds.), Health, Medicine and Society. London and New York: Routledge
Martin, Emily2000a. The Rationality of Mania. In Roddey Reid and Sharon Traweek (eds.), Doing Science + Culture, pp. 177–98. New York and London: Routledge
Mastrogiacomo I., Feghali, G., Foresta, C. and Ruzza, G. 1982. Andropause: Incidence and pathogenesis. Archives of Andrology 9: 293–6
McCormick, Cheryl M., Witelson, Sandra F. and Kingstone, Edward. 1990. Left-handedness in Homosexual Men and Women: Neuroendocrine implications. Psychoneuroendocrinology 15(1): 69–76
McCrea, Frances B. 1983. The Politics of Menopause: The ‘discovery’ of a deficiency disease. Social Problems 31(1): 109–23
McEwan, Bruce S. 2001. Genome and Hormones: Gender differences in physiology. Invited Review: Estrogens' effects on the brain: multiple sites and molecular mechanisms. Journal of Applied Physiology 91: 2785–801
McLachlan, John A. 2001. Environmental Signaling: What embryos and evolution teach us about endocrine disrupting chemicals. Endocrine Reviews 22(3): 319–41
McLaughlin, Dorothy. 2001. Silent Spring Revisited. www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/nature/disrupt/sspring.html. Last accessed 18 March 2007
Medvei, Victor Cornelius. 1982. A History of Endocrinology. Lancaster, UK: MTP Press
Meikle, James. 2003. HRT Treatment Doubles Risk of Breast Cancer: Study of Million Women Sounds Warning. The Guardian, 8 August: 1
Meikle, James.2005. Oestrogen Levels Need Pre-Menopause Boost to Thwart Heart Disease, Says Study. The Guardian, 9 December: 9
Millett, Kate. 1970. Sexual Politics. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co.
Mitteness, Linda S. 1983. Historical Changes in Public Information about the Menopause. Urban Anthropology 12(2): 161–72
Moir, Anne and Jessel, David. 1991. Brain Sex: The real differences between men and women. London: Mandarin
Mol, Annemarie and Law, John. 1994. Regions, Networks and Fluids: Anemia and social topology. Social Studies of Science 24: 641–71
Mol, Annemarie and Mesman, Jessica. 1996. Neonatal Food and the Politics of Theory: Some questions of method. Social Studies of Science 26: 419–44
Mol, Annemarie. 2002. The Body Multiple: Ontology in medical practice. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press
Money, John. 1976. The Development of Sexology as a Discipline. Journal of Sex Research 12(2): 83–7
Money, John.1982. Sexosophy: A new concept. Journal of Sex Research 18(4): 364–6
Moore, Celia L. 1984. Maternal Contributions to the Development of Masculine Sexual Behaviour in Laboratory Rats. Developmental Psychobiology 17: 347–56
Moore, Celia L. and Hui Dou. 1996. Number, Size, and Regional Distribution of Motor Neurons in the Dorsolateral and Retrodorsolateral Nuclei as a Function of Sex and Neonatal Stimulation. Developmental Psychobiology 29(4): 303–13
Moore, Celia L. and Power, Karen L. 1986. Prenatal Stress Eliminates Differential Maternal Attention to Male Offspring in Norway Rats. Developmental Psychobiology 38(5): 667–71
Moore, Celia L. and Power, Karen L.1992. Variation in Maternal Care and Individual Differences in Play, Exploration, and Grooming of Juvenile Norway Rat Offspring. Developmental Psychobiology 25(3): 165–82
Moore, Celia L., Wong, Lisa, Daum, Mary C. and Leclair, Ojingwa U. 1997. Mother–Infant Interactions in Two Strains of Rats: Implication for dissociating mechanism and function of a maternal pattern. Developmental Psychobiology 30(4): 310–2
Moorhead, Joanna. 2004. Pass on the Sweets. Chemical World Supplement, The Guardian 15 May: 20–3
Morales, Alvaro, Johnston, Brenda, Heaton, Jeremy P. and Lundie, Mark. 1997. Testosterone Supplementation for Hypogonadal Impotence: Assessment of biochemical measures and therapeutic outcomes. Journal of Urology 157 (March): 849–54
Morely, John E. 1991. Endocrine Factors in Geriatric Sexuality. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 7(1): 85–93
Morely, John E.2000. Andropause, Testosterone Therapy, and Quality of Life in Aging Men. Cleveland Clinical Journal of Medicine 67(12): 880–2
Morely, John E.2001. Andropause: Is it time for the geriatrician to treat it? Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 56: 263–5
Morrison, Keith. 2004. The HRT Horses: What happens when the market dries up? Dateline NBC News, www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3995076/%20. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and gender in England, 1800–1929. Cambridge University Press
Murray, Jenni. 2001. Is it Me, or Is it Hot in Here? A modern woman's guide to the menopause. London: Vermillion
Murtagh, Madeleine J. and Hepworth, Julie. 2003a Menopause as a Long-Term Risk to Health: Implications of general practitioner accounts of prevention for women's choice and decision-making. Sociology of Health and Illness 25(2): 185–207
Murtagh, Madeleine J. and Hepworth, Julie.2003b. Feminist Ethics and Menopause: Autonomy and decision-making in primary medical care. Social Science and Medicine 5: 1643–52
Myers, Greg. 1990. Writing Biology: Texts in the social construction of scientific knowledge. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press
National Institutes of Health. 2002. NHLBI Stops Trial of Estrogen Plus Progestin due to Increased Breast Cancer Risk, Lack of Overall Benefit. NIH News Release, 9 July, www.nhlbi.nih.gov/new/press/02-07-09.htm. Last accessed 25 September 2006
National Research Council. 1999. Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press
Neave, Nick and Menaged, Meyrav. 1999. Sex Differences in Cognition: The role of testosterone and sexual orientation. Brain and Cognition 41: 245–62
Neischlag, E. 1996. Testosterone Replacement Therapy: Something old, something new. Clinical Endocrinology 45(3): 261–2
Nelkin, Dorothy. 1987. Selling Science: How the press covers science and technology. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company
Newbold, R. R., Hanson, R. B., Jefferson, W. N., Bullock, B. C., Haseman, J. and McLachlan, J. A. 1998. Increased Tumors but Uncompromised Fertility in the Female Descendants of Mice Exposed Developmentally to Diethylstilbestrol. Carcinogenesis 19(9): 1655–63
Novas, Carlos and Rose, Nikolas. 2000. Genetic Risk and the Birth of the Somatic Individual. Economy and Society 29(4): 485–513
Novo Nordisk n.d. Choosing HRT: Weighing up the facts. KV/01/72
Novo Nordisk1993. Trisquens® advertisement. Modern Medicine: The Journal of Clinical Medicine 36(3)
Nye, Robert A. 2005. Locating Masculinity: Some recent work on men. Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society 30(3) Spring: 1937–62
O'Connor, Ahmad. 2004. Sex on the Brain – It Depends on the Gender. Sydney Morning Herald 25 March: 7
Oakley, Ann. 1972. Sex, Gender and Society, London: Temple Smith
Oddens, B. J., Boulet, P., Lehert P. and Visser, P. 1992. Has the Climacteric Been Medicalized? A study on the use of medication for climacteric complaints in four countries. Maturitas 15(3): 171–81
Oudshoorn, Nelly. 1994. Beyond the Natural Body: An archeology of sex hormones. New York and London: Routledge
Oudshoorn, Nelly.1996a. A Natural Order of Things? Reproductive sciences and the politics of othering. In George Robertson, Melinda Mash, Lisa Tickner, Jon Bird, Barry Curtis and Tim Putnam (eds.), FutureNatural: Nature, science, culture, pp. 122–32. London and New York: Routledge
Oudshoorn, Nelly.2003. The Male Pill: A biography of a technology in the making. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press
Oudshoorn, Nelly1996b. The Decline of the One-Size-Fits-All Paradigm, or How Reproductive Scientists Try to Cope with Postmodernity. In Nina Lykke and Rosi Braidotti (eds.), Between Monsters, Goddesses and Cyborgs: Feminist confrontations with science, medicine and cyberspace, pp. 153–72. London: Zed Books
Palmert, M. R. and Boepple, P. A. 2001. Variation in the Timing of Puberty: Clinical spectrum and genetic investigation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86(6): 2364–8
Palmund, I. 1997. The Marketing of Estrogens for Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology 19: 158–64
Polo-Kantola, P., Portin, R., Polo, O., Helenius, H., Irjala, K. and Erkkola, R. 1998. The Effect of Short-term Estrogen Replacement Therapy on Cognition: A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial in postmenopausal women. Obstetrics and Gynecology 91(3): 459–66
Porter, Roy and Hall, Lesley. 1995. The Facts of Life: The creation of sexual knowledge in Britain, 1650–1950. New Haven and London: Yale University Press
Potts, Annie, Gavey, Nicola, Grace, Victoria M. and Vares, Tiina. 2003. The Downsides of Viagra: Women's experiences and concerns. Sociology of Health and Illness 25(7): 697–719
Potts, Annie. 2004. Deleuze on Viagra (Or, What Can a Viagra-body Do?). Body and Society 10(1): 17–36
Prevelic, Gordana and Jacobs, Howard S. 1997. Menopause and Postmenopause. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 11(2): 313–40
Prior, Jerilynn C., Vigna, Yvette M. and Watson, Diane. 1989. Spironolactone with Physiological Female Steroids for Presurgical Therapy of Male-to-Female Transsexualism. Archives of Sexual Behaviour 18(1): 49–57
Rabinow, Paul. 1992. Artificiality and Enlightenment: From sociobiology to biosociality. In J. Crary and S. Kwinter (eds.), Incorporations, pp. 234–52. New York: Zone Books
Rabinow, Paul1999. French DNA: Trouble in purgatory. University of Chicago Press.
Raloff, Janet. 1994a. The Gender Benders: Are environmental ‘hormones’ emasculating wildlife? Science News 145(2) 8 Jan.: 24–7
Raloff, Janet.1994b. That Feminine Touch: Are men suffering from prenatal or childhood exposures to ‘hormonal toxicants?’ Science News 145(4) 22 Jan: 56–8
Rapp, Rayna and Ginsburg, Faye. 2001. Enabling Disability: Rewriting kinship, reimagining citizenship. Public Culture 13(3): 533–56
Rapp, Rayna, Heath, Deborah and Taussig, Karen-Sue. 2001. Genealogical Disease: Where hereditary abnormality, biomedical explanation, and family responsibility meet. In Sarah Franklin and Susan McKinnon (eds.), Relative Values: Reconfiguring kinship studies, pp. 384–412. Durham, NC: Duke University Press
Rapp, Rayna. 1999. Testing Women, Testing the Fetus. New York and London: Routledge
Rayner, Claire. 2002. Why it Is Worth Taking the Risk. The Guardian, 11 July, www.guardian.co.uk/medicine/story/0,,753117,00.html. Last accessed 26 September 2006
Reeve, J. 1992. Future Prospects for Hormone Replacement Therapy. British Medical Bulletin 48(2): 458–68
Reinisch, June Macover, Ziemba-Davis, Mary and Sanders, Stephanie A. 1991. Hormonal Contributions to Sexually Dimorphic Behavioral Development in Humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology 16 (1–3): 213–78
Reuben, David. 1971. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex But Were Afraid to Ask. London: Pan Books
Riley, Denise. 1988. Am I That Name? Feminism and the category of ‘women’ in history. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
Riley, Pete, Bell, Sandra and Warhurst, Michael. 1999. Briefing: Endocrine disrupting chemicals. Friends of the Earth, www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/endocrine_disrupting.html. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Roberts, Celia and Franklin, Sarah. 2005. Experiencing New Forms of Genetic Choice: Findings from an ethnographic study of preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Human Fertility 7(4): 285–294
Roberts, Celia and Mackenzie, Adrian. 2006. Science: Experimental sensibilities in practice. Theory, Culture and Society 23(2–3): 137–62
Roberts, Celia. 2000. Biological Behavior? Hormones, psychology and sex. The Science and Politics of the Search for Sex Differences: A special issue of the NWSA journal 12(3): 1–20
Roberts, Celia.2002a. ‘Successful Aging’ with Hormone Replacement Therapy: It may be sexist, but what if it works? Science as Culture 11(1): 39–59
Roberts, Celia.2002b. ‘A Matter of Embodied Fact’: Sex hormones and the history of bodies. Feminist Theory 3(1): 7–26
Roberts, Celia.2003a. Sex, Race and ‘Unnatural’ Difference: Tracking the chiastic logic of menopause-related discourses. European Journal of Women's Studies 11(1): 27–44
Roberts, Celia.2003b. Drowning in a Sea of Estrogens: Sex hormones, sexual reproduction and sex. Sexualities 6(2): 195–213
Rochira, Vincenzo, Balestrieri, Antonio, Madeo, Bruno, Baraldi, Enrica, Faustini-Fustini, Marco, Granata, Antonio R. M. and Carani, Cesare. 2001. Congenital Estrogen Deficiency: In search of the Estrogen role in human male reproduction. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 178(1–2): 107–15
Rogers, Lesley J. 1988. Biology, the Popular Weapon: Sex differences in cognitive function. In Barbara Caine, E. A. Grosz and Marie deLepervanche (eds.), Crossing Boundaries: Feminisms and the critique of knowledges, pp. 43–51. Sydney: Allen and Unwin
Rogers, Lesley J.1998. Indirect Influences of Gonadal Hormones on Sexual Differentiation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(3): 337–8
Rogers, Lesley J.1999. Sexing the Brain. London: Weidenfield and Nicolson
Rose, Nikolas. 2001. The Politics of Life Itself. Theory, Culture and Society 18(6): 1–30
Royal Society, the. 2000. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). June. London: The Royal Society
Rubin, Gayle. 1994. Sexual Traffic: Interview with Judith Butler. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 6(2–3): 62–99
Russell, Andrew and Thompson, Mary S. 2000. Introduction: Contraception across cultures. In Andrew Russell, Elisa J. Sobo and Mary S. Thompson (eds.), Contraception Across Cultures: Technologies, choices, constraints, pp. 3–25. Oxford and New York: Berg
Russell, Andrew, Sobo, Elisa J. and Thompson, Mary S. (eds.) 2000. Contraception Across Cultures: Technologies, choices, constraints. Oxford and New York: Berg
Russett, Cynthia Eagle. 1989. Sexual Science: The Victorian construction of womanhood. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Sample, Ian. 2006. Free IVF for All Would Ease Pensions Crisis, Say Researchers. The Guardian 20 June: 11
Schiebinger, Londa. 1989. The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the origins of modern science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Schiebinger, Londa.1993. Nature's Body: Sexual politics and the making of modern science. London: Pandora
Seaman, Barbara and Seaman, Gideon. 1977. Women and the Crisis in Sex Hormones. New York: Bantam
Seaman, Barbara. 2003. The Greatest Experiment Ever Performed on Women: Exploding the oestrogen myth. New York: Hyperion
Sedgwick, Eve Kososky. 1991. Epistemology of the Closet. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Sengoopta, Chandak. 1998. Glandular Politics: Experimental biology, clinical medicine, and homosexual emancipation in fin-de-siècle Central Europe. Isis 89: 445–473
Sengoopta, Chandak.2000. The Modern Ovary: Constructions, meanings, uses. History of Science 38(4), no. 122: 425–88
Serres, Michel, with Latour, Bruno. 1995. Conversations on Science, Culture and Time. Roxanne Lapidus (trans.) Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Shapin, Steven and Shaffer, Simon. 1985. Leviathan and the Air-pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life. Princeton University Press
Sharpe, Richard M. and Irvine, D. Stewart. 2004. How Strong Is the Evidence of a Link Between Environmental Chemicals and Adverse Effects on Human Reproductive Health? British Medical Journal (328) (21 February): 447–51
Shaw, J. M. and Snow, C. M. 1998. Weighted Vest Exercise Improves Indices of Fall Risk in Older Women. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biological and Medical Sciences 53(1): 53–8
Sherwin, Barbara. 1998. Estrogen and Cognitive Functioning in Women. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 217(1): 17–22
Sherwood, Lauralee. 1989. Human Physiology: From cells to systems. St. Paul, MI: West Publishing Company
Sherwood, Lauralee.1997. Human Physiology: From cells to systems. 2nd edition. St. Paul, MI: West Publishing Company
Sherwood, Lauralee.2007. Human Physiology: From cells to systems, 6th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson, Brooks/Cole
Shippen and Fryer, 1998. The Testostone Syndrome: The critical factor for energy, health, and sexuality – reversing the male menopause. New York: M. Evans and Company
Shorett, Peter. 2002. Of Transgenic Mice and Men. GeneWatch 15(5) September. www.gene-watch.org/genewatch/articles/15-5mice.html. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Singleton, Vicky. 1996. Feminism, Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and Postmodernism: Politics, theory and me. Social Studies of Science 26: 445–68
Slabbekoorn, Ditte, van Goozen, Stephanie H. M., Sanders, Geofff, Gooren, Louis J. G. and Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T. 2000. The Dermatoglyphic Characteristics of Transsexuals: Is there evidence for an organizing effect of sex hormones. Psychoneuroendocrinology 25: 365–75
Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. 1989. Discourses of Sexuality and Subjectivity: The new woman, 1870–1936. In Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vicinus and George Chauncy, Jr. (eds), Hidden from History: Reclaiming the gay and lesbian past, pp. 264–80. New York: NAL Books
Solomon, Gina M. and Schettler, Ted. 2000. Environment and Health: 6. Endocrine disruption and potential human health implications. Canadian Medical Association Journal 28 November, 163(11): 1471–6
Solstad, K. and Garde, K. 1992. Middle-aged Danish Men's Ideas of a Male Climacteric – and of the Female Climacteric. Maturitas 15(1): 7–16
Spanier, Bonnie B. 1995. Im/partial Science: Gender ideology in molecular biology. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Speroff, Leon. 1993. Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 9(1): 33–55
Speroff, Leon.1997. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy into the 21st Century. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Suppl. 1: 3–10
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, with Grosz, Elizabeth. 1984. Criticism, Feminism and the Institution. In Sarah Harasym (ed.), The Post Colonial Critic: Interviews, strategies, dialogues / Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, pp. 1–16. New York: Routledge
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, with Rooney, Ellen. 1994. In a Word. Interview. In Naomi Shor and Elizabeth Weed (eds.), The Essential Difference, pp. 151–84. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Stacey, Jackie. 1997. Teratologies: A cultural study of cancer. London and New York: Routledge
Stacey, Jackie.2000. The Global Within: Consuming nature, embodying health. In Sarah Franklin, Celia Lury, and Jackie Stacey, Global Nature, Global Culture, pp. 97–145. London: Sage Publications
Stanford, Janet L., Weiss, Noel S., Voigt, Lynda, Dalling, Janet R., Habel, Laurel A. and Rossing, Mary Anne. 1995. Combined Estrogen and Progestin Hormone Replacement Therapy in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer in Middle-Aged Women. Journal of the American Medical Association 274(2): 137–42
Star, Susan Leigh. 1991. Power, Technology and the Phenomenology of Conventions: On being allergic to onions. In John Law (ed.), A Sociology of Monsters? Power, technology and the modern world, pp. 26–56. Sociological Review Monograph 38. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Steakley, James D. 1997. Per Scientiam Ad Justitiam: Magnus Hirschfeld and the sexual politics of innate homosexuality. In Vernon Rosario (ed.), Science and Homosexualities, pp. 133–54. New York: Routledge
Steinach, Eugen and Loebel, Josef. 1940. Sex and Life: Forty years of biological and medical experiments. London: Faber and Faber
Stepan, Nancy and Gilman, Sander. 1993. Appropriating the Idioms of Science: The rejection of scientific racism. In Sandra Harding (ed.), The ‘Racial’ Economy of Science: Toward a democratic future, pp. 170–93. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Stepan, Nancy. 1993. Race and Gender: The role of analogy in science. In Sandra Harding (ed.), The ‘Racial’ Economy of Science: Toward a democratic future, pp. 359–76. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Stewart, Jane. 1988. Current Themes, Theoretical Issues, and Preoccupations in the Study of Sexual Differentiation and Gender-Related Behaviors. Psychobiology 16 (4): 315–20
Stone, Richard. 1994. Environmental Estrogens Stir Debate. Science 265: 308–10
Subbiah, M. T. 1998. Mechanisms of Cardioprotection by Estrogens. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 217(1): 23–9
Suchman, Lucy. 1999. Working Relations of Technology Production and Use. In D. Mackenzie and J. Wajcman (eds.), The Social Shaping of Technology, 2nd edn, pp. 258–65. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press
Sultan, Charles, Balaguer, Terouanne, Béatrice, Georget, Virginie, Paris, François, Jeandel, Claire, Lumbroso, Serge and Nicolas, Jean-Claude. 2001. Environmental Xenoestrogens, Antiandrogens and Disorders of Male Sexual Differentiation. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 178(1–2): 99–105
Swaab, D. F. 2004. Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain: Relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation. Gynecology and Endocrinology 19: 301–12
Sybylla, Roe. 1997. Situating Menopause within the Strategies of Power. In Paul Komesaroff, Phillipa Rothfield and Jeanne Daly (eds.), Reinterpreting Menopause: Cultural and philosophical issues, pp. 200–21. New York and London: Routledge
Takaki, Ronald T. 1993. Aesculapius Was a White Man: Race and the cult of true womanhood. In Sandra Harding (ed.), The ‘Racial’ Economy of Science: Toward a democratic future, pp. 201–9. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Tan, R. S. and Philip, P. S. 1999. Perceptions of and Risk Factors for Andropause. Archives of Andrology 43(3): 227–33
Teilman, Grete, Juul, Anders, Skakkebæk and Toppari, Jorma. 2002. Putative Effects of Endocrine Disrupters on Pubertal Development in the Human. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 16(1): 105–21
Terry, Jennifer. 1997. The Seductive Power of Science in the Making of Deviant Subjectivity. In Vernon A. Rosario (ed.), pp. 271–95. Science and Homosexualities. New York: Routledge
Terry, Jennifer.1999. An American Obsession: Science, medicine and homosexuality in modern society. Chicago University Press
Thornton, Joe. 1997. The PVC Lifecycle: Dioxin from cradle to grave. Greenpeace U.S.A, April. http://archive.greenpeace.org/toxics/reports/reports.html
Throsby, Karen. 2004. When IVF Fails: Feminism, infertility and the negotiation of normality. Houndsmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan
Tiefer, Leonore. 1994. Three Crises Facing Sexology. Archives of Sexual Behavior 23(4): 361–74
Topo, P., Koster, A., Holte, A., Collins, A., Landgren, B. M., Hemminki, E. and Uutela, A. 1995. Trends in the Use of Climacteric and Postclimacteric Hormones in Nordic Countries. Maturitas 22: 89–95
UC Davis Cancer Center. 2003. Of Mice and Women. Synthesis: A publication of the UC Davis Cancer Center, www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/synthesis/Archives/fall03/feature/feature.html. Last accessed 25 September 2006
Urry, John. 2003. Global Complexity. London: Polity
Utian, W. H. and Schiff, I. 1994. NAMS-Gallup Survey on Women's Knowledge, Information Sources, and Attitudes to Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy. Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society 1(1): 39–48
Van de Graaf, Kent M. and Fox, Stuart Ira. 1989. Concepts of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2nd edn. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers
Van den Wijngaard, Marianne. 1997. Reinventing the Sexes: The biomedical construction of femininity and masculinity. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Van Wingerden, Ineke. 1996. Postmodern Visions of the Menopausal Body: The apparatus of bodily production and the case of brittle bones. In Nina Lykke and Rosi Braidotti (eds.), Between Monsters, Goddesses and Cyborgs: Feminist confrontations with science, medicine and cyberspace, pp. 192–206. London: Zed Books
Vermeulen, A. 1993. The Male Climaterium. Annuals of Medicine 25(6): 531–44
Vermeulen, A.2000. Andropause. Maturitas 34(1): 5–15
Verrell, Paul. 1991. Why Small Is Sometimes Sexy. New Scientist 7 September: 44–7
Vines, Gail. 1993. Raging Hormones: Do they rule our lives? London: Virago Press
Vreughenhil, Hestien J. I., Silpjer, Froukje M. E., Mulder, Paul G. H. and Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke. 2002. Effects of Perinatal Exposure to PCBs and Dioxins on Play Behaviour in Dutch Children at School Age. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(10): 593–8
Waldby, Catherine. 1996. AIDS and the Body Politic: Biomedicine and sexual difference. London: Routledge
Waldby, Catherine.2000. The Visible Human Project: Informatic bodies and posthuman medicine. London: Routledge
Waldby, Catherine.2002. Stem Cells, Tissue Cultures and the Production of Biovalue. Health 6(3): 305–23
Warhurst, A. M. 2000. Crisis in Chemicals. London: Friends of the Earth.
Watson Pharma Inc. 1996. Androderm™ advertisement. Endocrinology 137(2)
Weed, Elizabeth. 1994. The Question of Style. In Carolyn Burke, Naomi Schor and Margaret Whitford (eds.), Engaging with Irigaray: Feminist philosophy and modern European thought, pp. 79–109. New York: Colombia University Press
Weeks, Jeffrey. 1981. Sex, Politics and Society: The Regulation of sexuality since 1800. London: Longman Group
Weeks, Jeffrey.1986. Sexuality. Chichester: Ellis Horwood
West M. J., White, D. J. and King, A. P. 2003. Female Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater): Organization and behavior reflects male social dynamics. Animal Behavior 64: 377–85
Whitehead, Stephen M. and Barrett, Frank J. (eds.) 2001. The Masculinities Reader. Cambridge and Malden: Polity
Wiegman, Robyn. 1995. American Anatomies: Theorizing race and gender. Durham, NC: Duke University Press
Wilbush, Joel. 1979. La Menopausie: The birth of a syndrome. British Medical Journal 281(6239): 563–4
Wilbush, Joel.1981a. Climacteric Symptom Formation: Donovan's contribution. Maturitas 3(2): 99–105
Wilbush, Joel.1981b. What's in a Name? Some linguistic aspects of the climacteric. Maturitas 3(1): 1–9
Wilbush, Joel.1982. Historical perspectives: Climacteric expression and social context. Maturitas 4(3): 195–205
Wilbush, Joel.1985. Surveys of Climacteric Semiology in Non-western Populations: A critique. Maturitas 7(4): 289–96
Wilbush, Joel.1988a. Menopause and Menorrhagia: A historical exploration. Maturitas 10(2): 83–108
Wilbush, Joel.1988b. Menorrhagia and Menopause: A historical review. Maturitas 10(1): 5–26
Wilbush, Joel.1993. The Climacteric Kaleidoscope: Questions and speculations. Maturitas 16(3): 157–62
Wilbush, Joel.1994. Confrontation in the Climacteric. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 87(June): 342–7
Williams, Simon J. and Gillian Bendelow. 1998. The Lived Body: Sociological themes, embodied issues. New York and London: Routledge
Wilson, Elizabeth A. 1998. Neural Geographies: Feminism and the microstructure of cognition. New York: Routledge
Wilson, Elizabeth A.1999. Introduction: Somatic Compliance – Feminism, Biology and Science. Australian Feminist Studies 14(29): 7–18
Wilson, Elizabeth A.2004. Psychosomatic: Feminism and the neurological body. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press
Wilson, Robert A. 1966. Feminine Forever. London: Mayflower Books
Winner, Langdon. 1993. Upon Opening the Black Box and Finding it Empty: Social constructivism and the philosophy of technology. Science, Technology and Human Values 18(3): 362–78
Witelson, Sandra F. 1991. Neural Sexual Mosaicism: Sexual differentiation of the human temporo-parietal region for functional asymmetry. Psychoneuroendocrinology 16(1–3): 131–53
Wolff, Charlotte. 1986. Magnus Hirshfeld: A portrait of a pioneer in sexology. London: Quartet Books
Wolpert, Lewis. 1993. The Triumph of the Embryo. Oxford University Press
Woodward, Katherine. 1991. Aging and its Discontents: Freud and other fictions. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press
Woodward, Katherine.1994. From Virtual Cyborgs to Biological Time Bombs: Technocriticism and the material body. In Gretchen Bender and Timothy Druckery (eds.), Culture on the Brink: Ideologies of technology, pp. 47–64. Seattle: Bay Press
Woolgar, Steve. 1993. Configuring the User: The case of usability trials. In John Law (ed.), A Sociology of Monsters: Essays on Power, Technology and Domination, pp. 57–98. London: Routledge
Worchester, Nancy and Whatley, Marianne M. 1992. The Selling of HRT: Playing on the fear factor. Feminist Review 41: 1–26
World Wild life Fund. 1998. Chemicals that Compromise Life: A call to action. www.worldwildlife.org/news/pubs/toxics/ctcl.htm. Last accessed 1 September 2004
World Wild life Fund.1999. Persistent Organic Pollutants: Hand-me-down poisons that threaten wildlife and people. Issue Brief. Washington, DC http://worldwildlife.org/toxics/pubs/pop.pdf. Last accessed 25 September 2006
World Wild life Fund.2000. Reducing Your Risk: A UK guide to avoiding hormone disruptors, Surrey: WWF. www.wwf.org.uk/filelibrary/pdf/risk.pdf. Last accessed 26 September 2006
World Wild life Fund.2002. Who Cares Where Toxic Chemicals End Up? campaign. Country Living February: 43; Observer Food Monthly February 25; www.wwf.org.uk/chemicals/about.asp. Last accessed 25 September 2006
World Wild life Fund.2006. ‘Toxic Chemicals’. http://worldwildlife.org/toxics/. Last accessed 2 October 2006
Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. 2002. Risks and Benefits of Estrogen Plus Progestin in Healthy Post-menopausal Women. Journal of the American Medical Association 288(3): 321–3
Yaffe, K., Sawaya, G., Lieberburg, I. and Grady, D. 1998. Estrogen Therapy in Postmenopausal Women: Effects on function and dementia. Journal of the American Medical Association 279(9): 688–95
Young, Iris Marion. 1990. Throwing Like a Girl and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press
Zavos, P. M., Kaskar, K., Correa, J. R. and Sikka, S. C. 2006. Seminal Characteristics and Sexual Behavior in Men of Different Age Groups: Is there an aging effect? Asian Journal of Andrology 8(3): 337–41
Zumoff, Barnett. 1998. Does Postmenopausal Estrogen Administration Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? Contributions of nimal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies to a resolution of the controversy. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 217(1): 30–7