Forgiveness and Christian Ethics

Forgiveness and Christian Ethics

What does it mean to forgive? The answer is widely assumed to be self-evident but critical analysis quickly reveals the complexities of the subject. Forgiveness has traditionally been the preserve of Christian theology, though in the last half century - and at an accelerating pace - psychologists, lawyers, politicians and moral philosophers have all been making an important contribution to questions about and our understanding of the subject. Anthony Bash offers a vigorous restatement of the Christian view of forgiveness in critical dialogue with those both within and without the Christian tradition. Forgiveness is a much more complicated subject than many theologians recognize. Bash explores the relevance of the theoretical discussion of the topic to recent events such as the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa, post-Holocaust trials, the aftermath of 9/11 and July 7 and various high-profile criminal cases.


Review of the hardback: '[A book] whose subject-matter could not be more important.' Church Times

Review of the hardback: 'The range of thinkers and practitioners dealt with in this book ensures that readers will be well informed about forgiveness and concomitant issues.' Journal for the Study of the New Testament

Review of the hardback: 'This book is bound to have a huge and positive impact. I commend it warmly and without reservation.' Theology

'Throughout the book Bash weaves together jurisprudence and law, psychology and philosophy, theology and Christian ethics. He has some particularly interesting and well-put thoughts on the effects on Christian views of forgiveness, justice and punishment in the light and death of the resurrection of Christ.' Ecclesiastical Law Journal

Memory and Reconciliation: The Church and the Faults of the Past, (December 1999).,22989–2073010.html
Adams, Marilyn M. 1991. ‘Forgiveness: A Christian Model’, Faith and Philosophy 8: 277–304.
Affinito, Mona Gustafson 2002. ‘Forgiveness in Counseling: Caution, Definition and Application’ in Lamb and Murphy 2002, pp. 88–111.
Ansorge, Dirk 2000. ‘God between Mercy and Justice: The Challenge of Auschwitz and the Hope of Universal Reconciliation’ in Bemporad et al. 2000, pp. 77–90.
Appleby, R. Scott 2000. The Ambivalence of the Sacred. Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation. Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Aquino, K., Grover, S. L., Goldman, B. and Folger, R. 2003. ‘When Push Doesn’t Come to Shove. Forgiveness in Workplace Relationships’, Journal of Management Enquiry 12: 209–16.
Arendt, Hannah 1958. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Arendt, Hannah 1968. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Viking Press.
Asch, Solomon Elliott 1946. ‘Forming Impression of Personality’, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 41: 1230–40.
Asch, Solomon Elliott 1951. ‘Effect of Group Pressure upon the Modification and Distortion of Judgments’ in Harold Steere Guetzkow, Group Leadership and Men. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie University Press (1951), pp. 177–90.
Attorney-General of Israel v. Adolf Eichmann, 36 ILR 5–342 (1968).
Audra, E. and Williams, Aubrey (eds.) 1961. Alexander Pope, Pastoral Poetry and an Essay on Criticism, in The Poems of Alexander Pope, Volume Ⅰ of ‘The Twickenham Edition of the Poems of Alexander Pope’. London: Methuen.
Barber, Louise, Maltby, John and Macaskill, Ann 2005. ‘Angry Memories and Thoughts of Revenge: The Relationship between Forgiveness and Anger Rumination’, Personality and Individual Differences 39: 253–62.
Barnes, Jonathan (ed.), 1984. Rhetoric. The Complete Works of Aristotle. The Revised Oxford Translation, translated by W. Rhys Roberts. Guildford: Guildford University Press. (Volume Ⅱ, pp. 2152–269; Bollingen Series ⅬⅩⅪ.2.)
Barrett, Charles Kingsley 1991. The Epistle to the Romans, 2nd edition. Black’s New Testament Commentaries. London: A & C Black.
Bash, Anthony and Bash, Melanie 2004. ‘Early Christian Thinking’ in Watts and Gulliford 2004, pp. 29–49.
Baumeister, Roy F., Exline, Julie Juola and Sommer, Kristin L. 1998. ‘The Victim Role, Grudge Theory and Two Dimensions of Forgiveness’ in Worthington 1998c, pp. 79–104.
Beauchamp, Tom L. and Childress, James F. 2001. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 5th edition. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bemporad, Jack, Pawlikowski John T. and Sievers, Joseph 2000. Good and Evil after Auschwitz: Ethical Implications for Today. Hoboken, NJ: KTAV Publishing House Inc.
Benn, Piers 1996. ‘Forgiveness and Loyalty’, Philosophy 71: 369–83.
Bennett, Christopher 2003. ‘Personal and Redemptive Forgiveness’, European Journal of Philosophy 11: 127–44.
Berry, Jack W. and Worthington, Everett L. 2001. ‘Forgiveness, Relationship Quality, Stress while Imagining Relationship Events, and Physical and Mental Health’, Journal of Counseling Psychology 48: 447–55.
Biggar, Nigel 2001. ‘Forgiveness in the Twentieth Century. A Review of the Literature, 1901–2001’ in McFadyen and Sarot 2001, pp. 181–217.
Bole, William, Christiansen, Drew and Hennemeyer, Robert T. 2004. Forgiveness in International Politics: The Alternative Road to Peace. Washington, DC: US Conference of Catholic Bishops.
Boon, S. D. and Sulsky, L. M. 1997. ‘Attributions of Blame and Forgiveness in Romantic Relationships: A Policy-Capturing Study’, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 12: 19–44.
Bull of Indiction of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000, Incarnationis mysterium, (29 November 1998).
Burnside, Jonathan and Baker, Nicola 1994. Relational Justice. Repairing the Breach. Winchester: Waterside Press.
Calhoun, Cheshire 1992. ‘Changing One’s Heart’, Ethics 103: 76–96.
Campbell, Catriona, Devlin, Roisin, O’Mahony, David, Doak, Jonathan, Jackson, John, Corrigan, Tanya and McEvoy, Keith 2006. Evaluation of the Northern Ireland Youth Conference Service. NIO Research and Statistical Series: Report No. 12. Produced by the Statistics and Research Branch of the Northern Ireland Office (Criminal Justice Policy Division): Belfast, Northern Ireland.
Caputo, John D. and Scanlon, Michael J. (eds.) 1999. God, the Gift and Postmodernism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Caputo, John D., Dooley, Mark and Scanlon, Michael J. (eds.) 2001. Questioning God. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Carmichael, Kay 2003. Sin and Forgiveness. New Responses in a Changing World. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate.
Cassese, Antonio 2003. International Criminal Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cherry, Stephen 2004. ‘Forgiveness and Reconciliation in South Africa’ in Watts and Gulliford 2004, pp. 160–77.
Cose, Ellis 2004. Bone to Pick. Of Forgiveness, Reconciliation, Reparation and Revenge. New York: Washington Square Press.
Craig, W. J. (ed.) 1964. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. London, New York and Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Davies, William David 1965. Paul and Rabbinic Judaism. Some Rabbinic Elements in Pauline Theology. London: SPCK. (First published 1948.)
Davies, William David and Allison, Dale C. 1991. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to Saint Matthew. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. Volume Ⅱ (Commentary on Matthew Ⅷ – ⅩⅧ).
Davis, Colin 1996. Levinas. An Introduction. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
de Gruchy, John W. 2002. Reconciliation: Restoring Justice. London: SCM Press.
Denny, Norman (ed.) 1980. Les Misérables by Victor Hugo, translated and with an introduction by Norman Denny. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Derrida, Jacques 2001a. On Cosmopolitanism and Forgiveness, translated by Mark Dooley and Michael Hughes with a Preface by Simon Critchley and Richard Kearney. London and New York: Routledge.
Derrida, Jacques 2001b. ‘To Forgive’ in Caputo et al. 2001, pp. 21–51.
Dooley, Mark 2001. ‘The Catastrophe of Memory’ in Caputo et al. 2001, pp. 129–49.
Downie, R. S. 1965. ‘Forgiveness’, Philosophical Quarterly 15: 128–34.
DPP v. Kent and Sussex Contractors Ltd [1944] KB 146–59.
Drabkin, Douglas 1993. ‘The Nature of God’s Love and Forgiveness’, Religious Studies 29: 231–8.
Duff, R. Antony 2001. Punishment, Communication, and Community. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dunn, James D. G. 1988. Romans 1–8. Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 38A. Dallas: Word Books.
Dunn, James D. G. 2003. Jesus Remembered. Christianity in the Making, Volume Ⅰ. Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans.
Durham, M. S. 1990. ‘The Therapist and the Concept of Revenge: The Law of Talion’, Journal of Pastoral Care 40: 131–7.
Ehrman, Bart D. (ed.) 2003a. Lost Scriptures: Books that did not make it into the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ehrman, Bart D. (ed.) 2003b. Apostolic Fathers (Early Christian Collection), Volume Ⅱ, edited and translated by Bart D. Ehrman. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Elizondo, Virgil 1986. ‘I Forgive But I Do Not Forget’ in Floristan and Duquoc 1986, pp. 103–16.
Enright, Robert D. and Coyle, Catherine. T. 1998. ‘Researching the Process Model of Forgiveness within Psychological Interventions’ in Worthington 1998c, pp. 139–61.
Enright, Robert D. and Fitzgibbons, Robert P. 2000. Helping Clients Forgive: An Empirical Guide for Resolving Anger and Resolving Hope. Washington, DC: APA Press.
Enright, Robert D. and North, Joanna (eds.) 1998. Exploring Forgiveness (with a foreword by Archbishop Desmond Tutu). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Enright, Robert D. and the Human Development Study Group 1996. ‘Counseling within the Forgiveness Triad: On Forgiving, Receiving Forgiveness, and Self-Forgiveness’, Counseling and Values 40: 107–26.
Enright, Robert D., Freedman, Suzanne and Rique, Julio 1998. ‘The Psychology of Interpersonal Forgiveness’ in Enright and North 1998, pp. 46–62.
Exline, Julie Juola, Baumeister, Roy F., Bushman, Brad. J., Campbell, W. Keith and Finkel, Eli. J. 2004. ‘Too Proud to Let Go: Narcissistic Entitlement as Barrier to Forgiveness’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87: 894–912.
Exline, Julie Juola, Worthington, Everett L., Hill, P. and McCullough, Michael. E. 2003. ‘Forgiveness and Justice: A Research Agenda for Social and Personality Psychology’, Personality and Social Psychology Review 7: 337–48.
Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph von 1979. South Asian Societies: A Study of Values and Social Controls. London: East-West Publications (1979).
Falls, Margaret M. 1987. ‘Retribution, Reciprocity, and Respect for Persons’, Law and Philosophy 6: 25–51.
Farrant, F. 2006 Out For Good: The Resettlement Needs of Young Men in Prison. London: Howard League for Penal Reform.
Farrow, T. F. D., Zheng, Y., Wilkinson, I. D., Spence, S. A., Deakin, J. F. W., Tarrier, N., Griffiths P. D. and Woodruff, W. R. 2001. ‘Investigating the Functional Anatomy of Empathy and Forgiveness’, Neuroreport 12: 2433–8.
Fiddes, Paul S. 1989. Past Event and Present Salvation: The Christian Idea of Atonement. London: Darton, Longman and Todd.
Fincham, Frank D. 2000. ‘The Kiss of the Porcupines: From Attributing Responsibility to Forgiving’, Personal Relationships 7: 1–23.
Fitzgibbons, Richard 1998. ‘Anger and the Healing Power of Forgiveness: A Psychiatrist’s View’ in Enright and North 1998, pp. 63–74.
Fitzmyer, Joseph A. 1993. Romans: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. The Anchor Bible, Volume 33. New York and London: Doubleday.
Flanigan, B. 1998. ‘Forgivers and the Unforgivable’ in Enright and North 1998, pp. 95–105.
Floristan, Casiano and Duquoc, Christian (eds.) 1986. ‘Forgiveness’, Concilium 184. English Language editor: Marcus Lefébure. Edinburgh: T & T Clark (1986).
Forgiveness in Conflict Resolution: Reality and Utility 1998. Four volumes of Proceedings of Colloquia. Published by the Woodstock Theological Center. Washington, DC: US Conference of Catholic Bishops.
Fowler, Alastair (ed.) 1971. Paradise Lost by John Milton. Harlow: Longman.
Freedman, Suzanne, Enright, Robert D. and Knutson, Jeanette 2005. ‘A Progress Report on the Process Model of Forgiveness’ in Worthington 2005, pp. 393–406.
Garrard, Eve 2002. ‘Forgiveness and the Holocaust’, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5: 147–65.
Garrard, Eve 2003. ‘Forgiveness and the Holocaust’ in Garrard and Scarre 2003, pp. 231–45.
Garrard, Eve and McNaughton, David 2002. ‘In Defence of Unconditional Forgiveness’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 103: 39–60.
Garrard, Eve and Scarre, Geoffrey Francis (eds.) 2003. Moral Philosophy and the Holocaust. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate.
Gavrielides, Theo 2005. ‘Some Meta-Theoretical Questions for Restorative Justice’, Ratio Juris 18: 84–106.
Gillon, Raanan 1994. ‘Medical Ethics: Four Principles Plus Attention to Scope’, British Medical Journal 309: 184–8.
Girard, Michelle and Mullet, Étienne 1997. ‘Propensity to Forgive in Adolescents, Young Adults, Older Adults, and Elderly People’, Journal of Adult Development 4: 209–20.
Gladstone, William Ewart (ed.) 1995. The Works of Joseph Butler, Volume Ⅱ, ‘Sermons’. Bristol: Thoemmes Press, pp. 136–67.
Golding, Martin P. 1984–5. ‘Forgiveness and Regret’, Philosophical Forum 16: 121–37.
Gopin, Marc 2000. Between Eden and Armageddon. The Future of World Religions, Violence and Peacemaking. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Gorringe, Timothy 1996. God’s Just Vengeance. Crime, Violence and the Rhetoric of Salvation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Govier, Trudy 1999. ‘Forgiveness and the Unforgivable’, American Philosophical Quarterly 36: 59–75.
Govier, Trudy 2002. Forgiveness and Revenge. London and New York: Routledge.
Gregor, Mary (ed.) 1996. The Metaphysics of Morals. Practical Philosophy. Translated and edited by Mary Gregor with an Introduction by Roger J. Sullivan. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gunton, Colin 1988. The Actuality of the Atonement. A Study of Metaphor, Rationality and the Christian Tradition. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.
Haber, Joram Graf 1991. Forgiveness. Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Hieronymi, Pamela 2001. ‘Articulating an Uncompromising Forgiveness’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 62: 529–54.
Hirsch, Andrew von 1976. Doing Justice. The Choice of Punishments: Report of the Committee for the Study of Incarceration. Introduction by William Gaylin and David J. Rothman. New York: Hill & Wang.
Hollenbach, David J. 2002. The Common Good and Christian Ethics. New Studies in Christian Ethics, 22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hollingdale, R. J. (ed.) 1969. Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for Everyone and No One by Friedrich Nietzsche. Translated with an Introduction by R. J. Hollingdale. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Holmgreen, Margaret R. 1993. ‘Forgiveness and the Intrinsic Value of Persons’, American Philosophical Quarterly 30: 341–52.
Holmgreen, Margaret R. 2002. ‘Forgiveness and Self-Forgiveness in Psychotherapy’ in Lamb and Murphy 2002, pp. 112–35.
Hong, Howard V. and Hong, Edna H. (eds.) 1995. Søren Kiekegaard’s Writings. 16, Works of Love. Edited and translated with Introduction and Notes by H. V. Hong and E. H. Hong. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hooker, Morna D. 1959. Jesus and the Servant. The Influence of the Servant Concept of Deutero-Isaiah in the New Testament. London: SPCK.
Hooker, Morna D. 1990. From Adam to Christ. Essays on Paul. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hooker, Morna D. 1991. The Gospel According to St. Mark. Black’s New Testament Commentaries. London: A. & C. Black, 1991.
Horsbrugh, H. J. N. 1974. ‘Forgiveness’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 4: 269–89.
Hughes, Paul M. 1997. ‘What is Involved in Forgiving?’, Philosophia 25: 33–49.
Hutchens, Benjamin C. 2004. Lévinas. A Guide for the Perplexed. New York and London: Continuum.
Jankélévitch, Vladimir 1986. L’Imprescritible: Pardonner? Dans l’honneur et la dignité. Paris: Seuil.
Jankélévitch, Vladimir 1996. ‘Should We Pardon Them?’, Critical Enquiry 22: 549–72.
Jenco, Lawrence Martin 1995. Bound to Forgive. The Pilgrimage to Reconciliation of a Beirut Hostage. Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press.
Jeremias, Joachim 1971. New Testament Theology, Part One: The Proclamation of Jesus. London: SCM.
Johnston, Douglas and Sampson, Cynthia (eds.) 1995. Religion, the Missing Dimension of Statecraft. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jones, L. Gregory 1995. Embodying Forgiveness. A Theological Analysis. Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans.
Kübler-Ross, Elizabeth 1970. On Death and Dying. London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge.
Kaminer, Debra, Stein, Dan J., Mbanga, Irene and Zungu-Dirwayi, Nompumelelo 2000. ‘Forgiveness: Towards an Integration of Theoretical Models’, Psychiatry 63: 344–57.
Kearney, Richard 2001. ‘On Forgiveness. A Roundtable Discussion with Jacques Derrida. Moderated by Richard Kearney’, in Caputo et al. 2001, pp. 52–72.
Klawans, Jonathan 2000. Impurity and Sin in Ancient Judaism. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kolnai, Aurel 1973–4. ‘Forgiveness’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 74: 91–106.
Konstam, Varda, Marx, Fern, Schurer, Jennifer, Lombardo, Nancy B. Emerson and Harrington, Anne K. 2002. ‘Forgiveness in Practice: What Mental Health Counselors are Telling Us’ in Lamb and Murphy 2002, pp. 54–71.
Kornfield, Jack 2002. The Art of Forgiveness, Lovingkindness and Peace. New York: Bantam.
Kroll, Una 2000. Forgive and Live. Edinburgh: Continuum.
Kurzynski, M. J. 1998. ‘The Virtue of Forgiveness as a Human Resource Management Strategy’, Journal of Business Ethics 17: 77–85.
Lévinas, Emmanuel 1968. Quatre Lectures Talmudiques. Paris: Les Editions de Minuit.
Lévinas, Emmanuel 1969. Totality and Infinity: An Essay on Exteriority, translated by A. Lingis. Martinus Nijhoff Philosophy Texts, Volume Ⅰ. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Lévinas, Emmanuel 1990. Difficult Freedom: Essays on Judaism, translated by S. Hand. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lévinas, Emmanuel 1998. Entre Nous. On Thinking of the Other, translated by M. B. Smith and B. Harshaw. New York: Columbia University Press.
Löschnig-Gspandl, Marianne 2003. ‘Corporations, Crime and Restorative Justice’ in Weitekamp and Kerner 2003, pp. 145–60.
Lacey, Nicola 1998. State Punishment. Political Principles and Community Values. International Library of Philosophy. London: Routledge.
Lamb, Sharon 2002. ‘Women, Abuse and Forgiveness: A Special Case’ in Lamb and Murphy 2002, pp. 155–71.
Lamb, Sharon and Murphy, Jeffrie G. (eds.) 2002. Before Forgiving: Cautionary Views of Forgiveness in Psychotherapy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lang, Berel 1994. ‘Forgiveness’, American Philosophical Quarterly 31: 105–17.
Langer, Ellen 2001. ‘Well-Being. Mindfulness versus Positive Evaluation’ in Snyder and Lopez 2001, pp. 214–30.
Lawler, Kathleen A., Younger, Jarred W., Piferi, Rachel L., Billington, Eric, Jobe, Rebecca L., Edmondson, Kimberley and Jones, Warren H. 2003. ‘A Change of Heart: Cardiovascular Correlates of Forgiveness in Response to Interpersonal Conflict’, Journal of Behavioural Medicine 26: 373–93.
Lawler, Kathleen A., Younger, Jarred W., Piferi, Rachel L., Jobe, Rebecca L., Edmondson, Kimberley and Jones, Warren H. 2005. ‘The Unique Effects of Forgiveness on Health: An Exploration of Pathways’, Journal of Behavioral Medicine 28: 157–67.
Lewis, Clive Staples 1995. Mere Christianity, revised and amplified edition, with a new introduction. London: Fount.
Lewis, Meirlys 1980. ‘On Forgiveness’, Philosophical Quarterly 30: 236–45.
Lin, W., Mack, D., Enright, Robert D., Krahn, D. and Baskin, T. 2004. ‘Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood and Vulnerability to Substance Use among In-Patient Substance-Dependent Clients’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72: 1114–21.
Lofthouse, William Frederick 1906. Ethics and Atonement. London: Methuen.
Lomax, Eric 1996. The Railway Man. London: Vintage Press.
Macaskill, Ann 2002. Heal the Hurt: How to Forgive and Move On. London: Sheldon Press.
Mackintosh, Hugh Ross 1927. The Christian Experience of Forgiveness. London: Nisbet.
Malina, Bruce J. 2001. The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology, 3rd edition, revised and expanded. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
Mandela, Nelson 1994. Long Walk to Freedom. Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. Boston: Little Brown.
Marshall, Tony F. 1999. Restorative Justice: An Overview. London: Home Office, Research Development and Statistics Directorate.
Martin, David 1997. ‘Collective National Guilt. A Socio-Theological Critique’ in Lawrance Osborn and Andrew Walker (eds.), Harmful Religion. An Exploration of Religious Abuse. London: SPCK.
McCullough, Michael E. and Witvliet, Charlotte van O. 2001. ‘The Psychology of Forgiveness’ in Snyder and Lopez 2001, pp. 446–58.
McCullough, Michael E. and Worthington, Everett L. 1999. ‘Religion and the Forgiving Personality’, Journal of Personality 67: 1141–64.
McCullough, Michael E., Pargament, Kenneth I. and Thoresen, Carl E. 2000. Forgiveness: Theory, Research and Practice. New York: The Guilford Press.
McCullough, Michael E., Rachal, Kenneth Chris, Sandage, Steven J., Worthington, Everett L., Brown, Susan Wade and Hight, Terry L. 1998. ‘Interpersonal Forgiving in Close Relationships Ⅱ. Theoretical Elaboration and Measurement’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75: 1586–603.
McCullough, Michael E., Worthington, Everett L. and Rachal, Kenneth Chris 1997. ‘Interpersonal Forgiving in Close Relationships’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73: 321–36.
McFadyen, Alistair I. and Sarot, Marcel (eds.) 2001. Forgiveness and Truth. The Society for the Study of Theology: Explorations in Contemporary Theology. Edinburgh and New York: T & T Clark.
McGary, Howard 1989. ‘Forgiveness’, American Philosophical Quarterly 26: 343–51.
McGinn, Colin 1997. Ethics, Evil and Fiction. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
McLaughlin, Eugene, Fergusson, Ross, Hughes, Gordon and Westmarland, Louise 2003. Restorative Justice. Critical Issues. London: Sage Publications.
McManus, Jim and Thornton, Stephanie 2006. Finding Forgiveness. Personal and Spiritual Perspectives. Chawton, Hants: Redemptorist Publications.
Milbank, John 2003. Being Reconciled. Ontology and Pardon. London: Routledge.
Miles, Siân (ed.) 1986. Simone Weil: An Anthology. London: Virago.
Milgram, Stanley 1963. ‘Behavioural Study of Obedience’, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67: 371–8.
Minas, Anne C. 1975. ‘God and Forgiveness’, Philosophical Quarterly 27: 138–50.
Moberly, Robert Campbell 1901. Atonement and Personality. London: John Murray.
Moore, Michael 1998. Placing Blame: A Theory of Criminal Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Morris, Alison and Young, Warren 2000. ‘Reforming Criminal Justice. The Potential of Restorative Justice’ in Strang and Braithwaite 2000, pp. 11–33.
Moule, Charles Francis Digby 1998. Forgiveness and Reconciliation and Other New Testament Themes. London: SPCK.
Mullet, Étienne, Barros, José, Frongia, Loredena, Usaï, Veronica, Neto, Félix and Shafighi, Sheila Rivière 2003. ‘Religious Involvement and the Forgiving Personality’, Journal of Personality 71: 1–19.
Mullet, Étienne, Girard, Michelle and Bakhshi, Panul 2004. ‘Conceptualizations of Forgiveness’, European Psychologist 9: 78–86.
Mullet, Étienne, Neto, Félix and Shafighi, Sheila Rivière 2005. ‘Personality and its Effects on Resentment, Revenge, Forgiveness, and Self-Forgiveness’ in Worthington 2005, pp. 159–81.
Murphy, Jeffrie G. (ed.) 1978b. Retribution, Justice, and Therapy. Boston, MA: Reidel.
Murphy, Jeffrie G. 1978a. ‘Kant’s Theory of Criminal Punishment’ in Murphy 1978b, pp. 82–92.
Murphy, Jeffrie G. 2003. Getting Even: Forgiveness and Its Limits. New York: Oxford University Press.
Murphy, Jeffrie G. 2005. ‘Forgiveness, Self-Respect and the Value of Resentment’ in Worthington 2005, pp. 33–40.
Murphy, Jeffrie G. and Hampton, Jean 1988. Forgiveness and Mercy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Murphy, Liam B. 1993. ‘The Demands of Beneficence’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 22: 267–92.
Nagel, Thomas 1986. The View from Nowhere. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Neblett, William R. 1974. ‘Forgiveness and Ideals’, Mind 83: 269–75.
Neu, Jerome 2002. ‘To Understand All Is to Forgive All – or Is It?’ in Lamb and Murphy 2002, pp. 17–35.
Nikolić-Ristanović, Vesna 2003. ‘The Possibilities for Restorative Justice in Serbia’ in Walgrave 2003, pp. 239–54.
Nolland, John 1989. Luke 1–9:20. Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 35A. Dallas: Word Books.
North, Joanna 1987. ‘Wrongdoing and Forgiveness’, Philosophy 62: 499–508.
North, Joanna 1998. ‘The “Ideal” of Forgiveness’ in Enright and North 1998, pp. 15–34.
Novitz, David 1998. ‘Forgiveness and Self-Respect’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58: 299–315.
O’ Shaugnessy, R. J. 1967. ‘Forgiveness’, Philosophy 42: 336–52.
Panichas, George A. (ed.) 1981. The Simone Weil Reader. New York: Dorset Press.
Pargament, Kenneth I. and Rye, Mark S. 1998. ‘Forgiveness as a Method of Religious Coping’ in Worthington 1998c, pp. 59–78.
Pearsall, Judy and Hanks, Patrick (eds.) 2003. Oxford Dictionary of English, 2nd edition, edited by Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Perelman, Sidney Joseph 1970. Baby, It’s Cold Inside. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Pettigrove, Glen 2003. ‘Apology, Reparations and the Question of Inherited Guilt’, Public Affairs Quarterly 17: 319–48.
Pettigrove, Glen 2004a. ‘Unapologetic Forgiveness’, American Philosophical Quarterly 41: 187–204.
Pettigrove, Glen 2004b. ‘The Forgiveness We Speak. The Illocutionary Force of Forgiving’, Southern Journal of Philosophy 42: 371–92.
Pokrifka-Joe, Todd 2001. ‘Probing the Relationship between Divine and Human Forgiveness in Matthew’ in McFadyen and Sarot, 2001, pp. 165–72.
Porter, Jean 1995. Moral Action and Christian Ethics. New Studies in Christian Ethics, 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Puka, Bill 2005. ‘Forgoing Forgiveness’ in Lamb and Murphy 2002, pp. 136–52.
R. v. Bow Street Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate, and others, ex parte Pinochet Ugarte (Amnesty International and others intervening) (no. 3) [1999] 2 All ER 97–192.
Ramsey, Boniface (ed.) 2005. The Works of Saint Augustine: A translation for the 21st century. Part 2, Letters. Volume Ⅳ, Letters 211–270, 1∗–29∗, translation and notes by Roland Teske. Hyde Park, NY: New City Press.
Redlich, E. Basil 1937. The Forgiveness of Sins. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.
Reiff, Mark R. 2005. Punishment, Compensation and Law: A Theory of Enforceability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reiss, S. and Havercamp, S. M. 1998. ‘Toward a Comprehensive Assessment of Fundamental Motivation: Factor Structure of the Reiss Profiles’, Psychological Assessment 10: 97–106.
Richards, Norvin 1988. ‘Forgiveness’, Ethics 99: 77–97.
Richards, Norvin 2002. ‘Forgiveness as Therapy’ in Lamb and Murphy 2002, pp. 72–87.
Roberts, Paul 1998. ‘On the Preconditions and Possibilities of Criminal Law Theory’, South African Journal of Criminal Justice 11: 285–301.
Roberts, Robert C. 1995. ‘Forgivingness’, American Philosophical Quarterly 32: 289–306.
Robinson, James M. (ed.) 1971. The Future of our Religious Past. Essays in Honour of Rudolf Bultmann, translated by Charles E. Carlston and Robert P. Scharlemann. London: SCM Press.
Rowe, Christopher and Broadie, Sarah (eds.) 2002. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics, translation (with Historical Introduction) by Christopher Rowe; Philosophical Introduction and Commentary by Sarah Broadie. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rye, Mark S., Pargament, Kenneth I., Ali, A., Beck, G. L., Dorff, E. N., Hallisey, C., Narayanan, V. and Williams, J. G. 2000. ‘Religious Perspectives on Forgiveness’ in McCullough et al. 2000, pp. 18–40.
Sanders, Edward P. 1976. Paul and Palestinian Judaism. London: SCM Press.
Sanders, Edward P. 1985. Jesus and Judaism. London: SCM Press.
Scarre, Geoffrey Francis 2003. ‘Moral Responsibility and the Holocaust’ in Garrard and Scarre 2003, pp. 103–16.
Scarre, Geoffrey Francis 2004. After Evil. Responding to Wrongdoing. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate.
Scarre, Geoffrey Francis 2005. ‘Excusing the Inexcusable? Moral Responsibility and Ideologically Motivated Wrongdoing’, Journal of Social Philosophy 36: 457–72.
Schabas, William A. 2004. An Introduction to the International Criminal Court, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scobie, E. D. and Scobie, G. E. W. 1998. ‘Damaging Events: The Perceived Need for Forgiveness’, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 29: 373–401.
Shriver, Donald W. 1995. An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in Politics. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smedes, Lewis B. 1984. Forgive and Forget: Healing the Hurts We Don’t Deserve. New York: HarperCollins.
Smith, Douglas (ed.) 1996. On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemic: By Way of Clarification and Supplement to My Last Book ‘Beyond Good and Evil’ by Friedrich Nietzsche, translated with an introduction and notes by Douglas Smith. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Smith, Tara 1997. ‘Tolerance & Forgiveness: Virtues or Vices?’, Journal of Applied Philosophy 14: 31–41.
Snyder, C. R. and Lopez, Shane J. (eds.) 2001. Handbook of Positive Psychology. New York and London: Oxford University Press.
Stegemann, Ekkehard W. and Stegemann, Wolfgang 1999. The Jesus Movement. A Social History of its First Century, translated by O. C. Dean. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.
Stendahl, Krister 1976. Paul among Jews and Gentiles and Other Essays. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
Strang, Heather and Braithwaite, John (eds.) 2000. Restorative Justice: Philosophy to Practice. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate.
Strawson, Peter F. (ed.) 1968b. Studies in the Philosophy of Thought and Action. London, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Strawson, Peter F. 1968a. ‘Freedom and Resentment’ in Strawson 1968b, pp. 71–96.
Sullivan, Dennis, Tifft, Larry and Cordella, Peter 1998. ‘The Phenomenon of Restorative Justice: Some Introductory Remarks’, Contemporary Justice Review 1: 7–20.
Sussman, David 2005. ‘Kantian Forgiveness’, Kant-Studien 96: 85–107.
Swinburne, Richard 1989. Responsibility and Atonement. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Talbott, Thomas B. 1993. ‘Punishment, Forgiveness and Divine Justice’, Religious Studies 29: 151–68.
Taylor, Joan E. 1997. John the Baptist within Second Temple Judaism. London: SPCK.
Taylor, Vincent 1941. Forgiveness and Reconciliation. A Study in New Testament Theology. London: Macmillan.
Temple, William 1924. Christus Veritas. An Essay. London: Macmillan.
Thackeray, Henry St. J., Marcus, R., Wikgren, A. and Feldman, L. H. (eds.) 1926–65. Josephus: Works, 9 volumes, Loeb Classical Library. London: Heinemann.
Thatcher, Margaret 1987. Interviewed in Woman’s Own, 31 October 1987.
Thomas, Laurence 2003. ‘Forgiving the Unforgivable?’, in Garrard and Scarre 2003, pp. 201–30.
Thompson, Laura Yamhura, Snyder, C. R., Hoffman, Lesa, Michael, Scott T., Rasmussen, Heather N., Billings, Laura S., Heinze, Laura, Neufeld, Jason E., Shorey, Hal S., Roberts, Jessica C., Roberts, Danae E. 2005. ‘Dispositional Forgiveness of Self, Others, and Situations’, Journal of Personality 73: 313–59.
Thomson, Judith Jarvis 1971. ‘A Defense of Abortion’, Philosophy and Public Affairs: 1: 47–66.
Thyen, Hartwig 1971. ‘Baptisma metanoias eis aphesin hamartion’ in Robinson 1971, pp. 131–68.
Tombs, David and Liechty, Joseph (eds.) 2005. Explorations in Reconciliation: New Directions in Theology. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate.
Turner, Nigel 1963. A Grammar of New Testament Greek by James Hope Moulton, Volume Ⅲ: Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of New Testament Greek. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.
Tutu, Desmond 1999. No Future Without Forgiveness. London: Rider.
Vermes, Geza (ed.) 1987. The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, 3rd edition, translated by Geza Vermes. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.
Volf, Miroslav 1996. Exclusion and Embrace: A Theological Exploration of Identity, Otherness and Reconciliation. Nashville: Abingdon.
Wade, Nathaniel G. and Worthington, Everett L. 2005. ‘In Search of a Common Core: A Content Analysis of Interventions to Promote Forgiveness’, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 42: 160–77.
Walgrave, Lode (ed.) 2003. Repositioning Restorative Justice. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing.
Watts, Fraser N. and Gulliford, Elizabeth Z. 2004. Forgiveness in Context: Theology and Psychology in Creative Dialogue. London and New York: T & T Clark.
Webb, Robert L. 1991. John the Baptizer and Prophet. A Socio-Historical Study. JSNT Sup 62. Sheffield: JSOT Press.
Weitekamp, Elmar G. M. and Kerner, Hans-Jürgen (eds.) 2003. Restorative Justice in Context. International Practice and Directions. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing.
White and Others v. Chief Constable of South Yorkshire and Others, 2 AC 455–511 (1999).
Wiesenthal, Simon 1998. The Sunflower: On the Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness. With a Symposium edited by Harry James Cargas and Bonny V. Fetterman, revised and expanded edition. New York: Schocken Books.
Willemsens, Jolien. 2003. ‘Restorative Justice: A Discussion of Punishment’ in Walgrave 2003, pp. 24–42.
Wilson, J. 1988. ‘Why Forgiveness Requires Repentance’, Philosophy 63: 534–5.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 1968. Philosophical Investigations, translated by G. E. M. Anscombe, 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Witvliet, C. van O., Phipps, K. A., Feldman, M. E. and Beckham, J. C. 2004. ‘Posttraumatic Mental and Physical Correlates of Forgiveness and Religious Coping in Military Veterans’, Journal of Traumatic Stress 17: 269–73.
Wohl, Michael J. and Branscombe, Nyla R. 2005. ‘Forgiveness and Collective Guilt Assignment to Historical Perpetrator Groups Depend on Levels of Social Category Inclusiveness’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88: 288–303.
Wolfendale, Jessica 2005. ‘The Hardened Heart: The Moral Dangers of Not Forgiving’, Journal of Social Philosophy 36: 344–63.
Worthington, Everett L. (ed.) 1998c. Dimensions of Forgiveness. Psychological Research and Theological Perspectives. Laws of Life Symposia, Volume Ⅰ. Philadelphia and London: Templeton Foundation Press.
Worthington, Everett L. (ed.) 2005. Handbook of Forgiveness. New York; Hove: Routledge.
Worthington, Everett L. 1998a. ‘Empirical Research in Forgiveness: Looking Backward, Looking Forward’ in Worthington 1998c, pp. 321–39.
Worthington, Everett L. 1998b. ‘The Pyramid Model of Forgiveness: Some Interdisciplinary Speculations about Unforgiveness and the Promotion of Forgiveness’ in Worthington 1998c, pp. 107–37.
Worthington, Everett L. 2001. Five Steps to Forgiveness: The Art and Science of Forgiving. New York: Crown Publishers.
Worthington, Everett L. and Scherer, Michael 2004. ‘Forgiveness is an Emotion-Focused Coping Strategy that Can Reduce Health Risks and Promote Health Resilience: Theory, Review and Hypotheses’, Psychology and Health 19: 385–405.
Wright, Martin 2003. ‘Is It Time to Question the Concept of Punishment?’ in Walgrave 2003, pp. 3–23.
Wright, Nicholas Thomas 1996. Jesus and the Victory of God, Christian Origins and the Question of God, Volume Ⅱ. London: SPCK.
Yandell, Keith E. 1998. ‘The Metaphysics and Morality of Forgiveness’ in Enright and North 1998, pp. 35–45.
Zehr, Howard 1990. Changing Lenses. A New Focus for Crime and Justice. Scottdale, PA and Waterloo, Ontario: Herald Press.
Zehr, Howard and Mika, Harry 2003. ‘Fundamental Concepts of Restorative Justice’ in McLaughlin et al. 2003, pp. 40–3.