The Apology Ritual

A Philosophical Theory of Punishment

Christopher Bennett presents a theory of punishment grounded in the practice of apology, and in particular in reactions such as feeling sorry and making amends. He argues that offenders have a 'right to be punished' - that it is part of taking an offender seriously as a member of a normatively demanding relationship (such as friendship or collegiality or citizenship) that she is subject to retributive attitudes when she violates the demands of that relationship. However, while he claims that punishment and the retributive attitudes are the necessary expression of moral condemnation, his account of these reactions has more in common with restorative justice than traditional retributivism. He argues that the most appropriate way to react to crime is to require the offender to make proportionate amends. His book is a rich and intriguing contribution to the debate over punishment and restorative justice.

Reference Type: bibliography

Adams, R. M., ‘Involuntary Sins’, Philosophical Review 94 (1985), pp. 3–31.
Allen, F., The Decline of the Rehabilitative Ideal: Penal Policy and Social Purpose (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981).
Ashworth, A., ‘Rights, Responsibilities and Restorative Justice’, British Journal of Criminology 42 (2002), pp. 578–95.
Bagaric, M., Punishment and Sentencing: A Rational Approach (London: Cavendish, 2001).
Baker, B., ‘Penance as a Model for Punishment’, Social Theory and Practice 18 (1992), pp. 311–31.
Barnett, R., ‘Restitution: A New Paradigm for Criminal Justice’, Ethics 87 (1977), pp. 279–301.
Baron, M., ‘Kantian Ethics’, in M. Baron, P. Pettit and M. Slote, Three Methods of Ethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997), pp. 3–91.
Baron, M., P. Pettit and M. Slote, Three Methods of Ethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997).
Bennett, C., ‘The Varieties of Retributive Experience’, Philosophical Quarterly 52 (2002), pp. 145–63.
Bennett, C., ‘Personal and Redemptive Forgiveness’, European Journal of Philosophy 11 (2003), pp. 127–44.
Bennett, C., ‘A Problem Case for Public Reason’, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 6 (2003), pp. 50–69.
Bennett, C., ‘Recent Work on Punishment’, Philosophical Books 45 (2004), pp. 324–34.
Bennett, C., ‘State Denunciation of Crime’, Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (2006), pp. 288–304.
Bennett, C., ‘Taking the Sincerity Out of Saying Sorry: Restorative Justice as Ritual’, Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2006), pp. 127–43.
Bennett, C., ‘Satisfying the Needs and Interests of Victims’, in G. Johnstone and D. Van Ness (eds.), The Handbook of Restorative Justice (Cullompton: Willan, 2007), pp. 247–64.
Bennett, J., ‘Accountability’, in Z. van Straaten (ed.), Philosophical Subjects: Essays Presented to P. F. Strawson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), pp. 14–47.
Bentham, J., Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, in J. S. Mill and J. Bentham, Utilitarianism and Other Essays, ed. A. Ryan (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987).
Beyleveld, D., ‘Deterrence Research and Deterrence Policies’, in A. von Hirsch and A. Ashworth (eds.), Principled Sentencing, 2nd edn (Oxford: Hart, 1998), pp. 66–79.
Bickenbach, J. E., ‘Critical Notice of R. A. Duff, Trials and Punishments’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (1988), pp. 765–86.
Bittner, R., ‘Is it Reasonable to Regret the Things One Did?’ Journal of Philosophy 89 (1992), pp. 262–73.
Bottoms, A. E., ‘Some Sociological Reflections on Restorative Justice’, in A. von Hirsch, J. Roberts, A. E. Bottoms, K. Roach and M. Schiff (eds.), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? (Oxford: Hart, 2003), pp, 79–114.
Bottoms, A. E. and R. H. Preston (eds.), The Coming Penal Crisis (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1980).
Braithwaite, J., Crime, Shame and Reintegration (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Braithwaite, J., ‘Restorative Justice’, in M. Tonry (ed.), The Handbook of Crime and Punishment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 323–44.
Braithwaite, J., ‘Restorative Justice: Assessing Optimistic and Pessimistic Accounts’, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 25 (1999), pp. 1–127.
Braithwaite, J., ‘In Search of Restorative Jurisprudence’, in L. Walgrave (ed.), Restorative Justice and the Law (Cullompton: Willan, 2002).
Braithwaite, J., ‘Does Restorative Justice Work?’ in G. Johnstone (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2003), pp. 320–52.
Braithwaite, J., ‘Restorative Justice and a Better Future’, in G. Johnstone (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2003), pp. 83–97.
Braithwaite, J. and P. Pettit, Not Just Deserts: A Republican Theory of Criminal Justice (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).
Brink, D., ‘Externalist Moral Realism’, in M. Smith (ed.), Meta-Ethics (Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1995).
Brummer, V., ‘Atonement and Reconciliation’, Religious Studies 28 (1992), pp. 435–52.
Cavadino, M. and J. Dignan, ‘Reparation, Retribution and Rights’, in A. von Hirsch and A. Ashworth (eds.), Principled Sentencing (Oxford: Hart, 1999), pp. 348–58.
Christie, N., ‘Conflicts as Property’, British Journal of Criminology 17 (1977), pp. 1–15.
Clark, M., ‘The Sanctions of the Criminal Law’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 97 (1997), pp. 25–39.
Clarke, R., ‘On an Argument for the Impossibility of Moral Responsibility’, Midwest Studies in Philosophy 24 (2005), pp. 13–24.
Coleman, J. and S. Shapiro (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Law and Jurisprudence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
Crawford, A., ‘In the Hands of the Public?’ in G. Johnstone (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2003), pp. 312–19.
Dagger, R., ‘Playing Fair With Punishment’, Ethics 103 (1993), pp. 473–88.
Daly, K., ‘Restorative Justice: The Real Story’, Punishment and Society 4 (2002), pp. 55–79.
Declaration of Leuven on the Advisability of Promoting the Restorative Approach to Juvenile Crime, in G. Johnstone (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2003), pp. 477–81.
Devlin, P., ‘Morals and the Criminal Law’, in The Enforcement of Morals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965), pp. 1–25.
Dignan, J., ‘Towards a Systemic Model of Restorative Justice: Reflections on the Concept, its Context and the Need for Clear Constraints’, in A. von Hirsch, J. Roberts, A. E. Bottoms, K. Roach and M. Schiff (eds.), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? (Oxford: Hart, 2003), pp. 135–56.
Dignan, J. and M. Cavadino, The Penal System, 3rd edn (London: Sage, 2002).
Dilman, I., Morality and the Inner Life (London: Macmillan, 1979).
Duff, R. A., Trials and Punishments (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
Duff, R. A., ‘Penal Communications’, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 20 (1996), 1–97.
Duff, R. A., ‘Law, Language and Community: Some Preconditions of Criminal Liability’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 18 (1998), pp. 189–206.
Duff, R. A., ‘Punishment, Communication and Community’, in M. Matravers (ed.), Punishment and Political Theory (Oxford: Hart, 1999), pp. 48–68.
Duff, R. A., Punishment, Communication and Community (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).
Duff, R. A.,‘Restorative Punishment and Punitive Restoration’, in L. Walgrave (ed.), Restorative Justice and the Law (Cullompton: Willan, 2002), pp. 82–100.
Duff, R. A. and D. Garland (eds.), A Reader on Punishment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).
Dworkin, R., Law's Empire (London: Fontana, 1986).
Ezorsky, G. (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment (Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1972).
Feinberg, J., ‘The Expressive Function of Punishment’, in Doing and Deserving (London: Princeton University Press, 1970), pp. 95–118.
Finnis, J., ‘The Restoration of Retribution’, Analysis 32 (1972), pp. 131–5.
Frankfurt, H., ‘Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person’, Journal of Philosophy 68 (1971), pp. 5–20.
Fukuyama, F., The End of History and the Last Man (London: Penguin, 1992).
Gardner, J., ‘Rationality and the Rule of Law in Offences against the Person’, in J. Gardner, Offences and Defences (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).
Garland, D., Punishment and Modern Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).
Gauthier, D., Morals by Agreement (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986).
Gibbard, A., Thinking How to Live (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).
Goffman, E., Relations in Public (London: Penguin, 1971).
Goldie, P., The Emotions: A Philosophical Exploration (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Greenspan, P., ‘Guilt and Virtue’, Journal of Philosophy 91 (1994), pp. 57–70.
Hampton, J., ‘The Moral Education Theory of Punishment’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 13 (1984), pp. 208–38.
Hampton, J., ‘A New Theory of Retribution’, in R. G. Frey and C. W. Morris (eds.), Liability and Responsibility (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 377–414.
Hampton, J., ‘Correcting Harms Versus Righting Wrongs: The Goal of Retribution’, UCLA Law Review 39 (1992), pp. 1659–702.
Hart, H. L. A., ‘Legal Responsibility and Excuses’, in Punishment and Responsibility (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968), pp. 28–53.
Hart, H. L. A., ‘Prolegomenon to the Principles of Punishment’, in Punishment and Responsibility (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968), pp. 1–27.
Hillyard, P. and S. Tombs, ‘Beyond Criminology’, in P. Hillyard, C. Pantazis, S. Tombs, D. Gordon, D. Dorling, Criminal Obsessions: Why Harm Matters More than Crime (London: Crime and Society Foundation, 2005), pp. 5–20.
Hillyard, P., C. Pantazis, S. Tombs, D. Gordon and D. Dorling, Criminal Obsessions: Why Harm Matters More than Crime (London: Crime and Society Foundation, 2005).
Hegel, G. W. F., Elements of the Philosophy of Right, trans. H. B. Nisbet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Honneth, A., The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts, trans. Joel Anderson (Cambridge: Polity, 1995).
Horton, J. and S. Mendus (eds.), After MacIntyre (Cambridge: Polity, 1994).
Hulsman, L., ‘Critical Criminology and the Concept of Crime’, Contemporary Crises 10 (1986), pp. 63–80.
Hume, D., Treatise of Human Nature, ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge and P. H. Nidditch (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).
Jensen, H., ‘Morality and Luck’, Philosophy 59 (1984), pp. 323–30.
Johnstone, G. (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2001).
Johnstone, G., Restorative Justice: Ideas, Values, Debates (Cullompton: Willan, 2002).
Johnstone, G. and D. W. Van Ness (eds.), The Handbook of Restorative Justice (Cullompton: Willan, 2006).
Kant, I., The Metaphysics of Morals, trans. M. Gregor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
Kelly, E., ‘Doing Without Desert’, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83 (2002), pp. 180–205.
Kleinig, J., ‘Punishment and Moral Seriousness’, Israel Law Review 25 (1991), pp. 401–21.
Kojeve, A., Introduction to the Reading of Hegel (New York: Basic Books, 1969).
Kolnai, A., ‘Forgiveness’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 74 (1973/4), pp. 91–106.
Korsgaard, C., ‘Skepticism about Practical Reason’, Journal of Philosophy 83 (1986), pp. 5–25.
Korsgaard, C., ‘The Right to Lie: Kant on Dealing with Evil’, in Creating the Kingdom of Ends (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 133–58.
Kosman, L. A., ‘Being Properly Affected: Virtues and Feelings in Aristotle's Ethics’, in A. O. Rorty (ed.), Essays on Aristotle's Ethics (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1980), pp. 103–16.
Lacey, N., State Punishment (London: Routledge, 1988).
LaFollette, H. (ed.), Ethics in Practice, 2nd edn (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).
Larmore, C., Patterns of Moral Complexity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
Levy, N., ‘Cultural Membership and Moral Responsibility’, Monist 86 (2003), pp. 145–63.
Lipkin, R. J., ‘Punishment, Penance and Respect for Autonomy’, Social Theory and Practice 14 (1988), pp. 87–104.
McCold, P. and B. Wachtel, ‘Community Is not a Place: A New Look at Community Justice Initiatives’, in G. Johnstone (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2001), pp. 294–302.
McDowell, J., ‘Aesthetic Value, Objectivity and the Fabric of the World’, in J. McDowell, Mind, Value and Reality (London: Harvard University Press, 1998), pp. 112–30.
McDowell, J., ‘Values and Secondary Qualities’, in J. McDowell, Mind, Value and Reality (London: Harvard University Press, 1998), pp. 131–50.
MacIntyre, A., After Virtue, 2nd edn (London: Duckworth, 1985).
MacNaughton, D., ‘Reparation and Atonement’, Religious Studies 28 (1992), pp. 129–44.
Mackie, J. L., Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977).
Mackie, J. L., ‘Morality and the Retributive Emotions’, Criminal Justice Ethics 1 (1982), pp. 3–9.
Marshall, T., ‘Restorative Justice: An Overview’, in G. Johnstone (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2001), pp. 28–46.
Matravers, M. (ed.), Punishment and Political Theory (Oxford: Hart, 1999).
Matravers, M., Justice and Punishment: The Rationale of Coercion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Mill, J. S., Utilitarianism, in J. S. Mill and J. Bentham, Utilitarianism and Other Essays, ed. A. Ryan (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987), pp. 272–338.
Miller, D., ‘Virtues, Practices and Justice’, in J. Horton and S. Mendus (eds.), After MacIntyre (Cambridge: Polity, 1994), pp. 245–64.
Moberley, W., The Ethics of Punishment (London: Faber, 1968).
Moore, M. S., ‘The Moral Worth of Retribution’, in F. Schoeman (ed.), Character, Responsibility and the Emotions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 189–219.
Moore, M. S., ‘Law as a Functional Kind’, in R. P. George (ed.), Natural Law Theory: Contemporary Essays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).
Moore, M. S., Placing Blame (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999).
Morris, H., ‘Persons and Punishment’, Monist 52 (1968), pp. 475–501.
Morris, H., ‘A Paternalistic Theory of Punishment’, American Philosophical Quarterly 18 (1981), pp. 263–71.
Morris, H., ‘The Decline of Guilt’, Ethics 99 (1988), pp. 62–76.
Mulhall, S. and A. Swift, Liberals and Communitarians (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992).
Murphy, J. G., ‘Three Mistakes about Retributivism’, Analysis 31 (1971), pp. 166–70.
Murphy, J. G., ‘Marxism and Retribution’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 2 (1973), pp. 217–43.
Murphy, J. G., ‘Forgiveness and Resentment’, in J. G. Murphy and J. Hampton, Forgiveness and Mercy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 14–34.
Murphy, J. G., ‘Hatred: A Qualified Defense’, in J. G. Murphy and J. Hampton, Forgiveness and Mercy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 88–110.
Murphy, J. G., ‘Repentance, Punishment and Mercy’, in A. Etzioni and D. Carney (eds.), Repentance: a Comparative Perspective (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997), pp. 143–70.
Murphy, J. G. and J. Hampton, Forgiveness and Mercy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
Nagel, T., ‘Moral Luck’, in Mortal Questions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), pp. 24–38.
Nagel, T., ‘War and Massacre’, in Mortal Questions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), pp. 53–74.
Nagin, D., ‘Deterrence and Incapacitation’, in M. Tonry (ed.), The Handbook of Crime and Punishment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 345–68.
Neblett, W., ‘The Ethics of Guilt’, Journal of Philosophy 18 (1974), pp. 652–63.
Nietzsche, F., On the Genealogy of Morality, trans. C. Diethe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Nozick, R., Anarchy, State and Utopia (Oxford: Blackwell, 1974).
Nozick, R., Philosophical Explanations (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1981).
Nussbaum, M., ‘Equity and Mercy’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 22 (1993), pp. 83–125.
O'Leary-Hawthorne, J. and P. Pettit, ‘Strategies for Free-Will Compatibilists’, Analysis 56 (1996), pp. 191–201.
Pettit, P., ‘Realism and Response-Dependence’, Mind 100 (1991), pp. 587–626.
Pettit, P., A Theory of Freedom (Cambridge: Polity, 2001).
Pettit, P. and M. Smith, ‘Freedom in Belief and Desire’, Journal of Philosophy 93 (1996), pp. 429–49.
Primoratz, I., ‘Punishment as Language’, Philosophy 64 (1989), pp. 187–205.
Rachels, J., ‘Punishment and Desert’, in H. LaFollette (ed.), Ethics in Practice, 2nd edn (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), pp. 466–74.
Radzik, L., ‘Making Amends’, American Philosophical Quarterly 41 (2004), pp. 141–54.
Rawls, J., ‘Two Concepts of Rules’, Philosophical Review 64 (1955), pp. 3–13.
Rawls, J., ‘Justice as Fairness: Political Not Metaphysical’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 14 (1985), pp. 223–51.
Rawls, J., ‘The Idea of an Overlapping Consensus’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 7 (1987), pp. 1–25.
Rawls, J., Political Liberalism (New York: University of Columbia Press, 1996).
Raye, B. E. and A. W. Roberts, ‘Restorative Processes’, in G. Johnstone and D. W. Van Ness (eds.), The Handbook of Restorative Justice (Cullompton: Willan, 2006), pp. 211–27.
Raz, J., The Morality of Freedom (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986).
Rorty, A. O. (ed.), Essays on Aristotle's Ethics (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1980).
Sadurski, W., ‘Theory of Punishment, Social Justice and Liberal Neutrality’, Law and Philosophy 7 (1989), pp. 351–73.
Sayre-McCord, G. (ed.), Essays on Moral Realism (London: Cornell University Press, 1988).
Scanlon, T. M., What We Owe to Each Other (London: Belknap Press, 1998).
Scheffler, S., ‘Relationships and Responsibilities’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (1997), pp. 189–209.
Schluter, M., ‘What is Relational Justice?’ in G. Johnstone (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2001), pp. 303–11.
Schoeman, F. (ed.), Responsibility, Character and the Emotions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
Shapland, J., A. Atkinson, B. Chapman, E. Colledge, J. Dignan, M. Howes, J. Johnstone, G. Robinson and A. Sorsby, ‘Situating Restorative Justice in Criminal Justice’, Theoretical Criminology 11 (2006), pp. 505–32.
Sherman, L. and H. Strang, Restorative Justice: The Evidence (London: Smith Institute, 2007).
Skillen, A. J., ‘How to Say Things with Walls’, Philosophy 55 (1980), pp. 509–23.
Skorupski, J., ‘The Definition of Morality’, in Ethical Explorations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 137–59.
Skorupski, J., ‘Freedom, Morality and Recognition: Some Theses of Kant and Hegel’, in Ethical Explorations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 160–89.
Skorupski, J., ‘Welfare and Self-Governance’, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (2006), pp. 289–309.
Skorupski, J., Why Read Mill Today? (London: Routledge, 2006).
Slote, M., From Morality to Virtue (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).
Smart, J. J. C., ‘Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism’, Philosophical Quarterly 6 (1956), pp. 344–54.
Smart, J. J. C., ‘Freewill, Praise and Blame’, Mind 52 (1961), pp. 291–306.
Smart, J. J. C. and B. Williams, Utilitarianism: For and Against (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973).
Smith, M., The Moral Problem (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994).
Smith, M. (ed.), Meta-Ethics (Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1995).
Speller, A., Breaking Out (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1986).
Stephen, J. F., Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (London: Smith, Elder, 1873).
Stern, L., ‘Freedom, Blame and Moral Community’, Journal of Philosophy 71 (1974), pp. 72–84.
Strang, H., ‘Justice for Victims of Young Offenders: The Centrality of Emotional Harm and Restoration’, in G. Johnstone (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2001), pp. 286–93.
Strang, H., Repair or Revenge: Victims and Restorative Justice (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001).
Strawson, G., ‘The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility’, Philosophical Studies 75 (1994), pp. 5–24.
Strawson, P. F., ‘Freedom and Resentment’, in G. Watson (ed.), Free Will (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), pp. 59–80.
Swinburne, R., Responsibility and Atonement (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985).
Tasioulas, J., ‘Punishment and Repentance’, Philosophy 81 (2006), pp. 279–322.
Tasioulas, J., ‘Repentance and the Liberal State’, Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 4 (2007), pp. 487–521.
Tavuchis, N., Mea Culpa: A Sociology of Apology and Reconciliation (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991).
Taylor, C., Hegel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975).
Taylor, C., ‘Responsibility for Self’, in G. Watson (ed.), Free Will (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), pp. 111–26.
Taylor, C., ‘Self-interpreting Animals’, in Human Agency and Language: Philosophical Papers, vol. I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 45–76.
Taylor, C., ‘Social Theory as Practice’, in Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers, vol. II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 91–115.
Tonry, M. (ed.), The Handbook of Crime and Punishment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Van Ness, D., ‘Creating Restorative Systems’, in L. Walgrave (ed.), Restorative Justice and the Law (Cullompton: Willan, 2001), pp. 130–49.
Van Ness, D., ‘Proposed Basic Principles on the Use of Restorative Justice: Recognising the Aims and Limits of Restorative Justice’, in A. von Hirsch, J. Roberts, A. E. Bottoms, K. Roach and M. Schiff (eds.), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? (Oxford: Hart, 2003), pp. 157–76.
Van Straaten, Z. (ed.), Philosophical Subjects: Essays Presented to P. F. Strawson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980).
Von Hirsch, A., Censure and Sanctions (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
Von Hirsch A., ‘Punishment, Penance and the State: A Reply to Duff’, in M. Matravers (ed.), Punishment and Political Theory (Oxford: Hart, 1999), pp. 69–82.
Von Hirsch, A. and A. Ashworth (eds.), Principled Sentencing, 2nd edn (Oxford: Hart, 1998).
Von Hirsch A., and A. AshworthProportionate Sentencing: Exploring the Principles (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).
Von Hirsch, A. and L. Maher, ‘Should Penal Rehabilitationism be Revived?’ in A. Von Hirsch and A. Ashworth (eds.), Principled Sentencing, 2nd edn (Oxford: Hart, 1998), pp. 26–33.
Von Hirsch, A., A. Ashworth and C. Shearing, ‘Restorative Justice: A “Making Amends” Model?’ in A. Von Hirsch and A. Ashworth, Proportionate Sentencing: Exploring the Principles (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 110–30.
Von Hirsch, A., J. Roberts, A. E. Bottoms, K. Roach and M. Schiff (eds.), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? (Oxford: Hart, 2003).
Walgrave, L. (ed.), Restorative Justice and the Law (Cullompton: Willan, 2001).
Walgrave L. (ed.), ‘Restorative Justice for Juveniles: Just a Technique or a Fully-Fledged Alternative?’ in G. Johnstone (ed.), A Restorative Justice Reader (Cullompton: Willan, 2003), pp. 255–69.
Walker, N., Why Punish? Theories of Punishment Reassessed (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).
Wallace, R. J., Responsibility and the Moral Sentiments (London: Harvard University Press, 1994).
Wasserstrom, R., ‘Why Punish the Guilty?’ in G. Ezorsky (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment (Albany, N. Y.: SUNY Press, 1972), pp. 328–41.
Watson, G., ‘Free Agency’, Journal of Philosophy 72 (1975), pp. 205–20.
Watson, G., ‘Responsibility and the Reactive Attitudes: Variations on a Strawsonian Theme’, in F. Schoeman (ed.), Responsibility, Character and the Emotions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 256–86.
Watson, G., ‘Two Faces of Responsibility’, Philosophical Topics 24 (1996), pp. 227–48.
Wenar, L., ‘Political Liberalism: An Internal Critique’, Ethics 106 (1995), pp. 32–62.
Wenar, L., ‘The Unity of Rawls's Work’, Journal of Moral Philosophy 1 (2004), pp. 265–75.
Wiggins, D., ‘Truth, Invention and the Meaning of Life’, in G. Sayre-McCord (ed.), Essays on Moral Realism (London: Cornell University Press, 1988), pp. 127–65.
Williams, B., ‘A Critique of Utilitarianism’, in J. J. C. Smart and B. Williams, Utilitarianism: For and Against (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973).
Williams, B., ‘Moral Luck’, in Moral Luck (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 20–39.
Williams, B., Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (London: Fontana, 1985).
Wolf, S., ‘Sanity and the Metaphysics of Responsibility’, in F. Schoeman (ed.), Responsibility, Character and the Emotions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. 46–62.
Wolf, S., Freedom within Reason (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990).
Wright, M., Justice for Victims and Offenders: A Restorative Response to Crime, 2nd edn (Winchester: Waterside Press, 1996).
Zehr, H., Changing Lenses: A New Focus for Crime and Justice (Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1990).