Person Reference in Interaction

Linguistic, Cultural and Social Perspectives

Person Reference in Interaction

This book was first published in 2007. How do we refer to people in everyday conversation? No matter the language or culture, we must choose from a range of options: full name ('Robert Smith'), reduced name ('Bob'), description ('tall guy'), kin term ('my son') etc. Our choices reflect how we know that person in context, and allow us to take a particular perspective on them. This book brings together a team of leading linguists, sociologists and anthropologists to show that there is more to person reference than meets the eye. Drawing on video-recorded, everyday interactions in nine languages, it examines the fascinating ways in which we exploit person reference for social and cultural purposes, and reveals the underlying principles of person reference across cultures from the Americas to Asia to the South Pacific. Combining rich ethnographic detail with cross-linguistic generalizations, it will be welcomed by researchers and graduate students interested in the relationship between language and culture.

Abdel Rahman, R. and Sommer, W. O. E. 2004, ‘I recognize your face but I can't remember your name: A question of expertise?’, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A: 819–34.
Aceto, M. 2002, ‘Ethnic personal names and multiple identities in Anglophone Caribbean speech communities in Latin America’, Language in Society, 31(4): 577–608.
Aissen, J. 1987, Tzotzil Clause Structure. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Ariel, M. 1988, ‘Referring and accessibility’, Journal of Linguistics, 24: 65–87.
Ariel, M.1990, Accessing noun-phrase antecedents. London / New York: Routledge.
Ariel, M.1990, Accessing Noun-Phrase Antecedents. London: Routledge.
Armstrong, W. H. 1928, Rossel Island. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Atkinson, J. M. and Heritage, J. (eds.) 1984, Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Auer, J. C. P. 1984, Referential Problems in Conversation (Occasional Paper No. 13). Department of Sociology, University of Manchester.
Belin, P., Zatorre, R. J. and Ahad, P. 2002, ‘Human temporal-lobe response to vocal sounds’, Brain Research Cognitive Brain Research, 13: 17–26.
Bird-David, N. 1995, ‘Hunter-gatherers’ kinship organization’, in E. Goody (ed.), Social Intelligence and Interaction, pp. 68–84. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bloch, M. 1971, ‘The moral and tactical meaning of kinship terms’, Man (New Series), 6: 79–87.
Bodenhorn, B. and vom Bruch, G. (eds.) 2006, An Anthropology of Names and Naming. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boyd, R. and Richerson P. J. 2005, The Origin and Evolution of Cultures. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brédart, S., Brennen, T. and Valentine, T. 1997, ‘Dissociations between the processing of proper names and common names’, Cognitive Neuropsychology, 14: 209–18.
Brédart, S., Brennen, T., Delchambre, M., McNeill, A. and Burton, A. M. 2005, ‘Naming very familiar people: When retrieving names is faster than retrieving semantic biographical information’, British Journal of Psychology, 96: 205–14.
Brédart, S., Valentine, T., Calder, A. and Gassi, L. 1995, ‘An interactive activation model of face naming’, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A: 466–86.
Brennan, T., Baguley, T., Bright, J. and Bruce, V. 1990, ‘Resolving semantically induced tip-of-the tongue states for proper nouns’, Memory and Cognition, 18: 339–47.
Bricker, V. R. 1970, ‘Relationship terms with the usative suffix in Tzotzil and Yucatec Maya’, Papers from the Sixth Regional Meeting, pp. 75–86. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Brown, P. 1998, ‘Conversational structure and language acquisition: The role of repetition in Tzeltal adult and child speech’, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 8(2): 197–221.
Brown, P. and Levinson S. C. 1987, Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, R. 1958, ‘How shall a thing be called?’, Psychological Review, 65: 14–21.
Brown, R. and Ford, M. 1964, ‘Address in American English’, in D. Hymes (eds.), Language in Culture and Society, pp. 234–44. New York: Harper and Row.
Brown, R. and Gilman, A. 1960, ‘The pronouns of power and solidarity’, in T. A. Sebeok (ed.), Style in Language, pp. 253–76. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Bruce, V. and Young, A. W. 1986, ‘Understanding face recognition’, British Journal of Psychology, 77: 305–27.
Burke, D. M., MacKay, D. G., Worthley, J. S. and Wade, E. 1991, ‘On the tip of the tongue: What causes word finding failures in young and older adults?’, Journal of Memory and Language, 30: 542–79.
Burton, A. M. and Bruce, V. 1992, ‘I recognize your face but I can't remember your name: A simple explanation?’, British Journal of Psychology, 83: 45–60.
Button, G. 1987, ‘Moving out of closings’, in G. Button and J. R. E. Lee (eds.), Talk and Social Organisation, pp. 101–51. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Cancian, F. 1965, Economics and Prestige in a Maya Community: The Religious Cargo System in Zinacantan. Stanford University Press.
Capell, A. 1976, ‘General picture of Austronesian languages, New Guinea area’, in S. A. Wurm (ed.), Austronesian Languages – New Guinea Area Languages and Language Study. Vol. 2. Pacific Linguistics Series C-39, pp. 5–52. Canberra: Australian National University.
Chafe, W. 1980, ‘The deployment of consciousness in the production of a narrative’, in W. Chafe (ed.), The Pear Stories: Cognitive, Cultural, and Linguistic Aspects of Narrative Production, pp. 9–50. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Chafe, W.1994, Discourse, Consciousness, and Time: The Flow and Displacement of Conscious Experience in Speaking and Writing. University of Chicago Press.
Chang, S.-J. 1978, ‘Anaphora in Korean’, in J. Hinds (ed.), Linguistic Research, pp. 223–78. Edmonton, AB: Linguistic Research Inc.
Chen, J. and Stivers, T. 2005, ‘Working paper on non-recognitional person reference in English and Mandarin’, Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
Clancy, P. M. 1980, ‘Referential choice in English and Japanese narrative discourse’, in W. Chafe (ed.), The Pear Stories: Cognitive, Cultural, and Linguistic Aspects of Narrative Production, pp.–127–201. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Clark, H. H. 1992, Arenas of Language Use. University of Chicago Press.
Clark, H. H.1996, Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clift, R. 2005, ‘Indexing stance: Reported speech as an interactional evidential’, MS, Colchester, Essex: University of Essex.
Collier, G. A. and Bricker, V. R. 1970, ‘Nicknames and social structure in Zinacantan’, American Anthropologist, 72: 289–302.
Comrie, B. 1996, ‘Markedness’, in J. Verschuren, J.-O. Östman, J. Blommaert and C. Bulcaen (eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics, pp. 1–13. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Cooke, J. R. 1968, Pronominal Reference in Thai, Burmese, and Vietnamese. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Croft, W. and Alan Cruse, D. 2004, Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cumming, S. 1995, ‘Agent position in the Sejarah Melayu’, in P. Downing and M. Noonan (eds.), Word Order in Discourse, pp. 51–83. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Davidson, J. 1984, ‘Subsequent versions of invitations, offers, requests, and proposals dealing with potential or actual rejection’, in J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.), Structures of Social Action, pp. 102–28. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Davidson, J.1990, ‘Modifications of invitations, offers and rejections’, in G. Psathas (ed.), Interaction Competence, pp. 149–80. Washington, DC: International Institute for Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis and University Press of America.
Diessel, H. 1999, Demonstratives: Form, Function, and Grammaticalization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dixon, R. 1980, The Languages of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Downing, P. 1996, ‘Proper names as a referential option in English conversation’, in B. Fox (ed.), Studies in Anaphora, pp. 95–143. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Drew, P. 1997, “Open” class repair initiators in response to sequential sources of trouble in conversation’, Journal of Pragmatics, 28: 69–101.
Drew, P. and Holt, E. 1995, ‘Idiomatic expressions and their role in the organization of topic transition in conversation’, in M. Everaert, E.-J. Vn der Linden, A. Schenk and R. Schreuder (eds.), Idioms: Structural and Psychological Perspectives, pp. 117–32. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Drew, P. and Holt, E.1998, ‘Figures of speech: Figurative expressions and the management of topic transition in conversation’, Language in Society, 27: 495–522.
Drew, P.2002, ‘Out of context: An intersection between domestic life and the workplace, as contexts for (business) talk’, Language & Communication, 22: 477–94.
Drew, P.2006, ‘Mis-alignments in “after-hours” calls to a British GP's practice: A study in telephone medicine’, in J. Heritage and D. W. Maynard (eds.), Communication in Medical Care: Interaction Between Primary Care Physicians and Patients. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Duranti, A. 1984, ‘The social meaning of subject pronouns in Italian conversation’, Text, 4: 277–311.
Edwards, D. 2000, ‘Extreme case formulations: Softeners, investment, and doing nonliteral’, Research on Language and Social Interaction, 33: 347–73.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 1984, Die Biologie des menschlichen Verhaltens. Grundriß der Humanethologie. Munich: Piper.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. and Senft. G. 1987, Studienbrief ‘Rituelle Kommunikation’. Hagen: Fernuniversität – Gesamthochschule, Fachbereich Erziehungs- und Sozialwissenschaften.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I.1989. Human Ethology. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Emmorey, K. 2002, Language, Cognition and the Brain: Insights from Sign Language Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Enfield, N. J. 2000, ‘The theory of cultural logic: How individuals combine social intelligence with semiotics to create and maintain cultural meaning’, Cultural Dynamics, 12(1): 35–64.
Enfield, N. J. and Levinson, S. C. (eds.) 2006, Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, Cognition, and Interaction. London: Berg.
Enfield, N. J., Kita, S. and de Ruiter, J. P. 2005, ‘Primary and secondary pragmatic functions of pointing gestures’, typescript, Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
Enfield, N. J.,2002, ‘Ethnosyntax: Introduction’, in N. J. Enfield (ed.), Ethnosyntax: Explorations in Culture and Grammar, pp. 1–30. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Enfield, N. J.,2003, ‘Demonstratives in space and interaction: Data from Lao speakers and implications for semantic analysis’, Language, 79(1): 82–117.
Enfield, N. J.,2004, ‘Nominal classification in Lao: A sketch’, Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, 57(2/3): 117–43.
Enfield, N. J.,2005, ‘The body as a cognitive artifact in kinship representations. Hand gesture diagrams by speakers of Lao’, Current Anthropology, 46(1): 51–81.
Enfield, N. J.,2006a, ‘Social consequences of common ground’, in N. J. Enfield and S. C. Levinson (eds.), Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, Cognition, and Interaction, pp. 399–430. London: Berg.
Enfield, N. J.,2006b, ‘Code, context, and cognition in the Lao pronoun system: Under the hood of social deixis’, typescript, Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
Ervin-Tripp, S. 1986 [1972], ‘On sociolinguistic rules: Alternation and co-occurence’, in J. J. Gumperz and D. Hymes (eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication, pp. 150–213. London: Basil Blackwell.
Evans, N. (n.d.), ‘Naming’, MS, University of Melbourne.
Evans, N.1999, Laos: Culture and Society. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.
Evans, N.2002, A Short History of Laos: The Land in Between. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.
Evans, N.2003, ‘Context, culture, and structuration in the languages of Australia’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 32: 13–40.
Farriss, N. M. 1984, Maya Society Under Colonial Rule, The Collective Enterprise of Survival. Princeton University Press.
Fiske, A. P. 1992, ‘The four elementary forms of sociality: Framework for a unified theory of social relations’, Psychological Review, 99(4): 689–723.
Ford, C. A., Fox, B. A. and Thompson, S. A. 2002, ‘Constituency and the grammar of turn increments’, in C. A. Ford, B. A. Fox and S. A. Thompson (eds.), The Language of Turn and Sequence, pp. 14–38. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fox, B. A. 1987, Discourse Structure and Anaphora: Written and Conversational English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fox, R. 1967, Kinship and Marriage: An Anthropological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gair, J. W. 1988, ‘Kinds of markedness’, in S. Flynn and W. O’Neil (eds.), Linguistic Theory in Second Language Acquisition, pp. 225–50. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Garde, M. 2003, ‘Social deixis in Bininj Kun-wok conversation’, D.Phil., diss., University of Queensland.
Garfinkel, H. 1967, Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Gergely, G. and Gergely C. 2006, ‘Sylvia's recipe: The role of imitation and pedagogy in the transmission of cultural knowledge’, in N. J. Enfield and S. C. Levinson (eds.), Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, Cognition, and Interaction. London: Berg.
Gigerenzer, G., Todd P. M. and The ABC Research Group 1999, Simple Heuristics that Make Us Smart. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Givón, T. 1990, Syntax: A Functional-Typological Introduction. Vol. II. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Givón, T.1993, English Grammar: A Function-Based Introduction. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Godard, D. 1977, ‘Same setting, different norms: Phone call beginnings in France and the United States’, Language in Society, 6: 209–19.
Goethe, J. W. 1795, ‘Das Mädchen von Oberkirch’, in E. Beutler (ed.), 1949, Johann Wolfgang Goethe. Sämtliche Werke. Artemis-Gedenkausgabe zu Goethes 200. Geburtstag. Band 6. Die Weimarer Dramen, pp. 759–68. Zürich: Artemis-Verlag.
Goffman, E. 1974, Frame Analysis. An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York: Harper & Row.
Goffman, E.1979, ‘Footing’, Semiotica, 25: 1–29.
Goffman, E.1981, Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Goodenough, W. H. 1965, ‘Personal names and modes of address in two Oceanic societies’, in Melford E. Spiro (ed.), Context and Meaning in Cultural Anthropology, pp. 265–76. New York: Free Press.
Goodwin, C. 1986, ‘Audience diversity, participation and interpretation’, Text, 6: 283–316.
Goodwin, C.1987, ‘Forgetfulness as an interactive resource’, Social Psychology Quarterly, 50(2): 115–30.
Grice, H. P. 1975, ‘Logic and conversation’, in P. Cole and J. L. Morgan (eds.), Speech Acts, pp. 41–58. New York: Academic Press.
Grice, H. P.1989, Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gundel, J. K., Hedberg, N. and Zacharski, R. 1993, ‘Cognitive status and the form of referring expressions in discourse’. Language, 69(2): 274–307.
Gundel, J., Hedberg, N. and Zacharski, R. 1989, ‘Givenness, implicature, and demonstrative expressions in English discourse’, Chicago Linguistic Society, 25(2): 89–103.
Hacohen, G. and Schegloff, E. A. 2006, ‘On the preference for minimization in referring to persons: Evidence from Hebrew conversation’, Journal of Pragmatics, 38: 1305–12.
Halliday, M. A. K and Hasan, R. 1976, Cohesion in English. London: Longman Group Ltd.
Han, H.-J. 1996, ‘Korean caki as a reflexive and a bound pronoun’, Master's thesis, University of Texas at Arlington.
Hanks, W. F. 1990, Referential Practice: Language and Lived Space Among the Maya. University of Chicago Press.
Hanks, W. F.2005, ‘Explorations in the deictic field’, Current Anthropology, 46(2): 191–220.
Hanley, J. R. and Cowell, E. S. 1988, ‘The effects of different types of retrieval cues on the recall of names of famous faces’, Memory and Cognition, 16: 545–55.
Haspelmath, M. 2006, ‘Against markedness (and what to replace it with)’, Journal of Linguistics, 42(1): 25–70.
Haviland, J. 1977, Gossip, Reputation and Knowledge in Zinacantan. University of Chicago Press.
Haviland, J.1993, ‘Anchoring, iconicity, and orientation in Guugu Yimithirr pointing gestures’, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 3: 3–45.
Haviland, J.2005, ‘“Whorish Old Man” and “One (Animal) Gentleman”: The intertextual construction of enemies and selves’, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 15(1): 81–94.
Haviland, J.2006, ‘Documenting lexical knowledge’, in N. Himmelmann and J. Gippert (eds.), Language Documentation, pp. 129–62. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Havránek, B. 1964 (1932), ‘The functional differentiation of the standard language’, in P. L. Garvin (eds.), A Prague School Reader on Esthetics, Literary Structure, and Style, pp. 3–16. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Hay, D. C., Young, A. W. and Ellis, A. W. 1991, ‘Routes through the face recognition system’, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43A: 761–91.
Hayashi, M. 2005, ‘Referential problems and turn construction: An exploration of an intersection between grammar and interaction’, Text, 25(4): 437–68.
Heinemann, T. 2005, ‘Where grammar and interaction meet: The preference for matched polarity in responsive turns in Danish’, in A. Hakulinen and M. Selting (eds.), Syntax and Lexis in Conversation: Studies on the Use of Linguistic Resources in Talk-in-Interaction, pp. 375–402. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Heritage, J. 1984a, Garfinkel and Ethnomethodology. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.
Heritage, J. and Atkinson, J. M. 1984, ‘Introduction’, in J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.), Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis, pp. 1–15. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Heritage, J. and Raymond, G. 2005, ‘The terms of agreement: Indexing epistemic authority and subordination in assessment sequences’, Social Psychology Quarterly, 68(1): 15–38.
Heritage, J.1984b, ‘A change-of-state token and aspects of its sequential placement’, in J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.), Structures of Social Action, pp. 299–345. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Heritage, J.2002a, ‘The limits of questioning: Negative interrogatives and hostile question content’, Journal of Pragmatics, 34: 1427–46.
Heritage, J.2002b, ’Oh-prefaced responses to assessments: A method of modifying agreement/disagreement’, in C. Ford, B. Fox, and S. Thompson (eds.), The Language of Turn and Sequence, pp. 196–224. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Himmelmann, N. 1996, ‘Demonstratives in narrative discourse: A taxonomy of universal uses’, in B. Fox (ed.), Studies in Anaphora, pp. 205–54. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Hockett, C. F. 1960, ‘The origin of speech’, Scientific American, 203: 5–12.
Holt, E. and Drew, P. 2005, ‘Figurative pivots: The use of figurative expressions in pivotal topic transitions’, Research on Language and Social Interaction, 38: 35–61.
Hong, K-S. 1987, ‘Discourse binding of the Korean reflexive caki’, Harvard Studies in Korean Linguistics, 2: 196–208.
Hopper, R. 1992, Telephone Conversation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Hopper, R. and Chen, C. 1996, ‘Languages, cultures, relationships: Telephone openings in Taiwan’, Research on Language and Social Interaction, 29: 291–313.
Hopper, R. and Koleilat-Doany, N. 1989, ‘Telephone openings and conversational universals: A study in three languages’, in S. Ting-Toomey and F. Kevizing (eds.), Language, Communication and Culture, pp. 157–79. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Hopper, R., Doany, N., Johnson, M. and Drummond, K. 1991, ‘Universals and particulars in telephone openings’, Research on Language and Social Interaction, 24: 369–87.
Houtkoop-Steenstra, H. 1991, ‘Opening sequences in Dutch telephone conversations’, in D. Boden and D. H. Zimmerman (eds.), Talk and Social Structure: Studies in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis, pp. 232–50. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Huang, Y. 2000, Anaphora. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ide, S. 1989, ‘Formal forms and discernment: Two neglected aspects of linguistic politeness’, Multilingua, 8(2/3): 223–48.
Ide, S.2005, ‘How and why honorifics can signify dignity and elegance: The indexicality and reflexivity of linguistic rituals’, in R. Lakoff and S. Ide (eds.), Broadening the Horizon of Linguistic Politeness, pp. 45–64 Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Jakobson, R. 1957, The Framework of Language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Jefferson, G. 1983, ‘Notes on some orderlinesses of overlap onset’, in V. D’Urso and P. Leonardi (eds.), Discourse Analysis and Natural Rhetoric, pp. 11–38. Padua: Cleup Editore.
Jefferson, G.1984, ‘On stepwise transition from talk about a trouble to inappropriately next-positioned matters’, in J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.), Structures of Social Action, pp. 191–221. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jefferson, G.1986, ‘Notes on “Latency” in Overlap Onset’, Human Studies, 9: 153–83.
Jefferson, G.1987, ‘On embedded and exposed correction in conversation’, in G. Button and J. R. E. Lee (eds.), Talk and Social Organization, pp. 86–100. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Jefferson, G.1988, ‘On the sequential organization of troubles-talk in ordinary conversation’, Social Problems, 35(4): 418–41.
Johnston, R. A. and Bruce, V. 1990, ‘Lost properties? Retrieval differences between name codes and semantic codes for familiar people’, Psychological Research, 52: 62–7.
Kamio, A. 1997, Territory of Information. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kang, B.-M. 1988, ‘Functional inheritance, anaphora, and semantic interpretation in a generalized categorial grammar’, D.Phil., diss., Providence, RI: Brown University.
Keesing, R. M. 1975, Kin Groups and Social Structure. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Kendon, A. 1988, Sign Languages of Aboriginal Australia: Cultural, Semiotic and Communicative Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kendrick, K. M., da Costa, P. A., Leigh, A. E., Hinton, M. R. and Peirce, J. W. 2001, ‘Sheep don't forget a face’, Nature, 414: 165–66.
Kim, H. 1989, ‘Nominal reference in discourse: Introducing and tracking referents in Korean spoken narratives’, Harvard Studies in Korean Linguistics, 3: 431–44.
Kim, J.-R. 1992, ‘Korean pronouns caki and ku: The grammatical distinction between selective and unselective binding’, Master's thesis, University of Maryland at College Park.
Kim, W.-H. 1994, ‘Grammatical relations and anaphora in Korean’, D.Phil., diss., University of Colorado. Boulder: Colorado.
Kirsner, R. S. 1979, ‘Deixis in discourse: An exploratory quantitative study of the modern Dutch demonstrative adjectives’, in T. Givon (ed.), Syntax and Semantics 12: Discourse and Syntax, pp. 355–75. New York: Academic Press.
Kitzinger, C. 2005, ‘Speaking as a heterosexual: (How) does sexuality matter for talk-in-interaction’, Research on Language and Social Interaction, 38(3): 221–65.
Kockelman, P. 2005, ‘The semiotic stance’, Semiotica, 157(1/4): 233–304.
Kripke, S. 1972, Naming and Necessity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lévi-Strauss, C. 1966, The Savage Mind. University of Chicago Press.
Lévi-Strauss, C.1969, The Elementary Structures of Kinship (2nd edition). London: Eyre and Spottiswoode.
Lakoff, R. 1974, ‘Remarks on ‘this’ and ‘that’’, Chicago Linguistic Society, 10: 345–56.
Land, V. and Kitzinger C. 2005, ‘Speaking as a lesbian: Correcting the heterosexist presumption’, Research on Language and Social Interaction, 38(4): 371–416.
Langacker, R. W. 1987. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar: Volume I, Theoretical Prerequisites. Stanford University Press.
Leach, J. W. and Leach, E. R (eds.) 1983, The Kula – New Perspectives on Massim Exchange. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lee, C. 1973, ‘Abstract syntax of Korean with reference to English’, D.Phil., diss., Indiana University. Bloomington.
Levinson, S. C. 1987, ‘Minimization and conversational inference’, in M. Pappi and J. Verschueren (eds.), The Pragmatic Perspective, pp. 61–129. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Levinson, S. C. and Brown, P. 2004, ‘Comparative feedback: Cultural shaping of response systems in interaction’, paper presented at the Workshop on Feedback in Interaction, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Levinson, S. C.2000, Presumptive Meanings: The Theory of Generalized Conversational Implicature. Cambridge, MA and London: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Levinson, S. C.2003, Space in Language and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levinson, S. C.2005, ‘Living with Manny dangerous idea’, Discourse Studies, 7: 431–53.
Levinson, S. C.2005a, Manny Schegloff's dangerous idea. Discourse Studies, 7(4–5), 431–53.
Levinson, S. C.2006a, ‘Matrilineal clans and kin terms on Rossel island’, Anthropological Linguistics 48(1): 1–43.
Levinson, S. C.2006b, ‘On the human “interactional engine”’, in N. J. Enfield and S. C. Levinson (eds.), Roots of Human Sociality: Cognition, Culture, and Interaction, pp. 39–69. London: Berg.
Levinson, S. C.2006c, Parts of the body in Yélî Dnye, the Pauan language of Rossel Island. Language Science, 28: 221–240.
Levinson, S. C.in press, ‘Landscape, seascape and the ontology of places on Rossel Island, Papua New Guinea’, Language Sciences.
Liddell, S. K. 2003, Grammar, Gesture, and Meaning in American Sign Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Linde, C. 1979, ‘Focus of attention and the choice of pronouns in discourse’, in T. Givon (ed.), Syntax and Semantics (12): Discourse and Syntax, pp. 337–54. New York: Academic Press.
Lindström, A. B. (1994). Identification and Recogition in Swedish Telephone conversation openings. Language in Society, 23(2), 231–52.
Lounsbury, F. G. 1965, ‘Another view of the Trobriand kinship categories’, in E. A. Hammel (ed.), Formal Semantic Analysis. American Anthropologist Special Publication 4 (67), part 2, pp. 142–85. Menasha, WI: American Anthropological Association.
Lounsbury, F. G.1969, ‘A formal account of the Crow- and Omaha-type kinship terminologies’, in S. Tyler (ed.), Cognitive Anthropology, pp. 212–55. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Lucy, J. 1992, Language Diversity and Thought: A Reformulation of the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ludlow, P. (ed.) 1997, Readings in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Luke, K. K. and Pavlidou, T.-S. (eds.) 2002, Telephone Calls: Unity and Diversity in Conversational Structure Across Languages and Cultures. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Luong, H. V. 1984, ‘“Brother” and “Uncle”: An analyis of rules, structural contradictions, and meaning in Vietnamese kinship’, American Anthropologist, 86: 290–315.
Lyons, J. 1977, Semantics. Vol. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lyons, J.1995, Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Machery, E., Mallon, R., Nichols, S. and Stich, S. 2004, ‘Semantics, cross cultural style’, Cognition, 92 64: B1–B12.
Malinowski, B. 1922, Argonauts of the Western Pacific. London: George Routledge.
Malinowski, B.1929. The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Maybury-Lewis, D. 1984, ‘Name, person and ideology in central Brazil’, in Tooker and Conklin (eds.), Naming Systems: The 1980 Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society, pp. 1–10. Washington, DC: American Ethnological Society.
Maylor, E. A. and Valentine, T. 1992, ‘Linear and non-linear effects of aging on categorizing and naming faces’, Psychology and Aging, 7: 217–23.
McDowell, N. 1980, ‘It's not who you are but how you give that counts: The role of exchange in a Melanesian society’, American Ethnologist, 7: 58–70.
McWeeny, K. H., Young, A. W., Hay, D. C. and Ellis, A. W. 1987, ‘Putting names to faces’, British Journal of Psychology, 78: 143–49.
Mead, G. H. 1934, Mind, Self, and Society. University of Chicago Press.
Meier, R. P., Cormier, K. and Quinto-Pozos, D. (eds.) 2002. Modality and Structure in Signed and Spoken Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Meyerhoff, M., Walker, J. A., Sidnell, J. ‘Varieties of English on Bequia (St Vincent & Grenadines): A social and linguistic overview’, University of Edinburgh Unpublished manuscript, MS, 46 pages.
Milders, M., Deelman, B. and Berg, I. 1999, ‘Retrieving familiar people's names in patients with severe closed-head injuries’, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 21: 171–85.
Mithun, M. 1984, ‘Principles of naming in Mohawk’, in E. Tooker and H. C. Conklin (eds.), The 1980 Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society: Naming Systems, pp. 40–54. Washington, DC: American Ethnological Society.
Nettle, D. and Dunbar, R. 1997, ‘Social markers and the evolution of reciprocal exchange’, Current Anthropology, 38: 93–9.
Nimura, T. and Hayashi, B. 1994, ‘English and Japanese demonstratives: A contrastive analysis of second language acquisition’, Issues in Applied Linguistics, 5(2): 329–51.
Nimura, T. and Hayashi, B.1996, ‘Contrastive analysis of English and Japanese demonstratives from the perspective of L1 and L2 acquisition’, Language Sciences, 18: 811–34.
Nishimura, C. 1996, ‘Demonstratives in academic written English discourse’, Master's thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.
Ochs, E. 1984, ‘Clarification and culture’, in D. Schiffrin (eds.), Georgetown University Round Table in Languages and Linguistics, pp. 325–41. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Oh, S.-Y. 2001, ‘A focus-based study of English demonstrative reference’, Journal of English Linguistics, 29: 124–48.
Oh, S.-Y.2002, ‘Referring to people in Korean and English’, D.Phil., diss., University of California, Los Angeles.
Oh, S.-Y.Forthcoming, ‘Overt reference to speaker and recipitent in Korean,’ Discourse Studies.
Otterbein, K. F. 1964, ‘Principles governing the usage of in-law terminology on Andros Island, Bahamas’, Man Ser. 1, 64: pp. 54–5.
Park, Y.-Y. 1997, ‘A cross-linguistic study of the use of contrastive connectives in English, Korean, and Japanese conversation’, D.Phil., diss., University of California, Los Angeles.
Parkin, R. 1997, Kinship: An Introduction to the Basic Concepts. London: Blackwell.
Parkin, R. and Stone, L. (eds.). 2004, Kinship and Family: An Anthropological Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Peirce, C. S. 1965/1932, Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce (Volume II, Elements of Logic). Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Persson, J. 1999, Sagali and the Kula. A Regional Systems Analysis of the Massim. Lund Monographs in Social Anthropology. Lund: Department of Sociology, Lund University.
Pomerantz, A. M. 1980, ‘Telling my side: “Limited Access” as a “Fishing’ Device”, Sociological Inquiry, 50: 186–98.
Pomerantz, A. M.1984, ‘Agreeing and disagreeing with assessments: Some features of preferred/dispreferred turn shapes’, in J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.), Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis, pp. 57–101. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pomerantz, A. M.1986, ‘Extreme case formulations: A way of legitimizing claims’, Human Studies, 9: 219–29.
Price, R. and Price, S. 1972, ‘Saramaka onomastics: An Afro-American naming system’, Ethnology, 4: 341–67.
Putnam, H. 1975, Philosophical Papers, Vol. 2, Mind, Language, and Reality, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Redfield, R. and Villa Rojas, A. 1962, Chan Kom, A Maya Village. University of Chicago Press.
Ree, J. J. 1975, Demonstratives and number in Korean. In H. M. Sohn (ed.), The Korean Language: Its structure and social projection, pp. 33–46. Hawaii: Center for Korean Studies.
Rehbein, B. 2004, Globalisierung in Laos. Münster and Berlin: LIT.
Richerson, P. J. and Boyd, R. 2005, Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. University of Chicago Press.
Robinson, J. D. 2006, ‘Managing trouble responsibility and relationships during conversational Repair’, Communication Monographs, 73: 137–161.
Rosaldo, M. Z. 1982, ‘The things we do with words: Ilongot speech acts and speech act theory in philosophy’, Language in Society, 11: 203–37.
Ross. M. D. 1988, Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Sacks H. 1995, Lectures on Conversation, ed. G. Jefferson. Voulmes 1 and 2. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Sacks, H. and Schegloff, E. A. 1979, ‘Two preferences in the organization of reference to persons in conversation and their interaction’, in G. Psathas (eds.), Everyday Language: Studies in Ethnomethodology, pp. 15–21. New York: Irvington.
Sacks, H.([1973]1987). ‘On the perferences for agreement and contiguity in sequences in conversation’, in G, Button and J. R. E. Lee. (eds.), Talk and Social Organisation, pp. 54–69. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A. and Jefferson, G. 1974, ‘A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation’, Language, 50: 696–735.
Sacks, H.1970, ‘Doing “being ordinary”. Lecture 1, Spring 1970’, in Sacks (1992), pp. 215–21.
Sacks, H.1972, Unpublished class lectures.
Sacks, H.1972a, ‘An initial investigation of the usability of conversational data for doing sociology’, in D. N. Sudnow (ed.), Studies in Social Interaction, pp. 31–74. New York: Free Press.
Sacks, H.1972b, ‘On the analyzability of stories by children’, in J. J. Gumperz and D. Hymes (eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication, pp. 325–45. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Sacks, H.1992, ‘Doing “being ordinary” ’ Lectures on Conversation Vol.2 (Fall 1968–Spring 1972). Oxford: Blackwell.
Schegloff, E. A. 1968, ‘Sequencing in conversational openings’, American Anthropologist, 70(6): 1075–95.
Schegloff, E. A. and Sacks, H. 1973, ‘Opening up closings’, Semiotica 7: 289–327.
Schegloff, E. A., Jefferson, G., Sacks, H. 1977, ‘The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation’, Language 53: 361–82.
Schegloff, E. A.1972, ‘Notes on a conversational practice: Formulating place’, in D. Sudnow (ed.), Studies in Social Interaction, pp. 75–119. New York: Free Press.
Schegloff, E. A.1979a, ‘Identification and recognition in telephone openings’, in G. Psathas (eds.), Everyday Language: Studies in Ethnomethodology, pp. 23–78. New York: Erlbaum.
Schegloff, E. A.1979b, ‘The relevance of repair for syntax-for-conversation’, in T. Givon (ed.), Syntax and Semantics 12: Discourse and Syntax, pp. 261–88. New York: Academic Press.
Schegloff, E. A.1980, ‘Preliminaries to preliminaries: “Can I ask you a question”’, Sociological Inquiry, 50: 104–52.
Schegloff, E. A.1984, ‘On some gestures’ relation to talk’, in J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.), Structures of Social Action, pp. 266–96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schegloff, E. A.1986, ‘The routine as achievement’, Human Studies, 9: 111–51.
Schegloff, E. A.1988, Presequences and indirection: Applying speech act theory to ordinary conversation’, Journal of Pragmatics, 12(1): 55–62.
Schegloff, E. A.1992, ‘Repair after next turn: the last structurally provided defense of intersubjectivity in conversation’, American Journal of Sociology, 95(5): 1295–345.
Schegloff, E. A.1996a, ‘Some practices for referring to persons in talk-in-interaction: A partial sketch of a systematics’, in B. Fox (eds.), Studies in Anaphora, pp. 437–85. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Schegloff, E. A.1996b. ‘Confirming allusions: Toward an empirical account of action’, American Journal of Sociology, 102: 161–216.
Schegloff, E. A.1997, ‘Practices and actions: Boundary cases of other-initiated repair’, Discourse Processes, 23: 499–545.
Schegloff, E. A.2000a, ‘When “others” initiate repair’, Applied Linguistics, 21(2): 205–43.
Schegloff, E. A.2000b, ‘Overlapping talk and the organization of turn-taking for conversation’, Language in Society, 29(1): 1–63.
Schegloff, E. A.2001, ‘Increments’. Forum Lecture, LSA Linguistic Institute, Santa Barbara, July 2001.
Schegloff, E. A.2002 [1970], ‘Opening sequencing’, in J. E. Katz and M. Aakhus (eds.), Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, pp. 321–85. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schegloff, E. A.2002a, ‘On ‘opening sequencing’: An introductory note’, in J. E. Katz and M. Aakhus (eds.), Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, pp. 321–25. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schegloff, E. A.2002b, ‘Beginnings in the telephone’, in J. E. Katz and M. Aakhus (eds), Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, pp. 284–300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schegloff, E. A.2002c, ‘Reflections on research on telephone conversation: Issues of cross-cultural scope and scholarly exchange, interactional import and consequences’, in K. K. Luke and T. S. Pavlidou (eds.), Telephone Calls: Unity and Diversity in Conversational Structure Across Languages and Cultures, pp. 249–81. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Schegloff, E. A.2004 [1970], ‘Answering the phone’, in G. H. Lerner (ed.), Conversation Analysis: Studies From the First Generation, pp. 63–107. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Schegloff, E. A.2005, ‘On complainability’, Social Problems, 52(4): 449–76.
Schegloff, E. A.2006a, ‘Interaction: The infrastructure for social institutions, the natural ecological niche for language, and the arena in which culture is enacted’, in N. Enfield and S. C. Levinson (eds.), Roots of Human Sociality: Cognition, Culture, and Interaction, pp 70–96, Oxford: Berg.
Schegloff, E. A.2006b, A Primer for Conversation Analysis: Sequence Organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schweinberger, S. R., Burton, A. M. and Kelly, S. W. 2001, ‘Priming the access to names of famous faces’, British Journal of Psychology, 92: 303–07.
Searle, J. R. 1997 [1958], ‘Proper names’, in P. Ludlow (ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Language, pp. 585–92. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Selting, M. 1996, ‘Prosody as an activity-type distinctive cue in conversation: The case of so-called ‘astonished’ questions in repair initiation’, in E. Couper-Kuhlen and M. Selting (eds.), Prosody in Conversation, pp. 231–70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Senft, G. 1985, ‘Trauer auf Trobriand-eine ethnologisch/linguistische Fallstudie’, Anthropos, 80: 471–92.
Senft, G.1986, Kilivila – The Language of the Trobriand Islanders. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Senft, G.1996, Classificatory Particles in Kilivila. New York: Oxford University Press.
Senft, G.1999, ‘Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski’, in J. Verschueren, J. O. Östman, and J. Blommaert (eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics. Supplement 1998. 20 pp. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Senft, G.2004, ‘Aspects of spatial deixis in Kilivila’, in G. Senft (ed.), Deixis and Demonstratives in Oceanic languages, pp. 59–80. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Senft, G.2006, The Trobriand Islanders ways of speaking. Nijmegen: Mimeo.
Senft, G.in press, ‘Ich Weiβ nicht, was soll es bedeuten…’. Ethndinguistische Winke Zur Rolle von umfasseden Metadaten beider Arbeit mit Corpora. ‘In Sprachcorpona – Datenmengen und Exkennthisfortschritt. Jauhrbuch des Instituts für deutscne Sprache 2006. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Sergent, J., Ohta, S. and MacDonald, B. 1992, ‘Functional neuroanatomy of face and object processing. A positron emission tomography study’, Brain Research Cognitive Brain Research, 115: 15–36.
Shanker, S. 2001, ‘What children know when they know what a name is: The Non-Cartesian view of language acquisition’, Current Anthropology, 42(4): 481–514.
Sherzer, J. 1983, Kuna Ways of Speaking. An Ethnographic Perspective. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Sidnell, J.2001, ‘Rules and situated conduct: Wittgenstein's late writings and the problem of ethnographic description’, MS, 16 pages. Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University.
Sidnell, J.2004, ‘There's risks in everything: Extreme-case formulations and accountability in inquiry’, Discourse and Society, 15: 745–66.
Sidnell, J.2005, ‘Gesture in the pursuit and display of recognition: A Caribbean case study’, Semiotica, 156(1/4): 55–87.
Sidner, C. L. 1983, ‘Focusing in the comprehension of definite anaphora’, in M. Brady and R. C. Berwick (eds.), Computational Models of Discourse, pp. 267–330. Cambridge: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Siewierska, A. 2004, Person. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Silverstein, M. 1976, ‘Shifters, linguistic categories, and cultural description’, in K. Basso and H. Selby (eds.), Meaning in Anthropology, pp. 11–55. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Silverstein, M.2004, ‘“Cultural” concepts and the language-culture nexus’, Current Anthropology, 45(5): 621–52.
Silverstein, M.2005, ‘The ethics of the archive in the politics of “cultural heritage”’, MS, 30 pages.
Simon, H. A. 1990, ‘A mechanism for social selection and successful altruism’, Science, 250: 1665–68.
Sohn, H.-M. 1999, The Korean language. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sperber, D. and Wilson, D. 1995, Relevance: Communication and Cognition (2nd edition). Oxford: Blackwell.
Stivers, T. 2005a, ‘Modified repeats: One method for asserting primary rights from second position’, Research on Language and Social Interaction, 38(2): 131–58.
Stivers, T.2005b, ‘Stance, alignment and affiliation during story telling: Nodding as a token of preliminary affiliation’, unpublished paper, Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
Strauss, S. 1993, ‘Why “this” and “that” are not complete without “it’”, in K. Beals, G. Cooke, D. Kathman, K. E. McCullouoh, S. Kita and D. Testen (eds.), CLS 29: Papers From the 29th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, pp. 403–17. Chicago: The Society.
Taleghani-Nikazm, C. 2002, ‘A conversation analytical study of telephone conversation openings between native and non-native speakers’, Journal of Pragmatics, 34: 1807–32.
Taub, S. F. 2001, Language in the Body: Iconicity and Metaphor in American Sign Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Terasaki, A. K. 2004 (1976), ‘Pre-announcement sequences in conversation’, in G. Lerner (ed.), Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation, pp. 171–223. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Toennies, F. 1961, ‘Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft’, in T. Parsons, E. Shils, K. D. Naegele and J. R. Pitts (eds.), Theories of Society: Foundations of Modern Sociological Theory, pp. 191–201. New York: The Free Press.
Tooker, E. and Conklin, H. C. (eds.) 1984, Naming Systems: 1980 Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society. Washington, DC: American Ethnological Society.
Valentine, T., Brennan, T. and Brédart, S. 1996, The Cognitive Psychology of Proper Names. London: Routledge.
Vander Meer, R. K., Breed, M., Espelie, K. and Winston, M. (eds.) 1998, Pheromone Communication in Social Insects. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Villa Rojas, A. 1978, ‘Los Elegidos de Dios: Etnografía de los Mayas de Quintana Roo’, Séria de Antropología Social, 56. Mexico: Instituto Nacional Indigenista.
Von Kriegstein, K., Eger, E., Kleinschmidt, A. and Giraud, A. L. 2003, ‘Modulation of neural responses to speech by directing attention to voices or verbal content’, Brain Research Cognitive Brain Research, 17: 48–55.
Von Kriegstein, K., Kleinschmidt, A., Sterzer, P. and Giraud, A.-L. 2005, ‘Interaction of face and voice areas during speaker recognition’, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17: 367–76.
Weiner, A. B. 1976, Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspectives in Trobriand Exchange. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Whorf, B. L. 1956, Language, Thought, and Reality. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Wierzbicka, A. 1992, Semantics, Culture, and Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wilson, P. J. 1973, Crab Antics: The Social Anthropology of English-speaking Negro Societies of the Caribbean. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Wittgenstein, L. 1953, Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Wong, J. 2000, ‘Delayed next turn repair initiation in native/non-native speaker English conversation’, Applied Linguistics, 21(2): 244–67.
Young, A. W., Mc Weeny, K. H., Ellis, A. W. and Hay, D. C. 1986, ‘Naming and categorizing faces and names’, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38A: 297–318.
Young, M. 1971, Fighting with Food. Leadership, Values and Social Control in a Massim Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Young, M.2004, Malinowski – Odyssee of an Anthropologist 1884–1920. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Zeitlyn, D. 1993, ‘Reconstructing kinship or the pragmatics of kin talk’, Man, 28: 199–224.
Zipf, G. K. 1949, Human Behaviour and the Principle of Least Effort. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Zwicky, A. M. 1978, ‘On markedness in morphology’, Die Sprache, 24: 129–43.